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International Journal of Science, Technology and Society

2014; 2(3): 46-52

Published online May 30, 2014 (
doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.20140203.13

Technical advantages of alternative process flowsheets

for Itakpe iron ore
AJAKA Ebenezer Oyedele*, AKANDE Jide Muili, Adesina A.
Department of Mining Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure,
Ondo State, Nigeria

Email address: (Ajaka E.O.), (Akande J. M.)

To cite this article:

AJAKA Ebenezer Oyedele, AKANDE Jide Muili, Adesina A.. Technical Advantages of Alternative Process Flowsheets for Itakpe Iron
Ore. International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 46-52. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.20140203.13

Abstract: Every mineral processing plant flowsheet is selected from several possible alternatives because an ore may be
processed using a number of recovery techniques. The flowsheet that is finally selected must have certain technical or
economic advantages over the others. In a redesign process of the Nigerian Iron Ore mining Company (NIOMCO)
processing plant, Itakpe, five design options (described here as New Design Options A, B and C and Improved Existing
Plant Options A and B) were developed as alternatives to the existing plant. Concentrates’ properties, recovery ratio or
efficiency and efficiency ratio are the technical parameters used as measure of plant performance. The properties analyzed
for comparism include iron mineral content of the concentrate, total concentrate weight, concentrate grade, percent
recovery and loss. The analyses were done by stepwise iteration of all streams in the flowsheet from comminution to the
final concentrate. The results of the analyses show that the concentrate that has the best value for the new iron ore plant
options is that produced by the new plant design option C (which employs floatation as the only recovery process) which
has a concentrate grade of 70% iron mineral content representing a recovery of 95% and a loss of 5% respectively. This
gives the best overall performance.
Keywords: Technical Advantages, Plant Performance, Recovery Ratio, Efficiency Ratio, Concentrate Properties,
Enhanced Processes

1. Introduction
low. A good example is the Nigerian iron ore mining
company (NIOMCO) processing plant at Itakpe, Nigeria
Recovery and production cost are fundamental factors in which is presently losing a significant volume of its iron
any mineral processing plant that must be balanced. In fact, minerals to the waste stream as a result of the cost
the principal target in plant design is the achievement of implications of processing the ore beyond the present
maximum recovery at the least possible cost [1 and 2]. number of stages. For instance Table1 shows the grades of
Maximum recovery implies that a very high percentage tailing materials (iron mineral composition) of the
or amount of the valuable mineral is won from the ore by NIOMCO processing plant compared with some from other
whatever applicable processes employed at a cost that processing plants around the globe [5]. A critical
leaves a reasonable margin for profit. The prevailing comparison of the content of the table shows that the
market price of the mineral concentrate is also seriously number of process stages in the Nigerian plant may have
affected by the grade of the concentrate. Although end- been limited to the existing stages in order to limit process
users may specify varying grade requirements for their cost. Thus, the plant’s tailing contains a high percentage of
refining or production plants, the truth is that the higher the the valuable iron minerals. But with proper design,
grade (i.e. the purer the concentrate), the higher the price, effective materials and process selection, systematic
up to a limit [3, 1 and 4]. process integration, control and regulation of plant
However, because of the difficulty in balancing these variables, an optimum recovery and grade can be achieved
important factors the recovery in some processing plants is at the least possible cost [5, 2, 3 and 6]. This article is part
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society 2014; 2(3): 46--52 47

of a study of the NIOMCO processing plant with the estimation techniques was undertaken. Following
objective of improving or optimizing recovery of the comminution tests and analysis of results of series of bench
valuables in the ore. scale recovery tests and determination of grades,
Processing minerals before
efore export or local sale adds composition and loss using appropriate techniques,
techniques the
value to them. In cases where minerals are mined primarily existing plant was critically analyzed and a number of
for export, processing will ensure that the tailings which alternative design options that would improve recovery
may contain some yet unidentified minerals and known were considered [7]. Thehe flowsheets for these
th alternative
valuables that cannot be concentrated by the present known options were developed and recovery and concentrate
methods are left in place until an improved technology for grades calculated. The technical details of each option were
their efficient recovery and identification of all components enumerated and the options and the existing plant
is developed. This project is undertaken to improve or compared on equal platform to determine their
the advantages.
maximize recovery of the iron mineral from Itakpe iron ore
deposit so that the 24% iron mineral content of the plant 3. Analysis of Existing Plant
tailings is reduced to less than 10% as obtained in most
plants around the world. The design will also ensure that a Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the existing plant
super concentrate is produced at minimum cost. which is also represented by the flowsheet in Figure 2. As
shown in the flowsheet, the plant consists of the
Table 1. Iron Tailings Composition from Itakpe and
an Some Foreign Plants comminution unit, banks of hydrocyclone used to split the
Average % Iron primary feed into two fractions of fine overflow and
Plant Location Plant Operator (Company)
Mineral in Tails coarser underflow. The two fractions are processed through
USA Mount Wright Mine, 9 several stages of gravity separation by spiral and low and
high intensity magnetic separators (LIMS and HIMS). A
Iron Ore Company, Labrador 11
Canada critical analysis of the comminution
commin and blending units
Quebec Cartier Mine 9 shows that these are appropriate for the plant based on ore
Olympic Dam 7 characteristics. Ajaka and Onyemaobi [7] and Soframine [8]
are of the opinion that on the basis of ore properties and
Australia North Mining Company 11 certain production requirements,
requirements the equipment selected for
Ernest Henry Mine 8 the comminution unit are appropriate both in size and
proportion. Cost and revenue were calculated on the basis
Chile Candelaria Mine 9
of this layout and compared with other design options.
Mauritania Iron Ore Mine 10

