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Universidad Internacional de La Rioja Facultad de Educación Trabajo fin de máster Motivation and CLIL: Content

Universidad Internacional de La Rioja Facultad de Educación

Trabajo fin de máster

Motivation and CLIL: Content in a CLIL unit as the main strategy to motivate eighth graders

Presentado por: John Walter Ruiz Castro

Tipo de TFM:

Propuesta de intervención

Director/a:

Beñat Muguruza

Ciudad:

Tuluá

Fecha:

2017

Abstract

The aim of this research is to put forward a didactic unit aimed at influencing student motivation in the English as a foreign language classroom in a monolingual context. Guaranteeing language learning, when students show little to no interest in the foreign language, is a challenge many teachers in the world face nowadays. Thus, the question of how to engage students and maintain their motivation in the language classroom has gained obvious relevance.

To do so, a literature review has been done on motivation, particularly on motivational strategies and techniques. Despite the fact that a huge number of motivational strategies exists, these still lack more classroom application to be tested and verified. Besides, the Content and Language Integrated Learning approach, which has gained worldwide recognition in the educational field thanks to its dual focus, flexibility and other alleged benefits, has been surveyed, and C for Content has been emphasized for the present work, as it is closely related to motivation.

Since motivation touches the very reality of students, their characterization and that of their families and communities have also been considered. After the selection of a few motivational strategies and respecting the Colombian guidelines on the teaching of English as a foreign language, a CLIL didactic unit on marijuana was designed, including its corresponding learning assessment and proposal evaluation. The target audience are 42 eighth grade (secondary education) students in a public school.

Although the didactic unit has not been actually implemented, it is expected that motivation can be influenced once the teacher puts it into practice, in a way to prove that even with a few well-chosen strategies, teachers can greatly improve their students’ level of motivation and the teaching quality. Lastly, the didactic unit has a free hand for teachers who want to either adapt it, use its suggested template for designing similar CLIL didactic units, or expand it and improve it according to their expertise and legal regulations of their respective country.

Keywords

Motivation, motivational strategies, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), C for Content, Secondary Education, English as a foreign language.

Content

  • 1. Introduction

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5

  • 1.1. Justification of the research question and problem

.......................

6

  • 1.2. Brief analysis of the state-of-the-art

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8

  • 1.3. Objectives of the study

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10

  • 1.4. Methodology

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11

  • 2. Literature review

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12

  • 2.1. Motivation

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12

  • 2.1.1. Definition ................................................................................................

12

  • 2.1.2. Motivation and language learning

...............................................

14

  • 2.1.3. Language, learner, and learning situation levels of

motivation

..........................................................................................................

15

  • 2.1.4. Internal and external factors .........................................................

17

  • 2.1.5. Motivating language learners

........................................................

18

2.2.

CLIL

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19

2.2.1. Definition

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19

  • 2.2.2. 4Cs framework

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21

C for content

  • 2.2.3. .........................................................................................

22

  • 2.3. Motivational strategies

............................................................................

22

  • 2.3.1. Motivation in the foreign language classroom

.......................

23

  • 2.3.2. Motivation in the language

classroom.......................................

24

  • 3. Intervention proposal .................................................................25

    • 3.1. Educational context and target group ................................................

25

  • 3.2. Objectives

......................................................................................................

27

  • 3.3. Methodology .................................................................................................

29

  • 3.4. Timing .............................................................................................................

32

  • 3.5. Sessions and activities

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32

  • 3.5.1. Session 1. Introduction: What is marijuana?

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33

  • 3.5.2. Session 2. What are the parts of the marijuana plant?

.......

38

  • 3.5.3. Session 3. What is the chemical composition of marijuana?

................................................................................................................................

41

  • 3.5.4. Session 4. What are the effects of marijuana on a person?

................................................................................................................................

45

  • 3.5.5. Session 5. What is marijuana’s current state in Colombia

and the world? Is it considered a drug? A medicine? Is it addictive?

...........................................................................................................

49

  • 3.6. Assessment

...................................................................................................

54

  • 3.6.1. Learning assessment .........................................................................

55

3.6.2. Assessment of the proposal

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59

  • 4. Discussion

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62

  • 5. Conclusions ...............................................................................

63

  • 6. Limitations and further research

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64

References

  • 7. .................................................................................

66

  • 8. ......................................................................................

Annexes

71

  • 8.1. Annex I. Types of

71

  • 8.2. Annex II. Anatomy of the cannabis

71

  • 8.3. Annex III. Sample of a scaffolded

73

  • 8.4. Annex IV. Effects of cannabis on the

73

  • 8.5. Annex V. Marijuana worldwide current status

73

  • 8.6. Annex VI. Prueba saber sample, Part

74

  • 8.7. Annex VII. Marijuana glossary

75

List of figures

Figure 1. The Self-Determination Continuum……………………………………………….14 Figure 2. CLIL aspects of the intervention proposal on marijuana……………….….31

List of tables

Table 1. Components of Foreign Language Learning Motivation………………….….15 Table 2. Williams and Burden’s (1997) framework of motivation in language

learning……………………………………………………………………………………………………17

Table 3. Selected motivational strategies……………………………………………………..24 Table 4. Possible cross-curricular contents related to the marijuana topic in different levels and contexts……………………………………………………………………….28 Table 5. Rubric to assess the cognitive, personal and social aspects of students…55 Table 6. Student self-assessment rubric……………………………………………………….57 Table 7. Rubric for peer-assessment……………………………………………………………58 Table 8. Student survey on motivation……………………………………………………… 60 .. Table 9. Evaluation criteria for the intervention proposal………………………………60

1. Introduction

Teachers are always trying to come up with strategies and techniques to keep students motivated to learn. This fact becomes more important when the learning is that of an L2. What is more, when the language to be learned is a foreign one, influencing motivation

and raising and maintaining student interest come to be the teacher’s biggest challenge.

As for this, globalization seems to be the force behind the learning of an FL in many countries around the world, fact responding more to an extrinsic and instrumental kind of motivation. The matter, then, is how to gradually change this kind of motivation towards an intrinsic one.

Fortunately, the teaching and learning of English as a foreign language has arrived at a

convergent point where it is relatively compulsory to see it in a “global”, integral way,

that is, it must cover not only cognitive and communicative functions, but also cultural aspects and relevant, contextualized contents. This makes it crystal-clear that the CLIL approach fits in perfectly the current state of L2 and FL learning. What is more, CLIL also relates to motivation as it permits teachers to make use of and adapt its different tenets of language learning (4Cs) to their realities. From these, C for content is expected to influence student motivation, by taking learners into account, personalizing contents, establishing cross-curricular links, and making students feel they belong somewhere, and this place is the language classroom.

Thus, in an attempt to influence student motivation, this Master Dissertation (MD) comprises several sections that try to explain the rationale behind it. First, the justification and the most recent studies on the topic are presented, along with the objectives of the study, and the narrowing of motivational research and converging points between motivation and CLIL, directed mainly towards content as a main motivational strategy. Then, based on a literature review, the concepts and definitions of motivation and CLIL in general and examples of motivational strategies and the importance of C for content in particular, will be explained. Next comes the core of this MD: The designing of a CLIL didactic unit on marijuana, including a characterization of the school environment, possible cross-curricular links, and the integration and adaptation of the Colombian guidelines on the learning of English as a foreign language with CLIL, all making part of an intervention proposal on how to influence students’ motivation from content. Besides its division in different moments and sub-topics, there will be a thorough analysis and evaluation of the intervention proposal. All in all, this

permits to draw some conclusions, see some limitations, and suggest further lines of research related to motivation and CLIL.

1.1. Justification of the research question and problem

Motivation has been generally accepted to be a key factor that influences the rate and success or failure in second language (L2) learning (Dörnyei, 1998). Research into language learning motivation in L2 and foreign language (FL) learning contexts has focused on determining whether motivation has been aroused and on specifying the learning consequences of this arousal, rather than on elaborating on the range of possible motivational antecedents (ibid). In other words, the source of motivation has been considered to be relatively unimportant provided that motivation is aroused.

As a reaction to this conclusion, Oxford and Shearin (1994, p. 15) suggest that it is quite

possible that “the source of motivation is very important in a practical sense to teachers

who want to stimulate students' motivation”. Doiz, Lasagabaster, and Sierra (2014) strongly believe that the benefits of one currently fashionable approach are assumed, namely the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach, when it comes to learning an L2 or FL. CLIL can lead to an increase in engagement and motivation in learning (ibid).

CLIL is supposed to foster learners’ motivation as it increases the level of authenticity

and challenge, encourages the learner to view the FL with more importance and respect, introduces the contents and tasks in a stimulating way (scaffolding), among other strengths, which can be summarized in its 4Cs model including content, cognition, communication, and culture. From these, content can be a great motivational strategy to uncover or change, that is, improve students’ attitude towards learning English as a foreign language (EFL), as content of interest to students may lower their affective filter and increase their FL motivation (Du, 2009).

For this reason, EFL teachers need to bring their desire to increase students’ motivation to realization from the very devising of didactic units. In this case a CLIL unit lends itself to this goal by permitting the inclusion of different motivational strategies such as interesting and relevant topics, as course-specific motivational components suggested by Dörnyei and Scizér (1998).

The mastery of fundamental subjects such as English or world languages is alleged to be essential for students in the 21st century. In addition, schools must weave 21st century interdisciplinary themes into the curriculum, such as global awareness, financial, civic literacy, health literacy, and environmental literacy (The Partnership for 21st Century Learning, 2015). This need of learning English as a foreign language is explicitly stated

in the document entitled “Estándares Básicos de Competencias en Lenguas Extranjeras:

Inglés” issued by the Colombian Ministry of Education (2006). This document recommends that motivation should be worked on in the English classes in order for

students to attain communicative competence (ibid, p. 12-13).

Another pillar of the Colombian government concerning the learning of English is that of the intercultural communication (Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2006) through declarative knowledge, that is knowledge coming not only from personal experience but also from formal/school education and knowledge of the world (ibid, p. 12). This idea agrees with the recommendation that the contents and materials proposed for teaching must be significant for the students, which can be achieved through the transversality of the topics presented (Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2016). The four general themes recommended are Health, Democracy and Peace, Sustainability (environment), and Globalization, which can “be treated in several ways and according to the characteristics of each school, their population and the community to which they belong” (ibid. p. 46). For the selection of content and materials, teachers must know the context and the needs of their students, as this aspect can generate motivation in the students (ibid).

In the Colombian context where English is an FL, there is practically no contact with the target language (TL) community. That is why language classroom motivation comes in handy when trying to research and increase English learning motivation for Colombian students. According to Gardner (2010), language classroom motivation “is affected by the environment in the class, the nature of the course and the curriculum, characteristics of the teacher and the very scholastic nature of the student. Furthermore, Lamb (2004) affirmed that English in L2 contexts where it is not spoken out of the classroom is more associated with the process of globalization, than with the integrativeness towards particular anglophone cultures. In order to help overcome these difficulties, the CLIL approach comes into play as an effective way to increase learner motivation as it targets confidence-building (Coyle, Hood, & Marsh, CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning, 2010).

Specifically speaking, curriculum development in CLIL takes place at the classroom level and it is the teachers who have to take the official school curriculum as a starting point and integrate content and language (San Isidro, Curriculum Planning, 2017). However, teachers often neglect the fact that all the learning activities are filtered through the students’ motivation (Anjomshoa & Sadighi, 2015). Without student motivation, there is no life in the class (ibid). Thus, sincere attempts must be done by teachers in order to motivate the learners, so that they develop positive attitudes towards the TL (AlAzoumi, 2014). Thus, content in CLIL appears as a main motivational strategy to promote better, optimal learning, and to change expectations on the part of learners, who are demanding a more connected and relevant education regarding their everyday lives.

