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Civil engineering Department

Project Title:

Structural design of G+3 solid slab &Total cost estimation

Designed by:

1. Hailu Tesfaye

2. Kabtamu Getachew

3. Henok Kebede

4. Takelle Hika

2

Acknowledgement

First of all our thank goes to God for giving un limited things.Secondly,thanks to our Advisor ,Ato

Yonas T/Haimanot for giving us critical advices through out the project work & indicated us the practical

works of Engineering being done. Thirdly, to our department for giving us this project & providing computer

resources. Other people & organization giving information & material.Mu librarian, Mowel supplying reference

books on behalf of Mekelle University,Ackir construction company constructing building in MU, giving us

some construction materials used currently in building structure. At Last but not least, thanks to our parents for

giving their countless material & moral support.

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

3

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................. 4

SPECIFICATION ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

CHAPTER ONE ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

1 ROOF DESIGN................................................................................................................................................... 7

1.1 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE ROOF & DESIGN LOAD ON ROOF ............................................................ 7

1.2 DESIGN OF THE EAGA SHEET ............................................................................................................................ 12

1.3 DESIGN OF THE LATTICE PURLIN ..................................................................................................................... 14

1.3.1 Check for aducacy of members in purlin lattice truss ………… 17

1.4 DESIGN OF THE ROOF TRUSS ............................................................................................................................ 19

1.4.1 CHECK FOR ADEQUACY OF TRUSS MEMBERS ........................................................................................ 21

CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................................. 23

2.1 .SLAB DESIGN.............................................................................................................................................. 23

2.2. DESIGN OF STAIR ............................................................................................................................................ 42

CHAPTER THREE............................................................................................................................................... 48

3.1 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE WALL OF THE BUILDING.............................................................. 48

3.2 EARTH QUAKE FORCE ANALYS............................................................................................................ 52

3.2.1 DETERMINATIONS OF EARTH QUAKE LOAD ................................................................................................... 52

3.2.2 MASS CENTER CALCULATION OF THE BUILDING FOR THE......................................................... 53

EARTH QUAKE LOAD CALCULATION ........................................................................................................ 53

3.2.3 THE DISTRIBUTION OF FLOOR LEVEL FORCES TO EACH FOR DIFFERENT DIRECTION OF EARTH QUAKE LOAD

AMONG EACH FRAMES ACCORDING TO THEIR STIFFNESS ( D_ VALUE .................................................................. 63

3.2.4 CALCULATION OF RIGIDITY OR STIFFNESS.................................................................................... 63

CHAPTER FOUR................................................................................................................................................. 84

4.0 DESIGN OF BEAMS,COLUMNS,FOUNDATION FOOTING .................................................................................... 84

4.1 THE DESIGN OF BEAM .............................................................................................................................. 84

4.1.1.Design of beam For flexure ................................................................................................................. 84

4.1.2.DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR SHEAR ....................................................................................................................... 90

4.2 DESIGN OF COLUMN .................................................................................................................................. 94

4.2.1 FRAME STABILTY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................ 95

4.2.2 DESIGN OF ISOLATED COLUMN........................................................................................................ 110

4.3) DESIGN OF FOUNDATION...................................................................................................................... 118

CHAPTER FIVE................................................................................................................................................. 128

5. BILL OF QUANTITY PREPARATION & TOTAL COST ESTIMATION .......................................... 128

CHAPTER SIX ................................................................................................................................................. 132

6.RESULTS ,CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION ................................................................................................... 132

REFERCES......................................................................................................................................................... 133

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

4

INTRODUCTION

Since ever increasing of population in our town, Mekelle, the people need residential houses, with low

cost. For the progress of low cost houses, three kind of economic & safety assessment being done for three kind

of slabs, namely solid slab, ribbed slab, precast ribbed slab, from the three our group works on solid slab design

building and its approximate cost. This project enable us in order to compile previous course of structure

specially theory of structure, reinforced concrete, structural design & to develop good engineering judgment

using our previous knowledge & working in group habit is developed & to solve current residential problems

The other thing the project furnish enough time for good understanding of uncertainties during previous

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

5

learning using our respected advisors, sharing ideas that are reasonable, and using our code, Ethiopian Building

Code standard ,1995(1,2,3…………….,8).

The design was done in the following steps

¾ Roof design

¾ Suspended slab design(first floor, second floor, third floor)&Vertical load transfer

¾ lateral load analysis( earth quake, wind load)

¾ Feeding data and drawing obtained from previous steps to sap 2000

¾ Design of beam , column, foundation & detail drawing of reinforcement

¾ Calculating quantity of each structural component from design results

¾ .Market assessment of each material in current time and determining unit cost & determine the

total cost select the feasible structure from the three alternatives described previously.

Specification

Purpose – Residential building G+3 reinforced concrete solid slab

METHOD OF DESIGN- Limit state design method

Material – Concrete – 25, class – I works

Steel S – 300 deformed bars

RHS for roof truss and purl in

EGA- 300 for roof cover is used.

Partial safety factors – concrete γc=1.5

Steel γs=1.15

Unit weight of concrete γc=24KN/m3

Supporting ground condition = allowable bearing capacity of 280KPa

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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Concrete

fck = 0.8*25MPa =20MPa

fctk= 0.21*fck 2/3 =1.547MPa

fcd= 0.85*fck =11.33MPa

γc

fctd= fctk=1.032MPa

γc

Steel

fyk= 300MPa

fcd= 260.87MPa

Design loads

pd= γf*Fk

Where

Fk = characteristics loads

γf = partial safety factor for loads

= 1.3 for dead loads

= 1.6 for live loads

Seismic condition of the Area

Location Mekelle, Zone 4

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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CHAPTER ONE

1) ROOF DESIGN

1.1 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE ROOF

Roof type: The roof type is a doupitch roof type which is unsymmetrical about the ridge line as shown in

the lay below. Quasi_static method is used for the analysis of wind load. For Cd< 1.2(dynamic coefficient .

EBCS 1, 1995).

Ridge line

θ =12.4° θ=15°

0.5m 5m 4m 0.5m

Wex =qref*Cpe*ce(ze)

Where: qref is the reference wind pressure, which is given by

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

8

Qref =½ *ρair*v²ref ,where ρair is the density of air at a given altitude, in our case Mekelle falls at an altitude of

1500m amsl, ρair =1Kg/m³

Vref is the reference wind speed, Vref =CALT*CDIR*CTEM *Vref,o

Where CALT= 1

CDIR= 1

CTEM =1

Vref,o =22m/s

Vref=1*1*1*22m/s=22m/s

Qref=½*1*22² =242N/m

COEFFICIENT CALCULATION

EXPOSURE COEFFICIENT,ce(z) =Cr²(z)*Ct²(z)*(1+7kt/cr(z)*Ct(z))

The building falls in category 3, this implies kt=0.22, Zo (m) =0.3m, Zmin=8m

Ct=topography coefficient =1(assuming the area is topographically unaffected

Cr (z) =roughness coefficient = kTln(Z/Zo) ,Zmin≤ Z ≤ 200m

Cr (z) =Cr (Zmin), Z<Zmin

Where z=the reference height =13021m >zmin and< 200m

b) External pressure coefficient, Cpe

we have two possible critical wind directions, θ=0° and θ = 90°

For θ =0° we have to consider wind from both directions of the roof due to the asymmetry of the roof about the

ridge.

6.61m

14.8m

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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I J H Wind direction

θ=00

ridge G

Ze= h=reference wind height=13.21

e= min. 2h=26.42m

b = 28m,→e=26.42m

Area of each zone is greater than 10m², take cpe, 10

Pitch angle F G H I J

Cpe,10 Cpe,10 Cpe,10 Cpe,10 Cpe,10

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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12.4 -1.11 -1.01 -0.38 0.34 -0.818

15 -0.9 -0.8 -0.3 -0.4 -1.0

0.2 0.2 0.2

F

e/4=2.5m

H I

2m

G

3m G’

H’

I’

F

e/4 =2.5m

e/10=5m 4m 23m

b=10m

e= min b=10m

2h=26.42m

e=10m

F G H I

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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angle

We =242*1.98* cpe =0.4784 cpe KN/m²

The external pressure for each zone is calculated as follow,

Here we calculate We based on the pitch angle which gives the larger value of cpe (either θ=12.4° or θ=15°),

accordingly.

