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Concrete Box Girder Bridges and

Precast Concrete Composite Girder Bridges

AASHTO LRFD 2002 and 2007

Berkeley, California, USA April 2009

COPYRIGHT

All rights reserved.

TM

The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAP2000

TM

and Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat

are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered

trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

TM

The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are proprietary and

copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures,

Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form,

without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly

prohibited.

means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written

permission of the publisher.

1995 University Avenue

Berkeley, California 94704 USA

FAX: (510) 649-2299

e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions)

e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions)

web: www.csiberkeley.com

DISCLAIMER

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER

ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR

IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY

OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN

ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT

ADDRESSED.

THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY

A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST

INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL

RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 Introduction 1-1

1.1 Organization 1-1

1.2 Recommended Reading 1-2

2 Design Prerequisites

2-1 Load Pattern Types 2-1

2.2 Design Load Combinations 2-3

2.3 Default Load Combinations 2-4

3.1 Algorithm for Determining Live Load Distribution Factors

(LLDF) 3-1

3.2 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors 3-2

3.3 Apply LLD Factors 3-3

3.3.1 User Specified 3-4

i

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Code 3-4

3.3.3 Read Directly from Girder 3-4

3.3.4 Uniformly Distribution to Girders 3-4

3.4 Generate Virtual Combinations 3-5

3.4.1 Stress Check 3-5

3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check 3-6

3.5 Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders 3-6

3.5.1 Stress Check 3-6

3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check 3-6

3.6 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3-7

4.1 Name and Bridge Object 4-3

4.2 Check Type 4-3

4.4 Design Range 4-4

4.5 Demand Sets 4-7

4.6 Live Load Distribution Factors 4-7

5.1 Design Stress AASHTO-STD-2002 5-1

5.1.1 Capacity Parameters 5-1

5.1.2 Demand Parameters 5-2

5.1.3 Algorithm 5-2

5.2 Design Stress AASHTO-LFRD-2007 5-2

5.2.1 Capacity Parameters 5-2

5.2.2 Algorithm 5-3

5.2.3 Stress Design Example 5-3

5.3 Design of Flexure AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-5

5.3.1 Capacity Parameters 5-5

5.3.2 Variables 5-5

5.3.3 Design Process 5-6

ii

Contents

5.3.5 Flexure Design Example 5-9

5.4 Design Shear AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-14

5.4.1 Capacity Parameters 5-14

5.4.2 Variables 5-15

5.4.3 Design Process 5-16

5.4.4 Algorithm 5-17

5.4.5 Shear Design Example 5-23

5.5 Design Principal Stress AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-30

5.5.1 Capacity Parameters 5-30

5.5.2 Demand Parameters 5-30

5.5.3 Algorithm 5-31

6.1 Design Stress 6-1

6.2.1 Variables 6-3

6.2.2 Design Process 6-5

6.2.3 Algorithms 6-5

6.2.4 Shear Design Example 6-8

6.3 Design of Flexural 6-14

6.3.1 Variables 6-14

6.3.2 Design Process 6-15

6.3.3 Algorithms 6-16

6.3.4 Flexure Design Capacity Example 6-18

7.1 Description of Example Model 7-2

7.2 Design Preferences 7-3

7.3 Load Combinations 7-3

7.4 Bridge Design Request 7-5

7.5 Start Design/Check of Structure 7-6

iii

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

8 Design Output

8.1 Display Results as a Plot 8-1

8.2 Display Data Tables 8-2

8.3 Advanced Report Writer 8-4

8.4 Verification 8-6

References

iv

Contents

List of Figures

Figure 2-1 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge

Design form 2-5

Figure 2-2 Define Load Combinations form 2-6

Figure 3-1 Lever Rule 3-11

Figure 3-2 General Dimensions 3-14

Figure 4-1 Bridge Design Request - Concrete Box Girder

Bridges 4-2

Figure 4-2 Bridge Design Request - Composite I or U Girder

Bridges 4-2

Figure 4-3 Bridge Design Request Form 4-4

Beam, Type BIII-48 5-4

Figure 5-2 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Stress Design

AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 5-4

Figure 5-3 LRFD 2007 Flexure Design Cross-Section,

AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 5-10

Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 5-10

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam,

Type BIII-48 5-23

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example Reinforcement AASHTO

Box Beam, Type BIII-48 5-24

Figure 6-2 Shear design example beam section 6-9

Figure 6-3 Flexure capacity design example deck section 6-19

Figure 7-1 3D view of example concrete box girder

bridge model 7-2

v

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 7-3 Plan view of the example bridge 7-3

Figure 7-4 Bridge Design Preferences form 7-3

Figure7-5 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge

Design form 7-4

Figure 7- 7 Define Load Combinations form 7-5

Figure 7-8 Perform Bridge Design - Superstructure 7-6

Figure 8-1 Plot of flexure check results for the

example bridge design model 8-2

Figure 8-3 Design database table for AASHTO

LRFD 2007 flexure check 8-3

Figure 8-5 Create Custom Report form 8-5

Figure 8-6 An example of the printed output 8-6

vi

Chapter 1

Introduction

cordance with the AASHTO STD 2002 or AASHTO LRFD 2007 code for con-

crete box girder bridges or the AASHTO 2007 LRFD code for bridges when

the superstructure includes Precast I or U Beam with a composite slab. Design

using SAP2000/Bridge is based on load patterns, load cases, load combinations

and design requests. The design output can then be displayed graphically and

printed using a customized reporting format.

and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. SAP2000/Bridge is a

tool to help the user with that process. Only the aspects of design documented

in this manual are automated by the SAP2000/Bridge design capabilities. The

user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by

SAP2000/Bridge.

1.1 Organization

This manual is designed to help you become productive using SAP2000/Bridge

design in accordance with the available codes when modeling concrete box

girder bridges and precast concrete girder bridges. Chapter 2 describes loading

and load combinations. Chapter 3 describes Live Load Distribution Factors.

1-1

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Chapter 4 describes defining the design request, which includes the design re-

quest name, a bridge object name (i.e., the bridge model), check type (i.e., the

type of design), station range (i.e., portion of the bridge to be designed), design

parameters (i.e., overwrites for default parameters) and demand sets (i.e., load-

ing combinations). Chapters 5 and 6 provide the algorithms used by

SAP2000/Bridge in completing concrete box girder and precast concrete bridge

design in accordance with the AASHTO code. Chapter 7 explains how to run a

Design Request. Chapter 8 describes design output, which can be presented

graphically as plots, in data tables, and in reports generated using the Advanced

Report Writer feature in SAP2000.

It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applica-

ble “Watch & Learn” Series™ tutorials, which are found on our web site,

http://www.csiberkeley.com, before attempting to design a concrete box girder

or precast concrete bridge using SAP2000/Bridge. Additional information can

be found in the on-line Help facility available from within the software’s main

menu.

Chapter 2

Define Loads and Load Combinations

This chapter describes the steps that are necessary to define the loads and load

combinations that the user intends to use in the design of the bridge superstruc-

ture. The user may define the load combinations manually or have

SAP2000/Bridge automatically generate the code generated load combinations.

The appropriate design code may be selected using the Design menu > Bridge

Design > View/Revise Preference command. Currently, the AASHTO STD

2002 and AASHTO LRFD 2007 design codes are supported by SAP2000/

Bridge.

When the code generated load combinations are going to be used, it is impor-

tant for users to define the load pattern type in accordance with the applicable

code. The load pattern type can be defined using the Define menu > Load

Patterns command. The user options for defining the load pattern types are

summarized in the tables 2-1 and 2-2.

Tables 2-1 and 2-2 show the permanent and transient load pattern types that

can be defined in SAP2000/Bridge. The tables also show the AASHTO abbre-

viation and the load pattern descriptions. Users may choose any name to iden-

tify a load pattern type.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Table 2-1 PERMANENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTOLRFD 2007 Code

SAP2000 AASHTO

Load Pattern Type Reference Description of Load Pattern

CREEP CR Force effects due to creep

DOWNDRAG DD Downdrag force

DEAD DC Dead load of structural components and non-

structural attachments

SUPERDEAD DW Superimposed dead load of wearing surfaces

and utilities

BRAKING BR Vehicle braking force

HORIZ. EARTH PR EH Horizontal earth pressures

LOCKED IN EL Misc. locked-in force effects resulting from the

construction process

EARTH SURCHARGE ES Earth surcharge loads

VERT. EARTH PR EV Vertical earth pressure

PRESTRESS PS Hyperstatic forces from post-tensioning

Table 2-2 TRANSIENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Design Code

SAP2000 AASHTO

Load Pattern Type Reference Description of Load Pattern

BRAKING BR Vehicle braking force

CENTRIFUGAL CE Vehicular centrifugal loads

VEHICLE COLLISION CT Vehicular collision force

QUAKE EQ Earthquake

FRICTION FR Friction affects

ICE IC Ice loads

- IM Vehicle Dynamic Load Allowance

BRIDGE LL LL Vehicular live load

LL SURCHARGE LS Live load surcharge

PEDESTRIAN LL PL Pedestrian live load

SETTLEMENT SE Force effects due settlement

TEMP GRADIENT TG Temperature gradient loads

TEMPERATURE TU Uniform temperature effects

STEAM FLOW WA Water load and steam pressure

WIND–LIVE LOAD WL Wind on live load

WIND WS Wind loads on structure

Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

The code generated design load combinations make use of the load pattern

types noted in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Table 2-3 shows the load factors and com-

binations that are required in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code.

