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SAP2000/Bridge

Bridge Superstructure Design


Concrete Box Girder Bridges and
Precast Concrete Composite Girder Bridges
AASHTO LRFD 2002 and 2007

ISO SAP041709M21 Rev. 0 Version 14


Berkeley, California, USA April 2009
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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE


DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER
ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY
OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL


DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY
A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST
INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.
Contents

Bridge Superstructure Design

1 Introduction 1-1
1.1 Organization 1-1
1.2 Recommended Reading 1-2

2 Design Prerequisites
2-1 Load Pattern Types 2-1
2.2 Design Load Combinations 2-3
2.3 Default Load Combinations 2-4

3 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors (LLDF)


3.1 Algorithm for Determining Live Load Distribution Factors
(LLDF) 3-1
3.2 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors 3-2
3.3 Apply LLD Factors 3-3
3.3.1 User Specified 3-4

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SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

3.3.2 Calculated by SAP2000/Bridge in Accordance with


Code 3-4
3.3.3 Read Directly from Girder 3-4
3.3.4 Uniformly Distribution to Girders 3-4
3.4 Generate Virtual Combinations 3-5
3.4.1 Stress Check 3-5
3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check 3-6
3.5 Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders 3-6
3.5.1 Stress Check 3-6
3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check 3-6
3.6 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3-7

4 Define a Bridge Design Request


4.1 Name and Bridge Object 4-3
4.2 Check Type 4-3

4.3 Station Range 4-4


4.4 Design Range 4-4
4.5 Demand Sets 4-7
4.6 Live Load Distribution Factors 4-7

5 Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges


5.1 Design Stress AASHTO-STD-2002 5-1
5.1.1 Capacity Parameters 5-1
5.1.2 Demand Parameters 5-2
5.1.3 Algorithm 5-2
5.2 Design Stress AASHTO-LFRD-2007 5-2
5.2.1 Capacity Parameters 5-2
5.2.2 Algorithm 5-3
5.2.3 Stress Design Example 5-3
5.3 Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-5
5.3.1 Capacity Parameters 5-5
5.3.2 Variables 5-5
5.3.3 Design Process 5-6

ii
Contents

5.3.4 Algorithm 5-7


5.3.5 Flexure Design Example 5-9
5.4 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-14
5.4.1 Capacity Parameters 5-14
5.4.2 Variables 5-15
5.4.3 Design Process 5-16
5.4.4 Algorithm 5-17
5.4.5 Shear Design Example 5-23
5.5 Design Principal Stress AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-30
5.5.1 Capacity Parameters 5-30
5.5.2 Demand Parameters 5-30
5.5.3 Algorithm 5-31

6 Design Algorithms for Precast I and U-Girder Bridges


6.1 Design Stress 6-1

6.2 Design Shear 6-2


6.2.1 Variables 6-3
6.2.2 Design Process 6-5
6.2.3 Algorithms 6-5
6.2.4 Shear Design Example 6-8
6.3 Design of Flexural 6-14
6.3.1 Variables 6-14
6.3.2 Design Process 6-15
6.3.3 Algorithms 6-16
6.3.4 Flexure Design Capacity Example 6-18

7 Run a Bridge Design Request


7.1 Description of Example Model 7-2
7.2 Design Preferences 7-3
7.3 Load Combinations 7-3
7.4 Bridge Design Request 7-5
7.5 Start Design/Check of Structure 7-6

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SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

8 Design Output
8.1 Display Results as a Plot 8-1
8.2 Display Data Tables 8-2
8.3 Advanced Report Writer 8-4
8.4 Verification 8-6

References

iv
Contents

List of Figures
Figure 2-1 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge
Design form 2-5
Figure 2-2 Define Load Combinations form 2-6
Figure 3-1 Lever Rule 3-11
Figure 3-2 General Dimensions 3-14
Figure 4-1 Bridge Design Request - Concrete Box Girder
Bridges 4-2
Figure 4-2 Bridge Design Request - Composite I or U Girder
Bridges 4-2
Figure 4-3 Bridge Design Request Form 4-4

Figure 5-1 LRFD 2007 Stress Design, AASHTO Box


Beam, Type BIII-48 5-4
Figure 5-2 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Stress Design
AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 5-4
Figure 5-3 LRFD 2007 Flexure Design Cross-Section,
AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 5-10

Figure 5-4 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Flexure Design


Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 5-10
Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam,
Type BIII-48 5-23
Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example Reinforcement AASHTO
Box Beam, Type BIII-48 5-24

Figure 6-1 Shear design example deck section 6-9


Figure 6-2 Shear design example beam section 6-9
Figure 6-3 Flexure capacity design example deck section 6-19

Figure 6-4 Flexure capacity design example beam section 6-19


Figure 7-1 3D view of example concrete box girder
bridge model 7-2

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SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 7-2 Elevation view of example bridge 7-2


Figure 7-3 Plan view of the example bridge 7-3
Figure 7-4 Bridge Design Preferences form 7-3
Figure7-5 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge
Design form 7-4

Figure 7-6 Define Load Combinations form 7-4


Figure 7- 7 Define Load Combinations form 7-5
Figure 7-8 Perform Bridge Design - Superstructure 7-6

Figure 7-9 Plot of flexure check results 7-6


Figure 8-1 Plot of flexure check results for the
example bridge design model 8-2

Figure 8-2 Choose Tables for Display form 8-3


Figure 8-3 Design database table for AASHTO
LRFD 2007 flexure check 8-3

Figure 8-4 Choose Tables for Export to Access form 8-4


Figure 8-5 Create Custom Report form 8-5
Figure 8-6 An example of the printed output 8-6

vi
Chapter 1
Introduction

This manual describes using SAP2000/Bridge to complete bridge design in ac-


cordance with the AASHTO STD 2002 or AASHTO LRFD 2007 code for con-
crete box girder bridges or the AASHTO 2007 LRFD code for bridges when
the superstructure includes Precast I or U Beam with a composite slab. Design
using SAP2000/Bridge is based on load patterns, load cases, load combinations
and design requests. The design output can then be displayed graphically and
printed using a customized reporting format.

It should be noted that the design of bridge superstructure is a complex subject


and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. SAP2000/Bridge is a
tool to help the user with that process. Only the aspects of design documented
in this manual are automated by the SAP2000/Bridge design capabilities. The
user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by
SAP2000/Bridge.

1.1 Organization
This manual is designed to help you become productive using SAP2000/Bridge
design in accordance with the available codes when modeling concrete box
girder bridges and precast concrete girder bridges. Chapter 2 describes loading
and load combinations. Chapter 3 describes Live Load Distribution Factors.

1-1
SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Chapter 4 describes defining the design request, which includes the design re-
quest name, a bridge object name (i.e., the bridge model), check type (i.e., the
type of design), station range (i.e., portion of the bridge to be designed), design
parameters (i.e., overwrites for default parameters) and demand sets (i.e., load-
ing combinations). Chapters 5 and 6 provide the algorithms used by
SAP2000/Bridge in completing concrete box girder and precast concrete bridge
design in accordance with the AASHTO code. Chapter 7 explains how to run a
Design Request. Chapter 8 describes design output, which can be presented
graphically as plots, in data tables, and in reports generated using the Advanced
Report Writer feature in SAP2000.

1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice


It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applica-
ble “Watch & Learn” Series™ tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.csiberkeley.com, before attempting to design a concrete box girder
or precast concrete bridge using SAP2000/Bridge. Additional information can
be found in the on-line Help facility available from within the software’s main
menu.

1-2 Recommended Reading/Practice


Chapter 2
Define Loads and Load Combinations

This chapter describes the steps that are necessary to define the loads and load
combinations that the user intends to use in the design of the bridge superstruc-
ture. The user may define the load combinations manually or have
SAP2000/Bridge automatically generate the code generated load combinations.
The appropriate design code may be selected using the Design menu > Bridge
Design > View/Revise Preference command. Currently, the AASHTO STD
2002 and AASHTO LRFD 2007 design codes are supported by SAP2000/
Bridge.

When the code generated load combinations are going to be used, it is impor-
tant for users to define the load pattern type in accordance with the applicable
code. The load pattern type can be defined using the Define menu > Load
Patterns command. The user options for defining the load pattern types are
summarized in the tables 2-1 and 2-2.

2.1 Load Pattern Types


Tables 2-1 and 2-2 show the permanent and transient load pattern types that
can be defined in SAP2000/Bridge. The tables also show the AASHTO abbre-
viation and the load pattern descriptions. Users may choose any name to iden-
tify a load pattern type.

Load Pattern Types 2-1


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Table 2-1 PERMANENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTOLRFD 2007 Code
SAP2000 AASHTO
Load Pattern Type Reference Description of Load Pattern
CREEP CR Force effects due to creep
DOWNDRAG DD Downdrag force
DEAD DC Dead load of structural components and non-
structural attachments
SUPERDEAD DW Superimposed dead load of wearing surfaces
and utilities
BRAKING BR Vehicle braking force
HORIZ. EARTH PR EH Horizontal earth pressures
LOCKED IN EL Misc. locked-in force effects resulting from the
construction process
EARTH SURCHARGE ES Earth surcharge loads
VERT. EARTH PR EV Vertical earth pressure
PRESTRESS PS Hyperstatic forces from post-tensioning

Table 2-2 TRANSIENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Design Code
SAP2000 AASHTO
Load Pattern Type Reference Description of Load Pattern
BRAKING BR Vehicle braking force
CENTRIFUGAL CE Vehicular centrifugal loads
VEHICLE COLLISION CT Vehicular collision force

VESSEL COLLISION CV Vessel collision force


QUAKE EQ Earthquake
FRICTION FR Friction affects
ICE IC Ice loads
- IM Vehicle Dynamic Load Allowance
BRIDGE LL LL Vehicular live load
LL SURCHARGE LS Live load surcharge
PEDESTRIAN LL PL Pedestrian live load
SETTLEMENT SE Force effects due settlement
TEMP GRADIENT TG Temperature gradient loads
TEMPERATURE TU Uniform temperature effects
STEAM FLOW WA Water load and steam pressure
WIND–LIVE LOAD WL Wind on live load
WIND WS Wind loads on structure

2-2 Load Pattern Types


Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

2.2 Design Load Combinations


The code generated design load combinations make use of the load pattern
types noted in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Table 2-3 shows the load factors and com-
binations that are required in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code.
Table 2-3 Load Combinations and Load Factors Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Code
DC
DD
DW
EH LL
EV IM
ES CE
Load EL BR
Combo PS PL
Limit CR LS WA WS WL FR TU TG SE EQ IC CT CV
State SH
Str I
P 1.75 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Str II
P 1.35 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Str III
P - 1.00 1.40 - 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Str IV
P - 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20 - - - - -

Str V
P 1.35 1.00 0.40 1.00 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Ext Ev I
P  EQ 1.00 - - 1.00 - - 1.00 - - -

Ext Ev II
P 0.5 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - 1.00 1.00 1.00

Serv I 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.30 1.00 1.00 0.5/1.20


 TG  SE - - - -

Serv II 1.00 1.00 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20 - - - - -


Serv III 1.00 1.00 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Serv IV 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.70 - 1.00 0.5/1.20 - 1.00 - - - -


Fatigue- - 0.75 - - - - - - - - - - -
LL, IM &
CE Only

Table 2-4 shows the maximum and minimum factors for the permanent loads
in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code.