Case 1) zone F, We =0.48* cpe, 10 =0.48*-1.11 =-0.531 KN/m²

G, We =0.48* cpe, 10 =0.48*-1.01 =-0.485 KN/m²

H, We =0.48* cpe, 10 =0.48*-0.38 =-0.18 KN/m²

J, We =0.48* cpe, 10 =0.48*-0.4 =-0.19 KN/m²

I,We =0.48* cpe,10 =0.48*-1.0 =-0.48 KN/m²

Net positive on zone F, G&H =0.4784*(0.2-(-0.5)) =0.335KN/ m²

Case 2),when θ =90°

On zone F, We = 0.48* cpe, 2.5 =0.48*-1.96 =-0.941 KN/m²

G’, We= =0.48* cpe,3 =0.48*-1.67 =0.8 KN/m²

G, We = =0.48* cpe,2 =0.48*-1.79 =-0.86 KN/m²

H, We = =0.48* cpe,10 =0.48*-0.626 = -0.3 KN/m²

H’, We = =0.48* cpe,10 = 0.48*-0.626 = -0.3 KN/m²

I=I’, We = 0.48* cpe,10 =0.48*-0.5 =-0.24 KN/m²

cpe for areas between 1.0 m² and 10.0 m² is calculated as follow

cpe = cpe,1 +( cpe,10 - cpe, )logA10

cpe,2 =-2.0+(-1.3-(-2) )log210 =-1.79

cpe,2.5 =-2.2+(-1.6-(-2.2))log2.510 = –1.96

cpe,3.0 =-2.0+(-1.3-(-2))log3.01 = -1.67

the internal wind pressure ,Wi =qref*cpi*ce(zi)

The two critical cpi values are 0.8 or -0.5

Or =0.48*-0.5 =-0.24 KN /m²

The critical wind pressure occurs on zone F of θ=900,We=-0.94KN/m2

F, G & H of θ=00,We=0.097KN/m2

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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Net +ve =0.097-(-0.5*0.4784)=0.335KN/m2

Net –ve=-0.94-0.38=-1.325KN/m2

1.2 Design of the eaga sheet

For design we took Ega-300 with the following parameters from kaliti metal industry manual. Thickness

t=0.6mm, self weight=4.71Kg/m.

Moment of inertia of the Ega sheet per meter width,Ixx=98906mm3 and section modulus per meter,

Sx=2808mm2

Clear width of the sheet=823mm

Weight of the sheet per meter width on the projected area of the sheet =4.17*10*10-3/0.823=0.057KN/m2

The perpendicular weight to the inclined surface=wcosθ=0.057KN/m2cos12.40=0.56KN/m2, and parallel to the

inclined surface=wsinθ=0.057sin12.40=0.0123KN/m2

1.2)Imposed loads on the roof

There are three types of imposed loads on the roof

1) Concentrated live load Qk=1KN/m on the projected area

2) Distributed live load qk=0.25KN/m2 on the projected area

3) Wind load,W=-1.325KN/m2

W=+0.335KN/m2, which acts perpendicular to the sheet surface.

Load combination

EBCS 1,1995 recommends the following load combinations

1) Dead load +concentrated live load

Pd= 1.3DL+1.6Qk art 1.9.4.5 of EBCS-1 1995 where Qk=1KN

The perpendicular Qk=1cos12.40=0.997KN and the parallel Qk=1*sin12.40=0.215KN.

Distributing the concentrated load over the width of the sheet:

0.997/0.823=1.19KN/m

0.215/0.823=0.261KN/m

The perpendicular load is Pd=0.056+1.19=1.246KN/m where as the parallel load is

Pd=0.0123KN/m2+0.261KN/m axial compression forces.

There fore the design loads in both directions are, load perpendicular=1.3*0.056+1.6*1.19=1.98KN/m Pd

parallel =1.3*0.0123+1.6*0.261=0.423KN/m respectively

We considered the purlin spacing=1.9m and truss spacing of 5m and 4m. 1.3*0.0123+1.6*0.261=0.423KN/m

respectively

1.904KN/m

0.0728KN/m2

1.9m

Mmax=1.904*1.9/4+0.0728*1.92/8=0.937KN/m-m

2) DL+distributed LL (qk) =1.3DL+1.6qk

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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0.25cos12.4=0.244KN/m2 perpendicular to the sheet and 0.25sin12.4=0.054KN/m2 parallel to the surface of the

sheet. There fore the perpendicular and the parallel loads will be Pd=1.3*0.056+0.244*1.6=0.4632KN/m2 and

Pd=0.0123*1.3+1.6*0.054=0.102KN/m2

0.4632KN/m2

Mmax=0.4682*1.92/8=0.21KN-m/m

3) DL+wind load

3.1) Pd=1.3*DL+1.6*suction wind load

=1.3*0.056-1.6*1.325=-2.05KN/m2

-2.05KN/m2

Mmax=-2.05*1.92/8=0.925KN-m/m

Axial force=0.0123*1.3=0.016KN/m2

Pd1=1.3*0.056+1.6*0.335=0.609KN/m2 perpendicular to the surface.

Pd2=0.016KN/m parallel to the surface of the sheet.

0.609KN/m

1.9m

Pd=ΣγGi+1.35ΣQki (art 1.9.4.5 of EBCS-1 1995)

Where γ factor of safety for permanent load, Qki is variable load and Gi is the permanent load.

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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Concentrated LL +suction

Distributed LL+directed wind pressure.

Distributed LL+ Suction.

Among these combinations the critical one is case (i) when conc.LL+directed wind pressure come at a time

Pd=1.3DL+1.35(Qk+directed wind pressure)

1.3*0.056+1.35*(1+19KN/m+0.335KN/m2)

=0.5251KN/m2+1.904KN/m2

ST30=30*30*3mm3

φ16 ribbed bars

260mm

ST30=30*30*3mm3

φ16 ribbed bars

260

r 220

θ

200 200

Note: all dimensions in mm.

Section properties

Weight wt=2.36Kg/m

A=3.01cm2

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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I=3.5cm4

S=2.34cm3

r =1.08cm

r= √(2002+2202) =297.32mm

θ=tan-1(220/200) =47.730

Total length of φ16 bars will be:

L1=22*297.32=6541.1mm for 5m span length and

L2=18*297.32=5351.8mm for 4m span length.

l

220mm

260mm

L= 5000+2*340.6+11*400=10081.2mm when the span length is 5m and

L=4000+2*270.03+9*400=8144mm.

220mm l

160mm

To calculate the weight of the lattice we have to know the density of the steel which is equal to 77Kg/m3 (from

EBCS 3 1995)

Area of φ16 bar = πD2/4=π*(16*10-3)2/4=2.011*10-4m2

G=10m/s2

Weight of the steel bar =2.011*10-4*77*10=0.155N/m

Wt=0.155*6541.1*10-3=0.001014KN per 5m span length and

Wt=0.155*5351.8*10-3=0.00083KN per 4m span length.

Weight of ST30 section=2.36*10*10.0812*10-3=0.238KN per 5m span and

Wt=2.36*10*8.144*10-3=0.192KN per 4m span

Total purlin weight=0.238+0.001014=0.239KN per 5m length and

Wt=0.192+0.00083=0.193KN per 4m span length.

The total weight analyzed above is carried by the lower nodes assuming each node carries equal weight.

-For the 5m span length there are 12 nodes.

Weight per node =0.239/12=0.02KN

-For 4m span length there are 10 nodes and weight per node=0.193/10=0.0193KN

Reactions from the adjacent Ega sheet

Taking the critical load combination case for the sheet the reactions on the purlin are analyzed as follows:

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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1.904 KN/m2

0.525KN/m2

R1 R2

1.9m

R1=R2=1.904/2+1.9*0.525/2=0.952KN/m (concentrated) +0.499KN/m (distributed)

⇒ 2R1=1.904KN/m (concentrated) +1KN/m (distributed) along y-direction.

There fore the reaction on the lattice purlin vertically =2R1=2.954KN/m.

Along X-direction=0.016KN/m2+0.42KN/m2.

The distributed loads from the sheet are assumed to be carried by the upper nodes equally while the

concentrated one is assumed to act at the center of the purlin.

For the 5m span length:

Distributed load reaction=1KN/m*5m=5KN

Load per node=5/13=0.385KN

Concentrated load reaction per meter width of the sheet=1.904KN/m.

=1.904*0.823=1.57KN at the center of the span.

Therefore the central node carries 0.385+1.57=1.952KN.

For the 4m span length:

Distributed load reaction=1KN/m*4m=4KN

Load per node=4/10 =0.4KN

Concentrated load reaction=1.904KN/m=1.904*0.823=1.57KN at the center.

⇒ The central node carries 1.57+0.4=1.934KN.