Table 2-3 Load Combinations and Load Factors Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Code

DC

DD

DW

EH LL

EV IM

ES CE

Load EL BR

Combo PS PL

Limit CR LS WA WS WL FR TU TG SE EQ IC CT CV

State SH

Str I

P 1.75 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Str II

P 1.35 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Str III

P - 1.00 1.40 - 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Str IV

P - 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20 - - - - -

Str V

P 1.35 1.00 0.40 1.00 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Ext Ev I

P EQ 1.00 - - 1.00 - - 1.00 - - -

Ext Ev II

P 0.5 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - 1.00 1.00 1.00

TG SE - - - -

Serv III 1.00 1.00 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Fatigue- - 0.75 - - - - - - - - - - -

LL, IM &

CE Only

Table 2-4 shows the maximum and minimum factors for the permanent loads

in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Table 2-4 Load Factors for Permanent Loads, P , Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Code

Load Factor

Type of Load Maximum Minimum

DC 1.25 0.90

DC: Strength IV only 1.50 0.90

DD: Downdrag 1.40 0.25

DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities 1.50 0.65

EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure 1.50 0.90

EL: Locked in Construction Stresses 1.00 1.00

EV: Vertical Earth Pressure 1.35 1.00

ES: Earth Surcharge 1.50 0.75

Two combinations for each permanent load pattern are required because of the

maximum and minimum factors. When the default load combinations are used,

SAP2000/Bridge automatically creates both load combinations (one for the

maximum and one for the minimum factor), and then automatically creates a

third combination that represents an enveloped combination of the max/min

combos.

Default design load combinations can be activated using the Define menu >

Load Combination command. Users can set the load combination data after

the Add Default Design Combos button is selected and the “Bridge” option is

chosen. The users may select the desired limit states and load cases using the

Code Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form shown in Figure

2-1.

Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

After the desired limit states and load cases have been selected,

SAP2000/Bridge will generate all of the code-required load combinations.

These can be viewed using the Display menu > Show Tables command or by

using the Show/Modify button on the Define Combinations form, which is

shown in Figure 2-2.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The load combinations denoted as Str-I1, Str-I2, and so forth refer to Strength I

load combinations. The load case StrIGroup1 is the name given to enveloped

load combination of all of the Strength I combinations. Enveloped load combi-

nations will allow for some efficiency later when the bridge design requests are

defined (see Chapter 4).

Chapter 3

Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

the live load distribution factors used to assign live load demands to individual

girders. An explanation is given with respect to how the distribution factors are

applied in a shear, stress, and moment check in accordance with the AASHTO

LRFD 2007 code. The live load distribution factors are applicable only to su-

perstructures that have a deck that includes precast I or U girders with compos-

ite slabs.

Legend:

Girder = beam + tributary area of composite slab

Section Cut = all girders present in the cross-section at the cut location

Factors (LLDF)

SAP2000 gives the user a choice of four methods to address distribution of live

load to individual girders.

dures outlined in AASHTO LRFD Section 4.6.2.2.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

from individual girders (available only for Area or Solid models).

Method 4 – SAP2000/Bridge distributes the live load uniformly into all girders.

Load case must be adjusted depending on which method is selected.

When the LLD factors are user specified or specified in accordance with the

code (Method 1 or 2), only one lane with a MultiLane Scale Factor = 1

should be loaded into a Moving Load cases included in the demand set com-

binations.

When SAP2000/Bridge reads the LLD factors directly from individual gird-

ers (Method 3, applicable to area and solid models only) or when

SAP2000/Bridge applies the LLD factors uniformly (Method 4), multiple

traffic lanes with relevant Multilane Scale Factors should be loaded in accor-

dance with code requirements.

At every section cut, the following geometric information is evaluated to de-

termine the LLD factors.

span lengththe length of span for which moment or shear is being calcu-

lated

girder designationthe first and last girder are designated as exterior girders

and the other girders are classified as interior girders

are ignored

rior web of the left exterior beam at deck level to the interior edge of the curb

or traffic barrier

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

gravity

the thickness of the composite slab t1 and the thickness of concrete slab

haunch t2

girder by the midway distances to neighboring girders and at the exterior

girder; includes the entire overhang on one side, and is bounded by the mid-

way distances to neighboring girder on the other side

Young’s modulus for both the slab and the beamsangle of skew support.

cordance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2 (eq. 4.6.2.2.1-1). The center of gravity

of the composite slab measured from the bottom of the beam is calculated as

the sum of the beam depth, thickness of the concrete slab haunch t2, and one-

half the thickness of the composite slab t1. Spacing of the girders is calculated

as the average distance between the centerlines of neighboring girders.

SAP2000/Bridge then verifies that the selected LLD factors are compatible

with the type of model: spine, area, or solid. If the LLD factors are read by

SAP2000/Bridge directly from the individual girders, the model type must be

area or solid. This is the case because with the spine model option,

SAP2000/Bridge models the entire cross section as one frame element and

there is no way to extract forces on individual girders. All other model types

and LLDF method permutations are allowed.

The application of live load distribution factors varies, depending on which

method has been selected: user specified; in accordance with code; directly

from individual girders; or uniformly distributed onto all girders.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

When this method is selected, SAP2000/Bridge reads the girder designations

(i.e., exterior and interior) and assigns live load distribution factors to the indi-

vidual girders accordingly.

When this method is selected, SAP2000/Bridge considers the data input by the

user for truck wheel spacing, minimum distance from wheel to curb/barrier and

multiple presence factor for one loaded lane.

rameters against requirements specified in the code (Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1,

4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1 and 4.6.2.2.3b-1). When any of the parameters values

are outside the range required by the code, the section cut is excluded from the

Design Request.

At every section cut, SAP2000/Bridge then evaluates the live load distribution

factors for moment and shear for exterior and interior girders using formulas

specified in the code (Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1 and

4.6.2.2.3b-1). After evaluation, the LLDF values are assigned to individual

girders based on their designation (exterior, interior). The same value equal to

the average of the LLDF calculated for the left and right girders is assigned to

both exterior girders. Similarly, all interior girders use the same LLDF equal to

the average of the LLDF of all of the individual interior girders.

When this method is selected, SAP2000/Bridge sets the live load distribution

factor for all girders to 1.

When this method is selected, the live load distribution factor is equal to 1/n

where n is the number of girders in the section. All girders have identical LLD

factors disregarding their designation (exterior, interior) and demand type

(shear, moment).

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

When the method for determining the live load distribution factors is user-

specified, code-specified, or uniformly distributed (Methods 1, 2 or 4),

SAP2000/Bridge generates virtual load combination for every valid section cut

selected for design. The virtual combinations are used during a stress check

and check of the shear and moment to calculate the forces on the girders. After

those forces have been calculated, the virtual combination are deleted. The

process is repeated for all section cuts selected for design.

Four virtual COMBO cases are generated for each COMBO that the user has

specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4). The program analyzes the de-

sign type of each load case present in the user specified COMBO and multi-

plies all non-moving load case types by 1/n (where n is the number of girders)

and the moving load case type by the section cut values of the LLD factors (ex-

terior moment, exterior shear, interior moment and interior shear LLD factors).

This ensures that dead load is shared evenly by all girders, while live load is

distributed based on the LLD factors.

The program then completes a stress check and a check of the shear and the

moment for each section cut selected for design.

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points

are read from SAP2000/Bridge for every virtual COMBO generated. To ensure

that live load demands are shared equally irrespective of lane eccentricity by all

girders, SAP2000/Bridge uses averaging when calculating the girder stresses. It

calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial and M3 moment demands

on all the beams in the entire section cut and dividing the demands by the

number of girders. Similarly, P and M3 forces in the composite slab are inte-

grated and stresses are calculated in the individual tributary areas of the slab by

dividing the total slab demand by the number of girders.