Design Load Combinations 2-3


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Table 2-4 Load Factors for Permanent Loads,  P , Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Code
Load Factor
Type of Load Maximum Minimum
DC 1.25 0.90
DC: Strength IV only 1.50 0.90
DD: Downdrag 1.40 0.25
DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities 1.50 0.65
EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure 1.50 0.90
EL: Locked in Construction Stresses 1.00 1.00
EV: Vertical Earth Pressure 1.35 1.00
ES: Earth Surcharge 1.50 0.75

Two combinations for each permanent load pattern are required because of the
maximum and minimum factors. When the default load combinations are used,
SAP2000/Bridge automatically creates both load combinations (one for the
maximum and one for the minimum factor), and then automatically creates a
third combination that represents an enveloped combination of the max/min
combos.

2.3 Default Load Combinations


Default design load combinations can be activated using the Define menu >
Load Combination command. Users can set the load combination data after
the Add Default Design Combos button is selected and the “Bridge” option is
chosen. The users may select the desired limit states and load cases using the
Code Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form shown in Figure
2-1.

2-4 Default Load Combinations


Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

Figure 2-1 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form

After the desired limit states and load cases have been selected,
SAP2000/Bridge will generate all of the code-required load combinations.
These can be viewed using the Display menu > Show Tables command or by
using the Show/Modify button on the Define Combinations form, which is
shown in Figure 2-2.

Default Load Combinations 2-5


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 2-2 Define Load Combinations form

The load combinations denoted as Str-I1, Str-I2, and so forth refer to Strength I
load combinations. The load case StrIGroup1 is the name given to enveloped
load combination of all of the Strength I combinations. Enveloped load combi-
nations will allow for some efficiency later when the bridge design requests are
defined (see Chapter 4).

2-6 Default Load Combinations


Chapter 3
Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

This chapter describes the algorithms used by SAP2000/Bridge to determine


the live load distribution factors used to assign live load demands to individual
girders. An explanation is given with respect to how the distribution factors are
applied in a shear, stress, and moment check in accordance with the AASHTO
LRFD 2007 code. The live load distribution factors are applicable only to su-
perstructures that have a deck that includes precast I or U girders with compos-
ite slabs.

Legend:
Girder = beam + tributary area of composite slab
Section Cut = all girders present in the cross-section at the cut location

3.1 Algorithm for Determining Live Load Distribution


Factors (LLDF)
SAP2000 gives the user a choice of four methods to address distribution of live
load to individual girders.

Method 1 – The LLD factors are specified directly by the user.

Method 2 – SAP2000/Bridge calculates the LLD factors by following proce-


dures outlined in AASHTO LRFD Section 4.6.2.2.

Algorithm for Determining Live Load Distribution Factors (LLDF) 3-1


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Method 3 – SAP2000/Bridge reads the calculated live load demands directly


from individual girders (available only for Area or Solid models).

Method 4 – SAP2000/Bridge distributes the live load uniformly into all girders.

It is important to note that to obtain relevant results, the definition of a Moving


Load case must be adjusted depending on which method is selected.

 When the LLD factors are user specified or specified in accordance with the
code (Method 1 or 2), only one lane with a MultiLane Scale Factor = 1
should be loaded into a Moving Load cases included in the demand set com-
binations.

 When SAP2000/Bridge reads the LLD factors directly from individual gird-
ers (Method 3, applicable to area and solid models only) or when
SAP2000/Bridge applies the LLD factors uniformly (Method 4), multiple
traffic lanes with relevant Multilane Scale Factors should be loaded in accor-
dance with code requirements.

3.2 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors


At every section cut, the following geometric information is evaluated to de-
termine the LLD factors.

 span lengththe length of span for which moment or shear is being calcu-
lated

 the number of girders

 girder designationthe first and last girder are designated as exterior girders
and the other girders are classified as interior girders

 roadway widthmeasured as the distance between curbs/barriers; medians


are ignored

 overhangconsists of the horizontal distance from the centerline of the exte-


rior web of the left exterior beam at deck level to the interior edge of the curb
or traffic barrier

3-2 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

 the beamsincludes the area, moment of inertia, torsion constant, center of


gravity

 the thickness of the composite slab t1 and the thickness of concrete slab
haunch t2

 the tributary area of the composite slabwhich is bounded at the interior


girder by the midway distances to neighboring girders and at the exterior
girder; includes the entire overhang on one side, and is bounded by the mid-
way distances to neighboring girder on the other side

 Young’s modulus for both the slab and the beamsangle of skew support.

SAP2000/Bridge then evaluates the longitudinal stiffness parameter, Kg, in ac-


cordance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2 (eq. 4.6.2.2.1-1). The center of gravity
of the composite slab measured from the bottom of the beam is calculated as
the sum of the beam depth, thickness of the concrete slab haunch t2, and one-
half the thickness of the composite slab t1. Spacing of the girders is calculated
as the average distance between the centerlines of neighboring girders.

SAP2000/Bridge then verifies that the selected LLD factors are compatible
with the type of model: spine, area, or solid. If the LLD factors are read by
SAP2000/Bridge directly from the individual girders, the model type must be
area or solid. This is the case because with the spine model option,
SAP2000/Bridge models the entire cross section as one frame element and
there is no way to extract forces on individual girders. All other model types
and LLDF method permutations are allowed.

3.3 Apply LLD Factors


The application of live load distribution factors varies, depending on which
method has been selected: user specified; in accordance with code; directly
from individual girders; or uniformly distributed onto all girders.

Apply LLD Factors 3-3


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

3.3.1 User Specified


When this method is selected, SAP2000/Bridge reads the girder designations
(i.e., exterior and interior) and assigns live load distribution factors to the indi-
vidual girders accordingly.

3.3.2 Calculated by SAP2000/Bridge in Accordance with Code


When this method is selected, SAP2000/Bridge considers the data input by the
user for truck wheel spacing, minimum distance from wheel to curb/barrier and
multiple presence factor for one loaded lane.

Depending on the section type, SAP2000/Bridge validates several section pa-


rameters against requirements specified in the code (Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1,
4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1 and 4.6.2.2.3b-1). When any of the parameters values
are outside the range required by the code, the section cut is excluded from the
Design Request.

At every section cut, SAP2000/Bridge then evaluates the live load distribution
factors for moment and shear for exterior and interior girders using formulas
specified in the code (Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1 and
4.6.2.2.3b-1). After evaluation, the LLDF values are assigned to individual
girders based on their designation (exterior, interior). The same value equal to
the average of the LLDF calculated for the left and right girders is assigned to
both exterior girders. Similarly, all interior girders use the same LLDF equal to
the average of the LLDF of all of the individual interior girders.

3.3.3 Forces Read Directly from Girders


When this method is selected, SAP2000/Bridge sets the live load distribution
factor for all girders to 1.

3.3.4 Uniformly Distributed to Girders


When this method is selected, the live load distribution factor is equal to 1/n
where n is the number of girders in the section. All girders have identical LLD
factors disregarding their designation (exterior, interior) and demand type
(shear, moment).

3-4 Apply LLD Factors


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

3.4 Generate Virtual Combinations


When the method for determining the live load distribution factors is user-
specified, code-specified, or uniformly distributed (Methods 1, 2 or 4),
SAP2000/Bridge generates virtual load combination for every valid section cut
selected for design. The virtual combinations are used during a stress check
and check of the shear and moment to calculate the forces on the girders. After
those forces have been calculated, the virtual combination are deleted. The
process is repeated for all section cuts selected for design.

Four virtual COMBO cases are generated for each COMBO that the user has
specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4). The program analyzes the de-
sign type of each load case present in the user specified COMBO and multi-
plies all non-moving load case types by 1/n (where n is the number of girders)
and the moving load case type by the section cut values of the LLD factors (ex-
terior moment, exterior shear, interior moment and interior shear LLD factors).
This ensures that dead load is shared evenly by all girders, while live load is
distributed based on the LLD factors.

The program then completes a stress check and a check of the shear and the
moment for each section cut selected for design.

3.4.1 Stress Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points
are read from SAP2000/Bridge for every virtual COMBO generated. To ensure
that live load demands are shared equally irrespective of lane eccentricity by all
girders, SAP2000/Bridge uses averaging when calculating the girder stresses. It
calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial and M3 moment demands
on all the beams in the entire section cut and dividing the demands by the
number of girders. Similarly, P and M3 forces in the composite slab are inte-
grated and stresses are calculated in the individual tributary areas of the slab by
dividing the total slab demand by the number of girders.

When stresses are read from SAP2000/Bridge into the SAPBridgeDesign mod-
ule, the stresses are multiplied by n (where n is number of girders) to make up
for the reduction applied in the Virtual Combinations.

Generate Virtual Combinations 3-5


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the entire section cut forces are read from
SAP2000/Bridge for every Virtual COMBO generated. The forces are assigned
to individual girders based on their designation. (Forces from two virtual Com-
binationsone for shear and one for momentgenerated for exterior beam are
assigned to both exterior beams, and similarly, Virtual Combinations for inte-
rior beams are assigned to interior beams.)

3.5 Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders


When the method for determining the live load distribution is based on forces
read directly from the girders, the method varies based on which Design Check
has been specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

3.5.1 Stress Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points
are read from SAP2000/Bridge for every COMBO specified in the Design Re-
quest. SAP2000/Bridge calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial,
M3 and M2 moment demands on the beam at the center of gravity of the beam.
Similarly P, M3 and M2 demands in the composite slab are integrated at the
center of gravity of the slab tributary area.

3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder forces are read from SAP2000/
Bridge for every COMBO specified in the Design Request. SAP2000/Bridge
calculates the demands on a girder by integrating axial, M3 and M2 moment
demands on the girder at the center of gravity of the girder.

3-6 Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

3.6 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


The AASHTO-LRFD Specifications allow the use of advanced methods of
analysis to determine the live load distribution factors. However, for typical
bridges, the specifications list equations to calculate the distribution factors for
different types of bridge superstructures. The types of superstructures covered
by these equations are described in Table 4.6.2.2.1-1. From this table, bridges
with concrete decks supported on precast concrete I or bulb-tee girders are des-
ignated as cross-section “K.” Other tables in 4.6.2.2.2 list the distribution fac-
tors for interior and exterior girders including cross-section “K.”

The distribution factor equations are largely based on work conducted in the
NCHRP Project 12-26 and have been verified to give accurate results com-
pared to 3-dimensional bridge analysis and field measurements. The multiple
presence factors are already included in the distribution factor equations except
when the tables call for the use of the lever rule. In these cases, the computa-
tions need to account for the multiple presence factors. The user is providing
those as part of the Design Request definition together with wheel spacing,
curb to wheel distance and lane width.

Notice that the distribution factor tables include a column with the heading
“range of applicability”. The ranges of applicability listed for each equation are
based on the range for each parameter used in the study leading to the devel-
opment of the equation. When any of the parameters exceeds the listed value in
the “range of applicability” column, SAP2000 reports the incompliance and
excludes the section from design.

Article 4.6.2.2.2d of the specifications states: “In beam-slab bridge cross-


sections with diaphragms or cross-frames, the distribution factor for the exte-
rior beam shall not be taken less than that which would be obtained by assum-
ing that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.” This
provision was added to the specifications because the original study that devel-
oped the distribution factor equations did not consider intermediate dia-
phragms. Application of this provision requires the presence of a sufficient
number of intermediate diaphragms whose stiffness is adequate to force the
cross section to act as a rigid section. For prestressed girders, different jurisdic-
tions use different types and numbers of intermediate diaphragms. Depending
on the number and stiffness of the intermediate diaphragms, the provisions of
4.6.2.2.2d may not be applicable. If the user specifies option “Yes” in the

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3-7


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

“Diaphragms Present” option the program follows the procedure outlined in the
provision 4.6.2.2.2d.

For this example, one deep reinforced concrete diaphragm is located at the
midspan of each span. The stiffness of the diaphragm was deemed sufficient to
force the cross-section to act as a rigid section; therefore, the provisions of
S4.6.2.2.2d apply.