The reactions per node along X-axis for span length of 5m will be 0.016*0.03*5/13=0.0002KN. Or

0.0005KN/m and the concentrated load will be 0.42KN/m=0.42KN/m*0.823m=0.346KN at the center of the

span length.

Similarly the reactions per node along X- direction for 4m span length will be:

0.0005KN/10= 0.0002KN and the concentrated load will be 0.346KN at the centre of the span.

0.385KN 0.385 KN 0.385KN 0.385KN 1.952KN 1.952KN 0.385KN 0.385KN 0.385KN 0.385KN

R

R

0.02KN on each node

40 260 11@400 260 40

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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0.364KN 0.364KN 0.364KN 0.364KN 1.934KN 1.934KN 0.364KN 0.364KN 0.364KN 0.364KN

R R

0.02KN on each node

40 160 9@400 160 40

Note: All dimensions are in mm

(Member forces are attached at the back from sap result)

For the 5m span lattice truss (for the 30*30mm² the section)

Axial forces, Max. Compression =-18.76KN

Max. Tension =19.5KN

Length =4000mm

The maximum moment obtained is 0.08KN.m on the end diagonal tube whose effect is almost negligible.

Maximum shear occurs on the 40mmend tube used as support and its value is

Vmax =-3.41KN,on the left end

=3.41KN,on the right end

Use steel grade of s-430(fy =275Mpa)

Check for the ST30 (30mm*30mm) member

Check for tension

Max. tension =19.5KN

For members inaxial tension the design value of the axial tension force ,Nt,sd ay each cross – section shall

satisfy,

NT, SD ≤ Nt Rd (EBCS3, 1995

Where,Nt,Rd =A*fy/ϒM1 where, A=301mm²

ϒM1=1.1

fy = 275Mpa

Nt,Rd= (301*275*10-3 ) /1.1=75.25KN >19.5KN ok!

Check for compression members

The design compression resistance of a cross section ,Ncom,Rd may be determined as follow (Article 4.5.4.1of

EBCS3, 1995)

Ncom,Rd = A*fy/γMo, (for class 1, 2 & 3 cross-section)

Ncom,Rd =Aeff *fy/gMo , (for class 4 cross-section)

Where, γMo=1.1

fy =275Mpa

A = the area of the cross-section

Aeff =the effective area of the cross-section

Determination of class of the object

From table 4.1 of EBCS 1, 1995 for web, where the whole section is subjected to compression

d/tw ≤33ε,. .… For class 1 cross-section

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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d/tw≤ 51ε …for class 3 cross-section

ε =√235/fy =√235/275 =0.924

B =30mm

t = 3mm

Here b = d =30-2*3 =24mm

d/tw 24/ 3= 8 <33∈ =33*0.924=30.5, there fore the section is class 1

N COM, Rd = 301*275*10-3 /1.1 =75.25KN>18.76KN, ok!

Check for buckling

The design buckling resistance of a compression member shall be taken as,

Nb,RD =x*βA *A*fy /γM0

βA =1.0(for class 1 to 3 cross-section)

γM0 = 1.1

X =the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.

X =1/ (φ + (φ2 -λn2) ½ ≤1.0

φ =0.5(1+α(λn -0.2) +λn 2 )

α is an imperfection factor (which is function of buckling curve)

λn is the non-dimensional slenderness ratio =(λ /λ1 )*√ βA

λ1= π(E/fy) 0.5 =93.9ε =93.9*0.924 =86.76

λx =λy =L/i, i=√I/A =√3.5/3.01 =10.8mm

λ =400/10.8 =37.1 ,βA =1.0

λn =(37.1/86.76)* √1.0 =0.43

For cold formed hollow sections take buckling curve c

α =0.49and from table 4.9 of EBCS3, 1995

For λn = 0.43 of curve c x =0.881

Nd,Rd =0.881*301*275*10-3/1.1 =66.3KN>18.76KN,ok!

Resistance to shear

The design value of the shear force vsd at each cross-section should satisfy,

Vsd ≤ vpl, Rd, where vpl, Rd is the design shear resistance and is given by

Vsd =3.41KN

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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Where Av is the shear area and given by

Av = (Ah/b+h), for rolled rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness and load parallel to the depth.

Av =3.01*3/3+3 =1.505cm2

vpl,Rd =150.5*(275/√3)*10-3/1.1=21.7KN>3.41KN

1.4)Design of the roof truss

Loads on the truss

1) Reactions from the purl in

For the middle trusses reactions from the purlin are twice of R(from the lattice purlin analysis) which is

6.812KN for the 5m span and 5.6KN for 4m span length.

For the two extreme end truss elements reaction from the purlin =3.406KN for the 5m span and 2.8KN for the

4m span.

2) Self weight of the truss: the truss model and materials used are as shown below.

RT60

RT53

RT30

θ=12.4° θ=15°

0.5m 5m 4m 0.5m

Materials:

I. 60x60 RT, for the rafters.

II. 50x30 RT,for horizontal, diagonal and, central vertical members.

III. 30x30 ST-30,for others

t=3mm from kaliti metal industry.

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

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∑ =117.30*10-2=1.173KN

Thickness of the chip wood =8mm

γ = 8KN/m3 (from table 2.1 of EBCS 1, 1995)

Area of total floor system =9*28=252m2.

Total weight =8*8*252*10-3 =16.13KN, this weight is carried by the 7 trusses.counting the two end trusses as

one, chip wood weight carried by one middle truss = 16.13/6 =2.69KN.

Distributing this weight on the lower nodes, counting the two end nodes as one

Weight per node =2.69/8 =0.336KN, middle nodes

=0.168KN, end nodes.

Weight of truss =1.173KN, carried by the lower nodes.

Weight per node=1.173/8=0.147KN,idle nodes

=0.0733KN,end nodes.

Weight on lower nodes =0.336+0.147=0.483KN,middle nodes

=0.241KN, on end nodes.

12

14

15 11

16 10

θ=12.4° θ=15°

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.241KN 0.483KN, on each

0.22m 0.28m 1.3m 1.85m 1.85m 1.835m 1.835m 0.33m 0.21m 0.29m

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

21

force(KN) force(KN) force(KN)

1-2 -14.53 10-11 -8.77 4-15 -9.11

2-3 -13.66 11-12 10.12 6-12 1.53

3-4 8.56 12-13 -1.74 2-16 -11.23

4-5 -0.45 13-14 10 1-16 14.04

5-6 -1.9 14-15 -3.54 3-16 21.63*

6-7 6.53 5-12 -14.09 3-15 -2.27

7-8 0.29 5-14 -15.9 15-16 -10.68

8-9 -0.23 5-13 -18.01** 7-10 6.67

9-10 0.25 4-14 2.45 8-10 -12.51

6-11 -8.42

Remark; ** maximum compression

* Maximum tension

Design reactions (from sap)

Max.compression =18.01KN,member 5_13,length 1.21m,50x30 X_section

Max.tension =21.63KN,member 3_15,length 0.394m,section 30mmx30mm

Max.shear =

The procedure and equations to be followed for checking the adequacy of truss members are the same with the

previous work.

Check for tension members

Max.tension =21.63KN

Section =30mmx30mm

A=301mm2 ,thickness t = 3mm

Nt,Rd =A*fy/γMo =301*275*10-3/1.1 =75.25KN>21.63KN ok!

Check for compression members

Max.comp. =18.01,L=1.21m,section =50mmx30mm,A =421mm2,.t =3mm

Class of cross-section

D =50 -2*3 =44mm

d/tw =44/3 =14.67

33ε =30.5 >14.67 ,the section is class 1 x_section

Ncom,Rd =A*fy/γMo =421*275*10-3/1.1 =105.25KN >18.01KN ,ok!

Buckling Resitance

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

22

λx=L/Ix=1.21*100/√(12.81/4.21) =69.388

λy =L/Iy =1.21*100/√(5.7/4.21) =103.99=104

λ x=(69.31/86.76)*√1 =0.8

λ y =(104/86.76) )*√1 =1.2

for λ x=0.8 and curve c,x=0.6622

for λ y=1.2 and curve c ,x=0.4338,⇒governing case

Nd,Rd =0.4338*421*275*10–3/1.1 45.66>18.01,ok!

Resistance to shear

Av = A*h/(b+h) =(4.21*3)/(3+3) =2.105cm2

Vpl,Rd=210.5*275/√3)*10-3/1.1 =30.4KN >6.54KN ,ok!

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

23

CHAPTER TWO

2. slab design

The slabs are designed by following the procedures stated bellow.