When stresses are read from SAP2000/Bridge into the SAPBridgeDesign mod-

ule, the stresses are multiplied by n (where n is number of girders) to make up

for the reduction applied in the Virtual Combinations.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the entire section cut forces are read from

SAP2000/Bridge for every Virtual COMBO generated. The forces are assigned

to individual girders based on their designation. (Forces from two virtual Com-

binationsone for shear and one for momentgenerated for exterior beam are

assigned to both exterior beams, and similarly, Virtual Combinations for inte-

rior beams are assigned to interior beams.)

When the method for determining the live load distribution is based on forces

read directly from the girders, the method varies based on which Design Check

has been specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points

are read from SAP2000/Bridge for every COMBO specified in the Design Re-

quest. SAP2000/Bridge calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial,

M3 and M2 moment demands on the beam at the center of gravity of the beam.

Similarly P, M3 and M2 demands in the composite slab are integrated at the

center of gravity of the slab tributary area.

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder forces are read from SAP2000/

Bridge for every COMBO specified in the Design Request. SAP2000/Bridge

calculates the demands on a girder by integrating axial, M3 and M2 moment

demands on the girder at the center of gravity of the girder.

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

The AASHTO-LRFD Specifications allow the use of advanced methods of

analysis to determine the live load distribution factors. However, for typical

bridges, the specifications list equations to calculate the distribution factors for

different types of bridge superstructures. The types of superstructures covered

by these equations are described in Table 4.6.2.2.1-1. From this table, bridges

with concrete decks supported on precast concrete I or bulb-tee girders are des-

ignated as cross-section “K.” Other tables in 4.6.2.2.2 list the distribution fac-

tors for interior and exterior girders including cross-section “K.”

The distribution factor equations are largely based on work conducted in the

NCHRP Project 12-26 and have been verified to give accurate results com-

pared to 3-dimensional bridge analysis and field measurements. The multiple

presence factors are already included in the distribution factor equations except

when the tables call for the use of the lever rule. In these cases, the computa-

tions need to account for the multiple presence factors. The user is providing

those as part of the Design Request definition together with wheel spacing,

curb to wheel distance and lane width.

Notice that the distribution factor tables include a column with the heading

“range of applicability”. The ranges of applicability listed for each equation are

based on the range for each parameter used in the study leading to the devel-

opment of the equation. When any of the parameters exceeds the listed value in

the “range of applicability” column, SAP2000 reports the incompliance and

excludes the section from design.

sections with diaphragms or cross-frames, the distribution factor for the exte-

rior beam shall not be taken less than that which would be obtained by assum-

ing that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.” This

provision was added to the specifications because the original study that devel-

oped the distribution factor equations did not consider intermediate dia-

phragms. Application of this provision requires the presence of a sufficient

number of intermediate diaphragms whose stiffness is adequate to force the

cross section to act as a rigid section. For prestressed girders, different jurisdic-

tions use different types and numbers of intermediate diaphragms. Depending

on the number and stiffness of the intermediate diaphragms, the provisions of

4.6.2.2.2d may not be applicable. If the user specifies option “Yes” in the

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

“Diaphragms Present” option the program follows the procedure outlined in the

provision 4.6.2.2.2d.

For this example, one deep reinforced concrete diaphragm is located at the

midspan of each span. The stiffness of the diaphragm was deemed sufficient to

force the cross-section to act as a rigid section; therefore, the provisions of

S4.6.2.2.2d apply.

Required information:

2

Noncomposite beam area, Ag = 1,085 in

4

Noncomposite beam moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in

Deck slab thickness, ts = 8 in.

Span length, L = 110 ft.

Girder spacing, S = 9 ft.-8 in.

Modulus of elasticity of the beam, EB = 4,696 ksi

Modulus of elasticity of the deck, ED = 3,834 ksi

C.G. to top of the basic beam = 35.62 in.

C.G. to bottom of the basic beam = 36.38 in.

1. Calculate n, the modular ratio between the beam and the deck.

n = E B ED (4.6.2.2.1-2)

2. Calculate eg, the distance between the center of gravity of the noncompo-

site beam and the deck. Ignore the thickness of the haunch in determin-

ing eg

Kg = n I Aeg2 (4.6.2.2.1-1)

2

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

beam with two or more design lanes loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.2b-1.

0.6 0.1

12.0 Lt s 3

0.1

0.075 9.667 9.5

0.6

9.667 110 0.2 2 984 704 12 110 8

3

= 0.796 lane (eq. 1)

be applied for bridge skews greater than 30 degrees. The bridge in this

example is skewed 20 degrees, and therefore, no skew correction factor

for moment is allowed.

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior beam with one

design lane loaded using Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1.

DM = 0.06 S 14 S L 0.3 K g

0.4 0.1

12.0 Lt s 3

0.1

= 0.06 9.667 14

0.4

9.667 110 0.3 2984704 3

= 0.542 lane (eq. 2)

Notice that the distribution factor calculated above for a single lane

loaded already includes the 1.2 multiple presence factor for a single lane,

therefore, this value may be used for the service and strength limit states.

However, multiple presence factors should not be used for the fatigue

limit state. Therefore, the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for the single

lane is required to be removed from the value calculated above to deter-

mine the factor used for the fatigue limit state.

at the obtuse corner must be applied to the distribution factor of all

skewed bridges. The value of the correction factor is calculated using

Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

0.3

SC = 1.0 0.20 12.0 Lt s3 K g tan

0.3

= 1.0 0.20 12.0 110 8 2 984 704

3

tan 20

= 1.047

7. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with two or

more design lanes loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.2 S 12 S 35

2

2

= 0.929 lane

8. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with one de-

sign lane loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.36 S 25.0

= 0.747 lane

DV = 1.047 0.747

= 0.782 lane (eq. 5)

9. From (1) and (2), the service and strength limit state moment distribution

factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.796 and 0.542 lane.

Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.796 lane.

From (4) and (5), the service and strength limit state shear distribution

factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.973 and 0.782 lane.

Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.973 lane.

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

11. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with two

or more design lanes using Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

DM = eDVinterior

e = 0.77 de 9.1

where de is the distance from the centerline of the exterior girder to the

inside face of the curb or barrier.

DM = 0.97(0.796) = 0.772 lane (eq. (7)

12. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with one

design lane using the lever rule as per Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Notice that this value does not include the multiple presence factor,

therefore, it is adequate for use with the fatigue limit state. For service

and strength limit states, the multiple presence factor for a single lane

loaded needs to be included.

DM = 0.672 1.2

= 0.806 lane (eq. 9) (Strength and Service)

13. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with two or

more design lanes loaded using Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1.

DV = eDVinterior

where:

e = 0.6 de 10

= 0.6 1.83 10

= 0.783

DV = 0.783 0.973

= 0.762 lane (eq. 10)

14. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with one de-

sign lane loaded using the lever rule as per Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1. This value

will be the same as the moment distribution factor with the skew correc-

tion factor applied.

DV = 1.047 0.806

= 0.845 lane (eq. 12) (Strength and Service)

tion of the distribution factors for exterior girders when the girders are

connected with relatively stiff cross-frames that force the cross-section to

act as a rigid section. As indicated in the introduction, these provisions

are applied to this example; the calculations are shown below.

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

beam (Table 3.6.1.1.2-1)

m1 = 1.20

m2 = 1.00

m3 = 0.85

R = N L N b X ext e x 2

(4.6.2.2.2d-1)

where:

the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (ft.)

tern of girders to each girder (ft.)

tern to the exterior girder (ft.) See Figure 1 for dimen-

sions.

= 0.1667 + 0.310

= 0.477 (Fatigue)

R = 1.2 0.477

= 0.572 (Strength)

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

= 0.333 + 0.443

= 0.776

Add the multiple presence factor of 1.0 for two lanes loaded:

R = 1.0 0.776

= 0.776 (Strength)

= 0.5 + 0.399

= 0.899

Add the multiple presence factor of 0.85 for three or more lanes loaded:

R = 0.85 0.899

= 0.764 (Strength)

Design Step 16.

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

16. From (7) and (9), the service and strength limit state moment distribution

factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.772 and 0.806

lane. Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.806 lane.

From (10) and (12), the service and strength limit state shear distribution

factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.762 and 0.845

lane. Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.845 lane.

Table 3.1 Summary of Service and Strength Limit State Distribution Factors

Moment Moment Shear Shear

interior exterior interior exterior

Load Case beams beams beams beams

Distribution factors from Multiple lanes loaded 0.796 0.772 0.973 0.762

Tables in 4.6.2.2.2

Single lane loaded 0.542 0.806 0.782 0.845

connected girders Single lane loaded NA 0.572 NA 0.572

Design Value 0.796 0.806 0.973 0.845

Chapter 4

Define a Bridge Design Requests

This chapter describes the Bridge Design Request, which is defined using the

Define menu > Bridge Design > Define Design Request command.

