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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1. Design
1.2. Mechanical Engineering Design
1.3. Phases and Interactions of the Design Process
1.4. Design Tools and Resources
1.5. The Design Engineer’s Professional Responsibilities
1.6. Standards and Codes
1.7. Economics
1.8. Safety and Product Liability
1.9. Stress and Strength
1.10. Uncertainty
1.11. Design Factor and Factor of Safety
1.12. Reliability and Probability of Failure
1.13. Relating the Design Factor to Reliability
1.14. Dimensions and Tolerances
1.15. Units
1.16. Calculations and Significant Figures
1.17. Design Topic Interdependencies
1.18. Power Transmission Case Study

1.1. Design

 Design is an innovative and highly iterative process with many


interactive phases and a decision-making process as well.
 To “design” is either to formulate a plan for the satisfaction of a
human need OR to solve a problem.
 If the plan results in the creation of a product, this product must
be:
i. Functional: product must perform to fill its intended need
and customer expectation.
ii. Safe: product is not hazardous to the user, or surrounding
property.
iii. Reliable: product will perform its intended function
satisfactorily or without failure at a given age.
iv. Competitive: product is a contender (‫ (منافس‬in its market.
v. Usable: Easy to use, suitable to human size, strength, reach,
force, power, and control.
vi. Manufacturability: product has been reduced to a minimum
number of parts, suited to mass production, with dimensions,
distortion, and strength under control.
vii. Marketable: product can be bought, and service.
 The designer begins by identifying exactly how he will recognize a
satisfactory alternative, and how to distinguish between two
satisfactory alternatives to identify the better.
 Based on this point, optimization strategies can be formed or
selected.
 Then the following tasks unfold (open out):
1. Invent alternative solutions.
2. Establish key performance metrics.
3. Through analysis and test, simulate and predict the
performance of each alternative, retain satisfactory
alternatives, and discard unsatisfactory ones.
4. Choose the best satisfactory alternative discovered as an
approximation to optimality.
5. Implement (put into operation) the design.

1.2. Mechanical Engineering Design

 Mechanical Design: Transformation of concepts and ideas into useful


machinery. Or the design of components and systems of a
mechanical-nature machines, structure, devices, and instruments.
Mechanical engineering design involves all the disciplines of
mechanical engineering, such as: fluid flow, heat transfer, friction,
energy transport, material selection, thermomechanical treatments,
statistical descriptions, and so on.
 It utilizes: mathematics, materials sciences, and engineering
mechanics sciences.
 It involves: all the disciplines (rules) of mechanical engineering.
 Its ultimate goal: is to size and shape the element and choose
appropriate materials and manufacturing processes so that the
resulting system can be expected to perform its intended function
without failure.
Example: design of journal bearing involves: fluid flow, heat
transfer, friction, energy transport, material selection, and
thermo-mechanical treatments.

1.3. Phases and Interactions of the Design Process

 The process of design is an exercise on creativity. Outlined by the


design flow diagrams as shown in Figure 1.
 The process is neither exhaustive nor rigid and will be modified to
suit individual problems.

Figure 1 The phases in design, showing the many feedbacks and iterations

1.3.1. Identification of Need:


 Design process begins with recognition of the need, and a decision
to do something about it. Recognition of the need and phrasing the
need often constitute a highly creative act, because the need may
be only a vague discontent ‫استياء غامض‬, a feeling of uneasiness ‫شعور‬
‫من عدم الارتياح‬, or a sensing that something is not right.
 The needs are often not evident at all.
 Example: The need for cleaner air or a present equipment
requires improving durability.

1.3.2. Definition of the Problem:


 There is a difference between the statement of the need and the
definition of the problem.
 Definition of the problem includes all the specifications of the
object that is to be design.
 The specifications are the input and output quantities, the
characteristics and dimensions of the space the object must
occupy, and all the limitations on these quantities.
 The specifications also define the cost, the number to be
manufactured, the expected life, the range, the operating
temperature, and the reliability.
 Specified characteristics can include the speeds, feeds,
temperature limitations, maximum range, expected variations in
the variables, dimensional and weight limitations,
 The manufacturing processes that are available, together with the
facilities of a certain plant, constitute restrictions on a designer’s
freedom, and hence are a part of the implied specifications.
 Once the specifications have been prepared, relevant design
information is collected to make a feasibility study.
 Because of this study, changes are made in the Specifications and
Requirements.
 When some idea as to the amount of space needed or available for
a project has been determined, layout drawings (to-scale) may be
started.

1.3.3. Synthesis
 Is the combination of ideas to form a theory or system, also called “invention of the
concept” or “concept design”.
 Putting together of the solution represents may be the most challenging and
interesting part of design.
 Ideation and invention phase (where the largest possible number of creative
solutions is originated).
 The designer combines separate parts to form a complex whole of various new and
old ideas and concepts to produce an overall new idea or concept.