Step-1 Depth determination:

The minimum depth required for the slab can be calculated from the minimum depth required for deflection.

d ≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa (EBCS 2-1995 Art 5.2.3)

Where fyk is the characteristic strength of the reinforcing bars.

Le is the effective span. For two-way solid slabs it is the shorter span.

βa is the appropriate which depends on the support condition of the slab.

Step-2 analysis of the design load:

2.1 dead load(DL) analysis design load

The dead load is composed of the self weight of the slab itself , weights of the partition walls,weight of

the finishing and other considerable permanent loads.

Self weight of the slab is equal to the over all depth times unit weight of concrete.

2.2 Live load (LL) analysis

Since the building is residential building we assume the live load to be 2KN/m2 (EBCS-2-1995)

The design load is the total sum of the live load and the dead load from the partition walls and finishing.

Step-3 analysis of the design moment:

Analysis of the design moment will be done as per the EBCS-2-1995 Art A.3.2 for two-way solid slabs

and for one way solid slabs the calculation will be performed as 1m wide beam.

Step-4 Moment adjustment:

The support and the span moments will be adjusted to avoid over reinforcements and to achieve

economical design.

Step-5 reinforcement details:

After calculation of the design moment reinforcement detailing follows the appropriate rebar spacing.

Note: For the purpose of construction simplicity and monolithic construction the governing overall depth has

been taken.

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.

LAYOUT OF THE GROUND TO 3RD FLOOR

SLABS

The layout of the floor slab is shown below.

P11

5m

P12

5m

P10

P9

4m

P7

P8

P5

P6

4m

5m

P4

P3

5m

P1

P2

5m 4m

25

Panel 1/11:

4m

5m

Ly/Lx=1.25

d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=38

d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*4000/38=90mm

The over all depth can be calculated as:

D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2

Where c is concrete cover equal to 15mm and φ is diameter of the main

reinforcing bar.

D= 90+15+ φ10= 120mm

Support condition is type 4.

Panel-2/12

5m

5m

Ly/Lx=1.0

Slab,July,1999E.C.

26

d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=40

d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*5000/40=106.25mm

The over all depth can be calculated as:

D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2

D=106.25+15+φ10=131.25mm

Panel-3/9

4m

5m

Ly/Lx=1.25

d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=37.5

d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*4000/37.5=90.67mm

The over all depth:

D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2

D=90.67+15+φ10=115.67mm

Panel-4/10

5m

5m

Ly/Lx=1.0

d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=40

Slab,July,1999E.C.

27

d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*5000/40=106.25mm

The over all depth:

D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2

D=106.25+15+φ10=131.25mm

Panel-5/7.

4m

4m

Ly/Lx=1.0

d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=40

d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*4000/40=85.0mm

The over all depth:

D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2

D=85.0+15+φ10=110mm

Panel-6/8

5m

4m

Slab,July,1999E.C.

28

Ly/Lx=1.25

d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=42.5

d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*4000/42.5=80.0mm

The over all depth:

D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2

D=80.0+15+φ10=105mm

Table Summary of the computed depths of the slabs:

Support

panel condition(EBCS- Le(mm) Ly/Le βa d(mm)

2-1995)

P1,P11 4 4000 1.25 37.5 90.67

Doverall=d+c+φ=106.97+15+10=131.5mm take D=140mm.

Step-2: Loading

Live load=2KN/m3

Dead load

- cement screed of 3cm thick, γ=20KN/m3

-terazzo tile of 3cm thick, γ=23KN/m3

-concrete slab 0f 14cm thick, γ=24KN/m3

Total dead load without the partition walls = 0.03*20+0.03*23+24*0.14=4.65KN/m2

Slab,July,1999E.C.

29

Partition loads

Panel-1/11

4m

5m

10cm thick HCB with γ=14KN/m3 and 3m high

W=0.1*8.22*3*14=34.524KN

W/A=34.524/20=1.7262KN/ m2

Pd1=1.3*(1.7262+4.65)+1.6*2=11.54KN/m2

Panel-2/12

5m

5m

Slab,July,1999E.C.

30

Panel-3/9

Total length of the 10cm thick HCB of 3m high partition wall on this panel is 2.205m

W=0.1*3*2.205*14KN

w/A=0.463KN/m2

Pd3=1.3*(0.463+4.65)+1.6*2=9.85KN/m3

4m

5m

Panel-4/10

5m

5m

Total length of the 10cm thick HCB of 3m high partition wall on this panel is 13.33m

W=0.1*3*13.33*14KN

w/A=2.24KN/m2

Pd4=1.3*(2.24+4.65)+1.6*2=12.16KN/m2

Slab,July,1999E.C.

31

Panel-5/7

4m

5m

Total length of the 10cm thick HCB of 3m high partition wall on this panel is 7.4m

W=0.1*3*7.4*14KN

W/A=1.94KN/m2

Pd5=1.3*(1.94+4.65)+1.6*2=11.767KN/m2

Panel-6/8

5m

4m

Total length of the 10cm thick HCB of partition wall 2.35m and the 20cm thick HCB is

2.375m.

W=2.35*0.1*3*14+2.375*0.2*3*14=102.858KN.

w/A=1.5KN/m2.

Pd6=1.3*(1.5+4.65)+1.6*2=11.25KN/m2

Slab,July,1999E.C.

32

pd(KN/m2) 11.54 10.48 9.85 12.16 11.77 11.25

Panel-1:

4m

5m

Mi=αiPdLx2

Where αi is a constant that depends on the support condition and span ratio and Lx

is the dimension of the shorter span.

For this specific panel;

Ly/Lx=1.25 Mxs=0.066*11.54*16=12.2KN

αxs=0.066 Mxf=0.049*11.54*16=9.1KN

αys=0.047 Mys=0.047*11.54*16=8.75KN

αxf=0.049 Myf=0.036*11.54*16=6.7KN

αyf=0.036

Slab,July,1999E.C.

33

Mxs

Mxs Myf Lx

Mxf

Ly

Similarly for other panels we calculated the support and span moments as shown in the

following table.

pane S. Ly/L (KN/m (m2 αxs αxf αys αyf (KN (KN (KN (KN

2

l C x ) ) ) ) ) )

P1/P 4 1.25 11.54 16 0.06 0.049 0.04 0.03 12.2 9.1 8.73 6.7

11 6 7 6

P2/P 4 1.0 10.48 25 0.04 0.036 0.04 0.03 12.2 9.43 12.2 9.43

12 7 7 6

P3/P 3 1.25 9.85 16 0.05 0.044 0.03 0.03 9.3 7.0 6.15 4.73

5 9 5 9

P4/P 3 1.0 12.16 25 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 11.8 9.12 11.8 9.12

10 9 9

P5/P 3 1.0 11.77 16 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 7.34 5.65 7.38 5.65

7 9 9

P6/P 2 1.25 11.25 16 0.05 0.041 0.03 0.03 10.6 8.02 7.02 5.4

8 9 5 9 2

Slab,July,1999E.C.

34

P11

P12

P10

P9

P7

P8

P5

P6

P4

P3

P1

P2

For each support over which the slab is continuous, there are two different support

Slab,July,1999E.C.

35

moments. The differences are distributed between the spans (panels) on either side of the

support to equalize the moments by the method given in EBCS-2-1995 A.3.3

ML MR

Method I

Md= (MR+ML)/2

Method I may be used when differences between initial support moments are less than

20% of the larger moment.

Methods I I

Md (larger) =Mmax-(1/Lx)/ (Lx-1+Ly-1)*∆M

Md (smaller) =Mmin+ (1/Lx)/ (Lx-1+Ly-1)*∆M

In this method consideration of the effects of changes of support moments is limited to

the adjacent spans. Since no effects on neighboring support sections need be considered

only a simple balancing operation is required at each edge and no iterative process is

involved.(EBCS-2-1995 Art A.3.3.3 method I I )

ML MR

Between panel-1 and panel-2 there is no moment distribution because both end moments

are equal.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

36

8.73 6.15

5m 5m

∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR

=(8.73-6.15)*100/8.73=29.5%>20%

Md (larger) =Mmax-(1/Lx)/ (Lx-1+Ly-1)*∆M

= 8.73-(8.73-6.15)*4-1/(1/(4-1+4-1))

=7.44KN-m

Between panel-2 and 4

12.2 11.8

∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR

= (12.2-11.8)*100/12.2=3.2 %< 20%

Md= (MR+ML)/2

= (12.2+11.8)/2=12.08KN-m

Slab,July,1999E.C.