Each Bridge Design Request is unique and specifies which bridge object is to

be designed, the type of check to be performed (e.g., concrete box stress, pre-

cast composite stress, and so on), the station range (i.e., the particular zone or

portion of the bridge that is to be designed), the design parameters (i.e., pa-

rameters that may be used to overwrite the default values automatically set by

the program) and demand sets (i.e., the load combination[s] to be considered).

Multiple Bridge Design Requests may be defined for the same bridge object.

Before defining a design request, the applicable code should be specified using

the Design menu > Bridge Design > View/Revise Preferences command.

Currently, the AASHTO STD 2002 or AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is available

for a design of a concrete box girder or the AASHTO 2007 LRFD code is

available for the design of a Precast I or U Beam with Composite Slab super-

structure.

Figure 4-1 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for

a concrete box girder bridge, and the check type is concrete box stress. Figure

4-2 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for a

Composite I or U girder bridge and the check type is precast composite stress.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Requests

Each Bridge Design Request must have unique name. Any name can be used.

If multiple Bridge Objects are used to define a bridge model, select the bridge

object to be designed for the Design Request. If a bridge model contains only a

single bridge object, the name of that bridge object will be the only item avail-

able from the Bridge Object drop-down list.

The Check Type refers to the type of design to be performed and the available

options depend on the type of bridge deck being modeled.

check type options:

SAP2000/Bridge provides three check type options, as followings:

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The bold type denotes the name that appears in the check type drop-down list.

A detailed description of the design algorithm can be found in Chapter 5 for

Concrete Box Girder Bridges and in Chapter 6 for Precast I or U Beam with

Composite Slabs.

The station range refers to the particular zone or portion of the bridge that is to

be designed. The user may choose the entire length of the bridge, or specify

specific zones using station ranges. Multiple zones (i.e., station ranges) may be

specified as part of a single design request.

When defining a station range, the user specifies the Location Type, which de-

termines if the superstructure forces are to be considered before or at a station

point. The user may choose the location type as before the point, after the point

or both.

Design parameters are overwrites that can be used to change the default values

set automatically by the program. The parameters are specific to each code,

deck type, and check type. Figure 4-3 shows the Superstructure Design Pa-

rameters form.

Design Request

Form

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Requests

Table 4-1 shows the parameters for concrete box girder. Table 4-2 shows the

parameters applicable when the superstructure has a deck that includes precast

I or U girders with composite slabs.

AASHTO STD 2002

Resistance Factor - multiplies both compression and tension

Concrete Box Stress stress limits

Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

Multiplier on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given

in the units specified

The tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi

units for f c and the resulting tension limit

AASHTO LRFD 2007

Concrete Box Stress Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies

both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier on f c

to calculate the compression stress limit

Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier on

sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the units

specified

Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit fac-

tor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c and the

resulting tension limit

Concrete Box Shear Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies

both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that

multiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored resistance

for light-weight concrete

Include Resal (Hunching-girder) shear effects – Yes or No. Speci-

fies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or

tension, in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth

members shall or shall not be considered when determining the

design factored shear force per Article 5.8.6.2.

Concrete Box Shear Rebar Material - A previously defined rebar

material label that will be used to determine the area of shear

rebar required

Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material - A previously defined

rebar material that will be used to determine the area of longi-

tudinal torsional rebar required

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Concrete Box Flexure Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies

both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Principal See the Box Stress design parameter specifications

AASHTO STD 2002

Precast Comp Stress Precast Comp Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both

compression and tension stress limits

Precast Comp Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier on f c

to calculate the compression stress limit

Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier on

sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the units

specified

Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit fac-

tor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c and the

resulting tension limit

Precast Comp Shear Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both

compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that mul-

tiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored resistance for

light-weight concrete

Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal rein-

forcement - per section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = -0.4x10-3, Typi-

cal value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3

Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforce-

ment - per section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10-3, Typical

value(s): 6.0x10-3

PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default

Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default

Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0

Specifies what method for shear design will be used - either

Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) per 5.8.3.4.2 or Vci

Vcw method per 5.8.3.4.3 Currently only MCFT option is available.

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to de-

termine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder

A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine

the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

Precast Comp Flexure Precast Comp Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies

both compression and tension stress limits

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Requests

A demand set name is required for each load combination that is to be consid-

ered in a design request. The load combinations may be selected from a list of

user defined or default load combinations that are program determined (See

Chapter 2).

When the superstructure has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with

composite slabs, Live Load Distribution Factors can be specified. LLD factors

are described in Chapter 3.

Chapter 5

Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the AASHTO

STD-2002, LRFD 07 code for design and stress check of the superstructure of

a concrete box type bridge deck section.

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0

The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain the compression

limit.

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa)

The f c is multiplied by the FactorTensLim to obtain the tension limit.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

FactorCompLim – percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service

design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5

The demand compressive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor.

This way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one com-

pression limit.

FactorTensLim – percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;

Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5

The demand tensile stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This

way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one tension

limit.

5.1.3 Algorithm

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the

bottom fiber. The location of the points are extreme left, Bridge Layout Line

and extreme right. The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account

axial (P) and both bending moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. If the demand set contains live

load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at each of the

evaluation points.

The stresses are divided by the appropriate demand parameter. Then extremes

are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see sec-

tion 5.1.1).

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0

The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit.

cal value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa)

The f c is multiplied by the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

5.2.2 Algorithm

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the

bottom fiber. The location of the points are extreme left, Bridge Layout Line

and extreme right. The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account

axial (P) and both bending moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. If the demand set contains live

load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at each of the

evaluation points.

Extremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is re-

corded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see 5.2.1).

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-1

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi

Design span = 95.0 ft

Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation

2

Area of one strand = 0.153 in

Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi

Yield strength fpy = 0.9 ksi

fpu = 243 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 5-1 LRFD 2007 Stress Design, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Reinforcing bars:

yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi

Section Properties

2

A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in

h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in

4

I = moment of inertia about centroid of the beam = 170812 in

yb,yt = distance from centroid to the extreme

bottom (top) fiber of the beam = 19.5 in

P = 856.51 kip

M3 = 897.599 kip-in

P M3 856.51 897.599

top ytop 19.5 0.9344 ksi

A I 826 170812

Bottom fiber stress =

P M3 856.51 897.599

top ybot 19.5 1.139 ksi

A I 826 170812

Stresses reported by SAP2000:

top fiber stress envelope = 0.9345 ksi

bottom fiber stress envelope = 1.13945 ksi

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0

The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain

factored resistance

5.3.2 Variables

Resistance factor for flexure

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

bslab Effective flange width = horizontal width of slab, measured from out to

out

prestressing tendons

of all tendons in tensile zone)

fpy Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average if all

tendons in tensile zone)

The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate

stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between

concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular

concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 f c over a zone bounded by the

edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis

at the distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is

measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for

concrete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

ksi, β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0

ksi, except that β1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

The resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate

capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based

only on bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement

is not considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section,

the capacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a sec-

tion, stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu

(specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the

flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and

superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported

in section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange (slab)

in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

5.3.4 Algorithm

At each section:

All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units

to N, mm.

The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on slab area and slab width

assuming rectangular shape.

Aslab

tslabeq

bslab

tal thicknesses

nweb

bwebeq b

1

web

tion f c

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

f c 28

if f c > 28 MPa then 1 max(0.85 0.05; 0.65)

7

else 1 0.85

The tendon location, area and material are read. Only bonded tendons are

processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-

ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and

is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the

bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends

over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-

cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme

compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral

axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

- center of gravity of tendons yPT

- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel fpu

- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

f py

k 2(1.04 )

f pu

The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in

accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

APT f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bslab kAPT

y pt

the section is a T-section or rectangular section.

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

(eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

y pt

5.7.3.1.1-1).

c

f ps f pu (1 k )

y pt

5.7.3.2.2-1)

c c tslabeq

M n APT f ps yPT 1 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq 1

2 2 2

else

c

M n APT f ps yPT 1

2

Mr = Mn

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and

the controlling demand set name is recorded.

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-3.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)

Design span = 95.0 ft

Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation

2

Area of one strand = 0.153 in

Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi

Yield strength fpy = 0.9 ksi

fpu = 243 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Reinforcing bars:

yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi

Section Properties

2

A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in

h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in

4

I = moment of inertia about centroid of the beam = 170812 in

yb, yt = distance from centroid to the extreme

bottom (top) fiber of the beam = 19.5 in

P = 856.51 kip

M3 = 897.599 kip-in

The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on slab area and slab width

assuming rectangular shape.