1.2. Brief analysis of the state-of-the-art

It is believed that CLIL fosters learners’ motivation by increasing the level of authenticity

and challenge, and by encouraging learners to see the FL as important and meaningful as any other subject in the curriculum (Hunt, 2011). It is also assumed that motivation is

one of the pillars of CLIL implementation and, as such, it serves to justify it (Doiz et al.,

2014). However, students’ actual levels of motivation under CLIL are usually taken for

granted in the literature about motivation. This section of the dissertation will present the most recent research on the relationship between CLIL and motivation.

Talking about language motivation, it is almost clear for teachers that neither primary nor secondary school students seem interested in language learning, yet they feel more attracted towards a content subject (Fernández, 2014). Thus, the content subject in CLIL is the reason to covertly lead students towards the FL. In this sense, Banegas (2013) states that FL learning is a captivating activity when knowledge of the world is approached through it”. Thus, classroom research becomes quite helpful for obtaining direct, experiential knowledge on the processes involved in the interaction of language learning and motivation (ibid).

As regards research on the relationship between CLIL and motivation, some studies have been carried out that shed light on the topic. For example, Lasagabaster (2011) investigated the influence of CLIL on motivation for 191 secondary students, who were enrolled in either CLIL or EFL classes. Results were obtained from 13 questions grouped in three factors: interest and instrumental orientation, attitudes towards learning English in class, and effort. CLIL students seemed to be more motivated and they obtained higher results in the three factors. It was concluded that there exists a crucial

relationship between motivation and the CLIL approach. Nonetheless, there is no mention about specific topics taught.

Then, a study carried out in England by Hunt (2011) reported that learners responded positively to CLIL lessons: the lessons, activities and resources were enjoyable, and there was a feeling of progress. Lessons involved subjects such as Personal, social, health and economic education (PSHE), Citizenship, and Science, among others. More specifically, topics mentioned by students included countries, continents, natural disasters, the Galapagos Islands, animals and environments, child labor, shocking statistics, the Guernica picture, the French Revolution, among others. It is noteworthy that Hunt includes some teachers’ reflection on their own practice, two of the answers being that 50% of teachers always plan their classes carefully and other 35% usually plan their classes carefully.

In turn, Navarro (2012) intended to make the relation between motivation and CLIL more visible and plausible. For her, CLIL consists of introducing cross-curricular

material and selecting topics according to students’ interests and experiences, what can actually boost their motivation towards learning the L2/FL. Under this premise, she offered some guidelines to work on motivation, such as adapting the course book, using Prezi, cross-curricular content (although she refers to it more as C for culture), and collaborative tasks, among others. Besides, she named several strategies to generate and

maintain motivation within the classroom, such as getting to know one’s students. In this sense, her study tries to be a “down-to-earth educational proposal”, which functions as an invitation to evaluate new perspectives and apply them until they become integral part of the teaching practice (ibid, p. 13).

In Spain, Fernández (2014) aimed to determine if there was any connection between the receptive vocabulary knowledge and motivation towards English as a foreign language of primary and secondary school students, aged 10-11 and 13-14 respectively, attending CLIL and no-CLIL classes. She identified that primary CLIL graders showed a positive meaningful relationship between the two variables, whereas secondary students did not reflect this tendency.

Another Spanish study is that of Fernández and Canga (2014), who tried to relate motivation and gender in the EFL (non-CLIL) and CLIL classrooms. The participants, chosen randomly, were sixty-two 4 th primary education Spanish students, aged 8-9, coming from two co-ed schools in La Rioja. After having received instructions in EFL and

CLIL (natural sciences), the perceptions of boys and girls were measured through an

adapted version of Gardner’s (1985) Attitude/motivation test battery (AMTB). The

results showed that non-CLIL students were significantly more motivated than CLIL students, result that goes against previous investigation on the topic. Noteworthy is

Fernández and Cangas’ statement holding that content in CLIL depends on the context

of the learning instruction, that is, it can be taken directly from a required national curriculum, can be a topical issue, thematic, cross-curricular, interdisciplinary or be focused on citizenship.

In a recent study on the possible connection between language learning motivation and CLIL, Sylvén and Thompson (2015) used the Motivational Factors Questionnaire (MFQ)

as a tool to measure students’ language learning motivation. The participants were

Swedish CLIL and non-CLIL secondary students, whose motivational profiles were

examined bearing in mind their gender and L1. It has to be noted that Sweden is a multilingual country, where English is spoken to a great extent (ibid, p. 29). The results

showed that CLIL students’ motivation is greater on a number of factors compared to

non-CLIL students. Nevertheless, they also warned that the results might not be the

direct influence of CLIL, but rather of students’ past experiences, personality features,

and interests.

All in all, it seems that there is a strong relationship between CLIL and motivation. Besides, there has been a progression towards more specificity regarding language motivation, directed to particular contents to be taught. However, most of these studies

rely heavily on motivation questionnaires through an “a posteriori” viewpoint, instead of focusing on motivation as an “a priori” aspect of learning.

1.3. Objectives of the study

The general objective of this work is to design a CLIL didactic unit aiming at increasing eighth grade students’ motivation in learning English as a foreign language. By taking advantage of motivational research directed towards a more pragmatic, educational perspective, and of the advantages offered by the CLIL approach and its curriculum flexibility, this work will focus on content-related strategies to be put into practice in a CLIL didactic unit.

Narrowing down, there are some specific objectives that will help accomplish the general objective, as follows:

-To survey the strategies and techniques related to specific aspects of FL learning motivation and classroom motivation. -To identify, i.e. select, the most relevant motivational strategies and techniques, particularly those bearing a relation to the learning situation level. -To analyze the importance of C for Content in CLIL, as it is emphasized in this intervention proposal, in a way to find convergent points concerning motivation. -To take into account the Colombian guidelines on the teaching of English as a foreign

language and students’ reality in order to select the actual contents that will make up the CLIL unit’s guiding thread.

1.4. Methodology

To start with, predominant motivational theories in the SLA literature will be explored. This literature review will let some key motivational factors for learning an FL be identified. Then the CLIL approach and its alleged advantages will be studied, as well as CLIL design in particular, as learned in this Master Degree. Next, after finding converging points related to content and motivation, it will be exemplified how teachers can increase levels of motivation in their students by implementing motivational strategies, especially those regarding content.

This will be evidenced in a corresponding CLIL didactic unit, including its respective lessons and showing the specific strategies and techniques used for boosting learners’ motivation, taking into account that lesson planning is crucial in the teaching practice. It has to be reminded that, although content in CLIL is enhanced in this proposal, its remaining pillars (culture, cognition, and communication) will also be expected to help increase students’ motivation in learning English as a foreign language, otherwise CLIL could not be brought to realization.

As far as contextual knowledge about the school, its community and students is concerned, a characterization must be taken into account, particularly that of families. This step is fundamental to gain insights about the reality of our students and, in this way, be able to choose contents that come close to them and motivate them. Another

necessary step involves the teacher’s surveying of their own teaching practice and see if

they emphasize a lot on language, usually grammar, as opposed to implementing a more integral approach to teaching an FL, and what motivational strategies and techniques they are implementing, if any at all. What is more, the national guidelines regarding the

teaching of English as a foreign language cannot be ignored when designing the CLIL unit. For the resulting CLIL unit to be of a high quality, it must demonstrate “relational links between intended learning, students’ lives, the community, and various school subjects(Mehisto, 2012, p. 16). All in all, it is each teacher who determines how and to what extent any learning materials will be used (ibid).

It has to be noted that the extent to which this intervention proposal can be attained will not be measured here. Any teacher wanting to do so, can implement the finished unit and make use of an Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) or any other way to obtain data on motivation satisfaction at the end of the CLIL unit application, such as analyzing the academic results at the end of the module, questionnaires and surveys applied to non-linguistic subject teachers (if they had participated in tandem with the language teacher), school board members, and parents.

2. Literature review

This section deals with the most important theoretical background for this intervention proposal about CLIL and motivation, reason why it has been divided in three chapters. The first chapter on motivation presents a definition, features, dichotomies, and different classifications within the motivation historical research, and ends by highlighting the difference between language and classroom learning motivation. The second chapter on CLIL intends to enhance this approach and its key features, namely the 4Cs (especially C for content), in relation to motivation and motivational factors. The third chapter hones in on motivational strategies that can be used in three possible levels, so it presents a selected list of them.

2.1. Motivation

Motivation has been a highly debated issue in education, particularly in learning an L2 or FL. The following sub-sections aim at explaining the different kinds of motivation and the different moments motivation can be exercised within the language classroom.

2.1.1. Definition

Motivation is not an easy word to define, but there are some features that can be listed regarding a motivated individual. According to Gardner, “the motivated individual is goal directed, expends effort, is persistent, is attentive, has desires (wants), exhibits

positive affect, is aroused, has expectancies, demonstrates self-confidence (self-efficacy), and has reasons (motives)(2010, p. 10). Some of these characteristics can be said to be cognitive in nature, some affective, and some behavioral. Specifically, in language learning, motivation to learn an L2 is not a simple construct either.

One of the first distinctions regarding motivation was that of Gardner and Lambert (1972), who established two broad kinds of motivation in connection with L2 learning. The first is integrative motivation, which reflects the learners’ willingness to appear like a typical member of the other language community, their great effort to learn the L2 to communicate with the group, and their attitude towards the learning situation. The second is instrumental motivation, which is characterized by a desire to gain social recognition or economic advantages through knowledge of an L2 (ibid).

Another classification of motivation done by Deci and Ryan (1985) in terms of extrinsic motivation (external factors that influence foreign language learning) and intrinsic motivation (interest generated by the activity itself).

Gardner (1985) stated that motivation involves three components: motivational intensity, desire to learn the language, and an attitude towards the act of learning the language. He also created the AMTB (Attitude/Motivation Test Battery), which operationalized the components of this model in measurable terms, through some attributes grouped in five categories: motivation (desire to achieve a goal, effort extended in this direction, satisfaction with the task), integrativeness (attitudes towards the target language group, interest in FL, integrative orientation), attitudes towards the learning situation (evaluation of the language teacher, evaluation of the language course), language anxiety (language class anxiety, language use anxiety), and others (ibid).

Ryan and Deci (2000, p. 72), in an attempt to integrate the different forms of motivation, illustrated the following taxonomy considering the extent to which the motivations originate from the self:

Figure 1. The Self-Determination Continuum showing types of motivation with their regulatory styles, loci of causality,

Figure 1. The Self-Determination Continuum showing types of motivation with their regulatory styles, loci of causality, and corresponding processes (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

2.1.2. Motivation and language learning

L2 and FL learning motivation have seen the contributions of several theories, including psychological, sociological, educational, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic, among others. This body of research subsumes four distinguishable periods in regards to motivation and learning an FL or L2, namely a social-psychological, a cognitive-situated, a process-oriented and a socio-dynamic one (Doiz et al, 2014). This ongoing research brought a new interest in L2 motivation with an educational focus, usually referred to as the educational shift of the 1990s in this field. This reform, mainly spurred by Crookes and Schmidt (1991), had the following three subordinate themes:

  • 1. The intent to complement the social psychological approach with some concepts

central to mainstream psychology which had been unattended in L2 research.