United Koivusaarenneva Iron Ore,

Kingdom Kälviä, Finland
NIOMCO Plant, Itakpe, Kogi
Nigeria >20
Kudremulah Iron Ore
India Company Ltd, India

Kiriburu Iron Ore Mine 60♣

Swedeen LKAB Iron Ore Mine 8

2. Methodlogy
The research work from which this is article is derived
undertook a redesign of the NIOMCO processing plant
with a view to improving recovery and its report presented
in many parts. This report deals only with the analysis of
technical advantages of the different process options
employed. A thorough search for available information on
the latest improvements in plant design, design process
performance,, plant control and application of artificial
intelligence in mineral processing plant, equipment types
and their selection criteria, mass balance, recovery and cost
Figure 1. Schematic Flowsheet of Itakpe Iron Ore Processing Plant

This Iron ore contains large amount of fine grained iron minerals which are
not suitable as feed for the blast furnace.
48 AJAKA Ebenezer Oyedele et al.:
al.: Technical Advantages of Alternative Process Flowsheets for Itakpe Iron Ore

Figure 2. Process Flowsheet of Itakpe Iron Ore Processing Plant Figure 4. Recovery Flowsheet for Iron Ore New Plant Option B

4. Summary of Redesign Options

Based on the properties of the iron ore, analyses of test
results and known standards in plant practice, a number of
design options were considered as alternative
ternative for optimum
recovery of the valuable minerals. Thisis involved selection
of the most applicable concentration processes and
equipment for each design options,, design and integration
of the circuits, calculation
tion of recoveries, losses and
concentrate grades.
The design options according
cording to Ajaka and Onyemaobi
[7] present two possibilities. The first is to design a
completely new processing plant that will give optimum
recovery and thus reduce the losses in the existing plant
while a second option is to introduce optimization process
in the sections of the existing plant where the loses are
incurred and thus improve recovery.. Then the cost benefits
and technical advantages of the design options are
compared to make a final selection. In all, five alternative
design options were considered. Three of these options are Figure 5. Recovery Flowsheet for Iron Ore New Plant Option C
entirely new and two are improvements on o the existing
plant. The design options
ptions employed combinations of New plant option A employs gravity separation and
processes and are presented here as new
ew plant options
option A, B, magnetic recovery process carried through several stages to
and C and improved existing plants options A and B. ensure production of a cleaner concentrate than one
obtained in the existing plant. The summary of flow
process for optimum recovery of the iron minerals in this
plant option are shown in Figure 3,3 Option B adopts some
of the unit operations in Option A but employs floatation
process to treat the primary cyclone overflow and for
scavenging the final tail of the gravity line. The effect of
this is that the plant produces
uces a coarse concentrate and a
fine concentrate which may be blended to produce a single
concentrate. The flow processes are shown in Figure 4.
New plant option C employs floatation process to
produce throughout the entire plant. The process is carried
rough rouging, a number of scavenging stages, cleaning
and recleaning to produce a final concentrate with a
circulating load to ensure optimum recovery and cleaner
concentrate of higher grade. The flow process for this
Figure 3. Recovery Flowsheet for Iron Ore New Plant Option A design option is summarized
ummarized in Figure 5.
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society 2014; 2(3): 46--52 49

option are here analyzed by comparing the properties of

concentrates for each option.
option The properties analyzed for
comparison include, iron mineral content of the concentrate,
total concentrate weight, concentrate grade, percent
recovery and loss. They wereere obtained through by stepwise
iteration of all streams in the flowsheet from comminution
to the final concentrate and the summary of concentrate
properties (after
after blending and dilution where necessary)
extracted as shown Table 2.