Aslab 48 5.5

tslabeq 5.5in

bslab 48

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 5.5 in

tal thicknesses

nweb

bwebeq b

1

web 5 5 10 in

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-

ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and

is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the

bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends

over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-

cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme

compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral

axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

2

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 4.437 in

23 2 6 4

yPTbottom 39 36.586 in

23 6

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 19.5 + 17.0862 = 36.586 in

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 270 kip

f py 243

k 2 1.04 2 1.04 0.28

f pu 270

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.28

1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on sec-

tion f c

f c 28

1 max 0.85 0.05;0.65

7

34.473 28

max 0.85 0.05;0.65 0.80376

7

Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.8037 (not reported)

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in

accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

APT f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bslab kAPT

y pt

4.437 270

6.91in

0.85 5 0.8037 48 0.28 4.437 36.586

270

the section is a T-section or a rectangular section.

T-section.

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge, section = T-section

with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

y pt

4.437 270 0.85 5(48 10)5.5

7.149 in

0.85 5 0.8037 10 0.28 4.437 36.586

270

5.7.3.1.1-1).

c 7.149

f ps f pu 1 k 270 1 0.28 255.23 ksi

y pt 36.586

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 255.228 ksi

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

c c tslabeq

M n APT f ps yPT 1 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq 1

2 2 2

7.149 0.80376

4.437 255.228 36.586

2

7.149 0.80376 5.5

0.85 5 48 10 5.5

2 2

38287.42 kip-in

Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 38287.721 kip-in (not reported)

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 38287.721 kip-in

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9

The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by

the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

= 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9

The nominal shear capacity of light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by

the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance

Specifies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or tension,

in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth members shall or shall

not be considered when determining the design factored shear force.

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to determine the

area of shear rebar required.

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to determine the

area of longitudinal torsional rebar required.

5.4.2 Variables

Resistance factor for shear

CGtop, CGbot Distance from c.g. of section to top and bottom fiber

chords of the space truss resisting torsion

b cos web

ducts

count for presence of ducts

treme compression fiber to CG of tensile PT)

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The shear resistance is determined in accordance with Paragraph 5.8.6 (Shear

and Torsion for Segmental Box Girder Bridges). The procedure is not applica-

ble to discontinuity regions and applies only to sections where it is reasonable

to assume that plane sections remain plane after loading. The user should select

for design only those sections that comply with the preceding assumptions by

defining appropriate station ranges in the Bridge Design Request.

flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the demand shear, in vari-

able depth members is considered when determining the design section shear

force (paragraph 5.8.6.1).

The section design shear force is distributed into individual webs assuming that

the vertical shear that is carried by a web decreases with increased inclination

of the web from vertical. Section torsion moments are assigned to external

webs and slabs.

The rebar area and ratio are calculated using measurements normal to the web.

Thus, vertical shear forces are divided by cos(alpha_web). The rebar area cal-

culated is the actual, normal cross-section of the bars. The rebar ratio is calcu-

lated using the normal width of the web, tweb = bweb cos(alpha_web).

5.8.6.1. In determining the web or flange effective thickness, be, one-half of the

diameters of ducts is subtracted. All defined tendons in a section, stressed or

not, are assumed to be grouted. Each tendon at a section is checked for pres-

ence in the web or flange and the minimum controlling effective web and

flange thicknesses are evaluated.

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

The tendon duct is considered as having effect on the web or flange effective

thickness even if only part of the duct is within the element boundaries. In such

cases, the entire one-half of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the ele-

ment thickness

If several tendon ducts overlap in one flange or web (when projected on the

horizontal axis for flange, or when projected on vertical axis for the web), the

diameters of ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the effective thick-

ness. In the web, the effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bottom

of each duct; in the flange, the effective thickness is evaluated at the left and

right side of the duct.

The Shear and Torsion Design is completed first on a per web basis. Rebar

needed for individual webs is then summed and reported for the entire section.

The D/C ratio is calculated for each web. Then the shear area of all webs is

summed and the entire section D/C is calculated. Therefore, the controlling

section D/C does not have to necessarily match the controlling web D/C (in

other words, other webs can make up the capacity for a “weak” web).

5.4.4 Algorithm

All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units

to N, mm.

flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the demand shear, in vari-

able depth members is evaluated as follows:

Inclination angles of the top and bottom slabs are determined

slab top arctan

Stat2 Stat1

yslab bot2 yslab bot1

slab bot arctan

Stat2 Stat1

where

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

yslab top2 , yslab top1 vertical coordinate of center of gravity of top slab at

stations 1 and 2. Y origin assumed at the top of the section and +

direction is up.

lyzed is “Before” the current section station is Stat2, when sec-

tion being analyzed is “After” the current section station is Stat1.

Therefore statement Stat1 Stat2 is always valid.

P M

Pslab top Aslab top u u 3 dslab top

A I3

P M

Pslab bot Aslab bot u u 3 dslab bot

A I3

where dslab top , dslab bot are distances from center of gravity of the section

to center of gravity of the slab (positive)

as follows:

On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand

values are evaluated

Outer Web Inner Web

Location Vuweb Tuweb Vuweb Tuweb

Shear and abs(Vu2 Presal top Presal bot ) Abs(Tu) abs(Vu2 Presal top Presal bot ) 0

Torsion

cos web cos web

Check

cos | web |

where web

cos | web |

nweb

1

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Evaluate dv bv be tv

– If bv 0, then

D

WebPassFlag 2, 0; Avsweb 0; Avtweb 0; Avsflag 2; Avtflag 2

C

proceed to report web results

Evaluate design f c

P M3 P M3

bot CGbot top CGtop tens max top , bot

A I 33 A I 33

|P|

– If tens 0.5 f c , then K = 1 else K 1 A

0.166 f c

where K < 2

Vuweb Vcweb

Vsweb

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Vsweb

else Avsweb

f y dv

else Avswebflag 1

Vsweb Avsweb f y dv

Vuweb

D

C sweb bv dv f c

Tcr 0.166 K f c 2 A0 be

1

If Tuweb Tcr then:

3

– Avtflag 0

– Avtweb 0

– Al 0

TorsionEffectsFlag=0

else:

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Avtflag 1

Tuweb

Avtweb

A0 2 f y

Tuweb ph

Al

A0 2 f ylong

TorsionEffectsFlag=1

Vuweb T

uweb

D b d 2 A0 be

v v

C tweb 1.25 f c

D D

If then RatioFlag = 0

C sweb C tweb

else

RatioFlag=1

D D D

max ,

C C sweb C tweb

D

If 1 then WebPassFlag=1

C

else

WebPassFlag = 0

Flag = 1 – rebar governed by demand

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Flag = 3 – rebar not calculated since web not part of shear flow path for

torsion

Vcsection V cweb

Vssection V sweb

Vnsection V nweb

Alsection Al

nweb Vuweb

tv

1 bv dv

nweb

D tv

1

C ssection f c

| Vu |

nweb

D t v dv

1

C s sec tion f c

and

| Vu | | Tu |

2 A0 be

nweb

D t v dv

1

C tsection 1.25 f c

D D

If then RatioFlag = 0 else RatioFlag = 1

C ssection C tsection

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

D D D

max ,

C C ssection C tsection

D

If 1 then SectionPassFlag=1

C

else

SectionPassFlag = 0

Flag = 0 – Section Passed all code checks

Flag = 1 – Section D/C >1

Flag = 2 – Section be < 0 (section invalid)

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-5.

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

φ = 0.9

Concrete unit weight, wc = 0.150 kcf

λ =1.0

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)

Design span = 95.0 ft

Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation

2

Area of one strand = 0.153 in

Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi

Yield strength fpy = 0.9

fpu = 243 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Section Properties

2 2

A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in (~532902 mm )

h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in (~990.6 mm)

I = moment of inertia about

4 4

centroid of the beam = 170812 in (~71097322269 mm )

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

extreme bottom (top) fiber of

the beam = 19.5 in (~495.3 mm)

2 2

Aslabtop = Aslabbot = 485.5 = 264 in (~170322 mm )

= (48 5) (39 5.5)

2 2

Ao = 1440.5 in (~929353 mm )

Ph = 2 (48 5 + 39 5.5) = 153 in (~3886.2 mm)

P = 800 kip (~ 3560 E+03 N)

M3 = 7541 kip-in (~ 852 E+06 Nmm)

V2 = 33 kip (~ 148.3 E+03 N)

T = 4560 kip-in (515.2 E+06 Nmm)

All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units

to N, mm.

On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand

values are evaluated.