  • 2. The conceptualization of motivation in order to grant it with an explanatory power

regarding specific language learning tasks and behaviors, in addition to community-level social tendencies, which meant situation- or task-specific motivation. Gardner’s model, according to Dörnyei (1998, p. 125), is only focused on “determining whether motivation has been aroused and specifying the learning consequences of this arousal”. However, the new attempts try to expand the range of potential motivational antecedents. The reaction to Gardner's conclusion that the source of motivation is relatively unimportant provided motivation is aroused, is summarized below:

While this conclusion might be true for researchers, quite possibly the source of motivation is very important in a practical sense to teachers who want to stimulate students' motivation. Without knowing where the roots of motivation lie, how can teachers water those roots? (Oxford & Shearin, 1994, p. 15)

3. The explicit call for a more pragmatic, education-centered approach to motivation research, more relevant for classroom application. There was a shift from social attitudes to looking at classroom reality, and a need to identify and analyze classroom-specific motives.

The objectives of this reform called for motivation research consistent with the perceptions of practicing teachers, greater description of classroom dimension of L2 motivation, explanation of specific student behaviors, and practical guidelines for motivating learners (Dörnyei, 1998). Therefore, it is note-worthy that situation-specific motives closely related to classroom reality play a highly significant role in the L2 motivation complex.

2.1.3. Language, learner, and learning situation levels of motivation

In an attempt to understand motivation, Dörnyei (1994) created a 3-level construct for his study as follows: Language Level, Learner Level and Learning Situation Level (Table 1). These levels coincided with three basic elements of the L2 learning process, namely second language, second language learner and second language learning environment. In turn, these levels highlighted three different views of language: the social dimension, the personal dimension and the educational subject matter dimension.

Table 1 Components of Foreign Language Learning Motivation (Dörnyei, 1994, p. 280).

LANGUAGE LEVEL

Integrative Motivational Subsystem

Instrumental Motivational Subsystem

LEARNER LEVEL

Need for achievement

Self-confidence

Language Use Anxiety

 

Perceived L2 Competence

Causal Attributions

Self-Efficacy

LEARNING SITUATION LEVEL

 

Course-Specific Motivational Components

 

Interest

Relevance

Expectancy

Satisfaction

Teacher-Specific Motivational Components

 

Affiliative

Authority

 

Direct Socialization (Modelling, Task Presentation,

Drive

Type

Feedback)

Group-specific Motivational Components

 

Goal-orientedness

Norm & Reward

Group Cohesion

Classroom Goal

System

Structure

Based on this construct, the learning situation level can be divided into course-specific motivational components, teacher-specific motivational components and group-specific motivational components, better explained next:

1) Course-specific motivational components have to do with the syllabus, study materials, teaching method(s) and learning activities. These can be enhanced through:

interest (intrinsic motivation, innate curiosity and desire for personal and contextual knowledge), relevance (feeling of connectedness of instruction and personal needs, values or goals), expectancy, and satisfaction.

2) Teacher-specific motivational components deal with teacher’s behavior, character and teaching style.

3) Group-specific motivational components are associated with the learners’ group dynamics. They include goal-orientedness, the norm and reward system, group cohesion and classroom goal structure.

Dörnyei’s process model, taken as a template, can be used by teachers in the classroom regarding motivating strategies about how to: create the basic motivational conditions, generate initial motivation, maintain and protect motivation, and encourage positive and retrospective self-evaluation (Anjomshoa & Sadighi, 2015). In terms of implementing the strategies, Dörnyei emphasizes quality rather than quantity, arguing that a positive motivational climate in the classroom can be created by a few well-chosen strategies. The importance of the teacher factor in having a high level of motivation in L2 or FL learning should not be neglected.

2.1.4. Internal and external factors

Another classroom-oriented model was developed by Williams and Burden (1997) from a social-constructivist perspective. Motivational factors are divided into internal and external ones (Table 2). One difference in comparison to Dörnyei’s model is the extent to which an activity is perceived as being interesting. In Williams and Burden's model, interest is treated as an internal factor, while Dörnyei sees it as a subcomponent of the course, that is, as an external factor.

Table 2 Williams and Burden’s (1997) framework of motivation in language learning (Dörnyei, 1998, p. 126).

Internal factors

External factors

Intrinsic interest of activity

Significant others

• arousal of curiosity

• parents

• optimal degree of challenge

• teachers

• peers

Perceived value of activity

• personal relevance • anticipated value of outcomes

Sense of agency

The nature of interaction with significant others

• intrinsic value attributed to the activity

• mediated learning experiences • the nature and amount of feedback • rewards

• locus of causality

• the nature and amount of appropriate

• locus of control RE process and

praise

outcomes

• punishments, sanctions

• ability to set appropriate goals

The learning environment

Mastery

• comfort

• class and school ethos

• feelings of competence • awareness of developing skills and

• resources • time of day, week, year

mastery in a chosen area • self-efficacy

• size of class and school

Self-concept

The broader context

• realistic awareness of personal • strengths and weaknesses in skills

• wider family networks • the local education system

required

• conflicting interests

• personal definitions and judgements of

• cultural norms

success and failure • self-worth concern learned helplessness

• societal expectations and attitudes

Attitudes language learning in general

• to the target language

• to the target language community and

culture

Other affective states

• confidence • anxiety, fear

 

Developmental age and stage

Gender

2.1.5. Motivating language learners

Skills in motivating learners should be seen as central to teaching effectiveness. This is why Dörnyei (1994) developed the most systematic collection of L2 motivational strategies consisting of 30 macrostrategies, each of which contains several microstrategies and techniques, resulting in a total of around 100 concrete suggestions.

Specifically talking about the relationship between motivation and L2 learning or acquisition and its possible constructs, Gardner (2007) makes a distinction between language learning motivation and classroom learning motivation, both of which operate simultaneously on the individual learners. Regarding language learning motivation, Gardner states that it is a broad type of motivation (that can be changed under certain conditions) fundamental in any L2 learning context (ibid).

In regard to classroom learning motivation, Gardner (2007) refers specifically to the

language classroom. This type of motivation is characterized by Dörnyei’s tripartite pre- actional, actional and post-actional motivation, which alludes to the motivation in the classroom situation (this 3-part motivation construct will be dealt with in 2.3.1.). Thus, the teacher, the class atmosphere, the course content, materials and facilities, and

students’ personal characteristics are bound to have an influence on classroom learning

motivation, which make part of the educational context and, more specifically, to the

immediate classroom situation.

Apart from the cultural context (labelled as Integrativeness by Gardner, 2007), the other important feature comes from the educational context, labelled as Attitudes toward the Learning Situation. Gardner’s (2007) assumption is that the influence of the educational context on the learners’ attitudes will accordingly influence their level of motivation. In his research, he found that motivation can be approached in terms of three measures which influence the cognitive, affective and behavioral components of learning. This let him state the following about his own teaching practice:

I am convinced that what I do and the materials I use are important… But, I also know

that the student evaluates what I do and what materials I recommend… In short, I am

convinced that my activities can influence the student’s level of motivation, and it is

this level of motivation that will have an effect on how much is learned. (Gardner,

2007, p. 17)

The issue about how teachers can improve levels of motivation in the L2 or FL has definitely more to do with intrinsic rather than extrinsic factors, although this does not mean to discard the latter altogether. Since intrinsic motivation plays an important role in relation to students’ L2 learning, it is believed that focusing on intrinsic factors within the classroom could be an effective way of improving levels of motivation of FL learners” (Nicholson, 2013).

Kormos and Csizér (2008, p. 350) note that it is evident that teachers’ materials and activities are instrumental in shaping attitudes to learning”. Their recommendation is that teachers devise learning activities that are intrinsically motivating for the students

and which subsequently meet students’ needs. There exists the assumption that teachers can make a positive contribution to students’ motivation to learn if the content is

interesting and relevant to their age and level of ability. By selecting materials and

activities relevant to students’ interests and needs, teachers can directly influence students’ attitude towards L2 learning (Lightbown & Spada, 2006).

2.2. CLIL

A pillar of this intervention proposal is the CLIL approach and its 4Cs template, both explained below, as they keep a relation with motivation. Moreover, C for content is of great relevance as it permits to work on motivational factors that can be evidenced in the CLIL unit.

2.2.1. Definition

CLIL is an acronym coined in Europe in the early 1990s (Coyle et al, 2010) that describes any dual-focused type of provision in which an L2, FL, or what has been called a vehicular language (VL), is used for teaching and learning a non-linguistic subject matter, with content and language having a joint and mutually beneficial role (Marsh, 2002). CLIL has two distinctive features. One is the integration of language and content which, altogether, receive equal importance. By teaching the content with and through the FL, proficiency in both aspects can be attained. The other distinctive feature is its flexibility to fit the wide range of socio-political and cultural realities of different contexts. CLIL

programs go from theme-based language modules to cross-curricular approaches where a content subject is taught through the FL.

CLIL’s flexibility is based on a theoretical framework commonly referred to as the 4Cs. The 4C model offers a holistic approach, where content, communication, cognition and culture (also taken as community and citizenship) are integrated. For CLIL to be effective 5 dimensions must take place, namely: progression in knowledge, skills and understanding of content, engagement in higher order thinking skills (HOTS), interaction in the communicative context, development of appropriate communication skills, and acquisition of a deepening intercultural awareness (Coyle et al., 2010).

CLIL integration of content and language offers an authenticity of purpose. Besides, by realigning language and cognitive development, CLIL can counter the lack of relevance

of language teaching based on grammatical progression and boost learners’ motivation

(Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2009). In essence, CLIL is held as a dynamic unit, bigger than its

two parts, that provides an education that goes beyond subject and content learning (Coyle et al. 2010).

CLIL programs have become fashionable across Europe since the 1990s, due to the need

to meet the expectations of the globalizing world and people’s need to communicate

effectively. Over the years, attention from all educational levels (primary, secondary and higher levels) towards CLIL has increased. As a result, there has been an improvement of qualitative and quantitative language learning analysis, and of its positive effects on learning subject content in the CLIL context (Malvezzi-Campeggi, 2013).

In the current globalization process, CLIL is alleged to provide any country with the chance to acquire an L2. In particular, it gives the opportunity to learners of English as a foreign language to acquire English through a natural approach. The arrival of CLIL has meant that English is changing from a goal-oriented school subject to a medium of instruction for content subjects. This is why many countries in Europe have shown increasing interest in CLIL very recently, claiming that it is an innovative and effective teaching and learning approach (Malvezzi-Campeggi, 2013). Moreover, CLIL is a suitable approach in that it “complements other subjects rather than competes with them, diversifies methods and forms of classroom practice, increases learners’ motivation and confidence in both the language and the subject being taught” (ibid. p 39).

2.2.2. 4Cs framework

The 4Cs framework (Coyle, 2006) offers a solid theoretical and methodological foundation for planning CLIL lessons and creating materials due to its integrative nature. The CLIL approach requires the use of audio-visual aids and multimedia, learning from practical, hands-on experiences, the use of the TL (English in most cases) for authentic communication without paying too much attention to language mistakes, the use of language scaffolding such as reformulation, simplification and exemplification, code switching to the students’ L1 (Spanish in this case) for communication purposes when appropriate, and taking into account the TL language level of the students. The main tenets of CLIL are:

Content. Learners are expected not only to acquire knowledge and skills, but also to create their own knowledge and to understand and develop skills; teachers design lessons taking account of what students already know so that students build their content knowledge as if they were building a wall, one course of bricks on top of the other.

Cognition. Learning and thinking are quite related to content. Content must be analyzed for its linguistic demands so that learners can create their own interpretation of it. Thinking processes also need to be analyzed in terms of their linguistic demands.

Communication. In order for interaction and learning to be accomplished, there must be a direct relation between language and the learning context, the reconstruction of content and the corresponding cognitive processes.

Culture. The relationship between cultures and languages is complex (Meyer, 2013). Intercultural awareness is fundamental to CLIL. Its rightful place is at the core of CLIL. CLIL teachers help students see that what they learn is not just another school subject but that it is related to the “real world” around them (ibid).

