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CALCULUS II (SEC. 4)

Z √3

x+1

√ dx

3

x−1

√

Set u = 3 x so that du = 31 x−2/3 dx. This implies that

dx = 3u2 du

u2 (u + 1)

Z

Hence we need to compute 3 du.

u−1

u3 + u2 2

= u2 + 2u + 2 +

u−1 u−1

u2 (u + 1)

Z 3

u 2

⇒ 3 du = 3 + u + 2u + 2 ln(|u − 1|) + C

u−1 3

√

Substituting u = 3 x back we get

Z √ 3

x+1 √ √

√ dx = x + 3x2/3 + 6 3 x + 6 ln(| 3 x − 1|) + C

3

x−1

where C is any constant.

1

2 MID TERM I SOLUTIONS CALCULUS II (SEC. 4)

Z

sec(x) cos(2x)

dx

sin(x) + sec(x)

We begin by simplifying the integrand

sec(x) cos(2x) cos(2x)

=

sin(x) + sec(x) cos(x)(sin(x) + sec(x))

cos(2x)

= 1

2

sin(2x) + 1

where we used the identity sin(2x) = 2 sin(x) cos(x).

1

Z Thus, if u = 2 sin(2x) + 1 we get du = cos(2x) dx. This implies that the integral is just

du

= ln(|u|) + C. Hence we get

u

Z

sec(x) cos(2x) 1

dx = ln sin(2x) + 1 + C

sin(x) + sec(x) 2

where C is any constant.

MID TERM I SOLUTIONS CALCULUS II (SEC. 4) 3

Z 1

x tan−1 (x) dx

0

Let us begin by computing the indefinite integral x tan−1 (x) dx using integration by

R

2

parts. Namely let f (x) = tan−1 (x) and g(x) = x2 in the following

Z Z

f (x)g (x) dx = f (x)g(x) − f 0 (x)g(x) dx

0

to get

x2 1 x2

Z Z

−1 −1

x tan (x) dx = tan (x) − dx

2 x2 + 1 2

x2 tan−1 (x) 1

Z

1

= − 1− 2 dx

2 2 x +1

x2 tan−1 (x) 1

x − tan−1 (x)

= −

2 2

(x2 + 1) tan−1 (x) x

= −

2 2

Thus the definite integral in question is computed using the fundamental theorem of

Calculus

Z 1 1

(x + 1) tan−1 (x) x (1 + 1) tan−1 (1) 1

2

−1 π 1

x tan (x) dx = − = − = −

0 2 2 0 2 2 4 2

4 MID TERM I SOLUTIONS CALCULUS II (SEC. 4)

Problem 4 (10 points) Determine whether the following improper integral converges or

not

Z ∞

tan−1 (x)

dx

0 2 + x2

The function tan−1 (x) is always less than a constant π2 for x ≥ 0 and the denominator can

be replaced by x2 , in order to use the comparison theorem to determine the convergence of

the improper integral. Namely,

Z ∞ Z 1 Z ∞

tan−1 (x) tan−1 (x) tan−1 (x)

dx = dx + dx

0 2 + x2 0 2 + x2 1 2 + x2

The first term on the right–hand side is a finite number and the second term can be

bounded above:

π 1 1

tan−1 (x) ≤ and 2

≤ 2

2 2+x x

−1

tan (x) π

Thus 2

≤ x−2 . And we have

2+x 2

Z ∞ Z t

−2 −2 1

x dx = lim x dx = lim 1 − =1

1 t→∞ 1 t→∞ t

R ∞ −1 R ∞ −1

Hence by the comparison theorem 1 tan2+x(x) 2 dx converges and so does 0 tan2+x(x)

2 dx.

MID TERM I SOLUTIONS CALCULUS II (SEC. 4) 5

Problem 5 (15 points) A spherical bowl of radius 5 units is filled with water. If the depth

of the water in the bowl is 7 units, find the amount of water contained in the bowl.

The volume that needs to be computed is obtained by rotating part of the circle of radius

5, centered at origin, on the positive x–axis side between y = −5 and y = 2, around y–axis.

A typical (horizontal) cross–section of this solid is a circle of radius x. Hence its area is

A(y) = πx2 = π(25 − y 2 )

Thus the volume is computed by the following definite integral

Z 2

Volume = π(25 − y 2 ) dy

−5

2

y3

= π 25y −

3 −5

23 − (−5)3

= π 25(2 − (−5)) −

3

133 392π

= π 175 − =

3 3

6 MID TERM I SOLUTIONS CALCULUS II (SEC. 4)

Compute the area of the surface obtain by rotating the parabola

1

y = x2 0 ≤ x ≤ around the y–axis.

2

0

p √

Since y = x2 , we get

p y = 2x and 1 + (y 0 )2 = 1 + 4x2 . Now the surface area is given

R R

by 2πx ds = 2πx 1 + (y 0 )2 dx which we compute as

Z 1/2 √

Surface area = 2πx 1 + 4x2 dx

0

Z 2

√ du

= 2π u

1 8

where we make the substitution u = 1 + 4x2 and hence du = 8x dx.

π 2√

Z

Surface area = u du

4 1

2

π u3/2

=

4 3/2 1

π 3/2 π √

= 2 −1 = 2 2−1

6 6

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