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- Chap03
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i

(a) z = ;

1+i

√

(b) z = 3 + i;

(c) z = 2 − i.

Answer. √

(a) Arg(z) = π/4 and z = ( 2/2) exp(πi/4)

(b) Arg(z) = π/6 and z = 2 exp(πi/6)

√

(c) Arg(z) = − tan−1 (1/2) and z = 5 exp(− tan−1 (1/2)i)

(a) z 6 = −9;

(b) z 2 + 2z + (1 − i) = 0.

Solution.

(a) The roots are

√ √6

√

z = 6 −9 = 9eπi = 3eπi/6 e2mπi/6 (m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

3

√ √ √ √

35/6 3

3 √3 35/6 3

3 35/6 3

3 √

3 35/6 3

3

= + i, 3i, − + i, − − i, − 3i, − i.

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

(b) The roots are

√

p

−2 + 4 − 4(1 − i)

z= = −1 + i

√ 2

= −1 + eπi/2 = −1 + eπi/4 e2mπi/2 (m = 0, 1)

√ ! √ √ ! √

2 2 2 2

= −1 + + i, −1 − − i.

2 2 2 2

(a) Im(z) = −1;

(b) |z − 1| = |z + i|;

(c) 2|z| = |z − 2|.

Solution. Let z = x + yi.

(a) {Im(z) = −1} = {y = −1} is the horizontal line passing

through the point −i.

1

2

(b) Since

⇔ |(x − 1) + yi|2 = |x + (y + 1)i|2

⇔ (x − 1)2 + y 2 = x2 + (y + 1)2 ⇔ x + y = 0,

(c) Since

⇔ 4|x + yi|2 = |(x − 2) + yi|2

⇔ 4(x2 + y 2 ) = (x − 2)2 + y 2 ⇔ 3x2 + 4x + 3y 2 = 4

2

2 2 16 2 4

⇔ x+ +y = ⇔ z + =

3 9 3 3

the curve is the circle with center at −2/3 and radius 4/3.

(a) Use exponential form to compute

√ 2011

(i) (1 + √3i) ;

(ii) (1 + 3i)−2011 .

(b) Prove that

1005

X 2011

(−3)m = 22010

m=0

2m

and

1005

X 2011

(−3)m = 22010 .

m=0

2m + 1

Solution. Since

√ !

√

1 3 πi

1+ 3i = 2 + i = 2 exp ,

2 2 3

3

we have

√ 2011

2011 2011πi 2011 2011πi

(1 + 3i) =2 exp =2 exp

3 3

πi

= 22011 exp 670πi +

3

√ !

πi 1 3

= 22011 exp = 22011 + i

3 2 2

√

= 22010 (1 + 3i).

Similarly,

√ −2011 √

(1 + 3i) = 2−2013 (1 − 3i).

By HW 1 #6,

√ √

22010 (1 + 3i) = (1 + 3i)2011

1005 1005

√

X 2011 m

X 2011

= (−3) + i (−3)m 3.

m=0

2m m=0

2m + 1

It follows that

1005 1005

X 2011 m

X 2011

(−3) = (−3)m = 22010 .

m=0

2m m=0

2m + 1

R4 − R

4 4

z + iz

≤ ≤ R +R

R2 + R + 1 z 2 + z + 1 (R − 1)2

for all z satisfying |z| = R > 1.

|z 4 + iz| ≥ |z 4 | − |iz| = |z|4 − |i||z| = R4 − R

and

|z 2 + z + 1| ≤ |z 2 | + |z| + |1| = |z|2 + |z| + 1 = R2 + R + 1

by triangle inequality. Hence

4 4

≥ R −R .

z + iz

z 2 + z + 1 R2 + R + 1

On the other hand,

|z 4 + iz| ≤ |z 4 | + |iz| = |z|4 + |i||z| = R4 + R

4

and

√ ! √ !

−1 + 3i −1 − 3i

|z 2 + z + 1| = z − z−

2 2

√ √

−1 + 3i −1 − 3i

= z − z −

2 2

−1 + √3i −1 − √3i

! !

≥ |z| − |z| −

2 2

= (R − 1)(R − 1) = (R − 1)2

Therefore, 4 4

z + iz

≤ R +R .

z 2 + z + 1 (R − 1)2

a triangle with |BC| = a, |CA| = b, |AB| = c and ∠BCA = θ.

Then

a2 + b2 − 2ab cos θ = c2 .

Hint: Place C at the origin, B at z1 and A at z2 . Prove that

z1 z 2 + z2 z 1 = 2|z1 z2 | cos θ.

Then a = |z1 |, b = |z2 | and c = |z2 − z1 |. So

a2 + b2 − c2 = |z1 |2 + |z2 |2 − |z2 − z1 |2

= (z1 z 1 + z2 z 2 ) − (z2 − z1 )(z2 − z1 )

= (z1 z 1 + z2 z 2 ) − (z2 − z1 )(z 2 − z 1 )

= (z1 z 1 + z2 z 2 ) − (z1 z 1 + z2 z 2 − z1 z 2 − z2 z 1 )

= z1 z 2 + z2 z 1 .

Let z1 = r1 eiθ1 and z2 = r2 eiθ2 . Then

z1 z 2 + z2 z 1 = r1 eiθ1 r2 eiθ2 + r2 eiθ2 r1 eiθ1

= (r1 eiθ1 )(r2 e−iθ2 ) + (r2 eiθ2 )(r1 e−iθ1 )

= r1 r2 ei(θ1 −θ2 ) + r1 r2 ei(θ2 −θ1 )

= 2r1 r2 cos(θ1 − θ2 ) = 2|z1 ||z2 | cos θ = 2ab cos θ.

5

Therefore, we have

a2 + b2 − c2 = z1 z 2 + z2 z 1 = 2ab cos θ

and hence

a2 + b2 − 2ab cos θ = c2 .

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