Table 2. Iron Ore Plant

ant Variants, Parameters and their Values

Iron Ore Plant

S/N Parameters Values
Figure 6. Recovery Process Flowsheet of the Improved Existing Plant Iron mineral content 7,551.39 tonnes
Option A
Total concentrate
10,787.70 tonnes
1 Existing Plant
Concentrate grade 70%
Recovery 87.4%
Loss 12.6%
Iron mineral content 8026.54tonnes
Total concentrate
New Plant weight
Option A Concentrate grade 70%
Recovery 92.90%
Loss 7.1%
Iron mineral content 7,987.64 tonnes
Total concentrate
11,358.63 tonnes
New Plant weight
Figure 7. Flowsheet of the Improved Existing Plant Option Option B Concentrate grade 70%
Recovery 91.87%
Option A of the improved existing plant adopts the unit Loss 8.13%
operations for comminution and the gravity recovery lines Iron mineral content 8,216.26tonnes
of the existing plant but introduces floatation process to Total concentrate
scavenge the final tailing stream of the gravity unit and the New Plant weight
primary cyclone overflow fractions after roughing with an Option C Concentrate grade 70%
enhanced gravity process to reject some of the
th fine gangue Recovery 92.90%
minerals and other materials. The flowsheet for this option Loss 7.1%
Iron mineral content 7,450tonnes
is shown in Figure 6.. The improved existing plant option B
Total concentrate
also adopts the comminution process, the pre-concentration
pre Improved weight
classification by hydrocyclone and the gravity 5 Existing Plant
Concentrate grade 69.2%
concentration process
ocess of the primary cyclone underflow but Option A
Recovery 86.22%
employs an enhanced gravity technique to scavenge the Loss 13.78%
remaining fine-grained
grained iron minerals in the gravity tail and Iron mineral content 7550.2tonnes
the primary cyclone overflow which is subsequently Total concentrate
Improved weight
upgraded by cleaning in another stage using the same 6 Existing Plant
process. The recovery process is summarized in Figure 7. Concentrate grade 70%
Option B
Recovery 87.39%
Loss 12.61%
5. Selection of Optimum Design Options
From the properties of concentrates of each design
The various design options enumerated here were option enumerated above, the concentrate that has the best
analyzed by comparing the technical advantages, recovery value for the new iron ore plant options is that produced by
and loss as well as the cost effectiveness of their
th different design option C which has a concentrate grade of 70% iron
flowsheets in order to select which of the options gives mineral content representing a recovery of 95% and a loss
optimum performance. However, only the technical of 5% respectively. The total concentrate weight is 12,
advantages of the various options are presented here. 087.73 tonnes after adequate dilution.
5.1. Analysis of Recovery and Loss One other advantage of this design option is that the
flowsheet is very simple. It employs Floatation technique
Recovery and loss of iron minerals for each design throughout the entire recovery circuit. Although the plant is
50 AJAKA Ebenezer Oyedele et al.: Technical Advantages of Alternative Process Flowsheets for Itakpe Iron Ore

designed in such a manner that the feed undergoes all The recovery ratios or losses of the various design options
stages of floatation process (i.e. roughing, scavenging, are determined in relation to the performance of the
cleaning, recleaning and a circulating load to ensure existing plant. The various concentrate weights may also be
production of concentrate with high and uniform grade), in used to determine the relative performance of the design
actual practice, the number of process stages required to options in relation to one another and to the existing plant.
achieved the optimum concentrate grade and recovery may Table 3 and Figure 10 show the recovery ratios of the
reduced. various plant options in relation to the actual production
When compared with options A and B, the difference in and expected production of the existing plant. On the basis
concentrate weights (which translates to addition revenue) of this analysis (i.e. recovery ratio), the efficiencies of the
are 189.72 tonnes per day and 278.62 tonnes per day various design options were determines in relation to the
respectively and while option A and B allows a loss of 7.1% expected recovery and the actual production of the existing
and 8.13 % iron minerals, option C gives only 5 % loss. plant.
Although all the options have been carefully chosen and Data obtained from the National Iron Ore Mining
designed through those stages in order to ensure that each Company processing plant showed that the actual average
produces to the optimum level possible, one particular concentrate weight of the existing plant is 8,680 tonnes per
option still gives the best overall performance than the day if the plant ever treats up to the designed capacity of
others. Before any, option is chosen as the best for the new 24,000 tonnes per day (though the plant usually treats less).
iron ore design however, the technical must be compared But the expected average recovery is 10,787.70tonnes per
with those of the other options day as shown by the final concentrate of the plant. So the
Comparing recovery and loss from the improved existing recovery or production ratio (X) is here defined as the ratio
plant still puts new plant option C as the best because of actual recovery to expected recovery. This is a measure
improve existing plant options A and B have total of the efficiency of the plant.
concentrate weights of 10,765.6tonnes and 10,786tonnes at
Actual Re cov ery (N)
diluted grade of 70% each against the 12,087.73tonnes at i.e X = .............1
the same grade for the new plant option C. The recoveries Expected Re cov ery (M)
of 82.22% and 87.39% achieved in improved existing plant
options A and B are also less than the 95% achieved in the 8680
X =
new plant option C. However, comparing recoveries from 10, 787.7
the two improved processing plant options, puts option B in = 0.8046
the best place.
Comparing recoveries, losses and grades in the new and Thus, the recovery efficiency of the existing plant is
improved plant options with those obtained using the same about 80%.
standard criteria for the existing plant shows that the The recovery ratios or efficiencies of the various
existing plant is also well designed and effective. Although redesign options were similarly determined in relation to
in reality the plant produces less than the values obtained in actual and expected recoveries of the existing plant in terms
this evaluation, the deficiency is either due to operational of concentrate weights as shown by the equations in Table 3.
problems or some inherent problems in the flow system.