1.3.4. Analysis and optimization:


 It has as its objective satisfactory performance, as well as durability with minimum
weight and competitive cost.
 Synthesis cannot take place without both analysis or resolution and optimization,
because the product under design must be analyzed to determine whether the
performance compiles with the specifications.
 If the design fails, the synthesis procedure must begin again.
 Designer must: specify the dimensions, select the components and materials, and
consider the manufacturing, cost, reliability, serviceability, and safety.

1.3.5. Testing (Evaluation):


 It is the final proof of a successful design and usually involves the testing of a
prototype in the laboratory.
 Is it really satisfying the need?
 Is it reliable?
 Will it compete successfully with similar product?
 Can a profit be made from this product?
 Is it easy to be maintained and adjusted?

1.3.6. Presentation:
 It is a selling job.
 The engineer, when presenting a new solution to administrative, management, or
supervisory persons, is attempting to sell or to prove to them that this solution is
better one. Unless this can be done successfully, the time and effort spent on
obtaining the solution have been largely wasted.
 When designers sell a new idea, they also sell themselves.

1.4. Design Tools and Resource

 It means the characteristic that influences the design of the element or the entire
system.
 Many of the important ones (not necessarily in order of importance) are as follows:
 Some of these characteristics must do directly with the dimensions, the material, the
processing, and the joining of the elements of the system. Several characteristics may
be interrelated, which affects the configuration of the total system.
Design Tools and Resources:
1.5.1. Computational Tools:
o Computer-aided design (CAD): software allows the development of 3-D design from
which conventional 2-D orthographic views with automatic dimensioning can be produced.
Manufacturing tool paths can be generated from the 3-D models from a 3D database. This
database can rapidly help in calculation of mass properties. Geometric properties are also easy
to find. Examples of such software are: AutoCAD,
I-Deas, ProEngineer……etc.
o Computer-aided engineering (CAE): It is applied to all engineering application. With
this definition, CAD can be considered as a subset of CAE. Some example of engineering
based software for mechanical engineering application ( software that

might be integrated within a CAD system) include:


1) Finite Element Analysis: Algor, Ansys, Abaqus.
2) Program for Simulation: Adams, Working Model. o Computer-aided applications:
word processing (e.g. Excel, Lotus) and mathematical solvers (e.g. Maple, MATLAB,
Mathcad).
Acquiring (obtaining) Technical Information:
 Libraries: such as Engineering dictionaries, handbooks, journals
 Government sources: such as ministries, Institutions
 Professional societies: such as American Society of Mechanical Engineering
 Commercial vendors: such as Catalogs, samples, cost information
 Internet: The computer network gateway to websites associated with most of the
categories listed above.
 Etc...
1.5. The Design Engineer’s Professional Responsibilities

 When you are working on a design problem, it is important to develop a systematic


approach.
The following steps will help you organize your solution processing technique:
 Understand the problem.
 Identify the known.
 Identify the unknown and formulate the solution strategy.
 State all assumptions and decisions.
 Analyze the problem.
 Evaluate your solution.
 Present your solution.

1.6. Standards and Codes

 A Standard: is a set of specifications for parts, materials, or processes intended to


achieve uniformity, efficiency, and specified quality.
 A code: is a set of specifications for the analysis, design, manufacture, and
construction of something.
 Purpose of Code: to achieve a specified degree of safety, efficiency, and
performance or quality.
 Some organization and societies that have established specifications for standards and
safety or design code. Such as:
1. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC).
2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
3. International Standards Organization (ISO).

1.7. Economics

The cost plays an important role in the design decision process that we could easily spend as
much as time in studying the cost factor as in the study of the entire subject of design.
Few general approaches and simple rules that will help reduce the cost in design:
• Standard Sizes: Using the standard stock and size is the first principle of cost
reduction. In design something; there are many purchased parts, such as motors, pumps,
bearings, and fasteners. In this case, it is important for designers to make a special effort to
specify parts that are readily available. Parts that are made and sold in large quantities usually
are least in cost.
• Large Tolerances: close tolerances need additional steps in manufacturing which
means additional cost. In this case, parts with large tolerances can often be reduced by
machines with higher production rates and at the same time low cost.
• Cost Estimates: there are many ways of obtaining relative cost figures; cost so that two
or more designs can be roughly compared. For example, to compare the cost of one design
with another is simply to count the number of parts or the steps to make the design.