37

9.3

11.8

∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR

= (11.8-9.3)*100/11.8=21.18% > 20%

Md (larger) =Mmax-(1/Lx)/ (Lx-1+Ly-1)*∆M

=9.30-(11.8-9.3)*4-1/(5-1+4-1)

=10.72KN-m

Between panel-3 and 5

6.15 7.34

Md= (MR+ML)/2=6.75KN-m

Between panel-4 and 6

11.8 10.62

∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR

Md= (MR+ML)/2=11.24KN-m

Slab,July,1999E.C.

38

7.34

7.02

Md= (MR+ML)/2=(7.34+7.02)/2=7.18KN-m

Between panel-5 and 7, between panel-6 and 8

No moment adjustment! Because in both cases the support moments are equal.

Span moment adjustment is calculated for those panels whose support moments are

decreased because of support adjustment in 4.1 above according to EBCS-2-1995.

Panel-1 and 11

∆Mys=Mys-Msd

=8.73-7.44=1.29KN-m

Mxfd=Mxf+Cx∆M1

Cx=0.3315

Mxfd=9.1+0.3315*1.29=9.53KN-m

∆Mxs=6.7+0.19=6.89KN-m

Panel-2 and 12

∆M=12.2-12.08=0.12KN-m

Cx=0.38

Mxfd=9.43+0.12*0.38=9.59KN-m

Myfd=9.43+0.12*0.38=9.59KN-m

Panel 4

∆M1=11.86-10.722=1.138KN-m

∆M2=11.86-11.24=0.62KN-m

Cx=Cy=0.38

Mxfd=Myfd=9.12+1.138*0.38+0.28*0.62=9.726KN-m

Panel-5

∆M1=7.34-6.75=0.59KN-m

Cx1=Cx2=0.38,Cy1=0.28

∆M2=7.34-7.18=0.16KN-m

Cy1=Cy2=0.38,Cx2=0.28

Mxd=Myd=5.62+0.26*0.28+0.38*0.59=5.92KN-m

Summary of the adjusted support and span moments

Slab,July,1999E.C.

39

P11

5m

P12

5m

P10

P9

P7

P8

4m

4m

P5

P6

5m

P4

P3

5m

P1

P2

5m 4m

Step 5

Before we directly go to the reinforcement calculation first we have to check the

adequacy of the effective depth requirement using the maximum moment.

Mmax=10.722KN-m

Slab,July,1999E.C.

40

d= √(Mmax/ (0.8fcdρm (1-0.4ρm)))

fcd=11.33Mpa

fyd=fyk/γs=300/1.15=260.87Mpa

m=fyd/0.8fcd

c1=2.5/m=0.0869,c2=0.4fydm=3003.01

ρb=(εc/(εc+εs))*0.8fcd/fyd

= (0.0035/ (0.0035+0.8*300*10-3/200))0.8*11.33/260.87=0.0253

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.0189

d= √(10.722E6/ (0.8*1000*11.33*28.78*0.0189*(1-0.4*0.0189*28.78))

=52.72mm<110mm, serviceability limit governs the design.

Reinforcement calculation

The required reinforcement is calculated using the general design table (EBCS-2 part 2

1995)

Km=√(Msd/b)/d where d= D-φ-c-φ/2

d=140-10-15-5=110mm b=1000mm

As=KsMsd/d

According to the Ethiopian building code standard, the geometrical ratio of main

reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than the minimum area of reinforcement given by

the following:

ρmin=0.5/fyk=0.5/300=0.0017

Asmin=ρminbd=0.0017*1000*110=1185.3mm2

The spacing between the main bars shall not exceed 250mm.

locatio Md Km ks As as Spacing(m length No.

n m)

7.44 25 3.99 269.87 50 φ8 c/c180 3.33 23

12.3 31.88 4.07 455 78 φ10c/c170 3.0 30

12.08 31.6 4.066 446.52 78 φ10c/c170 3.33 30

10.72 29.77 4.041 394 50 φ8c/c120 3.0 43

Support moments

2

reinforcements

6.75 23.6 3.98 244.3 50 φ8c/c200 3.0 21

7.18 24.3 3.98 260.16 50 φ8c/c190 3.0 22

7.34 26.63 3.987 266 50 φ8c/c180 2.67 23

10.62 29.62 4.04 390 50 φ8c/c 120 2.67 27

9.53 28 4.039 350 50 φ8c/c140 5.415 23

6.89 23.86 3.982 249.4 50 φ8c/c200 4.415 26

reinforcements

Span moment

4.73 19.7 3.952 169.9 50 φ8c/c250 4.415 20

9.73 28.35 4.039 357.3 50 φ8c/c130 5.415 39

5.92 22.1 3.97 213.7 50 φ8c/c230 4.415 32

Slab,July,1999E.C.

41

5.4 21.1 3.96 194.6 50 φ8c/c250 4.415 17

The design loads on beams supporting the solid slabs spanning in to directions right

angles supporting uniformly distributed loads may be assessed by using EBCS-2 1995

Art A.3.8

The equn. Is given by the formula,

V=βv PdLx

βv a constant that depends on the support condition of the panel and Lx is the

shortest span of the panel.

The assumed distribution of the load on the supporting beam is shown. Which assures

that the load is assumed to be transferred only to 75% of the beam length.

0.75L

Panel-1/11

4m

Pd=11.54KN/m2

βvx=0.485

βvy =0.4 for the continues part

βvx =0.32 5m

βvy =0.26 for discontinues part

Vx(cont) = βvxPd*Lx=0.485*11.54*4=22.4KN/m

Vy(cont) =Pd*Lx*βvy=0.4*11.54*4=18.5KN/m

Vx(discon) =Pd*Lx*βv x=11.54*4*0.32=14.8KN/m

Vy(discon) =Pd*Lx*βvy=11.54*4*0.26=12.01KN/m

Likewise the loads from the slab is transferred to beams by using computer aided

program (SAP-2000) and analyzed to design the beam and the column.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

42

The stair case is not structurally connected to the building .It is treated as one way solid

slab. Main reinforcement runs in the longer direction.

Design of stair 1

400 le=5400

d = (0.4+ 0.6*300)*5400 =183.6mm

400 25

The overall depth,

D=183.6+15+8=206.6mm

Use D=210mm

d=187mm

Loading (taking 1m strip)

Dead load on the stair

RC slab (inclined) = 0.21*1*24 =5.635KN/m

Cos 26.56

Due to steps per meter width = 0.3*0.15*1*24*1 = 1.8KN/m

2 0.3

Floor Finishing

Terrazzo tile (2cm) = 0.02*23 = 0.4KN/m2

Cement Screed (2 cm) = 0.02*20 = 0.4 KN/m2

Total = 0.86 KN/m2

On the riser = 0.86*0.15*1*10 = 0.43KN/m

3.0

Plastering = 0.02*20 = 0.4KN/ m2 * 1 = 0.4KN/m

Dead load on the stair = (5.635+1.8+0.86+0.43+0.4 )

Cos26.56

Slab,July,1999E.C.

43

= 9.17KN/m

Dead load on the landing portion

Landing Slab = 0.21*1*24 = 5.04KN/m

Plastering = 0.4*1 = 0.4KN/m

Cement screed = 0.4*1 = 0.4KN/m

Terrazzo tile = 0.46*1 = 0.46KN/m

6.3KN/m

Total load on the landing = 6.3KN/m

Live Load

On stair category A, qt = 3 KN/m2 (EBCS-2,1995 table 2.10)

Total live load on stair case = 3 KN/m2 * 1m = 3 KN/m

Design Load

On stair, DL1 = 1.3*9.17+1.6*3 = 16.72 KN/m

On landing, DL2 = 1.3*6.3+1.6*3 = 13 KN/m

Slab,July,1999E.C.

44

= (58.27E6/(0.0187*1000*260.87*(1-0.4*0.0187*28.78))1/2

= 123.4mm<187mm OK!

Reinforcement Design

d 0.187

Ks = 4.19

Hence

As = Ks * M = 4.19 * 58.27 = 1305.8 mm2

d 0.187

Spacing

S = as * b = 201 * 1000 = 153mm

As 1305.8

Spacing provided

Ф16 c/c 150

Design of Stair 2

Slab,July,1999E.C.

45

400 le=4200

d=(0.4+0.6*300)*4200 =142.8

400 25

D=142.8+15+8 = 166mm

Use D=170mm

d=147m

Loading

Design load the same as stair case 1

DL1 = 16.72KN/m

DL2 = 13KN/m

Slab,July,1999E.C.