Required information:

AASHTO Type I-Beam (28/72)


2
Noncomposite beam area, Ag = 1,085 in
4
Noncomposite beam moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in
Deck slab thickness, ts = 8 in.
Span length, L = 110 ft.
Girder spacing, S = 9 ft.-8 in.
Modulus of elasticity of the beam, EB = 4,696 ksi
Modulus of elasticity of the deck, ED = 3,834 ksi
C.G. to top of the basic beam = 35.62 in.
C.G. to bottom of the basic beam = 36.38 in.

1. Calculate n, the modular ratio between the beam and the deck.

n = E B ED (4.6.2.2.1-2)

= 4696 3834 = 1.225

2. Calculate eg, the distance between the center of gravity of the noncompo-
site beam and the deck. Ignore the thickness of the haunch in determin-
ing eg

eg = NAYT + t s 2 = 35.62 + 8 2 = 39.62 in.

3. Calculate Kg, the longitudinal stiffness parameter.

 
Kg = n I  Aeg2 (4.6.2.2.1-1)

= 1.225 733 320  1 085  39.62    2 984 704 in 4


2

3-8 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

4. Interior girder. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior


beam with two or more design lanes loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.2b-1.

DM = 0.075   S 9.5   S L 0.2  K g 


0.6 0.1
12.0 Lt s 3

 
0.1
 0.075   9.667 9.5 
0.6
 9.667 110 0.2 2 984 704 12 110  8  
3


= 0.796 lane (eq. 1)

5. In accordance with 4.6.2.2.2e, a skew correction factor for moment may


be applied for bridge skews greater than 30 degrees. The bridge in this
example is skewed 20 degrees, and therefore, no skew correction factor
for moment is allowed.

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior beam with one
design lane loaded using Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1.

DM = 0.06   S 14   S L 0.3  K g 
0.4 0.1
12.0 Lt s 3

12 100 8 


0.1
= 0.06   9.667 14 
0.4
 9.667 110 0.3 2984704 3


= 0.542 lane (eq. 2)

Notice that the distribution factor calculated above for a single lane
loaded already includes the 1.2 multiple presence factor for a single lane,
therefore, this value may be used for the service and strength limit states.
However, multiple presence factors should not be used for the fatigue
limit state. Therefore, the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for the single
lane is required to be removed from the value calculated above to deter-
mine the factor used for the fatigue limit state.

6. Skew correction factor for shear.

In accordance with 4.6.2.2.3c, a skew correction factor for support shear


at the obtuse corner must be applied to the distribution factor of all
skewed bridges. The value of the correction factor is calculated using
Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1.

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3-9


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

 
0.3
SC = 1.0  0.20 12.0 Lt s3 K g tan 

 
0.3
= 1.0  0.20 12.0 110  8  2 984 704
3
tan 20

= 1.047

7. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with two or
more design lanes loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.2   S 12    S 35 
2

= 0.2   9.667 12    9.667 35 


2

= 0.929 lane

Apply the skew correction factor:

DV = 1.047  0.929   0.973 lane (eq. 4)

8. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with one de-
sign lane loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.36   S 25.0 

= 0.36   9.667 25.0 

= 0.747 lane

Apply the skew correction factor:

DV = 1.047  0.747 
= 0.782 lane (eq. 5)

9. From (1) and (2), the service and strength limit state moment distribution
factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.796 and 0.542 lane.
Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.796 lane.

From (4) and (5), the service and strength limit state shear distribution
factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.973 and 0.782 lane.
Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.973 lane.

3 - 10 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

10. Exterior girder

Figure 3-1 Lever Rule

11. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with two
or more design lanes using Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

DM = eDVinterior
e = 0.77  de 9.1

where de is the distance from the centerline of the exterior girder to the
inside face of the curb or barrier.

e = 0.77 + 1.83/9.1 = 0.97


DM = 0.97(0.796) = 0.772 lane (eq. (7)

12. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with one
design lane using the lever rule as per Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

DM =  3.5  6   3.5 9.667  1.344 wheels 2

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3 - 11


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

= 0.672 lane (eq. 8)

Notice that this value does not include the multiple presence factor,
therefore, it is adequate for use with the fatigue limit state. For service
and strength limit states, the multiple presence factor for a single lane
loaded needs to be included.

DM = 0.672 1.2 
= 0.806 lane (eq. 9) (Strength and Service)

13. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with two or
more design lanes loaded using Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1.

DV = eDVinterior

where:

e = 0.6  de 10

= 0.6  1.83 10

= 0.783
DV = 0.783  0.973 
= 0.762 lane (eq. 10)

14. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with one de-
sign lane loaded using the lever rule as per Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1. This value
will be the same as the moment distribution factor with the skew correc-
tion factor applied.

DV = 1.047  0.806 
= 0.845 lane (eq. 12) (Strength and Service)

Notice that 4.6.2.2.2d includes additional requirements for the calcula-


tion of the distribution factors for exterior girders when the girders are
connected with relatively stiff cross-frames that force the cross-section to
act as a rigid section. As indicated in the introduction, these provisions
are applied to this example; the calculations are shown below.

15. Additional check for rigidly connected girders (4.6.2.2.2d)

3 - 12 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

The multiple presence factor, m, is applied to the reaction of the exterior


beam (Table 3.6.1.1.2-1)

m1 = 1.20
m2 = 1.00
m3 = 0.85

R = N L N b  X ext  e  x 2
(4.6.2.2.2d-1)

where:

R = reaction on exterior beam in terms of lanes

NL = number of loaded lanes under consideration

e = eccentricity of a design truck or a design land load from


the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (ft.)

x = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pat-


tern of girders to each girder (ft.)

Xext = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pat-


tern to the exterior girder (ft.) See Figure 1 for dimen-
sions.

One lane loaded (only the leftmost lane applied):

R = 1 6  24.167  21  2  24.1672  14.52  4.8332 

= 0.1667 + 0.310
= 0.477 (Fatigue)

Add the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for a single lane:

R = 1.2  0.477 
= 0.572 (Strength)

Two lanes loaded:

R = 2 6  24.167  21  9   2  24.1672  14.52  4.8332 

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3 - 13


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

= 0.333 + 0.443
= 0.776

Add the multiple presence factor of 1.0 for two lanes loaded:

R = 1.0  0.776 
= 0.776 (Strength)

Three lanes loaded:

R = 3 6  24.167  21  9  3   2  24.1672  14.52  4.8332 

= 0.5 + 0.399
= 0.899

Add the multiple presence factor of 0.85 for three or more lanes loaded:

R = 0.85  0.899 
= 0.764 (Strength)

These values do not control over the distribution factors summarized in


Design Step 16.

Figure 3-2 General Dimensions

3 - 14 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

16. From (7) and (9), the service and strength limit state moment distribution
factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.772 and 0.806
lane. Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.806 lane.

From (10) and (12), the service and strength limit state shear distribution
factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.762 and 0.845
lane. Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.845 lane.

Table 3.1 Summary of Service and Strength Limit State Distribution Factors
Moment Moment Shear Shear
interior exterior interior exterior
Load Case beams beams beams beams

Distribution factors from Multiple lanes loaded 0.796 0.772 0.973 0.762
Tables in 4.6.2.2.2
Single lane loaded 0.542 0.806 0.782 0.845

Additional check for rigidly Multiple lanes loaded NA 0.776 NA 0.776


connected girders Single lane loaded NA 0.572 NA 0.572
Design Value 0.796 0.806 0.973 0.845

Value reported by SAP2000 0.796 0.807 0.973 0.845

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3 - 15


Chapter 4
Define a Bridge Design Requests

This chapter describes the Bridge Design Request, which is defined using the
Define menu > Bridge Design > Define Design Request command.

Each Bridge Design Request is unique and specifies which bridge object is to
be designed, the type of check to be performed (e.g., concrete box stress, pre-
cast composite stress, and so on), the station range (i.e., the particular zone or
portion of the bridge that is to be designed), the design parameters (i.e., pa-
rameters that may be used to overwrite the default values automatically set by
the program) and demand sets (i.e., the load combination[s] to be considered).
Multiple Bridge Design Requests may be defined for the same bridge object.

Before defining a design request, the applicable code should be specified using
the Design menu > Bridge Design > View/Revise Preferences command.
Currently, the AASHTO STD 2002 or AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is available
for a design of a concrete box girder or the AASHTO 2007 LRFD code is
available for the design of a Precast I or U Beam with Composite Slab super-
structure.

Figure 4-1 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for
a concrete box girder bridge, and the check type is concrete box stress. Figure
4-2 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for a
Composite I or U girder bridge and the check type is precast composite stress.

Name and Bridge Object 4-1


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 4-1 Bridge Design Request - Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 4-2 Bridge Design Request - Composite I or U Girder Bridges

4-2 Name and Bridge Object


Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Requests

4.1 Name and Bridge Object


Each Bridge Design Request must have unique name. Any name can be used.

If multiple Bridge Objects are used to define a bridge model, select the bridge
object to be designed for the Design Request. If a bridge model contains only a
single bridge object, the name of that bridge object will be the only item avail-
able from the Bridge Object drop-down list.

4.2 Check Type


The Check Type refers to the type of design to be performed and the available
options depend on the type of bridge deck being modeled.

For a Concrete Box Girder bridge, SAP2000/Bridge provides the following


check type options:

AASHTO STD 2002

 Concrete Box Stress

AASHTO LRFD 2007

 Concrete Box Stress

 Concrete Box Flexure

 Concrete Box Shear and Torsion

 Concrete Box Principal

For bridge models with precast I or U Beams with Composite Slabs,


SAP2000/Bridge provides three check type options, as followings:

AASHTO LRFD 2007

 Precast Comp Stress

 Precast Comp Shear

 Precast Comp Flexure

Name and Bridge Object 4-3


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The bold type denotes the name that appears in the check type drop-down list.
A detailed description of the design algorithm can be found in Chapter 5 for
Concrete Box Girder Bridges and in Chapter 6 for Precast I or U Beam with
Composite Slabs.

4.3 Station Range


The station range refers to the particular zone or portion of the bridge that is to
be designed. The user may choose the entire length of the bridge, or specify
specific zones using station ranges. Multiple zones (i.e., station ranges) may be
specified as part of a single design request.

When defining a station range, the user specifies the Location Type, which de-
termines if the superstructure forces are to be considered before or at a station
point. The user may choose the location type as before the point, after the point
or both.

4.4 Design Parameters


Design parameters are overwrites that can be used to change the default values
set automatically by the program. The parameters are specific to each code,
deck type, and check type. Figure 4-3 shows the Superstructure Design Pa-
rameters form.

Figure 4-3 Bridge


Design Request
Form

4-4 Station Range


Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Requests

Table 4-1 shows the parameters for concrete box girder. Table 4-2 shows the
parameters applicable when the superstructure has a deck that includes precast
I or U girders with composite slabs.

Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders


AASHTO STD 2002
 Resistance Factor - multiplies both compression and tension
Concrete Box Stress stress limits
 Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit
 Multiplier on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given
in the units specified
 The tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi
units for f c and the resulting tension limit
AASHTO LRFD 2007
Concrete Box Stress  Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies
both compression and tension stress limits
 Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier on f c
to calculate the compression stress limit
 Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier on
sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the units
specified
 Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit fac-
tor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c and the
resulting tension limit

Concrete Box Shear  Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies
both compression and tension stress limits
 Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that
multiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored resistance
for light-weight concrete
 Include Resal (Hunching-girder) shear effects – Yes or No. Speci-
fies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or
tension, in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth
members shall or shall not be considered when determining the
design factored shear force per Article 5.8.6.2.
 Concrete Box Shear Rebar Material - A previously defined rebar
material label that will be used to determine the area of shear
rebar required
 Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material - A previously defined
rebar material that will be used to determine the area of longi-
tudinal torsional rebar required

Design Parameters 4-5


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders


Concrete Box Flexure  Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies
both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Principal  See the Box Stress design parameter specifications

Table 4-2 Design Request Parameters for Precast I or U Beams


AASHTO STD 2002

Precast Comp Stress  Precast Comp Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both
compression and tension stress limits
 Precast Comp Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier on f c
to calculate the compression stress limit
 Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier on
sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the units
specified
 Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit fac-
tor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c and the
resulting tension limit

Precast Comp Shear  Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both
compression and tension stress limits
 Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that mul-
tiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored resistance for
light-weight concrete
 Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal rein-
forcement - per section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = -0.4x10-3, Typi-
cal value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3
 Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforce-
ment - per section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10-3, Typical
value(s): 6.0x10-3
 PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default
Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0
 Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default
Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0
 Specifies what method for shear design will be used - either
Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) per 5.8.3.4.2 or Vci
Vcw method per 5.8.3.4.3 Currently only MCFT option is available.
 A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to de-
termine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder
 A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine
the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

Precast Comp Flexure  Precast Comp Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies
both compression and tension stress limits

4-6 Design Parameters


Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Requests

4.5 Demand Sets


A demand set name is required for each load combination that is to be consid-
ered in a design request. The load combinations may be selected from a list of
user defined or default load combinations that are program determined (See
Chapter 2).

4.6 Live Load Distribution Factors


When the superstructure has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with
composite slabs, Live Load Distribution Factors can be specified. LLD factors
are described in Chapter 3.

Demand Sets 4-7


Chapter 5
Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the AASHTO
STD-2002, LRFD 07 code for design and stress check of the superstructure of
a concrete box type bridge deck section.

5.1 Design Stress AASHTO-STD-2002

5.1.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0
The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.

FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s): 0.4 to


0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain the compression
limit.

FactorTensLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa);


Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa)
The f c is multiplied by the FactorTensLim to obtain the tension limit.

Design Stress AASHTO-STD-2002 5-1


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

5.1.2 Demand Parameters


FactorCompLim – percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service
design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5
The demand compressive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor.
This way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one com-
pression limit.

FactorTensLim – percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;
Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5
The demand tensile stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This
way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one tension
limit.

5.1.3 Algorithm
The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the
bottom fiber. The location of the points are extreme left, Bridge Layout Line
and extreme right. The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account
axial (P) and both bending moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. If the demand set contains live
load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at each of the
evaluation points.

The stresses are divided by the appropriate demand parameter. Then extremes
are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see sec-
tion 5.1.1).

5.2 Design Stress AASHTO-LRFD-2007

5.2.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0
The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

5-2 Design Stress AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s): 0.4 to


0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit.

FactorTensLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa); Typi-


cal value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa)
The f c is multiplied by the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

5.2.2 Algorithm
The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the
bottom fiber. The location of the points are extreme left, Bridge Layout Line
and extreme right. The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account
axial (P) and both bending moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. If the demand set contains live
load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at each of the
evaluation points.

Extremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is re-
corded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see 5.2.1).

5.2.3 Stress Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-1

Concrete unit weight, wc = 0.150 kcf


Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi
Design span = 95.0 ft
Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation
2
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi
Yield strength fpy = 0.9 ksi
fpu = 243 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Design Stress AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-3


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 5-1 LRFD 2007 Stress Design, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Figure 5-2 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Stress Design


AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

5-4 Design Stress AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Reinforcing bars:
yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi

Section Properties
2
A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in
h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in
4
I = moment of inertia about centroid of the beam = 170812 in
yb,yt = distance from centroid to the extreme
bottom (top) fiber of the beam = 19.5 in

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 570:


P = 856.51 kip
M3 = 897.599 kip-in

Top fiber stress =


P M3 856.51 897.599
 top   ytop   19.5  0.9344 ksi
A I 826 170812
Bottom fiber stress =
P M3 856.51 897.599
 top   ybot   19.5  1.139 ksi
A I 826 170812
Stresses reported by SAP2000:
top fiber stress envelope = 0.9345 ksi
bottom fiber stress envelope = 1.13945 ksi

5.3 Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007

5.3.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0
The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain
factored resistance

5.3.2 Variables
 Resistance factor for flexure

Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-5


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Mn Nominal flexural resistance

Mr Factored flexural resistance

tslabeq Equivalent thickness of slab

bslab Effective flange width = horizontal width of slab, measured from out to
out

bwebeq Equivalent thickness of all webs in section

Aslab Area of slab

APT Area of PT in tension zone

yPT Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


prestressing tendons

fpu Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average


of all tendons in tensile zone)

fpy Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average if all
tendons in tensile zone)

fps Average stress in prestressing steel (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

k PT material constant (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

1 Stress block factor is (eq. 5.7.2.2)

5.3.3 Design Process


The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate
stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between
concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular
concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 f c over a zone bounded by the
edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis
at the distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is
measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for
concrete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0

5-6 Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

ksi, β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0
ksi, except that β1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with Paragraph 5.7.3.2.


The resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate
capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based
only on bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement
is not considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section,
the capacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a sec-
tion, stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu
(specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the
flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and
superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported
in section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange (slab)
in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

5.3.4 Algorithm
At each section:

 All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units
to N, mm.

 The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on slab area and slab width
assuming rectangular shape.

Aslab
tslabeq 
bslab

 The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as summation of all web horizon-


tal thicknesses
nweb
bwebeq  b
1
web

 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on sec-


tion f c

Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-7


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

f c  28
if f c > 28 MPa then 1  max(0.85  0.05; 0.65)
7

else 1  0.85

 The tendon location, area and material are read. Only bonded tendons are
processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-
ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and
is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the
bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends
over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-
cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme
compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral
axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

- sum of tendon areas APT


- center of gravity of tendons yPT
- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel fpu
- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)
f py
k  2(1.04  )
f pu

 The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in
accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

APT f pu
c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bslab  kAPT
y pt

 The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if


the section is a T-section or rectangular section.

5-8 Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

If c1  tslabeq , the section is a T-section.

If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance with


(eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

APT f pu  0.85 f c (bslab  bwebeq )tslabeq


c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
y pt

 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with (eq.


5.7.3.1.1-1).

c
f ps  f pu (1  k )
y pt

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with (eq.


5.7.3.2.2-1)

If the section is a T-section,

 c   c tslabeq 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1   0.85 f c  bslab  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  
 2   2 2 

else

 c 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1 
 2 

 Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by .

Mr = Mn

 Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and
the controlling demand set name is recorded.

5.3.5 Flexure Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-3.

Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-9


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 5-3 LRFD 2007 Flexure Design


Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Figure 5-4 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Flexure Design


Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

5 - 10 Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Concrete unit weight, wc = 0.150 kcf


Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)
Design span = 95.0 ft
Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation
2
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi
Yield strength fpy = 0.9 ksi
fpu = 243 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Reinforcing bars:
yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi

Section Properties
2
A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in
h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in
4
I = moment of inertia about centroid of the beam = 170812 in
yb, yt = distance from centroid to the extreme
bottom (top) fiber of the beam = 19.5 in

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 570:


P = 856.51 kip
M3 = 897.599 kip-in

 The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on slab area and slab width
assuming rectangular shape.

Aslab 48  5.5
tslabeq    5.5in
bslab 48
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 5.5 in

 The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as summation of all web horizon-


tal thicknesses
nweb
bwebeq  b
1
web  5  5  10 in

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 10.0 in

Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 11


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-
ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and
is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the
bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends
over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-
cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme
compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral
axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

- sum of tendon areas APTbottom  0.153  6  23   4.437 in 2


2
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 4.437 in

- distance from center of gravity of tendons to extreme compression fiber


23  2  6  4
yPTbottom  39   36.586 in
23  6
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 19.5 + 17.0862 = 36.586 in

- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu  270 kip


Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 270 kip

- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)


 f py   243 
k  2  1.04    2  1.04    0.28
 f pu   270 
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.28


1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on sec-
tion f c

If f c > 28 MPa, then

 f c  28 
1  max  0.85  0.05;0.65 
 7 
 34.473  28 
 max  0.85  0.05;0.65   0.80376
 7 
Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.8037 (not reported)

5 - 12 Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

 The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in
accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

APT f pu
c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bslab  kAPT
y pt
4.437  270
  6.91in
0.85  5  0.8037  48  0.28  4.437 36.586
270

Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 6.919 in (not reported)

 The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if


the section is a T-section or a rectangular section.

If c1  tslabeq  6.91  0.80376  5.56 in  5.5in , the section is a


T-section.
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge, section = T-section

If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance


with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

APT f pu  0.85 f c (bslab  bwebeq )tslabeq


c 
f pu

0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
y pt
4.437  270  0.85  5(48  10)5.5
 7.149 in
0.85  5  0.8037  10  0.28  4.437 36.586
270

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 7.1487 in

 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with (eq.


5.7.3.1.1-1).

 c   7.149 
f ps  f pu  1  k   270  1  0.28   255.23 ksi
 y pt   36.586 
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 255.228 ksi

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with (5.7.3.2.2-1)

If the section is a T-section, then

Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 13


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

 c   c tslabeq 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1   0.85 f c  bslab  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  
 2   2 2 
 7.149  0.80376 
 4.437  255.228   36.586  
 2 
 7.149  0.80376 5.5 
0.85  5  48  10  5.5   
 2 2 
 38287.42 kip-in
Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 38287.721 kip-in (not reported)

Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by .

Mr   M n  1.0  38287.42  38287.42 kip-in


Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 38287.721 kip-in

5.4 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007

5.4.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9
The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by
the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

PhiC (Lightweight) – Resistance Factor for lightweight concrete; Default Value


= 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9
The nominal shear capacity of light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by
the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance

Include Resal (haunchedgirder) Shear Effect – Typical value: Yes


Specifies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or tension,
in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth members shall or shall
not be considered when determining the design factored shear force.

Shear Rebar Material


A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to determine the
area of shear rebar required.

5 - 14 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material


A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to determine the
area of longitudinal torsional rebar required.

5.4.2 Variables
 Resistance factor for shear

Pu ,Vu 2 , M u 3 , Tu Factored demand forces and moments per section

web Web angle of inclination from the vertical

A Gross area of section

AO Area enclosed by shear flow path, including area of holes if any

CGtop, CGbot Distance from c.g. of section to top and bottom fiber

ph Perimeter of the polygon defined by the centroids of the longitudinal


chords of the space truss resisting torsion

b Minimum horizontal gross width of web (not adjusted for ducts)

t Minimum normal gross width of web (not adjusted for ducts) =


b cos  web 

bv Minimum effective horizontal width of web adjusted for presence


ducts

be Minimum effective normal width of shear flow path adjusted to ac-


count for presence of ducts

tv Minimum effective normal width of web = bv cos  web 

web Distribution factor for web

h Vertical height of section

dv Effective vertical height of section = max(0.8h, distance from ex-


treme compression fiber to CG of tensile PT)

Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 15


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

 Normal or light weight concrete factor

Avsweb Area of shear reinforcement in web per unit length

Avtweb Area of transverse torsion reinforcement in web per unit length

Al Area of longitudinal torsion reinforcement

5.4.3 Design Process


The shear resistance is determined in accordance with Paragraph 5.8.6 (Shear
and Torsion for Segmental Box Girder Bridges). The procedure is not applica-
ble to discontinuity regions and applies only to sections where it is reasonable
to assume that plane sections remain plane after loading. The user should select
for design only those sections that comply with the preceding assumptions by
defining appropriate station ranges in the Bridge Design Request.