Table 3. Comparing Recoveries, Plant Performance for the Iron Ore Redesign Options with the Existing Plant

Recovery Plant Performance

Recovery Ratio Recovery Ratio EfficiencyRatio Efficiency Ratio
Concentrate (Actual) (Expected)
Plant Design Option (Actual) (Expected)
ψ= ψ=
P Y= Z=
New Plant option A 11,467 1.3211 1.0630 1.642 1.321
New Plant Option B 11,359 1.3086 1.0530 1.626 1.309
New Plant option C 12,083 1.3920 1.1202 1.730 1.392
Improved Plant Option A 10,766 1.2403 0.9981 1.542 1.241
Improved Plant Option B 10,786 1.2426 0.9999 1.544 1.243

Obliviously from Table 3 and as depicted in Figures 8 to option for the iron ore because the technical and cost
10, the new plant option C has the best overall performance advantages of the other design options must not
in terms of recovery and concentrate weight. The overwhelmingly outweigh the cost and technical benefits of
concentrate weight, recovery, and performance ratio is this option.
higher than even the average value for all plants as shown In terms of the number of individual equipment required,
in figures. But it cannot yet be recommended as the best this is also fewer for new design option C than for other
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society 2014; 2(3): 46-52 51

options. While option C employs only Floatation cells for option C employs three stages of grinding against one for
concentration, the other options employ two or more option A and two for option B. Thus, in technical terms
individual equipment. For example option A employs (both in recovery and simplicity of flow system) the new
spirals, magnetic separator and density separators while plant option C is better than options A and B for the iron
option B uses spirals and Floatation equipment; although ore beneficiation.

Expected Concentrate Weight

Expected Recovery

Conc. Wght/Recovery (tonnes)





Existing New Plant New Plant All Plants New Plant Improved Improved
Plant option A option B Average option C Existing Existing
Plant Option Plant Option

Figure 8. Iron Ore Plant Options Products’ Properties Comparison

Performance Ratio Actual
1.8 Performance Ratio Expected


Performance Ratio






Existing Plant New Plant New Plant All Plants New Plant Improved Improved
option A option B Average option C Existing Plant Existing Plant
Option A Option B
Plant Options

Figure 9. Iron Ore Plant Options Performance Ratio Comparison

52 AJAKA Ebenezer Oyedele et al.: Technical Advantages of Alternative Process Flowsheets for Itakpe Iron Ore

Recovery Ratio Actual
Recovery Ratio Expected


Recovery Ratios





Existing Plant New Plant New Plant All Plants New Plant Improved Improved
option A option B Average option C Existing Plant Existing Plant
Option A Option B
Plant Options

Figure 10. Iron Ore Plant Options Recovery Ratios Comparison

Proceedings Vol.1, pp 270-278. Edited by Andrew Mular,

6. Conclusion Doug Halbe and Derek Barratt, Society for Mining,
Metallurgy and Exploration Inc. (SME), Littleton, USA.
From the results of the analyses it can be concluded that
the concentrate that has the best value for the new iron ore [4] Shoemaker S. R., (2002): The Circulating Load –Practical
Mineral Processing Plant Design. Edited by Andrew Mular,
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has a very simple flowsheet as compared to other design Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, Inc., New York.
[5] Srivastava M.P., S.K. Pana, N. Prasada, and B.K. Mishrab,
(2001): Characterization and processing of iron ore fines of
Kiriburu Deposit of India. International Journal of Mineral
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