46

d = (35.52E6/(0.0187*1000*260.87*(1-0.4*0.0187*28.78))1/2

= 96.33mm < 147mm OK!

Rienforcement Design

d 0.147

Ks = 4.185

d 0.147

Spacing

S = 154 * 1000 = 152.3 mm

1011.2

Provide

Ф 14 c/c 150

Slab,July,1999E.C.

47

As =ρmin*b*d =(0.5/300)*1000*147=245mm2

use φ8c/c200mm,in the shorter direction.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

48

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Wind

3. 2 Earth quake

BUILDING

The external and the internal wind pressure on the wall of then building are computed as

:

We =qref*ce(ze)*cpe

Wi = qref*ce(zi)*cpi ,where the parameters have the same meaning as described in the

roof analysis.

From the previos analysis qref=242N/m2

The critical case is when the wind comes on the longer side of the building.

D

Wind E b=28m

A B C

d=9m

2b =2*28=56m, h (12m) < b (28m), we consider the whole building as one

Slab,July,1999E.C.

49

h<b

ze = h =13.21m

Ground

e = min. b=28m

2h=26.42m, e=26.42m

D=9m<e=26.42m

Case:d<e

e/5=5.3m

h=13.21m

wind A B*

d/h=9/13.21=0.681<1.0

al the zones have exposure area >10m2 we take cpe,10

zone A B C D E

d/h cpe,10 cpe,10 cpe,10 cpe,10 cpe,10

≤1.0 -1.0 -0.8 -0.5 0.8 -0.3

Slab,July,1999E.C.

50

We=qref*c(ze)*cpe(z) ,accordingly We of each zone is tabulated below.

zone

We(kn/m2)

A -0.478

B* 0.384

D 0.384

E 0.137

Internal wind pressure

Wi ==qref*ce(zi)*cpi ,in our case ce(zi)=ce(ze)=1.983

Taking the most crituical cases ,cpi =+0.8 or -0.5

qref =242n/m2

Wi =242*1.983*0.8=0.384KN/m2

=242*1.983*-0.5 =-0.24 KN/m2

The net wind pressure

We=qref*c(ze)*cpe(z) ,accordingly We of each zone is tabulated below.

zone

We(kn/m2)

A -0.478

B* 0.384

D 0.384

E 0.137

Internal wind pressure

Wi ==qref*ce(zi)*cpi ,in our case ce(zi)=ce(ze)=1.983

Taking the most crituical cases ,cpi =+0.8 or -0.5

qref =242n/m2

Wi =242*1.983*0.8=0.384KN/m2

=242*1.983*-0.5 =-0.24 KN/m2

The net wind pressure,Wnet =We-Wi

The critical wind pressure occurs on zone A of the building.

Wnet ,max =-0.478-0.384 = -0.862KN/m2 ,suction pressure.

Approximate wind force calculation on the wall at each level

The approximate wind force on the wall at each level is obtained by multiplying the wind

pressure by the area of the building contributing force at that level.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

51

Roof level

3m

3m

AREA CONTRIBUTING FORCE AT THE

SECOND FLOOR LEVEL

2nd floor level

3m

2m

b= 28m

Roof 14 0.864*28*1.5=36.3

3rd floor 11 0.864*28*3=72.6

2nd floor 8 0.864*28*3=72.6

1st floor 5 0.864*28*3=72.6

Ground floor 2 0

Slab,July,1999E.C.

52

3.2.1Determinations of Earth quake load

From EBCS 8,1995 the expression for determination of the base shear

depending on the mass of the structure ,soil condition ,seismic zone, regularity of the

structure both in plan & elevation.Equivalent _static Method is used since T1<2sec

the site is located in Mekele zone 4 αo=0.1, I, Importance factor

Since the building is ordinary residential, , EBCS,8, 1995E provides I=1.0

β=1.2*S/(T2/3 )≤2.5

Mekelle with good rock condition, the soil class A is taken & S=1

T1=C1 H 0.75

C1 =0.075 for moment resisting frame from EBCS,8, 1995

Our frame moment resistive reinforced concrete frame

Using the above expression T1=0.543 sec, β=1.8≤2.5

γ=γo*KD*KR*Kw, frame system γo=0.2

Since the building is regular both in elevation & plan, kR=1.0, factor reflecting

regularity

KD=2, for low ductility class building, factor reflecting

structural ductility

Kw=1.0, for frame & dual system, factor reflecting

prevailing failure

γ=0.2*2*1*1=0.4≤0.7

SdT1=0.1*1.8*0.4=0.072

Wtotal load=Σ dead load+ 0.1*LL=10836.31+0.1*1512=10987.51

only for upper floor, not including ground floor & roof

Fb= SdT1*Wtotal

0.072*10987.51=791.10

0.0,T1≤0.7 sec

Ft = 0.07* T1* Fb≤ 0.25 Fb,for T1>0.7sec

Slab,July,1999E.C.

53

THE

EARTH QUAKE LOAD CALCULATION

Initial Beams& columns determined from Vertical Load transfer from slab

analyzing by approximate method of analysis, deflection requirement ( our code

EBCS,1995)

Using the following floor plan layout the mass center of the lumped mass

will calculated employing symbols used to represent walls, beams, and column

Since the floor is typical the mass center of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd is the same. From

the plan given it is observed that the mass center of x directionis symmetrical. It

lays at the center of the plan in the x direction xm=14m. The mass center along

the y _ direction will calculated in the following tables. The mass center will be

calculated as

Y=Σwiyi/Σwi wi=γ*volume of the mass

Where γ=unt weight of the (structural or non structural

component on the building, concrete,HCB wall.

Y axis

A' B' C' D' E' F' G'

panel

panel 2 panel 4 panel 6 panel 8 10 panel 12 X axis

5m 5m 4m 4m 5m 5m

Wi (KN) arm(yi) M Wiyi (KN.M)

Beam

axis 1(25*30) 0

A"B" 9 9 81

B"C" 9 9 81

C"D" 7.2 9 64.8

Slab,July,1999E.C.

54

E"F" 9 9 81

F"G" 9 9 81

Axis 2(30*40)

A'B' 14.4 5 72

B'C' 14.4 5 72

C'D' 11.52 5 57.6

D'E' 11.52 5 57.6

E'F' 14.4 5 72

F'G' 14.4 5 72

AXIS 3

AB 9 0 0

BC 9 0 0

CD 7.2 0 0

DE 7.2 0 0

EF 9 0 0

FG 9 0 0

AXIS A

AA' 9 2.5 22.5

A'A" 7.2 7 50.4

AXIS B

BB' 14.4 2.5 36

B'B" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS C 0

CC' 14.4 2.5 36

C'C" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS D 0

DD' 14.4 2.5 36

D'D" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS E 0

EE' 14.4 2.5 36

E'E" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS F 0

FF' 14.4 2.5 36

F'F" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS G 0

GG' 9 2.5 22.5

G'G" 7.2 7 50.4

COLUMN 0

AXIS 1 0

A_1 11.52 9 103.68

B_1 8.84 9 79.56

C_1 8.84 9 79.56

D_1 8.84 9 79.56

E_1 8.84 9 79.56

F_1 8.84 9 79.56

G_1 11.52 9 103.68

AXIS 2 0

Slab,July,1999E.C.

55

B_2 11.52 5 57.6

C_2 11.52 5 57.6

D_2 11.52 5 57.6

E_2 11.52 5 57.6

F_2 11.52 5 57.6

G_2 8.64 5 43.2

AXIS 3 0

A_3 11.52 0 0

B_3 8.64 0 0

C_3 8.64 0 0

D_3 8.64 0 0

E_3 8.64 0 0

F_3 8.64 0 0

G_3 11.52 0 0

PARTITION WALL ON BEAMS 0

AXIS 1

A"B" 35.95 9 323.55

B"C" 35.95 9 323.55

C"D" 18.48 9 166.32

D"E" 18.48 9 166.32

E"F" 35.95 9 323.55

F"G" 35.95 9 323.55

AXIS 2 0

A'B' 3.28 5 16.4

B'C' 42 5 210

E'F' 42 5 210

F'G' 3.28 5 16.4

AXIS 3 0

AB 36.96 0 0

FG 36.96 0 0

0

AXIS A 0

AA' 42 2.5 105

A'A" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS B 0

BB' 31.92 2.5 79.8

B'B" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS C 0

CC' 31.92 2.5 79.8

C'C" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS D 0

DD' 31.92 2.5 79.8

D'D" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS E 0

EE' 31.92 2.5 79.8

E'E" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS F 0

Slab,July,1999E.C.