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) can be used to achieve what Coyle,

Hood and Marsh (2010, p. 5) refer to as “authenticity of purpose” and provide a better

vehicle for authentic language exposure and production in EFL contexts. This increased authenticity is hypothesized to lead to an increase in engagement and motivation in the learning. This means that CLIL learners are more successful and motivated in comparison to students in traditional grammar-based classrooms (Attard, Walter, Theodorou, & Chrysanthou, n.d.).

2.2.3. C for content

According to the CLIL Glossary (British Council, n.d.), content refers to curricular subjects or subject areas, besides languages, that can be taught through the additional language (AL), including Art, Citizenship, Classics, Design Technology, Economics, Environmental Studies, Geography, History, Information Computer Technology (ICT), Literacy, Maths, Music, Physical Education (PE) Philosophy, Politics, Religious Education (RE) Science and Social Science.

Content also refers to any materials used, such as textbooks, articles, videos, listening activities, research, and projects, to teach the key vocabulary, facts, and concepts (Rodríguez, 2016). The content should be decided and carefully selected before planning the unit. It is recommended that a multimodal approach be incorporated, which could be accomplished by integrating multiple intelligences and an interdisciplinary approach, that is, other content areas must be brought into the content (ibid). In general terms, content is the most important aspect in CLIL, since it is learned in a complex system, in new contexts and situations, because language, learning skills, different cultural perspectives, technology, etc. are integrated into learning content (San Isidro, 2017).

It must be noted that, in the formal educational context, content is all the subject specific knowledge that has to be taught following the respective legal guidelines of every country. However, knowing that many national curricula act as suggestions, schools and teachers are practically independent to adapt the national curriculum to their own needs and get the most of their lessons (Díaz, 2017).

Regarding the degree to which emphasis is given to content, there is a distinction between soft CLIL and hard CLIL. The first means applying components of CLIL to English language teaching (ELT) units or lessons. The second means teaching English “through” content lessons, where content is the driving force (Rodríguez, 2016).

2.3. Motivational strategies

The need to put theory into practice in the motivational field in relation to learning either an L2 or FL, has come up with hundreds of ideas about how to influence motivation before, during, and after any given language lesson. The following sub-chapters deal with practical suggestions supported by many teachers around the world.

2.3.1. Motivation in the foreign language classroom

In 1994, Dörnyei (Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom, pp. 281-282) offered a descriptive list of relevant motivational components with their respective practical guidelines, all of which he integrated in his 3-level motivation construct. Next are some summarized and selected strategies meant to exploit students’ intrinsic motivation in the L2 or FL classroom instruction:

Language level

-Include sociocultural elements in the syllabus, such as movies and music. -Make learners aware of cultural similarities and differences between the two languages. -Talk with students about the L2 role in the world and its usefulness.

Learner level

-Make students feel they are competent, focusing on what they can do and telling them

mistakes are a part of learning. -Assign students attainable subgoals such as learning a number of words per week.

Learning situation level

Course-specific

-Give relevance to the syllabus of the course, for instance by doing a needs analysis and involving students in planning. -Make the course content more attractive by using authentic materials, visual aids, etc.

-Generate and maintain curiosity and attention through routine changes, varied seating formation, and learning breaks. -Make the tasks more interesting, adapted to students’ interests, pair and group work. -Create tasks that fit students’ skills level. -Have students create products to perform or display so that they feel proud.

Teacher specific

-Facilitate learning and promote learner autonomy. -Present tasks so as to move from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation, for instance by

connecting them with interesting or esteemed things.

Group specific

-Decrease the harmful effect of evaluation on intrinsic motivation, for example by not

comparing students and assessing them in private.

-Use cooperative learning techniques.

2.3.2. Motivation in the language classroom

In 1998, Dörnyei and Scizér embarked on the task of revising the original list of “ten commandments”. This empirical research asked 200 Hungarian teachers of English

from a variety of institutional contexts, to evaluate and rank those motivational strategies in terms of the importance and frequency they attached to them in their classes. Thus, they obtained the modified set of the “ten commandments”, from which presenting the tasks in a proper manner, making the language lessons interesting, and personalizing the learning process appear to be relevant for this proposal.

After this study, Dörnyei (2001) came out with over 100 motivational strategies that he presented in his text, Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom, a practical teachers’ guide on how to motivate learners. Such strategies, organized into separate themes, have to be consciously applied to achieve some systematic and enduring positive effect (ibid). Thus he presented thirty-five motivational strategies, divided into pre- actional, actional, and post-actional phases, that can be used to respectively generate, sustain, and promote learners’ motivation (AlAzoumi, 2014). Table 3 presents the selected relevant strategies belonging to different categories.

Table 3 Selected motivational strategies (AlAzoumi, 2014, pp. 126, 127).

Category

 

Strategy

Creating

the

basic

Take students’ learning seriously.

motivational conditions

Generating

initial

Increase learners’ intrinsic motivation in the L2.

motivation

Make the curriculum and teaching materials relevant to students.

Maintaining

and

Present and manage tasks in a motivating way.

protecting motivation

Increase students’ motivation by fostering cooperation. Increase students’ motivation by encouraging learner autonomy.

Encouraging

positive

Increase learner satisfaction.

self-evaluation

Use grades in a motivating way.

In a similar vein, The Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation (2015) offers a short list of potential strategies to combat studentslack of interest or motivation. They state that, despite the objective value of an activity or topic, if students

do not recognize its value, they may not be motivated to make any effort. On the contrary, if students see a clear connection of the coursework to their goals, interests, and

concerns, “they will be more likely to value it, and thus more motivated to invest time and effort” (ibid). From the suggested strategies, connection to students’ interests is relevant for this work.

Regarding this singular strategy, it must be highlighted that, when teachers connect course material to students’ personal interests, motivation often increases. That is why “well-constructed courses that tap into issues […] important to students (e.g., The History of Rock ‘n’ Roll, Philosophy and the Matrix [a popular film], The Statistics of Sexual Orientation) can capitalize on students’ motivation without sacrificing intellectual or disciplinary rigor(Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation,

2015).

3. Intervention proposal

The design of a CLIL didactic unit, with five corresponding lesson plans, will be presented in this section of the Master’s dissertation. This didactic unit is aimed at influencing motivation on students who have little to no interest in the English lessons. By following the Formal format suggested by Coyle (2006) and by applying motivational strategies, particularly about content, students will be encouraged to show interest in the English lessons since the very beginning, that is, they will be motivated by and towards the contents learned.

Although the selected school is not running a CLIL-based curriculum, the use of CLIL is proposed because it provides us with good teaching practice (Rodríguez, 2016). It is also important for Colombian teachers to know how to link the national standards to CLIL and how to develop unit materials that incorporate the 4Cs, basic competences, and CEFR, among other competences.

3.1. Educational context and target group

The following CLIL unit is intended for 42 eighth grade (secondary education) students of a public school, 22 girls and 20 boys, whose ages range between 13 and 17 years old

and whose English level, regarding the CEFR, corresponds to A1 or beginners in their majority (95%).

The students attend school in the afternoon shift and get their lessons under rather unfavorable conditions (numerous class, hot weather and classroom, small leisure spaces, lack of technological resources, no internet connection, among others). None of the students presents Special educational needs (SEN), according to the Colombian guidelines. Most of the students are noisy and concentrate on cell phones, taking pictures, talking about sports (soccer), social networks (Facebook), etc. Yet, through lots of dialog in form of assertive communication based on their own reality, and that of the school and the Colombian society, students are made aware of the importance of values such as mutual respect, self-esteem, decision-making, among many others, and they become really receptive.

The school is called Institución Educativa (IE) Corazón del Valle, and the particular school is Tomás Uribe Uribe, which is located in a middle socioeconomic stratum neighborhood in the city of Tuluá, Valle, Colombia, attended by students from 1, 2, and 3 strata. The school is supposed to implement a humanist-constructivist approach to education, which means students are encouraged to develop knowledge, skills, and values through group, team, and collaborative work in a way to guarantee an integral/holistic education of the students. This might be far from realization, though.

Regarding the location of the school, it is a community where robbery, presence of homeless people, micro-trafficking, drug consumption and abuse, and vandalism are commonplace, which sometimes restrain students from attending school. In fact, this is

the reflection of Tuluá’s reality, whose history has been full of violence, especially since

the 1940s when Tuluá became an “epicenter of political, and later on, criminal, and drug trafficking, violence” (HSB Noticias, 2013). That is why drug consumption, particularly marijuana, is a daily scene seen both inside and outside of the school, and this situation

has become a challenge to all the school stakeholders.

As far as the students’ families are concerned, 90% of the students come from families

residing in 1, 2 strata, and the remaining 10% from 3 stratum neighborhoods, which means that the economic means of the majority are not usually the best. Moreover, many of these families are one-parent led, especially mother-led, and others are large, dysfunctional ones, including extended family such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and so on.

It should be noted that the Colombian context is a monolingual one, with Spanish as the mother tongue. The school, in particular, has never made use of any bilingual program, let alone the CLIL approach, and its English curriculum has been based mainly on grammar, going from simple to complex aspects of language. Therefore, the intended CLIL unit, although corresponding to a soft CLIL implementation, represents a great effort from the teacher.

Last but not least, it has to be acknowledged that, although the school and its board demand for teachers to work cooperatively and collaboratively, there are no teacher learning communities well established. At least, there exist some cross-curricular connections visible in national and school projects, including environmental, sex and citizenship construction, and exercise of human rights education for the former, and spiritual, harmonious living, and school disaster management projects, among others, for the latter.

3.2. Objectives

The main objective of this proposal is to design a CLIL didactic unit focusing on content as a main motivational strategy, along with others that bear some relation with it. The

purpose is to influence eighth grade students’ motivation from the very beginning of the

CLIL unit and try to maintain it during the teaching-learning process. To do so, marijuana has come to be chosen as the guiding topic under the Health theme proposed by MEN (2016). Some reasons for this choosing include the fact that this topic is closely related to their reality, that of school and that of Colombia. Besides, this topic lends itself

to debate, which is also a feature of an interesting topic.

Before continuing, it has to be reminded that the four general themes proposed by MEN (2016) are suggested to be worked on transversally. Besides, these themes can be

“developed in all grades and each leads to a more specific topic that can be adapted or changed by the teacher according to the context’s needs” (ibid, p.16), that is, based on conditions or features relevant for the educational community. Other fundamental

documents to be considered include the “Estándares Básicos de Competencias en

Lenguas Extranjeras: Inglés” (2006) and the “Basic Learning Rights, 6th to 11th grades” (2016), all of which are aligned.

As mentioned above, Health appears to be the most appropriate framework in which to situate the marijuana topic. However, this does not mean that this topic cannot be worked transversally under the other themes and the different school subjects. Table 4 shows the possible contents to be taught and learned throughout all the school subjects, in relation to the marijuana topic. Moreover, this table offers progressive contents, going from the local, to the regional and/or national, to the international and/or global contexts (and in a similar way, personal, friends, family; neighborhood, community, city; and national, international levels):

Table 4 Possible cross-curricular contents related to the marijuana topic in different levels and contexts (Author’s creation).