If the option to consider resal effects is activated, the component of inclined


flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the demand shear, in vari-
able depth members is considered when determining the design section shear
force (paragraph 5.8.6.1).

The section design shear force is distributed into individual webs assuming that
the vertical shear that is carried by a web decreases with increased inclination
of the web from vertical. Section torsion moments are assigned to external
webs and slabs.

The rebar area and ratio are calculated using measurements normal to the web.
Thus, vertical shear forces are divided by cos(alpha_web). The rebar area cal-
culated is the actual, normal cross-section of the bars. The rebar ratio is calcu-
lated using the normal width of the web, tweb = bweb  cos(alpha_web).

The effects of ducts in members are considered in accordance with paragraph


5.8.6.1. In determining the web or flange effective thickness, be, one-half of the
diameters of ducts is subtracted. All defined tendons in a section, stressed or
not, are assumed to be grouted. Each tendon at a section is checked for pres-
ence in the web or flange and the minimum controlling effective web and
flange thicknesses are evaluated.

5 - 16 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

The tendon duct is considered as having effect on the web or flange effective
thickness even if only part of the duct is within the element boundaries. In such
cases, the entire one-half of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the ele-
ment thickness

If several tendon ducts overlap in one flange or web (when projected on the
horizontal axis for flange, or when projected on vertical axis for the web), the
diameters of ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the effective thick-
ness. In the web, the effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bottom
of each duct; in the flange, the effective thickness is evaluated at the left and
right side of the duct.

The Shear and Torsion Design is completed first on a per web basis. Rebar
needed for individual webs is then summed and reported for the entire section.
The D/C ratio is calculated for each web. Then the shear area of all webs is
summed and the entire section D/C is calculated. Therefore, the controlling
section D/C does not have to necessarily match the controlling web D/C (in
other words, other webs can make up the capacity for a “weak” web).

5.4.4 Algorithm
 All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units
to N, mm.

 If the option to consider resal effects is activated, the component of inclined


flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the demand shear, in vari-
able depth members is evaluated as follows:
Inclination angles of the top and bottom slabs are determined

 yslab top2  yslab top1 


 slab top  arctan  
 Stat2  Stat1 
 yslab bot2  yslab bot1 
 slab bot  arctan  
 Stat2  Stat1 

where

Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 17


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

yslab top2 , yslab top1  vertical coordinate of center of gravity of top slab at
stations 1 and 2. Y origin assumed at the top of the section and +
direction is up.

Stat1 , Stat2  stations of adjacent sections. When section being ana-


lyzed is “Before” the current section station is Stat2, when sec-
tion being analyzed is “After” the current section station is Stat1.
Therefore statement Stat1  Stat2 is always valid.

 The magnitudes of normal forces in slabs are determined as follows:

P M 
Pslab top  Aslab top  u  u 3 dslab top 
 A I3 

P M 
Pslab bot  Aslab bot  u  u 3 dslab bot 
 A I3 

where dslab top , dslab bot are distances from center of gravity of the section
to center of gravity of the slab (positive)

 The magnitudes of vertical components of slab normal forces are determined


as follows:

Presal top  Pslab top tan  slab top

Presal bot  Pslab bot tan  slab bot

 On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand
values are evaluated
Outer Web Inner Web
Location Vuweb Tuweb Vuweb Tuweb
Shear and abs(Vu2  Presal top  Presal bot )   Abs(Tu) abs(Vu2  Presal top  Presal bot )   0
Torsion
cos web cos web
Check

cos  |  web |
where  web 
 cos  |  web |
nweb
1

5 - 18 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

 Evaluate effective thicknesses


Evaluate dv bv be tv

– If bv  0, then

D
WebPassFlag  2,  0; Avsweb  0; Avtweb  0; Avsflag  2; Avtflag  2
C
proceed to report web results

– If be < 0 then SectionPassFlag = 2

 Evaluate design f c

f c min( f c , 8.3 MPa)

 Evaluate stress variable K

Calculate extreme fiber stress

P M3 P M3
 bot   CGbot  top   CGtop  tens  max  top , bot 
A I 33 A I 33

|P|
– If  tens  0.5 f c , then K = 1 else K  1  A
0.166  f c

where K < 2

 Evaluate Vc per web (shear capacity of concrete)

Vcweb  0.1663K  f c bv dv (5.8.6.5-3)

 Evaluate Vs per web (shear force that is left to be carried by rebar)

Vuweb  Vcweb
Vsweb 

– If Vsweb  0 then Avsweb  0

Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 19


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Vsweb
else Avsweb 
f y dv

 Verify minimum reinforcement requirement

– If Avsweb  0.35t f y (eq. 5.8.2.5-2), then

Avsweb  0.35t f y and Aswebflag  0

else Avswebflag  1

 Evaluate nominal capacities

Vsweb  Avsweb f y dv

Vnweb  Vcweb  Vsweb

 Evaluate shear D/C for web

Vuweb
D 
  
 C sweb bv dv f c

 Evaluate Tcr (eq. 5.8.6.3-2)

Tcr  0.166 K f c 2 A0 be

 Evaluate torsion rebar

1
If Tuweb  Tcr then:
3

– Avtflag  0

– Avtweb  0

– Al  0

TorsionEffectsFlag=0

else:

5 - 20 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Avtflag  1

Tuweb
Avtweb 
 A0 2 f y

Tuweb ph
Al 
 A0 2 f ylong

TorsionEffectsFlag=1

 Evaluate combined shear and torsion D/C for web

Vuweb T
 uweb
D  b d  2 A0 be
   v v
 C tweb 1.25 f c

 Evaluate controlling D/C for web

D D
If     then RatioFlag = 0
 C  sweb  C tweb

else

RatioFlag=1

D  D  D 
 max    ,  
C   C sweb  C tweb 

D
If  1 then WebPassFlag=1
C

else

WebPassFlag = 0

 Assign web rebar flags where rebar flag convention is:

Flag = 0 – rebar governed by minimum code requirement


Flag = 1 – rebar governed by demand

Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 21


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Flag = 2 – rebar not calculated since web bv< 0


Flag = 3 – rebar not calculated since web not part of shear flow path for
torsion

 Evaluate entire section values

Vcsection  V cweb

Vssection  V sweb

Vnsection  V nweb

Avssection A vsweb

Avtsection A vtweb

Alsection  Al

 Evaluate entire section D/C


nweb Vuweb
tv
1  bv dv

nweb
D tv
   1
 C  ssection f c

This is equivalent to:


| Vu |

nweb
D  t v dv
   1
 C  s sec tion f c

and

| Vu | | Tu |

  2 A0 be
nweb
D  t v dv
   1
 C tsection 1.25 f c

 Evaluate controlling D/C for section

D D
If     then RatioFlag = 0 else RatioFlag = 1
 C  ssection  C tsection

5 - 22 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

D  D  D 
 max    ,  
C   C  ssection  C tsection 

D
If  1 then SectionPassFlag=1
C

else

SectionPassFlag = 0

 Assign section design flags where flag convention is:


Flag = 0 – Section Passed all code checks
Flag = 1 – Section D/C >1
Flag = 2 – Section be < 0 (section invalid)

5.4.5 Shear Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-5.

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 23


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 5-6 Shear Design Example Reinforcement


AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

φ = 0.9
Concrete unit weight, wc = 0.150 kcf
λ =1.0
Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)
Design span = 95.0 ft
Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation
2
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi
Yield strength fpy = 0.9
fpu = 243 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Reinforcing bars: yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi (~413.68 MPa)


Section Properties
2 2
A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in (~532902 mm )
h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in (~990.6 mm)
I = moment of inertia about
4 4
centroid of the beam = 170812 in (~71097322269 mm )

5 - 24 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

yb,yt = distance from centroid to the


extreme bottom (top) fiber of
the beam = 19.5 in (~495.3 mm)
2 2
Aslabtop = Aslabbot = 485.5 = 264 in (~170322 mm )
= (48  5)  (39  5.5)
2 2
Ao = 1440.5 in (~929353 mm )
Ph = 2  (48  5 + 39  5.5) = 153 in (~3886.2 mm)

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 114 before:


P = 800 kip (~ 3560 E+03 N)
M3 = 7541 kip-in (~ 852 E+06 Nmm)
V2 = 33 kip (~ 148.3 E+03 N)
T = 4560 kip-in (515.2 E+06 Nmm)

 All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units
to N, mm.

 On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand
values are evaluated.

Outer Web Inner Web


Location Vuweb Tuweb Vuweb Tuweb
Shear and abs(Vu 2  Presal top  Presal bot )   Abs(Tu)=515.2E+06 N/A 0

Torsion cos  web N/A
Check
abs(148.3E  03  0  0)  1
 74151.9 N
cos0

cos  |  web | cos  | 0 |


where  web    0.5
 cos  |  web |  cos  | 0 |
nweb 2
1 1

 Evaluate effective shear flow path thicknesses

be  min(tfirstweb , t lastweb , t topslabv , t botslabv )


 min(127,127,139.7,139.7)  127mm

 Evaluate effective web width and normal thickness

Since the web is vertical, bv = tv = 127 mm

 Evaluate effective depth

Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 25


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Since M3 < 0 then

dv  max(0.8h, ybot  yPTtop )


 max(0.8  990.6,495.3  419.1)  914.4mm

 Evaluate design f c

f c  min( f c ,8.3 MPa)  min( 34.473,8.3 MPa)  5.871

 Evaluate stress variable K

Calculate extreme fiber stress

P M3 3560 E  03 852 E  06
 bot   CGbot   495.3  12.616 MPa.
A I 33 532902 71097322269
P M3 3560 E  03 852 E  06
 top   CGtop   495.3  0.745MPa
A I 33 532902 71097322269
 tens  max( top , bot )  max( 12.61, 0.745)  0.745MPa

 If  tens  0.5 f c then K = 1 false

|P| | 3560 E  03 |
else K  1  A  1 532902  2.8
0.166  f c 0.166  5.871

where K < 2 therefore K = 2

 Evaluate Vc per web (shear capacity of concrete) (5.8.6.5-3)

Vcweb  0.1663K  f c bv dv  0.1663  2  1.0  5.871  127  914.4


 226781N.