56

F'F" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS G 0

GG' 42 2.5 105

G'G" 33.6 7 235.2

0

SLAB INCLUDING FLOOR FINISH 0

panel 0

1 93 7 651

2 116.25 2.5 290.625

3 93 7 651

4 116.25 2.5 290.625

5 74.4 7 520.8

6 93 2.5 232.5

7 74.4 7 520.8

8 93 2.5 232.5

9 93 7 651

10 116.25 2.5 290.625

11 93 7 651

12 116.25 2.5 290.625

partition walls on slab 0

pane1 0

w1 6.51 5.85 38.0835

w2 13.1 7.44 97.464

w3 6.51 5.85 38.0835

pane11 0

w1 6.51 5.85 38.0835

w2 13.1 7.44 97.464

w3 6.51 5.85 38.0835

pane 2 0

w1 6.51 2.65 17.2515

w2 9.7 3.78 36.666

w3 7.035 1.74 12.2409

pane12 0

w1 6.51 2.65 17.2515

w2 9.7 3.78 36.666

w3 7.035 1.74 12.2409

panel 3 0

w1 6.615 8.11 53.64765

w2 2.65 7.33 19.4245

panel 9 0

w1 6.615 8.11 53.64765

w2 2.65 7.33 19.4245

panel 4 0

w1 28.1 1.3 36.53

w2 10.58 1.9 20.102

w3 10 4.4 44

w4 5.3 1.84 9.752

Slab,July,1999E.C.

57

w6 4.83 3.62 17.4846

panel10 0

w1 28.1 1.3 36.53

w2 10.58 1.9 20.102

w3 10 4.4 44

w4 5.3 1.84 9.752

w5 7.1 2.72 19.312

w6 4.83 3.62 17.4846

panel 5 0

w1 5.46 5.4 29.484

w2 10.63 6.95 73.8785

w3 8.4 8.1 68.04

w4 3.36 5.4 18.144

panel 7 0

w1 5.46 5.4 29.484

w2 10.63 6.95 73.8785

w3 8.4 8.1 68.04

w4 3.36 5.4 18.144

panel 6 0

w1 10.08 1.4 14.112

w2 13.23 1.4 18.522

w3 3.26 1.788 5.82888

w4 6.615 2.93 19.38195

sum

panel 8 0

w1 10.08 1.4 14.112

w2 13.23 1.4 18.522

w3 3.26 1.788 5.82888

w4 6.615 2.93 19.38195

sum 2928.87 13613.57

Σω ι Σwiyi

y=ΣWiyi/Σωι

Mass center of1st,2nd,3rd,floor the same,ym=4.66 Y m= 4.66

Descrpition wi yi wiyi

Grade beam

(40*30cm*cm)

Axis 1

A"B" 14.4 9 129.6

B"C" 14.4 9 129.6

C"D" 11.52 9 103.68

D"E" 11.52 9 103.68

E"F" 14.4 9 129.6

F"G" 14.4 9 129.6

Slab,July,1999E.C.

58

Axis 2 0

A'B' 14.4 5 72

B'C' 14.4 5 72

C'D' 11.52 5 57.6

D'E' 11.52 5 57.6

E'F' 14.4 5 72

F'G' 14.4 5 72

AXIS 3 0

AB 14.4 0 0

BC 14.4 0 0

CD 11.52 0 0

DE 11.52 0 0

EF 14.4 0 0

FG 14.4 0 0

AXIS A 0

AA' 14.4 2.5 36

A'A" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS B 0

BB' 14.4 2.5 36

B'B" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS C 0

CC' 14.4 2.5 36

C'C" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS D 0

DD' 14.4 2.5 36

D'D" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS E 0

EE' 14.4 2.5 36

E'E" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS F 0

FF' 14.4 2.5 36

F'F" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS G 0

GG' 14.4 2.5 36

G'G" 11.52 7 80.64

column on ground floor lumped mass 2m foundation

column & 3m all above groundcolumn 0

AXIS 1 0

A_1 9.6 9 86.4

B_1 7.2 9 64.8

C_1 7.2 9 64.8

D_1 7.2 9 64.8

E_1 7.2 9 64.8

F_1 7.2 9 64.8

G_1 9.6 9 86.4

AXIS 2 0

A_2 7.2 5 36

B_2 9.6 5 48

C_2 9.6 5 48

Slab,July,1999E.C.

59

D_2 9.6 5 48

E_2 9.6 5 48

F_2 9.6 5 48

G_2 7.2 5 36

AXIS 3 0

A_3 9.6 0 0

B_3 7.2 0 0

C_3 7.2 0 0

D_3 7.2 0 0

E_3 7.2 0 0

F_3 7.2 0 0

G_3 9.6 0 0

wall on grade beams 0

Axis 1 0

A"B" 35.95 9 323.55

B"C" 35.95 9 323.55

C"D" 18.48 9 166.32

D"E" 18.48 9 166.32

E"F" 35.95 9 323.55

F"G" 35.95 9 323.55

Axis 2 0

B'C' 42 5 210

E'F' 42 5 210

AXIS 3 0

AB 36.96 0 0

FG 36.96 0 0

AXIS A 0

AA' 42 2.5 105

A'A" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS B 0

BB' 42 2.5 105

B'B" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS C 0

CC' 31.92 3.1 98.952

C'C" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS D 0

DD' 31.92 3.1 98.952

D'D" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS E 0

EE' 31.92 3.1 98.952

E'E" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS F 0

FF' 42 2.5 105

F'F" 33.6 7 235.2

AXIS G 0

GG' 42 2.5 105

G'G" 33.6 7 235.2

sum 1433.8 7164.336

Slab,July,1999E.C.

60

Σwi Σwiyi

ROOF

MASS

CENTER

Description wi yi wiyi

Purlin

p1 1.453 9.58 13.91974

p2 1.453 9.28 13.48384

p3 1.453 7.52 10.92656

p4 1.453 5.76 8.36928

p5 1.453 4 5.812

p6 1.453 4 5.812

p7 1.453 3.52 5.11456

p8 1.453 0.48 0.69744

p9 1.453 -0.5 -0.7265

Trusses 0

T1 1.76 4.5 7.92

T2 1.76 4.5 7.92

T3 1.76 4.5 7.92

T4 1.76 4.5 7.92

T5 1.76 4.5 7.92

T6 1.76 4.5 7.92

T7 1.76 4.5 7.92

T8 1.76 4.5 7.92

T9 1.76 4.5 7.92

T10 1.76 4.5 7.92

T11 1.76 4.5 7.92

T12 1.76 4.5 7.92

T13 1.76 4.5 7.92

TIE BEAM ON ROOF LEVEL

Axis 1

25*30 cm*cm

A"B" 9 9 81

B"C" 9 9 81

C"D" 7.2 9 64.8

D"E" 7.2 9 64.8

E"F" 9 9 81

F"G" 9 9 81

Axis 2

30cm*40cm

A'B' 14.4 5 72

B'C' 14.4 5 72

C'D' 11.52 5 57.6

D'E' 11.52 5 57.6

Slab,July,1999E.C.

61

E'F' 14.4 5 72

F'G' 14.4 5 72

AXIS 3

25*30cm*cm

AB 9 0 0

BC 9 0 0

CD 7.2 0 0

DE 7.2 0 0

EF 9 0 0

FG 9 0 0

AXIS A

AA' 9 2.5 22.5

A'A" 7.2 7 50.4

AXIS B

BB' 14.4 2.5 36

B'B" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS C 0

CC' 14.4 2.5 36

C'C" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS D 0

DD' 14.4 2.5 36

D'D" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS E 0

EE' 14.4 2.5 36

E'E" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS F 0

FF' 14.4 2.5 36

F'F" 11.52 7 80.64

AXIS G 0

GG' 9 2.5 22.5

G'G" 7.2 7 50.4

Half column to roof level lumped mass 0

corner column 40*40 cm*cm,30*40 cm*cm

middle column 0

AXIS 1 0

A_1 5.76 9 51.84

B_1 4.32 9 38.88

C_1 4.32 9 38.88

D_1 4.32 9 38.88

E_1 4.32 9 38.88

F_1 4.32 9 38.88

G_1 5.76 9 51.84

AXIS 2 0

A_2 4.32 5 21.6

B_2 5.76 5 28.8

C_2 5.76 5 28.8

D_2 5.76 5 28.8

E_2 5.76 5 28.8

F_2 5.76 5 28.8

Slab,July,1999E.C.