Level Regional and/or Local (personal, School friends, family) subject national (neighborhood, community, city) International and/or global
Level
Regional
and/or
Local
(personal,
School
friends, family)
subject
national
(neighborhood,
community, city)
International
and/or
global
(broader scope)
Spanish
Definition,
History
Story
synonyms
Mathematics
Cost
Number
of
Finances
consumers
Social sciences
“Marihuanódromo”
Trafficking
proposal
“Cátedra de paz”
Suburbs
Legalization
Drug organizations,
mafia
Bob Marley
(personal
dose,
medicinal)
Natural sciences
Plant
Chemical
Medicinal
composition
Arts
Leaf
drawings
or
Joint art
paper leaf
Physical
education
Ethics and values
Religion
Effect on body and
mind
Life project
Body and mind
Recreational
vs
Stoner art, graffiti,
trippy/psychedelic
art
Doping
medical use
Tolerance
Ancestors
Entrepreneurship Small business,
micro-trafficking
Growing
Professional ethics
Rastafarians
Medicinal

Technology

Growing

Varieties

Agriculture

3.3. Methodology

The first step for the teacher is to know the kind of student population they have, including as many contextual clues as possible, that is, personal interests, family background, neighborhood/community reality, and national and international data if necessary. Then the collected information is contrasted with the national guidelines on the teaching and learning of an L2 or FL to find convergent points regarding standards, competences, and contents. After this the actual topic(s) is/are chosen, in this case marijuana.

Some teachers may think that teaching topics such as drugs, eating disorders, terrorism, bullying, and other rather problematic ones, is a way of apologia to these issues. However, the aim of this intervention proposal is to cover the marijuana topic from an academic standpoint, offer both positive and negative aspects of it, so as to motivate students to participate in the teaching-learning experience. This is likely to happen because students can activate their academic knowledge and previous knowledge of the world by making use of their personal experiences, by contextualizing it and approaching contents from different subject areas and different points of view.

Specifically speaking, the selected Health theme can be better approached through the Natural sciences and Physical education subjects, but this does not mean other subjects

can take part as well, for instance “Cátedra de paz”, Social sciences, Arts, etc. One way or the other, the contents seem to fit the students’ interests, so it is expected that students’

motivation is greatly influenced. The marijuana topic, then, is supposed to act as a hook so that students feel engaged to participate from the beginning of the unit and in every lesson.

As far as CLIL is concerned, the 4Cs template will be taken into account and, due to its flexibility, will be merged with the Colombian legislation on the teaching of English as a foreign language. Cognition can refer to the Colombian standards for the learning of English as a foreign language and related legal documents, but also to Bloom’s revised (Owen, 2016) and digital taxonomies (Educational Origami (Edorigami), n.d.). Culture will be reflected in the local level, for instance the “Marihuanódromo(weed-o-drome) news from Tuluá this current year (Equipo Rendición de Cuentas, 2017), and other relevant subtopics from a broader scope. Communication will be developed through the

CEFR level A1 of our students and the Colombian requirements for English as a foreign language. Content will deal with sub-topics derived from and related to different school subjects and projects (Figure 2).

In order to generate and maintain language learners’ motivation, some motivational strategies will be put into practice even since the very devising of the CLIL unit. For example, the topic itself will be unusual. Second, different sources of information will be used, such as videos, music (Bob Marley), graphics, drawings and paintings, etc. This multimodal approach means that an interdisciplinary perspective, and very probably multiple intelligences, must be implemented.

Other strategies involve having students create, for instance, a brief dictionary or glossary of vocabulary learned throughout the unit, including both formal and informal (slang) phrases and sentences, or joint art (pipes), and drawing and painting related to psychedelic states of mind (which can be enhanced by the use of internet), artwork which can be displayed any time in the unit. Some of these works can be done in couples or small groups so that student empathize and cooperate, especially when they have interests in common. As for some other didactic strategies, the teacher will have to translate information from Spanish to English, taking account of the students’ English level (A1). As for the students, translations and explanations in the L1 (Spanish) will be accepted only after other scaffolding resources have been used, such as gestures, images, true cognates, or simplified explanations in the FL.

Regarding assessment, summative, formative, and alternative assessment will be taken into account. For the first, a test resembling the Prueba Saber grado 11, including both language and content items, will be assigned at the end of the unit. For the second, self and peer assessment are going to be carried out. For the last, short compositions mediated by translations using Google Translator, the hands-on tasks and their display/presentation are examples of ongoing learning. Besides, some game-like, for-fun competitions can be performed so as to take participation as another evaluation criterion.

Figure 2. CLIL aspects of the intervention proposal on marijuana. 31

Figure 2. CLIL aspects of the intervention proposal on marijuana.

3.4.

Timing

This intervention proposal is intended for two months corresponding to one school module/period. The module lasts around 8 weeks, so there are going to be approximately 24 hours (hours of 55 minutes) of study and assessment, as each week covers 3 hours. The number of sessions is five, taking into account that some sessions will cover up to six hours. The rationale for this is that the students’ English level is beginner and they go forward very slowly, which means that quality matters more here than quantity. It is worth knowing that the assessment activities (Prueba Saber grado 11, self- and peer assessment, the collecting of a story on marijuana and a glossary/dictionary, the English Festival, and a marijuana awareness campaign) will be hold by the end of the didactic unit and are not included in the total number of hours above mentioned.

The sessions will present a structure suggested by the school, including four steps corresponding to Kolb's cycle of experiential learning (Science Education Research Center (SERC), 2016), namely experience, reflection, conceptualization, and application. These steps, which agree with some general teaching methodological components -some examples shown below-, are expected to take an average of minutes as shown in parenthesis:

-Experience: Activating previous knowledge, brainstorming, sharing anecdotes and life

experiences, making interviews and surveys, watching and reading news, and so on. (5’-

10’)

-Reflection: Bridging students’ knowledge with the new knowledge, completing mind maps, asking and answering questions, etc. (5-10’) -Conceptualization: Collecting the relevant data, improving concepts and definitions, reading different kinds of text, watching videos, listening to music, creating mind maps, etc. (20’-25’) -Application: Answering questions, solving problems, assessing and evaluating, drawing

conclusions, making an artifact, hands-on activities, writing an essay, etc. (10’-15’)

However, these timings can be longer depending on the length of the topic and activities.

  • 3.5. Sessions and activities

In this section the different sessions, with their corresponding activities, tasks, links, and so on, will be displayed. Each session will include, on the one hand, the 4Cs lesson framework and, on the other, the corresponding basic competences, the citizenship and

the general labor ones, the basic learning rights (BLR), and the standards for learning English as a foreign language, in a way to fulfill the current Colombian legislation. Besides, some explanations and details will be given as it is necessary to clarify the methodological and didactic processes during the lessons.

3.5.1. Session 1. Introduction: What is marijuana?

The first session, lasting around four hours, is devoted to activate students’ previous knowledge about marijuana. This means this session acts as a warm-up in order for students to feel motivated and engaged to participate since the very beginning of the didactic unit. This session is expected to be fun for several reasons. For instance, different slang and street names for marijuana are going to be prompted by students. Besides they will have the chance to draw and listen to music, which are activities they like doing.

The first hour of this session will start by showing students an images search on Google about medicinal plants. Students will be asked if they know the name (it could be in Spanish) of the plants they see, until we reach the image of marijuana. After this, students will work in groups of 4 (motivational strategy) and there will be a series of simple questions about marijuana, aimed at having students brainstorm. To do this, they have to write their responses in their notebooks and afterwards one member of the group will go to the board to share their answers. The questions are:

  • 1. What is marijuana?

  • 2. What other names exist for marihuana?

  • 3. What types of marijuana exist?

  • 4. What are the colors of the marijuana plant?

  • 5. What are the parts of the marijuana plant?

  • 6. What are the chemical components of marijuana?

  • 7. What are the effects of marijuana on a person?

  • 8. Is marijuana a drug or a medicine?

  • 9. Is marijuana addictive?

10. Is marijuana legal or illegal in Colombia? In other countries (U.S.A., Australia)?

So far the experience and reflection steps have been done. Before going on to the conceptualization step, students will be told the goal and the final tasks of the didactic unit, and the cognitive (learning) objectives of this particular lesson, action that fulfills

another motivational strategy. What is more, there is some personalization in the tasks, which is just another motivational strategy.

In the second hour, factual information will be passed on to students with the purpose of answering the first four questions posed before. Different formats will be used, such as text (synonyms, definitions, etc.), drawings, video, and maps, so as to fulfill another motivational strategy. The focus of this lesson is the types of marijuana and their features. Students will listen and follow two paragraphs about what marijuana is. The task will be to draw the three types of marijuana and to complete a simple format with the missing words (plant features). The students who finish quickly can have the opportunity to receive a marijuandala (marijuana mandala) or can draw on their own.

During the third and fourth hours of this session, application will take place. Students will have the opportunity to get in contact with the Jamaican culture, specifically by getting to know the Rastafarian culture (their flag, for instance), so text, pictures and a video will be shown. Students will be asked to draw or create a flag in pairs, to give a meaning to it and explain its features (colors, ornaments) to their classmates. Besides there will be time to read Bob Marley’s biography, complete a profile card, listen to one of his songs, called “Is this love?”, and complete the missing words in the lyrics. This multimodal input aids in influencing student motivation.

Lesson 1: What is marijuana?

Timing: 4 hours

Goal: Get acquainted with some basic information on marijuana.

 

Unit final tasks

  • 1. Individually, create a glossary or a dictionary with terms and phrases related to

marijuana, with their corresponding meanings and definitions. It can include slang.

You can use dictionaries or search on internet. You can also present it in technological and virtual ways as well. Don’t forget to add audio and visual support if possible. There is a rubric for this task.

  • 2. Individually, write a story in English based on a marijuana experience. It could be

personal, another person’s, or just invented. The teacher will provide you with five text

samples both in Spanish and English. You can use Google Translator. You will have

two dates to hand in your advances for corrections. The last date you have to hand in the final version, be it written, in a virtual way or both. There is a rubric for this task.

  • 3. In groups of four, you will take part in a marijuana awareness campaign in sixth and

seventh grades by the end of this module. You will be ready after having studied about

the effects of marijuana on people and created a Prezi presentation. There is a rubric for this task.

  • 4. You will participate in this year’s version of the school English Festival. There are

multiple options to do so. Make a stand with some classmates and present your glossaries/dictionaries in a variety of formats; present your marijuana story; make an exhibition of drawings, mandalas or other objects (crafts) related to marijuana; sing or mimic a reggae song; play a scientist role and explain simple facts about marijuana. Anyway, you can exploit your creativity and come up with other options! Self- and peer assessment will be taken into account. There are corresponding rubrics for these.

 

BLR

  • 1. Describes the basic characteristics of people, things, and places found in his/her

school, city or community using short phrases and sentences.

  • 2. Answers questions related to “what, who, and when” after reading or listening to a

short simple text whose topic is connected to familiar events.

 
  • 3. Understands the subject and general information of a short simple text using aids

such as images, titles, and key words.

 

Basic

Citizenship competences 1

General labor

competences

competences

Communicativ

-I understand that there are

Personal type:

e (language):

-I identify the main formal

different ways of expressing identities (for example, physical appearance, artistic and verbal

-I identify appropriate behaviors for each situation (family, school, with peers).

characteristics

expression, and many

and

of the text:

respect them. (Communication

Interpersonal type:

presentation

skills).

-I express my ideas clearly.

format, titles,

-I recognize that living beings and

-I understand the

graphics,

the environment are a unique and

instructions correctly.

chapters,

unrepeatable resource that

-I respect the ideas expressed

organization,

deserves my respect and

by others, even though they

etc.

consideration. (Integrative competences).

are different from mine.

 

Contents 2

Lexical: Definition of marijuana, types, nouns (names as synonyms, colors), personal information. Grammar: Simple present, simple past, simple Wh- questions (What).

1 Correspond to the Culture/Community/Citizenship suggested for CLIL as learned in this Master. 2 The sub-divisions correspond to the contents suggested by MEN (2016).

Sociolinguistic/Intercultural: Group and pair work, acceptance of and respect for differences, valuation of cultural diversity (Rastafarians, Bob Marley, reggae music), ability to listen and observe, skills to relate information, knowledge of the impact of culture and situational, social and historical contexts.

