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By :
Name : Reza Aulia Tansri Pratama
Student ID : B1B016008
Group :V
Sub Group :4
Assitant : Klausa Media Rani





I.1 Background

The motion is very simple coordination pattern to explain the conduction of

impulses by nerf. Move generally occurs consciously, however, there is also a
movement that goes unnoticed is reflex. Impuls on voluntary movement through a
long path, that of the receptor, to the sensory nerves, was taken to the brain for
further processing by the brain, and then processed by the brain, in the form of
comments, carried by a motor nerve as a command to be executed by the effector
(Bevelander, 1988).
Reflex is a movement that is done subconsciously and is a response
immediately after the stimulation. Reflex will relate to the nerves in the body.
Normally a person would have had reflkes motion, if not, then the person is impaired
in his nervous system. So if people do not experience a reflex for their stimuli
suddenly, then the body occurs pathologic nervous system. Walk very fast reflexes
and responses to stimulation occurs automatically, without requiring the control of
the brain. So it can be said movements occur without the will or unconsciously
affected first. Examples of reflex movements are blinking, sneezing or coughing
(Villee et al., 1988).
The nervous system is made up of millions of nerve cells that have varied
shapes. The system includes the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous
system. In its activities, the nerves have a working relationship like chain
(sequential) between receptors and effectors. The receptor is one or a group of nerve
cells and other cells that identifies the specific stimulus that comes from outside or
from within the body. Effector is a cell or organ that produces a response to stimuli.
Examples of muscles and glands. The nervous system consists of millions of nerve
cells (neurons). Nerve cell function is to send messages (impulses) in the form of
stimuli or responses (Bevelander, 1988).
Nerves are important in the body as a central coordination body activities.
Nerve cells by type rangsangannya covering of nerve cells (the ganglion cells) and
nerve fibers (neurites) or axons. neuron is composed of jagged, called dendrites and
interfaces are called neurons. Neurit or axons are a key part of nerve fibers, called the
axis of the piston, and the middle part is called neural thread (Gordon, 1977).
Reflex is a small part of the behavior of higher animals, but it plays an
important role in the behavior of higher animals. Reflex is usually to generate a
response if the distal portion of the spinal cord has a complete section and isolate to
the higher centers. But the strength and nature of the circumstances indicate a period
of involuntari increased along with the time (Madhusoodanan, 2014).
I.2 Purpose
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the occurrence of spinal
reflexes in frog (Fejervarya cancrivora).


2.1 Material

The materials that used in this practice are paddy frog (Fejervarya
cancrivora), and H2SO4 1%.
The tools that used in this practice are tray, needle, tweezers, scissors and
hanging frog.
2.2 Methods

1. Frog placed in the tray preparations with the head facing forward the ventral
2. Frog brain damage using awl
3. Frog given a stimulus in the form of turned, with draw of needle of front legs,
hind legs, and dyeing withdrawn leg into H2SO4 solution, observed responses
4. Continued damage to 1/4, ½, ¾, and atotal of spinal cord
5. Step 3 is repeated


3.1 Result

Table 3.1.1 Observation spinal reflex motion on frog (Fejervarya cancrivora)

With drawal of With drawal of dyeing into

Stimulates Turned
front legs hind legs H2SO4 1%

Brain +++ +++ +++ +++

1/4 of spinal
+++ + ++ +++
1/2 of spinal
+ - + +
3/4 of spinal
+ - + -
Total of
- - - -
spinal cord

