Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Thermal Solar Collectors

Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air

High Pressure Hot Ammonia Vapor
Ammonia Vapor and Water are separated

Ammonia Condenser

High Pressure Hot Water

Ammonia condenses at high pressure/temperature and generates steam.

Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water

Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum

Water Output

Preheater High Pressure Cold Water

Anhydrous Ammonia Storage

Generator

As pi ra to r

Steam Turbine Condenser
Steam Turbine

Generator

Wind Turbine

Pump

Heat Storage
Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle)

The target location in this example is Western Canada. For the summer daytime cycle, assume that the ambient air temperature is 20°C and the shallow earth is 3°C. The solar collectors would be concentrated solar trough or similar system capable of temperatures >400°C.

Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) is stored as a liquid under pressure at ambient temperature. Anhydrous Ammonia Storage (400psi/2700kPa) Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007 .

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) The NH3 pressure is used to drive an expansion engine attached to a fan. Rohatensky April 2007 . Anhydrous Ammonia Storage (~150psi/1300kPa) Design by Robert J. There is a pressure drop in the engine as the NH3 expands.

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Anhydrous Ammonia Storage The fan forces air through the heat exchanger increasing it’s pressure and temperature. The air is compressed to (20psi/150kPa) and the temperature rises to 35°C. Rohatensky April 2007 . Design by Robert J.

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) The NH3 is then completely expanded to a low pressure in a heat exchanger (evaporator) and it boils at -33°C. Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007 .

Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J.Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) The heat from the air (at the increased temperature) is transferred into the evaporating ammonia. Rohatensky April 2007 .

Rohatensky April 2007 .Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) The water vapor in the air condenses as it is cooled and is captured. Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J.

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Anhydrous Ammonia Storage The NH3 vapor is at a low pressure and contains the heat from the ambient air. Rohatensky April 2007 . (<14psi/100kPa) 30°C Design by Robert J.

The absorption is exothermic and the resulting aqueous ammonia liquid contains the heat from the ambient air.Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum It is then absorbed into cool water. Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007 .

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air A pump pressurizes the aqueous ammonia liquid to Ammonia is 400psi(2700kPa) injected/ absorbed in water Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007 .

Rohatensky April 2007 .Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air This is a liquid and not compressible and the required power to increase the pressure is relatively low. Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J.

Rohatensky April 2007 .Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air This pump is very similar in action to the feed water pump in a Rankine cycle. Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J.

400psi(2700kPa) 400°C Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007 .Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Thermal Solar Collectors Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air A thermal oil and secondary heat exchanger would be used and is removed for simplification. The pressurized aqueous ammonia solution is then heated with concentrated solar heat.

400psi(2700kPa) 400°C Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J. Rohatensky April 2007 .Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Thermal Solar Collectors Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air High Pressure Hot Ammonia Vapor Ammonia Vapor and Water are separated The ammonia boils out of the aqueous ammonia solution well below the boiling point of water. This is fractional distillation.

Rohatensky April 2007 .Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Thermal Solar Collectors Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air High Pressure Hot Ammonia Vapor Ammonia Vapor and Water are separated Ammonia Condenser Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum The ammonia vapor is condensed in a heat exchanger and the heat is transfered. 400psi(2700kPa) 20°C Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J.

Rohatensky April 2007 .Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) High Pressure Hot Ammonia Vapor Ammonia Vapor and Water are separated Ammonia Condenser The condensed and cooled ammonia liquid is returned to pressurized storage. 400psi(2700kPa) 20°C Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Design by Robert J.

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Thermal Solar Collectors Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air Ammonia Vapor and Water are separated Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water High Pressure Cold Water As pi ra to r Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum High Pressure Hot Water Preheater Anhydrous Ammonia Storage The water is cooled in a heat exchanger and the pressurized cold water travels though an aspirator creating a vacuum which draws the ammonia vapor. this pressure drop is maintained by the aqueous ammonia pump intake. The pressure drops to 200psi through the aspirator. Rohatensky April 2007 . Design by Robert J.

Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) High Pressure Hot Ammonia Vapor Ammonia Vapor and Water are separated Ammonia Condenser High Pressure Hot Water Preheater The heat from the hot water and the ammonia condensation is used to drive a steam turbine which produces electricity. Rohatensky April 2007 . Generator Steam Turbine Condenser Steam Turbine Design by Robert J.

Rohatensky April 2007 . Generator Pump Heat Storage Design by Robert J.Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) High Pressure Hot Ammonia Vapor Ammonia Vapor and Water are separated Ammonia Condenser High Pressure Hot Water Preheater Steam Turbine Condenser Steam Turbine Cold water cools the steam turbine and the heat is transferred to underground thermal storage.

Generator Wind Turbine Design by Robert J. A wind turbine generates electricity. Rohatensky April 2007 .Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) The air pressure drops as it exits the heat exchanger and the much colder and dryer air is denser than ambient and negative buoyancy forces it down the convection tower.

Aqueous Ammonia pump increases pressure Ammonia is injected/ absorbed in water Ammonia vapor under partial vacuum Water Output Preheater High Pressure Cold Water Anhydrous Ammonia Storage Generator As pi ra to r Steam Turbine Condenser Steam Turbine Generator Wind Turbine Pump Heat Storage Design by Robert J.Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System Ammonia Absorption (Day Time Cycle) Thermal Solar Collectors Expansion Engine uses ammonia pressure to force and compress air High Pressure Hot Ammonia Vapor Ammonia Vapor and Water are separated Ammonia Condenser High Pressure Hot Water Ammonia condenses at high pressure/temperature and generates steam. Rohatensky April 2007 .

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