 

Communication objectives 3

Cognitive objectives 4

-Language of: Leaf/ves, flower, stem, seed, grow, colors, chemicals, THC, compound, drug, young, mind, body. -Language for: Simple questions and answers, repetition, definition. -Language through: Group work, peer interaction, audiovisual support, dictionary skills.

LOTS -Give a definition and different names of marijuana. -Recognize the types of marijuana (names and shapes). -Represent a marijuana plant with some basic features. HOTS -Create a personalized flag and present it to classmates.

 

Corresponding basic standards of competences in English as a FL (1- Linguistic, 2- Pragmatic, 3- Sociolinguistic) 5

-Listening:

 

1.

I understand basic information about topics related to my daily activities and my

environment. 2. 3

 

2.

I understand oral questions and expressions that relate to me, my family, my

friends and my environment. 1, 2, 3 -Reading:

 

1.

I identify related words about topics that are familiar to me. 1,2

2.

I enjoy reading as a leisure activity that helps me discover the world.

3.

I associate a drawing with its written description. 2

4.

I use the dictionary to support text comprehension and to identify the proper

meaning of words in the dictionary according to the context. 1, 2

5.

I understand literary, academic and general interest texts written in simple

language. 1, 2, 3

 

6.

I can extract general and specific information from short written texts. 1, 2

-Writing:

 

1.

I describe, in short sentences, people, places, objects or facts related to topics and

situations that are familiar to me. 1.2

 
  • 3 Correspond to the language functions/objectives suggested by MEN (ibid).

  • 4 Correspond to the learning objectives suggested by MEN (ibid).

  • 5 Correspond to assessable criteria as learned in this Master.

2.

I complete basic personal information in simple formats and documents. 1, 2

-Monolog:

 

1.

I look for opportunities to use what I know in English. 3

 

-Conversation:

 

1.

I answer with short sentences to simple questions about topics that are familiar to

me and about my likes and preferences. 1, 2, 3

 
 

Suggested performance indicators 6

 
 

Knowing

Doing

 

Being

1.

Identifies words and

  • 1. Answers with short

1.

Respects physical,

expressions related to marijuana (definition,

phrases some questions on marijuana.

cultural, ideological differences, among

synonyms, parts, colors).

  • 2. Takes notes about

others, of his/her

2.

Identifies essential

missing words in a picture

classmates.

information in a short

on marijuana.

2.

Participates in the

biography.

  • 3. Formulates simple

activities.

3.

Identifies the structure of

questions to obtain specific

3.

Values and

simple Yes/No questions and Wh- questions.

information about marijuana.

respects the contributions and

4.

Identifies basic structures of

  • 4. Completes a form with

opinions of

simple present and past tenses.

information related to

classmates.

5.

Understands the general

another person’s profile.

4.

Values the

idea of a short oral or written

  • 5. Exchanges information

importance of

text about an academic subject.

related to academic subjects.

interculturality.

 

Activities

 

Materials and resources

 

-Warm-up

-Medicinal plants Google search:

 

and

brainstorm.

-Watch,

 

listen to and follow information. -Paint and draw.

-Kidshealth “What Is Marijuana? (only two first paragraphs)on http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/marijuana.html# - Weed: 12 Interesting Facts You Should Know (only first 17’’ with less speed) on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrWVVCuMbdg -Heartofthevalley blog:

-Make a flag.

6 Correspond to assessable standards as learned in this Master.

-Read text, listen to a song and complete forms.

from internet, summarized, and levelled for students, including Bob Marley’s biography and song “Is this love?”). -Printed material (marijuandala). (See Annex I)

3.5.2. Session 2. What are the parts of the marijuana plant?

The second session will try to cover the fifth question on the anatomy of the marijuana plant, and is expected to last around two hours. To start with, in the first hour, a very quick hanged man game will be done per rows with the word “plant”. Then students will be asked to mention the parts of the plant they know. The dictionary must be used; even internet on their cell phones is allowed. As they answer they have to come to the board, draw that part and write its name. After this experience moment, reflection will draw on the presentation of an image showing different parts of a plant. Students will be asked to draw a plant in their notebook and complete it accordingly.

For conceptualizing, there will be a question about the parts of the marijuana plant. One or more students can draw the plant on the board if they ask for it, so this would be a great opportunity for them to take more responsibility, be autonomous learners, and teach their classmates (this fulfills another motivational strategy). After that, an image of a marijuana plant will be shown and explained by the teacher in simple English. Students will be asked to repeat the main words. In order to end this first hour, students will be asked to draw the marijuana plant and take notes on its parts and definitions. One strategy to understand the text is for students to highlight in green color or marker the words that are similar both in Spanish and English (cognates). For the second hour, students have to bring a plant or part of it, the flowering mango being the suggested one. The actual marijuana plant will be accepted.

In the second hour, a YouTube video (with subtitles in English and played at 0.75 speed) explaining the parts of the marijuana plant will be shown, so as to bridge and recall the information learned in the first hour. Next the plants brought will be observed and

compared with the marijuana one or images of it, so that students find any similarities or differences, which they will have to write in a T chart. As for application of knowledge, students, in groups of 4, will have to invent a new, hybrid plant and outline it on a cardboard. They will be encouraged to be as creative as possible and come up with diverse

plant combinations and features, for instance a “mariapple”, a “weedberry”, and so on

(this personalization is expected to increase motivation). Some groups will be allowed to present their creation to their classmates and they can even choose a winner. The rest of the works can be improved and have more details, can be done on an internet application, and eventually displayed during the oncoming English Festival.

Session 2: What is the anatomy of marijuana?

 

Timing: 2 hours

 

BLR

  • 1. Describes the basic characteristics of people, things, and places found in his/her

school, city or community using short phrases and sentences.

 
  • 2. Understands the subject and general information of a short simple text using aids

such as images, titles, and key words.

 
  • 3. Recognizes specific information in written and oral texts related to objects, people

and actions when they are familiar to the student and the related information is

presented slowly.

Basic competences

 

Citizenship

General labor

competences

competences

Communicative (language):

-I recognize that living

Interpersonal

beings and the

type:

-I identify the main formal characteristics of the text:

presentation format, titles, graphics, chapters, organization, etc. -I analyze the textual, conceptual and formal aspects of each of the texts I read.

environment are a unique and unrepeatable resource that deserves my respect and consideration. (Integrative

-I express my ideas clearly. -I understand the instructions correctly. -I respect the

Mathematics:

competences). -I critically analyze the

ideas expressed by others, even

-I compare and interpret data from various sources (press, magazines,

information of the media. (Cognitive

though they are different from

television,

experiments,

competences).

mine.

consultations, interviews).

 

Contents

 

Lexical: Parts of marijuana, definitions, adjectives, verbs in past participle. Grammar: Simple present, relative clauses, passive voice. Sociolinguistic/Intercultural: Group and pair work, acceptance of and respect for differences, ability to listen and observe, skills to relate information.

Communication objectives

 

Cognitive objectives

-Language of: Node, trichome, pistil, cola, calix, male, female, bud, stalk. -Language for: Simple questions and answers, This is a/an/the… -Language through: Peer interaction, pair and group work, audiovisual support, dictionary skills, teacher support.

LOTS -Identify the different parts of marijuana. -Contrast a marijuana plant with a flowering mango plant. HOTS -Invent a marijuana-mixed plant with male and female versions, corresponding parts, and explain it.

 

Corresponding basic standards of competences in English as a FL (1- Linguistic, 2- Pragmatic, 3- Sociolinguistic)

-Listening:

 

1.

I understand basic information about topics related to my daily activities and my

environment. 2, 3

 

2.

I understand an oral description of a situation, person, place or object. 1, 2

-Reading:

 

1.

I identify related words about topics that are familiar to me. 1, 2

 

2.

I enjoy reading as a leisure activity that helps me discover the world.

3.

I associate a drawing with its written description. 2

 

4.

I use the dictionary to support text comprehension and to identify the proper

meaning of words in the dictionary according to the context. 1, 2

 

5.

I understand literary, academic and general interest texts written in simple

language. 1, 2, 3 -Writing:

 

1.

I describe, in short sentences, people, places, objects or facts related to topics and

situations that are familiar to me. 1, 2 -Monolog:

 

1.

I look for opportunities to use what I know in English. 3

 

-Conversation:

 

1.

I answer with short sentences to simple questions about topics that are familiar to

me and about my likes and preferences. 1, 2, 3

 

2.

I formulate simple questions on topics that are familiar to me, based on gestures

and repetition. 1, 3

 
 

Suggested performance indicators

 
 

Knowing

 

Doing

Being

1.

Recognizes the vocabulary

1. Writes down in a pre-

1. Values his/her

related to the parts of the marijuana plant.

established form short expressions and words

personal

  • 2. Identifies essential

related to the marijuana

characteristics and

information related to

parts.

those of their peers.

marijuana parts in short

  • 2. Provides, orally and in

  • 2. Respects physical,

written texts.

writing, information about a

cultural, ideological

  • 3. Identifies basic structures of

new plant.

differences, among

simple present and passive

  • 3. Formulates questions to

others, of his/her

voice.

obtain specific information

classmates.

  • 4. Identifies the sections of a

about the new plant.

  • 3. Participates in the

descriptive text.

  • 4. Exchanges information

activities.

  • 5. Identifies relevant facts,

related to academic

  • 4. Values the

specific details and references.

subjects.

contributions of classmates in class.

Activities

 

Materials and resources

-Warm-up about plant parts. -Watch, listen to and

-Plant parts image from Google (Annex II). -Board, dictionary and cardboard. -Cannabis 101: Plant Anatomy on

 

follow information.

-Compare plants and

complete a T chart.

-Heartofthevalley blog:

 

-Invent a new plant.

-Actual flowering mango plant and possibly marijuana plant.

3.5.3. Session 3. What is the chemical composition of marijuana?

The third session will be about the sixth question, and will last approximately 2 hours. The subject to be studied is chemistry, which is part of the natural sciences. The first hour of this lesson will start by writing some abbreviations on the board, such as TNT, S.O.S., UNO, FAQ, R.I.P., PC, BFF, and so on. Students can write their meanings on the board, and corrections will be done if necessary. Then, a drawing of a water drop will be done on the board. The point is to have students recall the chemical composition of it (H 2 O, two particles or molecules of hydrogen and one of oxygen). After this, students will be asked about the chemical compounds found in marijuana. A clue will be that its chemicals can also be written with its initials or abbreviations. THC is the most expected answer from students, and it is possible that some students also know what it means. So far experience and reflection have been reached.

Concerning conceptualization, from news and medical internet pages, several pieces of information were taken and a new text emerged after being summarized and levelled to students, that is, scaffolded. The new text has words in bold and underlined synonyms or Spanish translations in parentheses, in a way to make it understandable for students (thus, another motivational strategy is carried out). Information will be presented in video beam and students have to take notes in their notebooks, including drawings.

During the second hour of this lesson students have to summarize the information about the marijuana chemicals and get ready to use a software application (bubbl.us is suggested) so that they can create a mind map about this topic, in pairs or groups of 3. This means we have to go to the computers room and it is likely that the teacher has to give a previous explanation about how to use bubbl.us. The rest of the time students must devote themselves to doing the mind map. In order to complete the lesson’s task,

students have to upload their mind map to the English area wikispace. In case there is no internet connection, as it is commonplace, the teacher has to have available material such as cardboard and extra markers so that students can do the mind map, which could be displayed by the end of the hour and then outside of the classroom, in a corridor for instance.

Session 3: What are the chemicals in marijuana?

 

Timing: 2 hours

 

BLR

  • 1. Understands the subject and general information of a short simple text using aids

such as images, titles, and key words.

  • 2. Understands the main idea and details related to activities, places, and people in a

short descriptive text through familiar words and phrases.