Location Vuweb Tuweb Vuweb Tuweb

Shear and abs(Vu 2 Presal top Presal bot ) Abs(Tu)=515.2E+06 N/A 0

Torsion cos web N/A

Check

abs(148.3E 03 0 0) 1

74151.9 N

cos0

where web 0.5

cos | web | cos | 0 |

nweb 2

1 1

min(127,127,139.7,139.7) 127mm

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

max(0.8 990.6,495.3 419.1) 914.4mm

Evaluate design f c

P M3 3560 E 03 852 E 06

bot CGbot 495.3 12.616 MPa.

A I 33 532902 71097322269

P M3 3560 E 03 852 E 06

top CGtop 495.3 0.745MPa

A I 33 532902 71097322269

tens max( top , bot ) max( 12.61, 0.745) 0.745MPa

|P| | 3560 E 03 |

else K 1 A 1 532902 2.8

0.166 f c 0.166 5.871

226781N.

Vsweb 144392 N

0.9

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Vsweb

else Avsweb

f y dv

0.35 127

Avsweb 0.35t f y 0.10745mm 2 / mm and Aswebflag 0

413.68

Else Avswebflag 1

Vn web Vcweb Vsweb 226781 40645 267426 N

Vuweb 74151.9

D 0.9

0.1208

C sweb bv dv f c 127 914.4 5.871

460147 419 Nmm

1 1

If Tuweb Tcr 515.2 E 6 0.9 460 E 6 false, then:

3 3

Avtflag 1

Tuweb 515.2 E 6

Avtweb 0.7444mm 2 / mm

A0 2 f y 0.9 929352 2 413.68

Al 2893mm 2

A0 2 f ylong 0.9 929352 2 413.68

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

TorsionEffectsFlag=1

uweb

D bv dv 2 A0 be 0.9 127 914.4 0.9 2 929352 127

C tweb 1.25 f c 1.25 5.871

0.427

D D

If then RatioFlag = 0 false

C sweb C tweb

else

RatioFlag =1 true

D D D

max , max 0.1208,0.427 0.427

C C sweb C tweb

D

If 1 , then WebPassFlag =1 true

C

else

WebPassFlag = 0

Flag = 1 – rebar governed by demand => true

Flag = 2 – rebar not calculated since web bv< 0

Flag = 3 – rebar not calculated since web not part of shear flow path for

torsion

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Vnsection V nweb 2 267 426 534852 N

Avssection A vsweb 2 0.10 745 0.2149 mm 2 / mm

Alsection Al 2893mm 2

nweb Vuweb

tv

1 bv dv

nweb

D tv

1

This is equivalent to:

C ssection f c

| Vu | 148.3E 3

127 914.4 0.1208

nweb 2

D t v dv 0.9

1

1

C ssection f c 5.871

and

| Vu | | Tu |

2 A0 be

nweb

D t v dv

1

C tsection 1.25 f c

148.3E 3 515.2 E 6

127 914.4 0.9 2 929352 127

2

0.9

1

0.427

1.25 5.871

D D

If then RatioFlag = 0 false

C ssection C tsection

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

D D D

max , max 0.1208,0.427 0.427

C C ssection C tsection

D

If 1 , then SectionPassFlag = 1 true

C

else

SectionPassFlag = 0

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0.

The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit

cal value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f c is multiplied by the

FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

FactorCompLim – Percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service

design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand compres-

sive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the control-

ling stress can be selected and compared against one compression limit.

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

FactorTensLim – Percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;

Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand tensile stresses are

divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the controlling stress can be

selected and compared against one tension limit.

5.5.3 Algorithm

The principal stresses are evaluated at three points at each web: the web cen-

terline at the bottom of the top slab; web centerline at the top of the bottom

slab; and web centerline at the section neutral axis.

The principal stresses are evaluated for each demand set using the Mohr circle

to combine bending, shear, and torsion stresses. The bending stresses assume

linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and both bending moments

(M2 and M3). The shear flow is calculated internally by the program taking

into account section properties at the elevation of the stress point. A shear scale

factor is used to convert the total shear flow acting at an elevation (y-

coordinate) to tangential shear stress in the web. The scale factor is equal to the

web shear-distribution factor divided by the cosine of the angle of inclination

of the web from vertical, and divided again by the design width of the web.

web

ShearScaleFactor

bweb cos web

cos(| web |)

where web and bweb is the horizontal width of web

nweb

1

cos(| web |)

A torsion scale factor is used to convert the total torque acting on the section

to tangential shear stress in the web. For interior webs, this is equal to zero.

For exterior webs, this is equal to one divided by the plastic torsional

modulus.

1

TorsionScaleFactor

Wt

where Wt 2 A0 t min

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

If the demand set contains live load, the program positions the load to cap-

ture extreme stress at each of the evaluation points.

The stresses are divided by the appropriate demand parameter. Then the ex-

tremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is re-

corded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Sec-

tion 5.6.1).

Chapter 6

Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

AASHTO-LRFD-07 code for design and stress check when the superstructure

has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with composite slabs.

The following parameters are considered during stress design:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The

compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

to 0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression

limit

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f ' c is multiplied by

the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the composite slab:

the left corner, the centerline beam and the right corner of the composite slab

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

tributary area. The location of stress output points at the slab bottom fiber and

beam top and bottom fiber depends on the type of precast beam present in the

section cut. The location is labeled in the output plots and tables.

Concrete strength f c is read at every point and compression and tension limits

are evaluated using the FactorCompLim - f c multiplier and FactorTensLim -

f ' c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and ei-

ther both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on

which method for determining LLDF has been specified in the design request

(see Chapters 3 and 4).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. Extremes are found for each

point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the preceding Capacity Parameters.

The following parameters are considered during shear design:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9.

The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied

by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

Value = 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of

light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain

factored resistance.

Check Sub Type – Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear

design will be used: either Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in

accordance with 5.8.3.4.2; or Vci/Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3

Currently only the MCFT option is available.

cordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 0.4x10 , Typical value(s):

-3

0 to 0.4x10

-3

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

-3

cordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10 , Typical value(s):

-3

6.0x10

1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0. Shear Rebar Material- A previously defined

rebar material label that will be used to determine the required area of trans-

verse rebar in the girder

will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

6.2.1 Variables

V Resistance factor for shear

prestressing force; if Vp has the same sign as Vu, then the component

is resisting the applied shear

a Depth of equivalent stress block per 5.7.3.2.2. Varies for positive and

negative moment.

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

of the precast beam

Aps Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member,

Avl Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the mem-

ber at the section under consideration

5.8.3.4.2-4

nal tension reinforcement as specified in the Design request

AVS min Minimum area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length per

eq. 5.8.2.5

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

The shear resistance is determined in accordance with paragrah 5.8.3.4.2 (de-

rived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure assumes that

the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over an area bv wide and dv

deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses (defined by angle θ

and shown as D) remains constant over dv, and that the shear strength of the

section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress conditions at just

one location in the web. The user should select for design only those sections

that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate station ranges in

the design request (see Chapter 4).

It is assumed that the precast beams are pre-tensioned, and therefore, no ducts

are present in webs. The effective web width is taken as the minimum web

width, measured parallel to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the ten-

sile and compressive forces as a result of flexure.

description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

6.2.3 Algorithms

All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units

to N, mm.

For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes,

a new force demand set is generated. The new force demand set is built up

from the maximum tension values of P and the maximum absolute values of

V2 and M3 of the two StepTypes (Max and Min) present in the envelope

COMBO case. The StepType of this new force demand set is named ABS

and the signs of the P, V2 and M3 are preserved. The ABS case follows the

industry practice where sections are designed for extreme shear and moments

that are not necessarily corresponding to the same design vehicle position.

The section cut is designed for all three StepTypes in the COMBOMax,

Min and ABSand the controlling StepType is reported.

The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestress-

ing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

V2 c V2Tot

Vp

n girders

Depth of equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative moment is

evaluated in accordance with eq. 5.7.3.1.1

If Mu < 0 then

dv max 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 (dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ),(dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) 0.5 a

If Mu Vu Vp dv then Mu (Vu Vp ) dv

missible shear capacity at a section in accordance with 5.8.3.2-2

Vu

Vp

D V

(5.8.3.2-2)

C 0.25 f 'c b dv

Mu

snumerator 0.5 N u Vu Vp Aps 0.7 f pu

dV

snumerator

E p Aps

s

Avl

Es

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

snumerator

s

sdenominator

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face

of the section.