• Breakeven Points: when two or more design approaches are compared for cost, the
choice between them depends upon a set of conditions such as the quantity of production, the
speed of the assembly lines, or some other condition.
• Example: Consider a situation in which a certain part can be manufactured at the rate
of 25 parts per hour on an automatic
screw machine or 10 parts per hour on a hand screw machine. Let us suppose, too, that the
setup time for the automatic is 3 h and that the labor cost for either machine is $20 per hour,
including overhead. Figure 1–3 is a graph of cost versus production by the two methods. The
breakeven point for this example corresponds to 50 parts. If the desired production is greater
than 50 parts, the automatic machine should be used.

1.8. Safety and Product Liability

 A concept states that the manufacturer of an article is liable for any damage or harms
that result because of a defect. And it does not matter whether the manufacturer knew
about the defect, or even could have known about it.
 Example: a product was manufactured say 10 years ago, the manufacturer is still
liable for any damage or harm even if the product could not have been considered
defective based on all technological knowledge that are available at that time.

1.9. Stress and Strength

 Strength: is a property of a material or of a mechanical element. The strength of an


element depends upon the choice, the treatment, and the processing of the material.
 One of the basic problems in dealing with stress and strength is how to relate the two
to develop a safe, economic, and efficient design.
 The AISC: is developing the permissible-stress method that defined the allowable
stress and possible loads.

1.10. Uncertainty

 Engineers employ a safety factor to ensure against foregoing unknown uncertainties


involving strength and loading.
 Uncertainty: Uncertainties in machinery design abound. Examples of uncertainties
concerning stress and strength include: o Composition of material and the effect of
variation on properties. o Variations in properties from place to place within a bar of
stock. o Effect of processing locally, or nearby, on properties.
o Effect of nearby assemblies such as weldments and shrink fits on stress
conditions.
o Effect of thermomechanical treatment on properties. o Intensity and
distribution of loading.
o Validity of mathematical models used to represent reality. o Intensity of stress
concentrations.
o Influence of time on strength and geometry. o Effect of corrosion. o Effect of
wear.
o Uncertainty as to the length of any list of uncertainties.
 This factor is used to provide assurance that the load applied to a member does not
exceed the largest load it can carry
 The factor of safety can be defined as:

 If it is defined in terms of strength design:
material strength is either the yield strength or the ultimate strength.
For fatigue loading, the material strength is based on the
Allowable stress is also called Design Stress
 as rounding up to a standard size higher ratings instead of employing what is calculated by
using the then referred to as the factor of safety design factor, but it generally differs
numerically.

ding is static, the


endurance limit (will take it later on).
-the-shelf components with design factor. The factor is
. The factor of safety has the same definition as the
In this case, the material strength represents either static or dynamic properties. If loa
.
After the design is completed, the actual design factor may change as a result of changes such
for a cross section or using off
, ns

1.11. Design Factor and Factor of Safety

1.12. Reliability and Probability of Failure

 The statistical measure of the probability that a mechanical element will not fail in
use.
 It is expressed by a number having the range:

 For example: means that there is a 90 percent chance that the part will
perform its proper function without failure.
 Suppose we have 6 parts fail out of 1000 parts manufactured, then
.
 In the reliability method of design, the designer’s task is to make a judicious selection
of materials, processes, and geometry so as to achieve a reliability goal.

1.13. Relating the Design Factor to Reliability

1.14. Dimensions and Tolerances:

 The following terms are used generally in dimensioning:


 Nominal size :
o The size we use in speaking of an element. For example, we may specify a 1.5
in pipe or a 0.5 in bolt.
o Either the theoretical size or the actual measured size may be quite different.
o The theoretical size of a 1.5 in is 1.490 in for the outside diameter. And the
diameter of the 1.5 in bolt, say, may actually measure 0.492 in.
 Limits:
 The stated maximum and minimum dimensions  Tolerance:
 The difference between the two limits.
 Bilateral tolerance:
 The variation in both directions from the basic dimension.
 That is, the basic size is between the two limits, for example, 1.005 ±
0.002 in.
 The two parts of the tolerance need not be equal.
 Unilateral tolerance:
 The basic dimension is taken as one of the limits, and variation is
permitted in only one
 direction, for example, 1.005 (+0.004/−0.000) in.
 Clearance:
 A general term that refers to the mating of cylindrical parts such as a
bolt and a hole.
 The word clearance is used only when the internal member is smaller
than the external member.
 The diametral clearance is the measured difference in the two
diameters. The radial clearance is the difference in the two radii.
 Interference:
 The opposite of clearance, for mating cylindrical parts in which the internal member is
larger than the external member.
 Allowance:
 The minimum stated clearance or the maximum stated interference for mating parts.
 When several parts are assembled, the gap (or interference) depends on the
dimensions and tolerances of the individual parts.

1.15. Units
1.16. Calculations and Significant Figures
1.17. Design Topic Interdependencies
1.18. Power Transmission Case Study