+++ : fastest
++ : fast
+ : slow

3.2 Discussion

Practical spinal reflexes in frogs result that they can provide a reflex response
to the treatment of the body Turned, With drawal of front legs, With drawal of hind
legs, and dyeing into H2SO4 1% after part of his brain damaged. Destruction of brain
and ¼ part of the spinal cord or the spinal cord, the results obtained are frogs give
response reflexes at treatment reversal of the body, but still give a response turned,
with front legs, with hind legs, and dyeing into H2SO4 1%, although given response .
A half and mostly destruction of part of the spinal cord result that the frog is response
when dipped in a solution of turned, with front legs, with hind legs, and dyeing into
H2SO4 1%. When ¾ treatments is given the response just when body turned and hind
legs and the total destruction of the spinal cord of frogs have been unable to provide
a response to any given treatment. The addition of H2SO4 in particular condition
cause reflex, H2SO4 is a chemical absisat acid. Factors that affect the spinal reflexes
among other chemicals, temperature and physical destruction. Acidic chemicals will
provide a stimulus to the nerve that would result in reflex, the higher the levels of
these chemicals the faster damage of the nervous system, as well as the temperature
the higher the temperature the faster it can damage nerves. Physical destruction will
cause the damaged nervous system, especially the brain and spinal cord (Rizzoli &
Richads, 2003). Amphibians provide excellent vertebrate systems to decipher
ontogenetic steps and requirements for circuit assembly and the onset and maturation
of gaze-stabilizing reflexes. Apart from few species specific particularities, most
results obtained so far in anurans and urodeles represent general characteristics of the
vertebrate vestibular circuitry and its ontogeny (Francisco et al., 2016).
The nervous system is an organ system that consists of nerve cells or neurons.
The nervous system consists of the central nervous system that includes the brain and
spinal rod and the peripheral nervous system includes the cranial nerves, spinal
nerves, and the sympathetic trunk. The central nervous system is useful as a
coordination center for the activities to be carried out. The peripheral nervous system
function is to provide information to the central nervous system of the stimulus that
causes the muscles and glands do response. Organizational areas of strength in the
spinal frog heart can be useful as a functional stimulation of neuron muscular
technique used for electrical stimulation of motor function in spinal interneurons.
Microstimulation on a gray area in the heart of the spinal frog produces motor
response that can be deployed in areas of strength (Michel et al, 1996). Based on the
structure and function, the neurons are divided into three basic groups: Sensory
neurons that respond to stimulants-stimulants from within or outside the organism
and transmit impulses to the central nervous system. Associated neurons that act as
links between sensory neurons and motor neurons. Motor neurons that carry
impulses to the muscles or glands and stimulate them to become active ( Hidayati et
al., 2015).
There are two kinds of motion in the nervous system, ie the movement of the
conscious and reflex. Reflex is an activity that is fast, automatic and unconscious.
The nervous system consists of nerve cells or neurons. At one neuron can be
differentiated into cells or perikariyon entity, nucleus, dendrites, axons Hillock,
axons or neurit, the myelin sheath or schwan cell and node renfier. Perikariyon is part
of the neuron that contains the nucleus containing the nucleus or kariyon. Dendrite or
neuron is a continuation of perikariyon. The axon has branching axons originating
from the main body. The branches and the end of the axon is divided into many
branches that make contact with the dendrites, nerve cell bodies other, muscles or
internal organs (Kay, 1998).
The proper execution of voluntary movement requires information about the
initial effector state. Although the final movement goal may be the same, different
motor programs need to be executed depending on the initial limb posture. For
example, a reaching movement toward a specific target will recruit different muscle
groups, depending on the arm position at movement onset. Mechanism underlying
the posture dependency of a stimulusevoked response cannot be ascribed completely
to these supraspinal systems rather, it could reside within the spinal cord, e.g., within
the segmental or propriospinal reflex pathways (Hieroaki et al., 2015).
The nervous system has two kinds of movement, the movement that is based
and reflexes. Reflex is a simple automatic response to a stimulus that involve only a
few neurons that are all linked to the same level in the central nervous system. Some
reflex involves the relationship between many interneurons in the spinal cord. The
spinal cord does not only serve in distributing the impulses from and to the brain, but
also plays an important role in integrating reflex (Villee et al., 1988). Reflex is a
response to the effector organs that are automatically and unconsciously to a certain
stimulus (Jungueira, 1982). Reflex action in reality it does not require controls, this
can be proved by using frog whose brain has been damaged. Reflex mechanism
according to Villee et al. (1988) are as follows: receptors in the skin is stimulated
and is part of the spinal nerve and protrude into the spinal cord and bring it back
through the nerve impulses to the spinal extensor group of brain. Escape reflex in
frogs when the frogs seen clamped by the tweezers, the front legs and hind legs will
be withdrawn. Thus, propioreseptor role not only for transmitting messages from the
muscle, but also serve to transmit impulses and reflexively organized setting
(Bevelander, 1988).
According to Gordon (1977) factors that affect the spinal reflexes are as
1. Whether or not the stimulus
a. External stimuli e.g temperature, humidity, sunlight, pressure, substances
contained and so forth.
b. Stimulation of the example of food, oxygen, water, and so forth.
2. The functioning of the spinal cord.
The spinal cord has two important functions is to regulate implus from and to the
brain and as a reflex center, with the spinal cord, the pair spinal and cranial connect
each of the receptors and effectors in the body until there is a response, if the spinal
cord has been damaged in total it is no longer effector reveals the response to the
stimulus or stimuli.
3. The occurrence of interconnect from one side to the other side of the spinal cord.
Frog spinal reflexes in the form of a response by pulling the hind legs when the
destruction of the spinal cord due to still occur inter- connection from one side of the
spinal cord to the other side.
Factors that affect the spinal reflexes one of which is the need for stimulus or
stimuli, in particular stimuli from the outside, such as derivate temperature, humidity,
light, pressure, materials or chemicals and so on. Some direct stimuli on cells or
tissues, but most animals have special receptors for organs that have the sensitivity.
In spinal reflexes, somafosensori included in the spinal nerves to the dorsal part.
Sensory coming from a different set of receptors that give effect to the spinal cord,
causing spinal reflexes (Gordon, 1977).
Another factor that affects the spinal reflexes are still functioning of the
spinal cord. The spinal cord has two important functions that regulate impulses to
and from the brain and as a center reflex. Spinal cord, pairs of spinal nerves, and
cranial will connect every receptors and effectors in the body until there is a
response. If the bone marrow was completely destroyed, the spinal cords as neural
pathways will be broken and no longer showed a response to the stimulus. Another
factor that affects the spinal reflexes that is the spinal reflexes of the frog in the form
of a response by pulling the front foot or back foot when the destruction of the spinal
cord due to still occur interconnections from one side of the spinal cord to the other
side ( Subowo, 1992).

Based on practical activity can concluded that :

The occurrence of spinal reflex in frog can see from the tabel. The destruction
of the brain and 1/4 of spinal cord still allow frogs react. Then in 1/2 of spinal cord
and 3/4 of spinal cord was damage but frog give response when it turne and in hind
legs. The total destruction caused frogs can not respond to a given stimulus.

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