Nu

If 0.52 f 'c then s 2 s

Agirder

reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate

how much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit

termined in Article 5.8.3.4

18 29 3500 s 45 (5.8.3.4)

transmit tension and shear, as specified in Article 5.8.3.4

4.8

(5.8.3.4)

1 750 s

eq. 5.8.3.3-3

Vc 0.083 f 'c b dv

Vu

VS V p Vc

s

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Vs

if VS 0 then AVS 0 else AVS (per eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1

f y dv

tan

0.083 f 'c b

If Vu 0.5 s Vc Vp then AVSmin in accordance

fy

with (eq. 5.8.2.5-1), else AVS min 0

1

VS AVS f y dv

tan

5.8.3.5-1)

VU Vu

VP 0.5 min(VS , )

MU NU S 1

ASLreq ( 0. 5 E p Aps )

dv f P tan fy

AVL max( AVL , ASLreq )

sign

The girder spacing is 9’-8”. The girder type is AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72-

inch-deep, 42-inch-wide top flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO

28/72 Girders). The concrete deck is 8 inches thick, with the haunch thickness

assumed = 0.

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Materials

Concrete strength

Prestressed girders 28-day strength, f c = 6 ksi,

Girder final elastic modulus, Ec = 4,415 ksi

Deck slab: 4.0 ksi, Deck slab elastic modulus, Es = 3,834 ksi

Reinforcing steel Yield strength, fy = 60 ksi

Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270

2

Strand area, Aps = 0.153 in

Steel yield strength, fpy = 243 ksi

Steel ultimate strength, fpu = 270 ksi

Prestressing steel modulus, Ep = 28,500 ksi

Depth = 72 in.

Thickness of web = 8 in.

2

Area, Ag = 1,085 in

Ac = Area of concrete on the flexural

tension side of the member (bordered

2

at mid depth of the beam + slab height) = 551 in

4

Moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in

N.A. to top, yt = 35.62 in.

N.A. to bottom, yb = 36.38 in.

P/S force eccentricity e = 31.380 in.

width of concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width. For the interior

beam, the bslab 9'8" 116in .

after girder Section 2, Vu = 319.1 kip; Mu = 3678 kip-ft

The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestress-

ing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

V2 c V2Tot

Vp Vp = 0 since no inclined tendons are present.

n girders

6 - 10 Design Shear

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Depth of equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative moment is

evaluated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1).

Since Mu > 0, then (for calculation of the depth of the compression block,

refer to the Ultimate Flexure example in Section 6.3.4 of this manual)

max(0.72 80", 0.9 75", 75" 0.5 5.314 0.85)

d v max(57.6" ,67.5" ,72.74" ) 72.74"

Check if Mu Vu Vp dv

in accordance with 5.8.3.2-2

Vu 319

Vp 0

D V 0.9

0.406

C 0.25 f 'c b dv 0.25 6 8 72.74

Mu

snumerator 0.5 N u Vu Vp Aps 0.7 f pu

dV

3678 12

0.5 0 319 0 6.73 0.7 270 346.2 kip

72.74

Design Shear 6 - 11

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

snumerator

E p Aps

s

Avl not applicable

Es

If snumerator 0 then

sdenominator E p Aps Es Avl Ec Ac

28500 6.73 4415 551.4 26 263461 kip

snumerator 346.2

s 1.318e-4

sdenominator 2626346

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face

of the section

Nu

If 0.52 f 'c then s 2 s ; not applicable since Nu = 0

Agirder

forcement as specified in the Design Request and recalculate Avl

mined in Article 5.8.3.4

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 28.5 deg

tension and shear as specified in Article 5.8.3.4

4.8 4.8

5.3265

1 750 s 1 750 1.318e-4

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 5.3267

6 - 12 Design Shear

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

(eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Vc 0.0316 f 'c b dv

0.0316 5.32 1.0 6 8 72.74 239.92 kip

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 240.00 kip

Vu 319

VS Vp Vc 0 239.6 114.8 kip

s 0.9

Vs 114.8

AVS 1.43e-2 in 2 /in (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1 1

f y dv 60 72.74

tan tan 28.5

Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement

0.0316 f 'c b 0.0316 1.0 6 8

AVS min 0.01032in 2 /in (eq.

fy 60

5.8.2.5-1)

If VS 0 then AVS AVS min else AVS max( AVS min , AVS ) 1.43e-2in 2 /2

2

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 1.43e-2in /in

1 1

VS AVS f y dv 0.0143 60 72.74 114.9 kip

tan tan 28.5

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 114.6 kip

5.8.3.5-1

Design Shear 6 - 13

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

VU Vu

VP 0.5 min VS ,

S

E p Aps

MU N 1

ASLreq 0.5 U S

dv f P tan fy

319

3678 12 0 0.5 114.9 1

0 0.9

0.5 28500 6.73 3176.3 in 2

72.74 0.9 1.0 tan 28.5 60

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.00 in no additional longitu-

2

The following parameters are used in the design of flexure:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The

nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain fac-

tored resistance

6.3.1 Variables

Resistance factor for flexure

measured from out to out

6 - 14 Design of Flexure

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

prestressing tendons

age of all tendons in tensile zone)

all tendons in tensile zone)

The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate

stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between

concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular

concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 fc over a zone bounded by the edges

of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the

distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is meas-

ured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for con-

crete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi,

β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi,

except that β1 is not be taken to be less than 0.65.

tance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate capacity is

calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based only on

bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement is not

considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section, the ca-

pacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a section,

stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu (specified

tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the flexural

capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

Design of Flexure 6 - 15

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and

superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported

in section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange (slab)

in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

6.3.3 Algorithms

At each section:

All section properties and demands are converted from SAP2000 model units

to N, mm.

f c 28

If f c >28 MPa, then 1 max(0.85 0.05;0.65)

7

else 1 0.85

The tendon location, area and material are read. Only bonded tendons are

processed, unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-

ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and

is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the

bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends

over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-

cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme

compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral

axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

6 - 16 Design of Flexure

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

f py

k 2 1.04

f pu

sion stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neutral axis

and the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

APT f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bslab kAPT

y pt

The distance c is compared to the slab thickness. If the distance to the neutral

axis c is larger than the composite slab thickness, the distance c is re-

evaluated. For this calculation, the beam flange width and area are converted

to their equivalents in slab concrete by multiplying the beam flange width by

the modular ratio between the precast girder concrete and the slab concrete.

The web width in the equation for c is substituted for the effective converted

girder flange width. The distance c is recalculated in accordance with (eq.

5.7.3.1.1-3).

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

y pt

If the calculated value of c exceeds the sum of the deck thickness and the

equivalent precast girder flange thickness, the program assumes the neutral

axis is below the flange of the precast girder and recalculates c. The term

0.85 f c b bw in the calculation is broken into two terms, one refers to the

contribution of the deck to the composite section flange and the second refers

to the contribution of the precast girder flange to the composite girder flange.

5.7.3.1.1-1

c

f ps f pu 1 k

y pt

Design of Flexure 6 - 17

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

c c tslabeq

M n APT f ps yPT 1 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq 1

2 2 2

else

c

M n APT f ps yPT 1

2

M r M n

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and

the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous, except that

calculation of positive moment resistance is not applicable.

Girder spacing: 9’-8”

flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO 28/72 Girders)

Materials

Concrete strength

Prestressed girders 28-day strength, fc = 6 ksi,

Girder final elastic modulus, Ec = 4,696 ksi

Deck slab = 4.0 ksi,

Deck slab elastic modulus, Es = 3,834 ksi

Reinforcing steel Yield strength, fy = 60 ksi

Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270

6 - 18 Design of Flexure

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Design of Flexure 6 - 19

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Steel yield strength, fpy = 243 ksi

Steel ultimate strength, fpu = 270 ksi

Prestressing steel modulus, Ep = 28,500 ksi

Depth = 72 in.

Thickness of web = 8 in.

Area, Ag = 1,085 in2

Moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in4

N.A. to top, yt = 35.62 in.

N.A. to bottom, yb = 36.38 in.

P/S force eccentricity e = 31.380 in.

In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 2007 paragraph 4.6.2.6, the effec-

tive flange width of concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width.

For the interior beam, the bslab 9'8" 116 in .

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they re-

sistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive moment

when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and is con-

sidered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the bottom fi-

ber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends over a

zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located par-

allel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fi-

ber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

APTBottom 44 0.153 6.732 in 2

2

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 6.732 in

12 2 12 4 10 6 6 8 4 10

yPTBottom (72 8) 75 in

12 12 10 6 4

- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu 270 kip

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 270 kip

6 - 20 Design of Flexure

Chapter 6 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

f py 243

k 2 1.04 2 1.04 0.28

f pu 270

1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on the

composite slab f c

1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strength not exceeding 4.0 ksi. If f c

> 4 ksi, then 1 shall be reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of

strength in excess of 4.0 ksi. Since fc = 4 ksi, 1 = 0.85

Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 0.85 (not reported)

The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in

accordance with 5.7.3.1.1-4

APTBottom f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f ' c 1 bslab k APTBottom

yPTBottom

6.732 * 270

5.314 in

270

0.85 4 0.85 116 0.28 6.732

75

Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 5.314 in

the c needs to be re-evaluated to include the precast beam flange in the

equivalent compression block.