 Evaluate Vs per web (shear force that is left to be carried by rebar)

Vuweb  Vcweb 74151.9  0.9  226781


Vsweb    144392 N
 0.9

If Vsweb  0 then Avsweb  0 True

5 - 26 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Vsweb
else Avsweb 
f y dv

 Verify minimum reinforcement requirement

If Avsweb  0.35t f y (eq. 5.8.2.5-2) then  true

0.35  127
Avsweb  0.35t f y   0.10745mm 2 / mm and Aswebflag  0
413.68

Else Avswebflag  1

 Evaluate nominal capacities

Vsweb  Avsweb f y dv  0.10745  413.68  914.4  40645N


Vn web  Vcweb  Vsweb  226781  40645  267426 N

 Evaluate shear D/C for web

Vuweb 74151.9
 
D  0.9
     0.1208
 C sweb bv dv f c 127  914.4  5.871

 Evaluate Tcr (eq. 5.8.6.3-2)

Tcr  0.166 K f c 2 A0 be  0.166  2  5.871  2  929353  127


 460147 419 Nmm

 Evaluate torsion rebar

1 1
If Tuweb  Tcr  515.2 E 6  0.9  460 E 6  false, then:
3 3

Avtflag  1

Tuweb 515.2 E 6
Avtweb    0.7444mm 2 / mm
 A0 2 f y 0.9  929352  2  413.68

Tuweb ph 515.2e6  3886.2


Al    2893mm 2
 A0 2 f ylong 0.9  929352  2  413.68

Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 27


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

TorsionEffectsFlag=1

 Evaluate combined shear and torsion D/C for web

Vuweb T 74151.9 515.2 E 6


 uweb 
D  bv dv  2 A0 be 0.9  127  914.4 0.9  2  929352  127
   
 C tweb 1.25 f c 1.25  5.871
 0.427

 Evaluate controlling D/C for web

D D
If     then RatioFlag = 0  false
 C  sweb  C tweb

else

RatioFlag =1  true

D  D  D 
 max    ,     max  0.1208,0.427   0.427
C   C  sweb  C tweb 

D
If  1 , then WebPassFlag =1  true
C

else

WebPassFlag = 0

Assign web rebar flags where rebar flag convention is:

Flag = 0 – rebar governed by minimum code requirement


Flag = 1 – rebar governed by demand => true
Flag = 2 – rebar not calculated since web bv< 0
Flag = 3 – rebar not calculated since web not part of shear flow path for
torsion

 Evaluate entire section values

Vcsection  V cweb  2  226 781  453562 N

5 - 28 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Vssection  V sweb  2  40645  81290 N


Vnsection  V nweb  2  267 426  534852 N
Avssection A vsweb  2  0.10 745  0.2149 mm 2 / mm

Avtsection A vtweb  2  0.7444887  1.48898mm 2 / mm


Alsection  Al  2893mm 2

 Evaluate entire section D/C


nweb Vuweb
tv
1  bv dv

nweb
D tv
   1
This is equivalent to:
 C  ssection f c

| Vu | 148.3E 3
  127  914.4  0.1208
nweb 2
D  t v dv 0.9
   1
 1
 C ssection f c 5.871

and

| Vu | | Tu |

  2 A0 be
nweb
D  t v dv
   1
 C tsection 1.25 f c
148.3E 3 515.2 E 6

 127  914.4 0.9  2  929352  127
2
0.9
 1
 0.427
1.25  5.871

 Evaluate controlling D/C for section

D D
If     then RatioFlag = 0  false
 C  ssection  C tsection

else RatioFlag = 1 true

Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 29


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

D  D  D 
 max    ,    max  0.1208,0.427   0.427
C   C ssection  C tsection 

D
If  1 , then SectionPassFlag = 1  true
C

else

SectionPassFlag = 0

Assign section design flags where flag convention is:

Flag = 0 – Section Passed all code checks  true

Flag = 1 – Section D/C >1

Flag = 2 – Section be < 0 (section invalid)

5.5 Design Principal Stress, AASHTO LRFD 2007

5.5.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0.
The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s): 0.4 to


0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit

FactorTensLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa); Typi-


cal value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f c is multiplied by the
FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

5.5.2 Demand Parameters


FactorCompLim – Percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service
design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand compres-
sive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the control-
ling stress can be selected and compared against one compression limit.

5 - 30 Design Principal Stress, AASHTO LRFD 2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

FactorTensLim – Percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;
Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand tensile stresses are
divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the controlling stress can be
selected and compared against one tension limit.

5.5.3 Algorithm
The principal stresses are evaluated at three points at each web: the web cen-
terline at the bottom of the top slab; web centerline at the top of the bottom
slab; and web centerline at the section neutral axis.

The principal stresses are evaluated for each demand set using the Mohr circle
to combine bending, shear, and torsion stresses. The bending stresses assume
linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and both bending moments
(M2 and M3). The shear flow is calculated internally by the program taking
into account section properties at the elevation of the stress point. A shear scale
factor is used to convert the total shear flow acting at an elevation (y-
coordinate) to tangential shear stress in the web. The scale factor is equal to the
web shear-distribution factor divided by the cosine of the angle of inclination
of the web from vertical, and divided again by the design width of the web.

 web
ShearScaleFactor 
bweb cos  web

cos(|  web |)
where  web  and bweb is the horizontal width of web

nweb
1
cos(|  web |)

 A torsion scale factor is used to convert the total torque acting on the section
to tangential shear stress in the web. For interior webs, this is equal to zero.
For exterior webs, this is equal to one divided by the plastic torsional
modulus.

1
TorsionScaleFactor 
Wt

where Wt  2 A0 t min

A0 = area enclosed by shear flow path, including area of holes if any

Design Principal Stress, AASHTO LRFD 2007 5 - 31


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

tmin = minimum normal width of shear flow path

 If the demand set contains live load, the program positions the load to cap-
ture extreme stress at each of the evaluation points.

 The stresses are divided by the appropriate demand parameter. Then the ex-
tremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is re-
corded.

 The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Sec-
tion 5.6.1).

5 - 32 Design Principal Stress, AASHTO LRFD 2007


Chapter 6
Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the


AASHTO-LRFD-07 code for design and stress check when the superstructure
has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with composite slabs.

6.1 Design Stress


The following parameters are considered during stress design:

 PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The
compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

 FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s): 0.4


to 0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression
limit

 FactorTensLim – f ' c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa);


Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f ' c is multiplied by
the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the composite slab:
the left corner, the centerline beam and the right corner of the composite slab

Design Stress 6-1


SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

tributary area. The location of stress output points at the slab bottom fiber and
beam top and bottom fiber depends on the type of precast beam present in the
section cut. The location is labeled in the output plots and tables.

Concrete strength f c is read at every point and compression and tension limits
are evaluated using the FactorCompLim - f c multiplier and FactorTensLim -
f ' c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and ei-
ther both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on
which method for determining LLDF has been specified in the design request
(see Chapters 3 and 4).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. Extremes are found for each
point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the preceding Capacity Parameters.

6.2 Design Shear


The following parameters are considered during shear design:

 PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9.
The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied
by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

 PhiC (Lightweight) – Resistance Factor for lightweight concrete; Default


Value = 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of
light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain
factored resistance.

 Check Sub Type – Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear
design will be used: either Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in
accordance with 5.8.3.4.2; or Vci/Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3
Currently only the MCFT option is available.

 Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in ac-


cordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 0.4x10 , Typical value(s):
-3

0 to 0.4x10
-3

6-2 Design Shear


Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

 Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in ac-


-3
cordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10 , Typical value(s):
-3
6.0x10

 PhiC for Nu – Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default Value =


1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

 Phif for Mu – Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default Value =


0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0. Shear Rebar Material- A previously defined
rebar material label that will be used to determine the required area of trans-
verse rebar in the girder

 Longitudinal Rebar Material - A previously defined rebar material label that


will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

6.2.1 Variables
V Resistance factor for shear

P Resistance factor for axial load

F Resistance factor for moment

Vu Factored shear demand per girder excluding force in tendons

Nu Applied factored axial force taken as positive if tensile

Mu Factored moment at the section

V2 c Shear in Section Cut excluding force in tendons

V2Tot Shear in Section Cut including force in tendons

Vp Component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective


prestressing force; if Vp has the same sign as Vu, then the component
is resisting the applied shear

a Depth of equivalent stress block per 5.7.3.2.2. Varies for positive and
negative moment.

Design Shear 6-3


SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

dv Effective shear depth per 5.8.2.9

d girder Depth of girder

dcompslab Depth of composite slab (includes concrete haunch t2)

d PTBot Distance from top of composite slab to cg of tendons in the bottom


of the precast beam

b Minimum web width of beam

Aps Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member,

f pu Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel

Ep Pestressing steel Young’s modulus

Avl Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the mem-
ber at the section under consideration

Es Reinforcement Young’s modulus

s Strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement – eq.


5.8.3.4.2-4

 sLimitPos ,  sLimitNeg = Max and min value of strain in nonprestressed longitudi-


nal tension reinforcement as specified in the Design request

Ec Young’s modulus of concrete

Ac Area of concrete on the flexural tension side of the member

AVS Area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length

AVS min Minimum area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length per
eq. 5.8.2.5

6-4 Design Shear


Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

6.2.2 Design Process


The shear resistance is determined in accordance with paragrah 5.8.3.4.2 (de-
rived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure assumes that
the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over an area bv wide and dv
deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses (defined by angle θ
and shown as D) remains constant over dv, and that the shear strength of the
section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress conditions at just
one location in the web. The user should select for design only those sections
that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate station ranges in
the design request (see Chapter 4).

It is assumed that the precast beams are pre-tensioned, and therefore, no ducts
are present in webs. The effective web width is taken as the minimum web
width, measured parallel to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the ten-
sile and compressive forces as a result of flexure.

Shear design is completed on a per-girder basis. Please refer to Chapter 3 for a


description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

6.2.3 Algorithms
 All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units
to N, mm.

 For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes,
a new force demand set is generated. The new force demand set is built up
from the maximum tension values of P and the maximum absolute values of
V2 and M3 of the two StepTypes (Max and Min) present in the envelope
COMBO case. The StepType of this new force demand set is named ABS
and the signs of the P, V2 and M3 are preserved. The ABS case follows the
industry practice where sections are designed for extreme shear and moments
that are not necessarily corresponding to the same design vehicle position.
The section cut is designed for all three StepTypes in the COMBOMax,
Min and ABSand the controlling StepType is reported.

 The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestress-
ing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

Design Shear 6-5


SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

V2 c  V2Tot
 Vp 
n girders

 Depth of equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative moment is
evaluated in accordance with eq. 5.7.3.1.1

 Effective shear depth is evaluated.

 If Mu > 0 then dv  max(0.72  dgirder ,0.9  dPTBot ,dPTBot  0.5  a)

 If Mu < 0 then

 dv  max  0.72  dgirder ,0.9  (dgirder  0.5  dcompslab ),(dgirder  0.5  dcompslab )  0.5  a 

 If Mu  Vu  Vp  dv then Mu  (Vu  Vp )  dv

 The demand/capacity ratio (D/C) is calculated based on the maximum per-


missible shear capacity at a section in accordance with 5.8.3.2-2

Vu
 Vp
D V
 (5.8.3.2-2)
C 0.25  f 'c  b  dv

 Evaluate numerator and denominator of (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Mu
 snumerator   0.5  N u  Vu  Vp  Aps  0.7  f pu
dV

 sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl

 Adjust denominator values as follows

If  sdenominator  0 and  snumerator  0 then  s   sLimitPos and


 snumerator
 E p  Aps
s
Avl 
Es

If  snumerator  0 then  sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl  Ec  Ac

6-6 Design Shear


Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

 Evaluate (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

 snumerator
s 
 sdenominator

 Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face
of the section.

Nu
If  0.52  f 'c then  s  2   s
Agirder

 Check against the limit on the strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension


reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate
how much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit

 s  max( s ,  sLimitNeg ) and  s  min( s ,  sLimitPos )

 Evaluate the angle  of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as de-


termined in Article 5.8.3.4

18  29  3500   s  45 (5.8.3.4)

 Evaluate the factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to


transmit tension and shear, as specified in Article 5.8.3.4

4.8
 (5.8.3.4)
1  750   s

 Evaluate nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete


eq. 5.8.3.3-3

Vc  0.083      f 'c  b  dv

 Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar

Vu
VS   V p  Vc
s

Design Shear 6-7


SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Vs
if VS  0 then AVS  0 else AVS  (per eq. 5.8.3.3-4)
1
f y  dv 
tan

 Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement

0.083   f 'c  b
If Vu  0.5  s  Vc  Vp then AVSmin  in accordance
fy
with (eq. 5.8.2.5-1), else AVS min  0

If VS  0 then AVS  AVSmin else AVS  max( AVSmin , AVS )

 Recalculate Vs in accordance with (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1
VS  AVS  f y  dv 
tan

 Evaluate longitudinal rebar on flexure tension side in accordance with (eq.