 
  • 3. Recognizes specific information in written and oral texts related to objects, people

and actions when they are familiar to the student and the related information is

presented slowly.

Basic competences

Citizenship

 

General labor

competences

competences

Communicative (language):

-I recognize that

Personal type:

-I identify the main formal characteristics of the text: presentation format, titles, graphics, chapters, organization, etc. -I analyze the textual, conceptual and formal aspects of each of the texts I read.

living beings and the environment are a unique and unrepeatable

-I use spaces and resources at my disposal appropriately.

resource that

Interpersonal type:

Mathematics:

deserves my

-I express my ideas

-I compare and interpret data from

respect and

clearly.

various sources (press, magazines,

consideration.

-I understand the

television, experiments, consultations,

(Integrative

instructions correctly.

interviews).

competences).

-I critically

Technological type:

Scientific (social and natural):

analyze the

-I identify the

-I make search plans that include possible

information of

available

primary and secondary sources (oral,

the media.

technological

written, iconographic, virtual ...

)

and

(Cognitive

resources for the

different terms to find information that

competences).

development of a task.

answers my questions.

 

Contents

 

Lexical: Chemical names, illnesses, verbs in present and past participle, adjectives. Grammar: Simple present, passive voice. Sociolinguistic/Intercultural: Peer interaction, ability to listen and observe, skills to relate information.

Communication objectives

 

Cognitive objectives

-Language of: Chemical, compound, ingredient, anandamide, THC, neurotransmitter, receptor, research, symptom, CBD, CBN, CBC, terpenoid,

 

LOTS -Name the main chemical components of marijuana and define them.

flavonoid. -Language for: Simple sentences in present,

 

-Summarize information on marijuana chemicals.

This is a/an/the…

HOTS

-Language through: Peer interaction, audiovisual support, dictionary skills, teacher support.

-Make a mind map on the chemical composition of marijuana and upload it to a wikispace.

Corresponding basic standards of competences in English as a FL (1- Linguistic, 2- Pragmatic, 3- Sociolinguistic)

-Listening:

  • 1. I understand basic information about topics related to my daily activities and my

environment. 2, 3

-Reading:

  • 1. I identify related words about topics that are familiar to me. 1,2

 
  • 2. I enjoy reading as a leisure activity that helps me discover the world.

  • 3. I associate a drawing with its written description. 2

 

4.

I use graphs to represent the most relevant information in a text. 2

 

5.

I use the dictionary to support text comprehension and to identify the proper

meaning of words in the dictionary according to the context. 1, 2

 

6.

I understand literary, academic and general interest texts written in simple

language. 1, 2, 3

 

7.

I can extract general and specific information from short written text in simple

language. 1, 2

 

-Writing:

1.

I describe, in short sentences, people, places, objects or facts related to topics and

situations that are familiar to me. 1, 2

 

-Monolog:

 

1.

I look for opportunities to use what I know in English. 3

 

-Conversation:

 

1.

I answer with short sentences to simple questions about topics that are familiar to

me and about my likes and preferences. 1, 2, 3

 
 

Suggested performance indicators

 
 

Knowing

Doing

 

Being

1.

Recognizes the vocabulary regarding

  • 1. Takes notes about words

1.

the chemicals in marijuana.

 

and expressions related to

Participates

2.

Identifies essential information

marijuana chemicals.

in the

related to marijuana in short written

 
  • 2. Provides, in oral and in

activities.

texts with simple language.

writing, information about

2.

Values

3.

Distinguishes sequences in an oral or

the chemical composition of

and

written text.

 

marijuana.

respects the

4.

Identifies basic structures of simple

  • 3. Exchanges information

opinions of

present and passive voice.

 

related to academic

classmates.

5.

Understands the general idea of a

subjects.

short oral or written text about an

 
  • 4. Makes use of appropriate

academic subject.

technological tools to

6.

Identifies relevant facts, specific

produce a mind map on the

details and references.

 

chemicals in marijuana.

 

Activities

 

Materials and resources

 

-Warm-up. -Read and summarize information.

-Board, markers. -Written text scaffolded for students’ level (See Annex III for a sample). -Computers with internet and mind map software application, e.g., bubbl.us.

-Make a mind map on bubbl.us or

-Heartofthevalley wikispace on

any other and upload it to wikispace.

3.5.4. Session 4. What are the effects of marijuana on a person?

The fourth session, lasting around six hours (two weeks), will deal with the seventh question on the effects of marijuana on body and mind, as well as other effects. The first hour of this session corresponds to the experience and reflection stages and is about

eliciting students’ knowledge on the human body, making some emphasis on the brain

and its parts. First, students will be asked to draw a body in their notebooks and label its parts, minimum 30 parts. They can use a dictionary or internet on their cell phones for finding the vocabulary. Students will be shown an image of both a male and a female body so that they can improve their body drawings. After that, the teacher will show the image of a brain and will ask students whether they know the parts of the brain. Then, visual support will be provided so that students get to know more about it and how its parts function. Students draw and take notes.

The second, third, fourth, and fifth hours will involve the conceptualization, in which students have to take a lot of notes. Lots of visual input (images and text) will be presented to students in the following order: second hour, how THC affects the brain (process) and effects on body; third hour, effects on brain and mind; fourth hour, other effects, a listening, fill-in-the-blanks activity; fifth hour, a bingo game and a categorizing task. Going on with the final, application stage, in the sixth hour students have to create a Prezi presentation in groups of 4 (motivational strategies in action), and decide which grade (6 th or 7 th ) they will visit for a marijuana awareness campaign. As it is usual the case, if there is no internet connection, PowerPoint is the most available option (the technology teacher could assist students in this task). The date for this campaign will be one of the last hours of the module. Teachers of other subjects will be asked to help in receiving and letting the campaign take place in different classrooms.

For

students

who

want

to

get

reliable

information, the page

http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana.htm will be recommended as it contains lots of information covering most if not all the points seen during this fourth session. Translating the page to Spanish will be suggested. Yet, students will be warned that there is too much data on internet and that they had better look for renowned medical associations pages, for instance, instead of blogs.

Session 4: What are the effects of marijuana on a person?

Timing: 6 hours

 

BLR

  • 1. Answers questions related to “what, who, and when” after reading or listening to a

short simple text whose topic is connected to familiar events.

 
  • 2. Understands the subject and general information of a short simple text using aids

such as images, titles, and key words.

 
  • 3. Recognizes specific information in written and oral texts related to objects, people

and actions when they are familiar to the student and the related information is

presented slowly.

  • 4. Briefly narrates current facts, daily situations or personal experiences orally and in

written form.

Basic competences

Citizenship

General labor

competences

competences

Communicative (language):

 

-I critically

Personal type:

-I identify and analyze the textual, conceptual

analyze the

-I use spaces and

and formal aspects of each of the texts I read.

information of

resources at my

-I make a textual plan, organizing the

the media.

disposal

information in logical sequences, so that it

(Cognitive

appropriately.

meets the structural, conceptual and linguistic

competences).

requirements.

Interpersonal type:

Mathematics:

-I express my ideas clearly.

-I compare and interpret data from various sources (press, magazines, television, experiments, consultations, interviews).

-I understand the instructions correctly.

Scientific (social and natural):

-I respect the ideas expressed by

-I make search plans that include possible primary and secondary sources (oral, written,

others, even though they are

iconographic, virtual

)

and different terms to

different from mine.

 

Contents

Lexical: Parts of the body, parts of the brain, modal verbs. Grammar: Simple present, modals. Discourse: Sequence connectors.

 

Sociolinguistic/Intercultural: Learning through interaction, ability to listen and observe, skills to relate information.

 

Communication

Cognitive objectives

objectives

-Language of: Brain, lung, heart, rate, crave/ing, short-term, long-term, withdrawal, relapse. -Language for: Simple present sentences. -Language through:

LOTS -Identify the effects marijuana has on their body, brain, and other effects. -Understand the risks associated with marijuana use. -Understand how marijuana works in the brain by means of the neurotransmitters and receivers. HOTS -Classify several effects in the corresponding category:

Peer interaction, games, audiovisual support, teacher support, dictionary skills, internet search.

body, mind, others. -Create a Prezi presentation on the different effects of marijuana on people. -Develop a campaign on marijuana’s effects awareness for sixth and seventh graders, using the Prezis created.

 

Corresponding basic standards of competences in English as a FL (1- Linguistic, 2- Pragmatic, 3- Sociolinguistic)

-Listening:

 

1.

I understand basic information about topics related to my daily activities and my

environment. 2. 3

 

2.

I understand an oral description of a situation, person, place or object. 1, 2

3.

I identify the general topic and relevant details in conversations, radio information

or oral presentations. 1, 2, 3 -Reading:

 

1.

I identify related words about topics that are familiar to me. 1,2

2.

I enjoy reading as a leisure activity that helps me discover the world.

3.

I associate a drawing with its written description. 2

4.

I use graphs to represent the most relevant information in a text. 2

5.

I use the dictionary to support text comprehension and to identify the proper

meaning of words in the dictionary according to the context. 1, 2

6.

I understand literary, academic and general interest texts written in simple

language. 1, 2, 3

 

7.

I can extract general and specific information from short written texts in simple

language. 1, 2 -Writing:

 

1.

I write about topics of my interest. 2

 

2.

I describe, in short sentences, people, places, objects or facts related to topics and

situations that are familiar to me. 1.2

 

3.

I use appropriate vocabulary to give consistency to my writing. 1, 2

 

-Monolog:

 

1.

I look for opportunities to use what I know in English. 3

 

-Conversation:

 

1.

I formulate simple questions on topics that are familiar to me, based on gestures

and repetition. 1, 3

 
 

Suggested performance indicators

 
 

Knowing

Doing

 

Being

1.

Recognizes the vocabulary related to

  • 1. Completes a pre-

1.

Values

the effects of marijuana in body, mind,

established form with

his/her

and other effects.

 

short expressions and

personal

2.

Identifies essential information related

words related to

characteristic

to marijuana effects in short written texts

marijuana effects.

s and those of

such as news and medical reports.

  • 2. Makes a list of the

their peers.

3.

Distinguishes sequences in an oral or

different effects of

2.

written text.

 

marijuana on people.

Participates

4.

Identifies basic structures of simple

  • 3. Provides information

in the

present and sentences with modals.

about marijuana effects

activities.

5.

Understands the general idea of a

in a Prezi.

3.

Values the

short oral or written text about an

  • 4. Makes good use of

contributions

academic subject.

internet and software

of classmates

6.

Identifies relevant facts, specific

applications.

in class.

details and references.

 

Activities

Materials and resources

 

-Warm-up

-Male and female human body images from

 

and

brainstorm about the human body and the brain.

-Brain images from https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-main- parts-of-the-human-brain-What-function-do-they-serve and https://askabiologist.asu.edu/brain-regions. -Information and images on marijuana effects on body, brain (Annex IV), mind, other effects, and bingo game, from:

-Watch,

-Short-, long-term, and other effects on

 

listen to and

 

3.5.5. Session 5. What is marijuana’s current state in Colombia and the world? Is it considered a drug? A medicine? Is it addictive?

The fifth session will be about the legal state of marijuana in Colombia and the world, if

it is considered a drug or a medicine, and if it could be addictive, so as to answer questions eighth, ninth and tenth. Also, this last session will include the sub-topic of the

“marihuanódromo” proposal in Tuluá by the current mayor, Gustavo Vélez. Besides, the

summative, formative and alternative assessments will take place, correspondingly in the form of a Prueba Saber grado 11, the self- and peer assessment, the student participation in the marijuana awareness campaign and in the English Festival, and the collecting of the unit glossary/dictionary and the story on marijuana.