5.7.3.1.1-1

c 5.314

f ps f pu 1 k 270 1 0.28 264.64 ksi

yPTBottom 75

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 264.643 ksi

Design of Flexure 6 - 21

SAP200/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

c 5.314 0.85

M n APTBottom f ps yPTBottom 1 6.732 264.64 75

2 2

129 593.17 / 12 10 799.4 kip-ft

Value calculated by SAP2000/Bridge = 107 99 kip-ft (not reported)

Value reported by SAP2000/Bridge = 9719.5 kip-ft (116633.5 kip-in)

6 - 22 Design of Flexure

Chapter 7

Run a Bridge Design Request

This chapter identifies the steps involved in running a Bridge Design Request.

(Chapter 4 explains how to define the Request.) Running the Request applies

the following to the specified Bridge Object:

For this example, the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is applied to the model of a

concrete box-girder bridge shown in Figure 7-1.

It is assumed that the user is familiar with the steps that are necessary to create

a SAP2000/Bridge model of a concrete box girder bridge. If additional assis-

tance is needed to create the model, a 30-minute Watch and Learn video enti-

tled, ”Bridge – Bridge Information Modeler” is available at the CSI website

www.csiberkeley.com. The tutorial video guides the user through the creation

of the bridge model referenced in this chapter.

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The example bridge is a two-span prestressed concrete box girder bridge with

the following features:

bottom of the box girder only.

2

Prestress: The concrete box girder bridge is prestressed with four 10-in

tendons (one in each girder) and a jacking force of 2160 kips per tendon.

Deck: The concrete box girder has a nominal depth of 5 feet. The deck has

a parabolic variation in depth from 5 feet at the abutments to a maximum

of 10 feet at the interior bent support.

Spans: The two spans are each approximately 100 feet long.

Chapter 7 - Run a Bridge Design Request

Use the Design menu > Bridge Design > View/Revise Preferences command

to select the AASHTO LRFD 2007 design code. The Bridge Design Prefer-

ences form shown in Figure 7-4 displays.

For this example, the default design load combinations were activated using the

Define menu > Load Combination command. After the Add Default Design

Combos button is used and the Bridge option has been selected, the Code-

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form shown in Figure 7-5

displays. The form is used to specify the desired limit states. Only the Strength

II limit state was selected for this example. Normally, several limit states

would be selected.

The defined load combination for this example are shown in Figure 7-6.

Chapter 7 - Run a Bridge Design Request

The Str-II1, Str-II2 and StrIIGroup1 designations for the load combinations are

specified by the program and indicate that the limit state for the combinations

is Strength Level II.

After the Design menu > Bridge Design > Define Design Request command

has been used, the Bridge Design Request form shown in Figure 7-7 displays.

The name given to this example design request is FLEX_1, the Check Type is

for Concrete Box Flexure and the Demand Set, DSet1, specifies the combina-

tion as StrII (Strength Level II).

SAP2000/Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The only Design Request Parameter option for a Concrete Box Flexural check

type is for PhiC. A value of 0.9 for PhiC is used.

After an analysis has been run, the bridge model is ready for a design/check.

Use the Design menu > Bridge Design > Start Design/Check of Bridge com-

mand to start the design process. Select the design to be run using the Perform

Bridge Design form shown in Figure 7-8:

The user may select the desired Design Request(s) and click on the Design

Now button. A plot of the bridge model, similar to that shown in Figure 7-9,

will display.

have been run, the indi-

vidual Design Requests can

be selected from the Design

Check options drop-down

list. This plot is described

further in Chapter 8.

check results

Chapter 8

Display Bridge Design Results

Bridge design results can be displayed on screen and as printed output. The

on-screen display can depict the bridge response graphically as a plot or in data

tables. SAP2000's Advanced Report Writer can be used to create the printed

output, which can include the graphical display as well as the database tables.

To view the forces, stresses, and design results graphically, click the Display

menu > Show Bridge Forces/Stresses command, which will display the Bridge

Object Response Display form shown in Figure 8-1.

The plot shows the design results for the FLEX_1 design request created using

the process described in the preceding chapters. The demand moments are en-

veloped and shown in the blue region, and the negative capacity moments are

shown with a brown line. If the demand moments do not exceed the capacity

moments, the superstructure may be deemed adequate in response to the flexure

design request. Move the mouse pointer onto the demand or capacity plot to

view the values for each nodal point. Move the pointer to the capacity moment

at station 1200 and 536981.722 kip-in is shown. A verification calculation that

shows agreement with this SAP2000/Bridge result is provided in Section 8.4.

Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Figure 8-1 Plot of flexure check results for the example bridge design model

To view design results on screen in tables, click the Display menu > Show Ta-

bles command, which will display the Choose Tables for Display form shown in

Figure 8-2. Use the options on that form to select which data results are to be

viewed. Multiple selection may be made. When all selections have been made,

click the OK button and a database table similar to that shown in Figure 8-3 will

display. Note the drop-down list in the upper right-hand corner of the table. That

drop-down list will include the various data tables that match the selections

made on the Choose Tables for Display form. Select from that list to change to a

different database table.

Chapter 8 - Display Bridge Design Results

Figure 8-3 Design database table for AASHTO LRFD 2007 flexure check

Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

The scroll bar along the bottom of the form can be used to scroll to the right to

view additional data columns.

The File menu > Create Report command is a single button click output option

but it may not be suitable for bridge structures because of the size of the docu-

ment that is generated. Instead, the Advanced Report Writer feature within

SAP2000 is a simply and easy way to produce a custom output report.

To create a custom report that includes input and output, first export the files us-

ing one of the File menu > Export commands: SAP2000 MS Access Data-

base.mdb File; SAP2000 MS Excel Spreadsheet .xls File; or SAP2000 .s2k

Text File. When this command is executed, a form similar to that shown in Fig-

ure 8-4 displays.

Chapter 8 - Display Bridge Design Results

This important step allows control over the size of the report to be generated.

Export only those tables to be included in the final report. However, it is possi-

ble to export larger quantities of data and then use the Advanced Report Writer

to select only specific data sets for individual reports, thus creating multiple

smaller reports. For this example, only the Bridge Data (input) and Concrete

Box Flexure design (output) are exported.

After the data tables have been exported and saved to an appropriate location,

click the File menu > Advanced Report Writer command to display a form

similar to that show in Figure 8-5. Click the appropriate button (e.g., Find exist-

ing DB File, Convert Excel File, Convert Text File) and locate the exported data

tables. The tables within that Database, Excel, or Text file will be listed in the

List of Tables in Current Database File display box.

Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

Select the tables to be included in the report from that display box. The selected

items will then display in the Items Included in Report display box. Use the

various options on the form to control the order in which the selected tables ap-

pear in the report as well as the headers (i.e., Section), page breaks, pictures, and

blanks required for final output in .rft, .txt, or .html format.

After the tables have been selected and the headers, pictures, and other format-

ting items have been addressed, click the Create Report button to generate the

report. The program will request a filename and the path to be used to store the

report. Figure 8-6 shows an example of the printed output generated by the Re-

port Writer.

verification calculations.

8.4 Verification

As a verification check of the design results, the output at station 1200 is exam-

ined. The following output for negative bending has been pulled from the Con-

BoxFlexure data table, a portion of which is shown in Figure 8-3:

8-6 Verification

Chapter 8 - Display Bridge Design Results

f 245.1

k 2 1.04 PY 2 1.04 0.26444 (Result match)

fPU 270

c

APT fPU 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq

, for a T-section

fPU

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

YPT

APT fPU

c , when not a T-section

fPU

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

YPT

20.0(270)

c 5.1286 (Results match)

270

0.85(4)(0.85)(360) 0.26444(20)

114

c 5.1286

fPS fPU 1 k 270 1 0.26444 266.788 (Results match)

YPT 144

Verification 8- 7

Bridge Superstructure Design Guide

c c t

M N APT f PS YPT 1 0.85 f ' c bSLAB bwebeq tslabeq 1 slabeq

2 2 2

c

M N APT f PS YPT 1 , when the box section is not a T-section

2

5.1286(0.85)

M N 20.0(266.788) 144 596646.5 kip-in

2

The preceding calculations are a check of the flexure design output. Other de-

sign results for concrete box stress, concrete box shear and concrete box princi-

pal have not been included. The user is encouraged to perform a similar check

of these designs and to review Chapters 5 and 6 for a detailed description of the

design algorithms.

8-8 Verification

References

ACI, 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)

and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, P.O.

Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

Design. American Association of Highway and Transportation Offi-

cials, 444 North Capital Street, NW Suite 249, Washington, DC 2001

R-1

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