5.8.3.5-1)

VU Vu
 VP  0.5  min(VS , )
MU NU S  1
ASLreq  (  0. 5    E p  Aps ) 
dv   f P tan  fy
AVL  max( AVL , ASLreq )

 Assign longitudinal rebar to top or bottom side of girder based on moment


sign

If M U  0 then AVLCompSlabU  AVL and AVLBeamBotFlange  0

Else AVLCompSlabU  0 and AVLBeamBotFlange  AVL

6.2.4 Shear Design Example


The girder spacing is 9’-8”. The girder type is AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72-
inch-deep, 42-inch-wide top flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO
28/72 Girders). The concrete deck is 8 inches thick, with the haunch thickness
assumed = 0.

6-8 Design Shear


Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Figure 6-1 Shear design example deck section

Figure 6-2 Shear design example beam section

Design Shear 6-9


SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Materials
Concrete strength
Prestressed girders 28-day strength, f c = 6 ksi,
Girder final elastic modulus, Ec = 4,415 ksi
Deck slab: 4.0 ksi, Deck slab elastic modulus, Es = 3,834 ksi
Reinforcing steel Yield strength, fy = 60 ksi
Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270
2
Strand area, Aps = 0.153 in
Steel yield strength, fpy = 243 ksi
Steel ultimate strength, fpu = 270 ksi
Prestressing steel modulus, Ep = 28,500 ksi

Basic beam section properties


Depth = 72 in.
Thickness of web = 8 in.
2
Area, Ag = 1,085 in
Ac = Area of concrete on the flexural
tension side of the member (bordered
2
at mid depth of the beam + slab height) = 551 in
4
Moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in
N.A. to top, yt = 35.62 in.
N.A. to bottom, yb = 36.38 in.
P/S force eccentricity e = 31.380 in.

In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 2007 4.6.2.6, the effective flange


width of concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width. For the interior
beam, the bslab  9'8"  116in .

Demands at interior girder Section 2 = station 10’,


after girder Section 2, Vu = 319.1 kip; Mu = 3678 kip-ft

The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestress-
ing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

V2 c  V2Tot
 Vp  Vp = 0 since no inclined tendons are present.
n girders

6 - 10 Design Shear
Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

 Depth of equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative moment is
evaluated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1).

 Effective shear depth is evaluated

Since Mu > 0, then (for calculation of the depth of the compression block,
refer to the Ultimate Flexure example in Section 6.3.4 of this manual)

dv  max(0.72  dgirder , 0.9  dPTBot , dPTBot  0.5  a)


 max(0.72  80", 0.9  75", 75" 0.5  5.314  0.85)
d v  max(57.6" ,67.5" ,72.74" )  72.74"

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 72.74”

 Check if Mu  Vu  Vp  dv

Mu  3678  12  44136 kip-in  (319  0)  72.74  23204 kip-in

 D/C is calculated based on maximum permissible shear capacity at a section


in accordance with 5.8.3.2-2

Vu 319
 Vp 0
D V 0.9
   0.406
C 0.25  f 'c  b  dv 0.25  6  8  72.74

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.406

 Evaluate the numerator and denominator of (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Mu
 snumerator   0.5  N u  Vu  Vp  Aps  0.7  f pu
dV
3678  12
  0.5  0  319  0  6.73  0.7  270  346.2 kip
72.74

 sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl  28500 ksi  6.73 in 2  191805 kip

 Adjust denominator values as follows

Design Shear 6 - 11
SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

If  sdenominator  0 and  snumerator  0 then  s   sLimitPos and


 snumerator
 E p  Aps
s
Avl  not applicable
Es

If  snumerator  0 then
 sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl  Ec  Ac
 28500  6.73  4415  551.4  26 263461 kip

 Evaluate (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

 snumerator 346.2
s    1.318e-4
 sdenominator 2626346

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 1.318e-4

 Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face
of the section

Nu
If  0.52  f 'c then  s  2   s ; not applicable since Nu = 0
Agirder

 Check against limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension rein-


forcement as specified in the Design Request and recalculate Avl

 s  max( s ,  sLimitPos )  max( 1.318e-4,  1.318e-4  4)  1.318e-4

 Evaluate angle  of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as deter-


mined in Article 5.8.3.4

18    29  3500   s  45   29  3500  1.318e-4  28.5deg


Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 28.5 deg

 Evaluate factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit


tension and shear as specified in Article 5.8.3.4

4.8 4.8
   5.3265
1  750   s 1  750  1.318e-4
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 5.3267

6 - 12 Design Shear
Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

 Evaluate nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete


(eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Vc  0.0316      f 'c  b  dv
 0.0316  5.32  1.0  6  8  72.74  239.92 kip
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 240.00 kip

 Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar

Vu 319
VS   Vp  Vc   0  239.6  114.8 kip
s 0.9

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 114.64 kip

If VS  0 then AVS  0 else

Vs 114.8
AVS    1.43e-2 in 2 /in (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)
1 1
f y  dv  60  72.74 
tan  tan 28.5
 Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement

If Vu  0.5  s  Vc  Vp   319.1 kip  0.5  239.6  119.8 kip is true,


0.0316   f 'c  b 0.0316  1.0 6  8
AVS min    0.01032in 2 /in (eq.
fy 60
5.8.2.5-1)

If VS  0 then AVS  AVS min else AVS  max( AVS min , AVS )  1.43e-2in 2 /2
2
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 1.43e-2in /in

 Recalculate Vs in accordance with (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1 1
VS  AVS  f y  dv   0.0143  60  72.74   114.9 kip
tan  tan 28.5
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 114.6 kip

 Evaluate longitudinal rebar on flexure tension side in accordance with eq.


5.8.3.5-1

Design Shear 6 - 13
SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

 VU  Vu  
  VP  0.5  min  VS ,  
 S 
    E p  Aps  
MU N 1
ASLreq  0.5  U  S
 dv   f P tan   fy
 319 
 3678  12  0  0.5  114.9  1
 0 0.9
  0.5    28500  6.73    3176.3 in 2
 72.74  0.9 1.0 tan 28.5  60
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.00 in  no additional longitu-
2

dinal rebar required in beam bottom flange

6.3 Design of Flexure


The following parameters are used in the design of flexure:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The
nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain fac-
tored resistance

6.3.1 Variables
 Resistance factor for flexure

Mn Nominal flexural resistance

Mr Factored flexural resistance

t slabeq Thickness of composite slab

bslab Effective flange width = horizontal width of slab tributary area,


measured from out to out

bwebeq Thickness of beam web

Aslab Tributary area of slab

a Depth of equivalent stress block in accordance with 5.7.3.2.2.

APT Area of PT in tension zone

6 - 14 Design of Flexure
Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

yPT Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


prestressing tendons

f pu Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted aver-


age of all tendons in tensile zone)

f py Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average if


all tendons in tensile zone)

f ps Average stress in prestressing steel (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

k PT material constant (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

1 Stress block factor is (eq. 5.7.2.2)

6.3.2 Design Process


The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate
stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between
concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular
concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 fc over a zone bounded by the edges
of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the
distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is meas-
ured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for con-
crete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi,
β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi,
except that β1 is not be taken to be less than 0.65.

The flexural resistance is determined according to paragraph 5.7.3.2. The resis-


tance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate capacity is
calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based only on
bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement is not
considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section, the ca-
pacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a section,
stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu (specified
tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the flexural
capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

Design of Flexure 6 - 15
SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and
superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported
in section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange (slab)
in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

6.3.3 Algorithms
At each section:

 All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units
to N, mm.

 1 stress block factor is evaluated per 5.7.2.2 based on section fc

f c  28
If f c >28 MPa, then 1  max(0.85  0.05;0.65)
7

else 1  0.85

 The tendon location, area and material are read. Only bonded tendons are
processed, unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-
ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and
is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the
bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends
over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-
cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme
compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral
axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

- sum of tendon areas APT

- center of gravity of tendons yPT

- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu

6 - 16 Design of Flexure
Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

 f py 
k  2  1.04  
 f pu 

 Positive moment resistance – first it is assumed that the equivalent compres-


sion stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neutral axis
and the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

APT f pu
c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bslab  kAPT
y pt

The distance c is compared to the slab thickness. If the distance to the neutral
axis c is larger than the composite slab thickness, the distance c is re-
evaluated. For this calculation, the beam flange width and area are converted
to their equivalents in slab concrete by multiplying the beam flange width by
the modular ratio between the precast girder concrete and the slab concrete.
The web width in the equation for c is substituted for the effective converted
girder flange width. The distance c is recalculated in accordance with (eq.
5.7.3.1.1-3).

APT f pu  0.85 f c (bslab  bwebeq )tslabeq


c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
y pt

If the calculated value of c exceeds the sum of the deck thickness and the
equivalent precast girder flange thickness, the program assumes the neutral
axis is below the flange of the precast girder and recalculates c. The term
0.85 f c  b  bw  in the calculation is broken into two terms, one refers to the
contribution of the deck to the composite section flange and the second refers
to the contribution of the precast girder flange to the composite girder flange.

 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with


5.7.3.1.1-1

 c 
f ps  f pu  1  k
 y pt 

Design of Flexure 6 - 17
SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with 5.7.3.2.2-1

If the section is a T-section, then

 c   c tslabeq 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1   0.85 f c  bslab  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  
 2   2 2 

else

 c 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1 
 2 

 Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by  .

M r  M n

 Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and
the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous, except that
calculation of positive moment resistance is not applicable.

6.3.4 Flexure Capacity Design Example


Girder spacing: 9’-8”

Girder type: AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72 inches deep, 42-inch-wide top


flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO 28/72 Girders)

Concrete deck: 8 inches thick, haunch thickness assumed = 0

Materials

Concrete strength
Prestressed girders 28-day strength, fc = 6 ksi,
Girder final elastic modulus, Ec = 4,696 ksi
Deck slab = 4.0 ksi,
Deck slab elastic modulus, Es = 3,834 ksi
Reinforcing steel Yield strength, fy = 60 ksi
Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270

6 - 18 Design of Flexure
Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Figure 6-3 Flexure capacity design example deck section

Figure 6-4 Flexure capacity design example beam section

Design of Flexure 6 - 19
SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Strand area, Aps = 0.153 in2


Steel yield strength, fpy = 243 ksi
Steel ultimate strength, fpu = 270 ksi
Prestressing steel modulus, Ep = 28,500 ksi

Basic beam section properties

Depth = 72 in.
Thickness of web = 8 in.
Area, Ag = 1,085 in2
Moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in4
N.A. to top, yt = 35.62 in.
N.A. to bottom, yb = 36.38 in.
P/S force eccentricity e = 31.380 in.
In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 2007 paragraph 4.6.2.6, the effec-
tive flange width of concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width.
For the interior beam, the bslab  9'8"  116 in .

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they re-
sistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive moment
when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and is con-
sidered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the bottom fi-
ber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends over a
zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located par-
allel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fi-
ber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.

 For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

- sum of tendon areas


APTBottom  44  0.153  6.732 in 2
2
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 6.732 in

- distance from center of gravity of tendons to extreme compression fiber


12  2  12  4  10  6  6  8  4  10
yPTBottom  (72  8)   75 in
12  12  10  6  4
- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu  270 kip
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 270 kip

6 - 20 Design of Flexure
Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)


 f py   243 
k  2  1.04    2  1.04    0.28
 f pu   270 

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.28


1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on the
composite slab f c

1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strength not exceeding 4.0 ksi. If f c
> 4 ksi, then 1 shall be reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of
strength in excess of 4.0 ksi. Since fc = 4 ksi, 1 = 0.85
Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.85 (not reported)

 The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in
accordance with 5.7.3.1.1-4

APTBottom  f pu
c
f pu
0.85  f ' c  1  bslab  k  APTBottom 
yPTBottom
6.732 * 270
  5.314 in
270
0.85  4  0.85  116  0.28  6.732 
75
Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 5.314 in

 The distance c is compared to the composite slab thickness to determine if


the c needs to be re-evaluated to include the precast beam flange in the
equivalent compression block.