This last session is supposed to last six hours (two weeks), not including the final tasks in the timing. The first hour there will be a warm-up and brainstorming about different legal and illegal drugs. Students will be shown images from Google and will be asked which ones are legal, illegal, medicinal, and so on. They will be also asked simple questions about their families, neighborhoods, and themselves about use and abuse of substances, alcohol, cigarettes, etc. When marijuana is touched upon, students, in groups of 4, will be asked to write in their notebooks both advantages and disadvantages of it regarding health, under a T chart. To do this, they have to use dictionaries or internet on

their phones. To wrap up this hour, students’ contributions will be shared (some Spanish is accepted after teacher’s help). Up to this point, experience and reflection have been fulfilled.

The second hour will be devoted to study the health benefits of marijuana. There will be lots of visual support, and also some listening. Students will take notes, paying close attention to the vocabulary related to diseases. The third hour will include some social sciences content, particularly information about countries where marijuana is accepted for medicinal use or penalized. A table and different maps from internet will be used. One activity will be to use a world map in order to locate some countries. This will be followed by some analysis about in what parts of the world (continents) marijuana is legal, and if this fact responds to any criterion such as weather, religion, etc. As a follow- up, in the fourth hour Colombia’s standpoint on marijuana will be discussed. National information (facts and opinions) from internet will be presented. The focus will be a local

news about the possible creation of a “marihuanódromo” in Tuluá. Students will be

shown several possible places and they will have to choose one and justify. Dictionaries can be used, even internet on their phones. The fifth hour will have a song. Students will be given some drawings and they have to find the words in the dictionaries or internet. With these words, they have to fill in the blanks. Then, they will be given the Spanish version of the song so that they can relate information and learn some expressions. In the sixth hour, students, in groups of four, will be given five sample texts of marijuana related stories, both in English and Spanish (translations by the teacher). By reading both versions, they have to select words and phrases useful for their writing task. Then, individually, students have to write a Spanish version at least, so the homework would be to translate it into English, and for this they can use Google Translator.

So far the fifth session is ended. The remaining four hours will be carried out like this:

One hour for the Prueba Saber grado 11; another for collecting the glossary and the story (they have this hour to make final improvements); another for self- and peer assessments; and the last, for implementing the campaign. The English Festival is linked to this module, but the performance date is on October 31 st .

Session 5: What is marijuana’s legal status?

Timing: 6 hours

BLR

1. Understands the subject and general information of a short simple text using aids such as images, titles, and key words.

  • 2. Understands the main idea and details related to activities, places, and people in a

short descriptive text through familiar words and phrases.

 
  • 3. Recognizes specific information in written and oral texts related to objects, people

and actions when they are familiar to the student and the related information is presented slowly.

  • 4. Makes brief presentations on academic topics related to his/her school

environment or community.

 
  • 5. Briefly narrates current facts, daily situations or personal experiences orally and in

written form.

Basic competences

Citizenship

General labor

competences

competences

Communicative (language)

-I critically

Personal type:

-I make a textual plan,

analyze the

-I identify appropriate

organizing the information in

information of

behaviors for each situation

logical sequences, so that it

the media.

(family, school, with peers).

meets the structural, conceptual

(Cognitive

-I use spaces and resources at

and linguistic requirements.

competences).

my disposal appropriately.

-I analyze the textual, conceptual

-I participate

and formal aspects of each of the

with my

Interpersonal type:

texts I read.

teachers and

-I express my ideas clearly.

Organizational type:

classmates in

-I understand the instructions

Mathematics:

collective

correctly.

-I compare and interpret data

projects

-I respect the ideas expressed

from various sources (press,

oriented to

by others, even though they

magazines,

television,

common well-

are different from mine.

experiments, consultations,

being and

-I identify the actors that have

interviews).

solidarity.

an impact on the important

(Integrative).

issues related to my close

Scientific (social and natural):

environment (my house,

-I support my friends in making responsible decisions about taking care of their body.

neighborhood, school).

-I make search plans that include possible primary and secondary sources (oral, written,

-I collect data of situations close to my environment (my house, neighborhood, school).

iconographic, virtual

)

and

 

Technological type:

information that answers my questions.

 

-I identify the available technological resources for the development of a task.

 

Contents

Lexical: Marijuana history, countries, places of the city, diseases, adverbs of contrast, cardinal and ordinal numbers, comparative and superlative adjectives.

Grammar: Simple present, passive voice, the first/biggest of…

Discourse: Compare and contrast, contrast connectors. Sociolinguistic/Intercultural: Group and pair work, acceptance of and respect for differences, valuation of cultural diversity, ability to listen and observe, skills to relate information, knowledge of the impact of culture and situational, social and historical contexts, self-awareness.

Communication

 

Cognitive objectives

objectives

 

-Language of: Health, treat, prevent, help, consumption, hallucinogens, percent/age, regulate/ion, approve/al. -Language for: Simple questions and answers, repetition, presentation skills. -Language through: Peer interaction, pair and group work, audiovisual support, dictionary skills, internet

LOTS -Find countries in a world map. -Understand the difference between recreational and medical marijuana use. HOTS -Classify reasons for and against medicinal marijuana. -Find out in what parts of the world marijuana is legal or restricted, and justify. -Propose a location for the “marihuanódromo” in Tuluá. -Create a personalized marijuana glossary/dictionary. -Write a story having to do with marijuana (personal,

search, use of apps.

a friend’s or invented) after reading some samples.

-Plan a marijuana awareness campaign for sixth and seventh graders.

Corresponding basic standards of competences in English as a FL (1- Linguistic, 2- Pragmatic, 3- Sociolinguistic)

-Listening:

  • 1. I understand an oral description of a situation, person, place or object. 1, 2

  • 2. I identify the general topic and relevant details in conversations, radio information

or oral presentations. 1, 2, 3 -Reading:

  • 1. I identify related words about topics that are familiar to me. 1,2

2.

I enjoy reading as a leisure activity that helps me discover the world.

 

3.

I associate a drawing with its written description. 2

 

4.

I use the dictionary to support text comprehension and to identify the proper

meaning of words in the dictionary according to the context. 1, 2

 

5.

I can extract general and specific information from short written text in simple

language. 1, 2 -Writing:

 

1.

I write about topics of my interest. 2

 

2.

I describe, in short sentences, people, places, objects or facts related to topics and

situations that are familiar to me. 1.2

 

3.

I use appropriate vocabulary to give consistency to my writing. 1, 2

 

-Monolog:

 

1.

I look for opportunities to use what I know in English. 3

 

2.

I make very brief presentations, of predictable and learned content. 2

 

-Conversation:

 

1.

I answer with short sentences to simple questions about topics that are familiar to

me and about my likes and preferences. 1, 2, 3

 
 

Suggested performance indicators

 
 

Knowing

 

Doing

 

Being

1.

Identifies essential

1.

Makes a list of the reasons and

1.

Values

information related to the legal status of marijuana

opinions for and against medicinal marijuana in a T chart.

his/her personal characteristics

in short written texts.

2.

Provides, orally and in writing,

and those of

2.

Distinguishes sequences

information about the legal and

their peers.

in an oral or written text.

medicinal status of marijuana.

2.

Participates

3.

Identifies basic

3.

Produces short descriptive texts

in the activities.

structures of simple

related to marijuana based on

3.

Values the

present and passive voice.

written samples and the use of

contributions of

4.

Identifies the sections of

Google Translator.

classmates in

a descriptive text.

 

4.

Exchanges information related to

class.

5.

Identifies relevant facts,

academic subjects, e.g., through a

4.

Respects

specific details and

campaign.

customs and

references.

5.

Identifies basic arguments in brief

traditions of

written texts.

others.

 

Activities

 

Materials and resources

-Warm-up

-Legal and illegal drugs Google images search, on

and

brainstorm.

-Watch,

listen to and follow information.

WM:. -Kidshealth “Medical use of marijuana? on http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/marijuana.html#

-Read texts and write a

-Heartofthevalley blog. All data is retrieved from internet, summarized, and levelled for students:

story.

- Top 10 Health Benefits of Marijuana on

-Listen to a

song and fill

in the blanks.

-Prueba

Saber grado

11.

-THE WORLD OF MEDICINAL CANNABIS on

-Self- and

peer

-UNODC, World Drug Report 2015 on

assessment.

-The countries that smoke the most cannabis on

-Light it up, song by Greta Gaines, on

3.6. Assessment

In order for this intervention proposal to be tested, both the students’ learning and the intervention itself must be evaluated. There will be different kinds of assessment, such as a mockup of the Colombian Prueba Saber grado 11, student self- and peer assessment,

a survey on motivation, and a teacher’s reflection on the didactic unit, among others. All of these follow Colombian guidelines and the school’s requirements on assessment and evaluation.

3.6.1. Learning assessment

Learning assessment is integrated in the teaching-learning process. This means students will receive both formative as summative assessment and their respective grades, following the school guidelines on this matter. As for formative assessment, the teacher will observe students based on school criteria, namely cognitive, personal and social performances, plus self-assessment. This reason makes it necessary for the teacher to make a developmental rubric (DePaul, n.d.), which is presented in Table 5. The self- assessment will be done apart, along with peer assessment. For these, two rubrics will be applied (Tables 6 and 7). In the peer assessment rubric, students write their classmates’ names in the corresponding cell.

Concerning summative assessment, it is worth remembering that C for content is a pillar of this didactic unit. Thus students will sit a mockup of Colombia’s Prueba Saber grado 11 7 , test expected to be highly valid, as it incorporates both language and content items, and also reliable, hoping that students get similar, high grades, above an average of 60%. Of the five parts of this test, only one part will be shown here as a sample (Annex VI).

Alternative assessments will also take place, correspondingly in the student participation in the marijuana awareness campaign and in the English Festival, and the collecting of the unit glossary/dictionary and the story on marijuana. Although there are rubrics for all of these tasks, only the one regarding the glossary/dictionary will be presented here (Annex VII).

Table 5

Rubric to assess the cognitive, personal and social aspects of students.

7 This test contains 35 items. A sample can be seen in and downloaded from

Aspect

Excellent

 

Outstanding

 

Good

Basic

 

Unacceptable

 

4.6-5.0

4.0-4.5

3.6-3.9

 

3.0-3.5

1.0-2.9

Cognitive

The student relates

The student relates

The

student

relates

The student learns

The

student

does

not

and compares the

and

compares the

and

compares the

some basic academic

understand

basic

academic knowledge

academic knowledge

academic

knowledge

concepts

and

academic

knowledge

about marijuana with

about

marijuana

about marijuana with

definitions about

about marijuana.

 

his/her

own

with his/her own

his/her

 

own

marijuana.

 

knowledge, widening,

knowledge,

 

knowledge,

learning

adjusting

and

adjusting

and

new concepts and

learning

new

learning

new

definitions

on

the

concepts

and

concepts

and

subject.

 

definitions on the

definitions

on

the

 

subject.

subject.

Personal

The student assumes

The student assumes

The student shows a

The

student’s

The student’s attitude

a pro-active attitude

an

active attitude

neutral

attitude

attitude towards

towards learning about

towards learning

towards learning

towards

learning

learning about

marijuana corresponds to

about marijuana and

about marijuana and

about marijuana and

marijuana is of little

extrinsic motivation and

is totally aware of its

is aware of its

is

aware

of

its

interest and is not

does not care about

influence on him/her.

influence

on

influence on him/her.

aware of its influence

marijuana’s influence on

him/her.

on him/her.

him/her.

Social

The

student

The

student

The

student

The

student

The

student

does

not

participates in all the

participates in all the

participates

in

most

participates in a few

participate in any activities

 

activities and tasks

activities and tasks

the activities and tasks

of the activities and

or

tasks

proposed,

does