Since c = 5.314 in < 8", the c is valid

 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with


5.7.3.1.1-1

 c   5.314 
f ps  f pu  1  k   270   1  0.28    264.64 ksi
 yPTBottom   75 
Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 264.643 ksi

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with 5.7.3.2.2-1

Design of Flexure 6 - 21
SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Since the section is rectangular,

 c   5.314  0.85 
M n  APTBottom f ps  yPTBottom  1   6.732  264.64   75  
 2   2 
 129 593.17 / 12  10 799.4 kip-ft
Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 107 99 kip-ft (not reported)

 Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by  .

Mr   M n  0.9  10 799.4  9 719.5 kip-ft


Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 9719.5 kip-ft (116633.5 kip-in)

6 - 22 Design of Flexure
Chapter 7
Run a Bridge Design Request

This chapter identifies the steps involved in running a Bridge Design Request.
(Chapter 4 explains how to define the Request.) Running the Request applies
the following to the specified Bridge Object:

 Program defaults in accordance with the selected codethe Preferences

 Type of design to be performedthe check type (Section 4.2.1)

 Portion of the bridge to be designedthe station ranges (Section 4.1.3)

 Overwrites of the Preferencesthe design request parameters (Section 4.1.4)

 Load combinations the demand sets (Chapter 2)

 Live Load Distribution factors, where applicable (Chapter 3)

For this example, the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is applied to the model of a
concrete box-girder bridge shown in Figure 7-1.

It is assumed that the user is familiar with the steps that are necessary to create
a SAP2000/Bridge model of a concrete box girder bridge. If additional assis-
tance is needed to create the model, a 30-minute Watch and Learn video enti-
tled, ”Bridge – Bridge Information Modeler” is available at the CSI website
www.csiberkeley.com. The tutorial video guides the user through the creation
of the bridge model referenced in this chapter.

Description of Example Model 7- 1


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 7-1 3D view of example concrete box girder bridge model

7.1 Description of Example Model


The example bridge is a two-span prestressed concrete box girder bridge with
the following features:

Abutments: The abutments are skewed by 15 degrees and connected to the


bottom of the box girder only.
2
Prestress: The concrete box girder bridge is prestressed with four 10-in
tendons (one in each girder) and a jacking force of 2160 kips per tendon.

Bents: The one interior bent has three 5-foot-square columns.

Deck: The concrete box girder has a nominal depth of 5 feet. The deck has
a parabolic variation in depth from 5 feet at the abutments to a maximum
of 10 feet at the interior bent support.

Spans: The two spans are each approximately 100 feet long.

Figure 7-2 Elevation view of example bridge

7-2 Description of Example Model


Chapter 7 - Run a Bridge Design Request

Figure 7-3 Plan view of the example bridge

7.2 Design Preferences


Use the Design menu > Bridge Design > View/Revise Preferences command
to select the AASHTO LRFD 2007 design code. The Bridge Design Prefer-
ences form shown in Figure 7-4 displays.

Figure 7-4 Bridge Design Preferences form

7.3 Load Combinations


For this example, the default design load combinations were activated using the
Define menu > Load Combination command. After the Add Default Design
Combos button is used and the Bridge option has been selected, the Code-

Design Preference 7-3


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form shown in Figure 7-5
displays. The form is used to specify the desired limit states. Only the Strength
II limit state was selected for this example. Normally, several limit states
would be selected.

Figure7-5 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form

The defined load combination for this example are shown in Figure 7-6.

Figure 7-6 Define Load Combinations form

7-4 Load Combinations


Chapter 7 - Run a Bridge Design Request

The Str-II1, Str-II2 and StrIIGroup1 designations for the load combinations are
specified by the program and indicate that the limit state for the combinations
is Strength Level II.

7.4 Bridge Design Request


After the Design menu > Bridge Design > Define Design Request command
has been used, the Bridge Design Request form shown in Figure 7-7 displays.

Figure 7- 7 Define Load Combinations form

The name given to this example design request is FLEX_1, the Check Type is
for Concrete Box Flexure and the Demand Set, DSet1, specifies the combina-
tion as StrII (Strength Level II).

Bridge Design Request 7-5


SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The only Design Request Parameter option for a Concrete Box Flexural check
type is for PhiC. A value of 0.9 for PhiC is used.

7.5 Start Design/Check of the Bridge


After an analysis has been run, the bridge model is ready for a design/check.
Use the Design menu > Bridge Design > Start Design/Check of Bridge com-
mand to start the design process. Select the design to be run using the Perform
Bridge Design form shown in Figure 7-8:

Figure 7-8 Perform Bridge Design - Superstructure

The user may select the desired Design Request(s) and click on the Design
Now button. A plot of the bridge model, similar to that shown in Figure 7-9,
will display.

If several design requests


have been run, the indi-
vidual Design Requests can
be selected from the Design
Check options drop-down
list. This plot is described
further in Chapter 8.

Figure 7-9 Plot of flexure


check results

7-6 Start Design/Check of the Bridge


Chapter 8
Display Bridge Design Results

Bridge design results can be displayed on screen and as printed output. The
on-screen display can depict the bridge response graphically as a plot or in data
tables. SAP2000's Advanced Report Writer can be used to create the printed
output, which can include the graphical display as well as the database tables.

8.1 Display Results as a Plot


To view the forces, stresses, and design results graphically, click the Display
menu > Show Bridge Forces/Stresses command, which will display the Bridge
Object Response Display form shown in Figure 8-1.

The plot shows the design results for the FLEX_1 design request created using
the process described in the preceding chapters. The demand moments are en-
veloped and shown in the blue region, and the negative capacity moments are
shown with a brown line. If the demand moments do not exceed the capacity
moments, the superstructure may be deemed adequate in response to the flexure
design request. Move the mouse pointer onto the demand or capacity plot to
view the values for each nodal point. Move the pointer to the capacity moment
at station 1200 and 536981.722 kip-in is shown. A verification calculation that
shows agreement with this SAP2000/Bridge result is provided in Section 8.4.

Display Results as a Plot 8-1


Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 8-1 Plot of flexure check results for the example bridge design model

8.2 Display Data Tables


To view design results on screen in tables, click the Display menu > Show Ta-
bles command, which will display the Choose Tables for Display form shown in
Figure 8-2. Use the options on that form to select which data results are to be
viewed. Multiple selection may be made. When all selections have been made,
click the OK button and a database table similar to that shown in Figure 8-3 will
display. Note the drop-down list in the upper right-hand corner of the table. That
drop-down list will include the various data tables that match the selections
made on the Choose Tables for Display form. Select from that list to change to a
different database table.

8-2 Display Data Tables


Chapter 8 - Display Bridge Design Results

Figure 8-2 Choose Tables for Display form

Figure 8-3 Design database table for AASHTO LRFD 2007 flexure check

Display Data Tables 8- 3


Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The scroll bar along the bottom of the form can be used to scroll to the right to
view additional data columns.

8.3 Advanced Report Writer


The File menu > Create Report command is a single button click output option
but it may not be suitable for bridge structures because of the size of the docu-
ment that is generated. Instead, the Advanced Report Writer feature within
SAP2000 is a simply and easy way to produce a custom output report.

To create a custom report that includes input and output, first export the files us-
ing one of the File menu > Export commands: SAP2000 MS Access Data-
base.mdb File; SAP2000 MS Excel Spreadsheet .xls File; or SAP2000 .s2k
Text File. When this command is executed, a form similar to that shown in Fig-
ure 8-4 displays.

Figure 8-4 Choose Tables for Export to Access form

8-4 Advanced Report Writer


Chapter 8 - Display Bridge Design Results

This important step allows control over the size of the report to be generated.
Export only those tables to be included in the final report. However, it is possi-
ble to export larger quantities of data and then use the Advanced Report Writer
to select only specific data sets for individual reports, thus creating multiple
smaller reports. For this example, only the Bridge Data (input) and Concrete
Box Flexure design (output) are exported.

After the data tables have been exported and saved to an appropriate location,
click the File menu > Advanced Report Writer command to display a form
similar to that show in Figure 8-5. Click the appropriate button (e.g., Find exist-
ing DB File, Convert Excel File, Convert Text File) and locate the exported data
tables. The tables within that Database, Excel, or Text file will be listed in the
List of Tables in Current Database File display box.

Figure 8-5 Create Custom Report form

Advanced Report Writer 8- 5


Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Select the tables to be included in the report from that display box. The selected
items will then display in the Items Included in Report display box. Use the
various options on the form to control the order in which the selected tables ap-
pear in the report as well as the headers (i.e., Section), page breaks, pictures, and
blanks required for final output in .rft, .txt, or .html format.

After the tables have been selected and the headers, pictures, and other format-
ting items have been addressed, click the Create Report button to generate the
report. The program will request a filename and the path to be used to store the
report. Figure 8-6 shows an example of the printed output generated by the Re-
port Writer.

Values used in the


verification calculations.

Figure 8-6 An example of the printed output

8.4 Verification
As a verification check of the design results, the output at station 1200 is exam-
ined. The following output for negative bending has been pulled from the Con-
BoxFlexure data table, a portion of which is shown in Figure 8-3:

8-6 Verification
Chapter 8 - Display Bridge Design Results

Demand moment, “DemandMax” (kip-in) = 245973.481

Resisting moment, “ResistingNeg” (kip-in) = 536981.722

Total area of prestressing steel, “AreaPTTop” (in2) = 20.0

Top k factor, “kFactorTop”, = 0.2644444

Neutral axis depth, c, “CDistForNeg” (in) = 5.1286

Effective stress in prestressing, fps, “EqFpsForNeg” (kip/in2) = 266.7879

A hand calculation verifies the results as follows:

 For top k factor, from eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2,

 f   245.1 
k  2  1.04  PY   2  1.04   0.26444 (Result match)
 fPU   270 

 For neutral axis depth, from eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4,

c
 
APT fPU  0.85 f c bslab  bwebeq tslabeq
, for a T-section
fPU
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
YPT

APT fPU
c , when not a T-section
fPU
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
YPT

20.0(270)
c  5.1286 (Results match)
 270 
0.85(4)(0.85)(360)  0.26444(20)  
 114 

 For effective stress in prestressing, from eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1,

 c   5.1286 
fPS  fPU  1  k   270  1  0.26444  266.788 (Results match)
 YPT   144 

Verification 8- 7
Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

 For resisting moment, from eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1,

 c   c t 
M N  APT f PS  YPT  1   0.85 f ' c  bSLAB  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  slabeq 
 2   2 2 

 c 
M N  APT f PS  YPT  1  , when the box section is not a T-section
 2 

 5.1286(0.85) 
M N  20.0(266.788)  144    596646.5 kip-in
 2 

M R   M N  0.85(596646.5)  536981.8 kip-in (Results match)

The preceding calculations are a check of the flexure design output. Other de-
sign results for concrete box stress, concrete box shear and concrete box princi-
pal have not been included. The user is encouraged to perform a similar check
of these designs and to review Chapters 5 and 6 for a detailed description of the
design algorithms.

8-8 Verification
References

ACI, 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)
and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, P.O.
Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

AASHTO, 2009. AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge


Design. American Association of Highway and Transportation Offi-
cials, 444 North Capital Street, NW Suite 249, Washington, DC 2001

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