62

AXIS 3 0

A_3 5.76 0 0

B_3 4.32 0 0

C_3 4.32 0 0

D_3 4.32 0 0

E_3 4.32 0 0

F_3 4.32 0 0

G_3 5.76 0 0

Parapet wall on axis A&G 0

AXIS A 0

AA' 16.8 2.5 42

A'A" 13.44 7 94.08

AXIS G 0

GG' 16.8 2.5 42

G'G" 13.44 7 94.08

sum 543.557 2509.609

Σwi Σwiyi

roof

mass center ymg 4.617012

For the distribution of base shear forces according to their height for floor level using

the following formula from our code,EBCS 8,1995

Fi=(Fb-Ft)*wihi/(Σwihi)=791.10/82839.44=0.00955wihi

wihi(kN

level hi(m) wi(kN) m) Fi(kN)

ground 2 1433.8 2867.6 27.39

Slab,July,1999E.C.

63

floor 5 5 75 142.72

second 2988.9 23911.

floor 8 5 6 228.36

2988.9 32878.

third 11 5 45 313.99

8239.8

roof 14 588.56 4 78.69

From the above calculation wind load & Earth Quake are compared & the maximum

lateral load is earth quake. The structure designed for resisting the maximum load, the

earth quake.

3.2.3 The distribution of floor level forces to each for different direction

of earth quake Load Among Each frames According to their stiffness ( D_

Value)

Assuming that the frame s are rigid laterally the total lateral force is distributed

through the vertical members on proportion to their relative rigidity. The location of the

center of rigidity is determined as follows

Xs=Σ(Diy*xi)/ΣDiy, ys=Σ(Dix*yi)/ΣDix

Dx,Dy=Lateral stiffness of a particular element along x and y axis, respectively ( D _

values)

D=akc

Where a= (0.5+ k )/(2+ k ) for fixed column base

Slab,July,1999E.C.

64

The corrected shear force on the frames is obtained for torsion correction by a

factor α

αx=1+Σ Dx*ey*y/(Jx+Jy)

αy=1+ΣDy*ex*x/ (Jx+Jy)

Jx,Jy = D value moment of inertia, ex & ey the design eccentricity in x & y direction

Qn=Qd/ΣD

The corrected shear for torsion will be

Q Corrected=Qn α

Since there is no shear wall the entire load should be supported by the frame only

For the calculation of each parameters

Initial Beams& columns determined from Vertical Load transferred from slab

analyzing by approximate method of analysis, deflection requirement ( our code

EBCS,1995)

Slab,July,1999E.C.

65

axis A A B C D E F G

axis

C1 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 1

4m

axis2

C2 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3

5m

C1 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 axis3

5m 5m 4m 4m 5m 5m

C1=400mm*30

0mm *400mm axis1,3,A,G=250*300a

C1=400mm*30 axis2,B,C.D,E,F=300*40

0mm *400mm 0

C1=400mm*30 *400m Beam

0mm m stiffness

lengt

axis h kb

1125

1,3 5m 00

1406

A,G 4m 30

stiffness 2,B, 3200

=bh^3/12 C 5m 00

D,E, 4000

F 4m 00

Grade beam

colum lengt

n b h l KY KX h kb

71111 71111 3200

1_A 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1 5m 00

53333 30000 4000

1_B 300 400 3000 3.3 0 4m 00

53333 30000

1_C 300 400 3000 3.3 0

53333 30000

1_D 300 400 3000 3.3 0

53333 30000

1_E 300 400 3000 3.3 0

53333 30000

1_F 300 400 3000 3.3 0

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66

71111 71111

1_G 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

53333 30000

2_A 300 400 3000 3.3 0

71111 71111

2-B 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

71111 71111

2_C 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

71111 71111

2_D 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

71111 71111

2_E 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

71111 71111

2_F 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

53333 30000

2_G 300 400 3000 3.3 0

71111 71111

3_A 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

53333 30000

3_B 300 400 3000 3.3 0

53333 30000

3_C 300 400 3000 3.3 0

53333 30000

3_D 300 400 3000 3.3 0

53333 30000

3_E 300 400 3000 3.3 0

53333 30000

3_F 300 400 3000 3.3 0

71111 71111

3_G 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

y_Axis

For axis A& G

column 1_A

kbar=140630/711111.1=.0.19

140630 8

kc

711111.

1

a=0.09

D=akc=64

140630

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67

column2-A

140630 112500

k=140630+112500/300000=.84

300000

a=.296

140630 112500 D=89

column3-A

112500 k=.158

711111.1 a=.0733

112500 D=52.12

k=.26

533333.3 711111.1 a=.151

a=.116

140630 140630 112500 D=107.4

D=62

column3-B

112500 k=.21

533333.3 a=.095

112500 D=51

Axis A and G Axis B,C,D,E and F

Slab,July,1999E.C.

68

400000 k=.75

140630 k=.38

a=.16 533333.3 a=.273

711111.1

400000 D=145.45

400000 D=113.6

column2-B

column2_A

140630 112500 k=1.62

711111.1 a=.34

300000 a=.45

400000 320000 D=239

400000 320000 D=135

column3-A column3-B

axis B,C.D.Eand F

axis Aand G

column1-B

column 1-

A

400000 k=.375

1066700

a=.37 400000 k=.5

D=395

800000 a=.4

column2-A column2-B

a=.58 a=.44

450000 1066700

D=263 D=469

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69

column3-A

column3-B

320000 k=.3

a=.35

D=371 a=.375

800000

D=300

Axis 2

Axis 1 and 3 ground up to third floor

First up to third floor

column1-A

column2-A

a=.23

711111.1 a=.073 533333.3

D=123

112500 D=52

column1-B 320000

300000 a=.273

320000 320000 k=.9

112500 112500 D=81.9 a=.31

711111.1

column1-C D=220.7

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70

a=.34

711111.1

column1-D D=239

320000 400000

140630 140630 k=.938

300000 a=.32

column2-D

71111101

a=.36

400000 400000 D=256

column1-A column2-A

711111.1 a=.132 a=.375

800000

320000 D=93.85 D=300

column1-B

300000 a=.42 column2-B

a=.42

column1-C 1066700

D=451

112500 140630 k=1.62

300000 a=.45

column1-D column2-C

Slab,July,1999E.C.

71

300000 a=.47 a=.44

1066700

400000 400000 D=142.2 D=468

column2-D

foundation columns

400000 400000 k=.75

column1-A a=.45

1066700

320 k=.3 D=485

a=.35

1066700

D=373

column1-B

a=.56

450000

D=252

column1-C

a=.583

450000

D=263

column1-D

a=.6

450000

D=271.43

Slab,July,1999E.C.

72

Along Y_axis

axis A and G axis B,C.D.F and F

sum of

sum of D D

64 89 52 205 62 107.4 51 220.4

Along X axis

axis 1 and 3

52 81.9 89 96 89 81.9 52

52 81.9 89 96 89 81.9 52

52 81.9 89 96 89 81.9 52

axis 2

Slab,July,1999E.C.

73

Divide the Floor level force on Each Frame according to the proportion of their

D_value

Frame axis 2 summation of the D_ value=∑D axis2

(1421.4/2505)*78.66=44.63

Since the stiffness of the frame axis one and three is the same the remaining will be

divided equally to each frames. There fore

Axis 1 & 3 = 17 KN each LUMPED MASS PRESENTATION

Axis 1& 3 =67.90KN each

C. 2nd floor level

Axis 2=1421.4/2505*(228.36)=129.56 KN F3

axis 1& 3=49.4 KN each

D. 1st floor level F2

Axis 2 =1421.4/(1421.4+850)*142.7=65KN

Axis 1 & 3=38.6 KN each F1

E.Ground floor at grade beam level

Axis 2 = 2923/ (2923+2*2047.5)

Slab,July,1999E.C.

74

A. Roof level

Axis A & G have the same stiffness so they share equal force

Axis AS &G 0.5*(2*2505/ (2*2505+5*22.4))*78.66=10.66 KN each

Since the remaining axis B,D,C ,E,F the stiffness share equally the remaining force

B. 3rd floor level

Remaining axes will be 54.29 KN each

C. 2nd floor level

D. 1st floor level

Axis A &G = 16.8 KN.

Axis A&G 1029/(1029+5*1089)=3.76 KN

Other axis will share each 4.73KN

After the lateral force is put on each frame it should be corrected for torsion

effect which occurs either it due to accidental or due to eccentricity between

stiffness center & mass center. The lateral force due to earth quake acts at the mass

center of the modeled lumped mass.

The result is shown on the following serious of tables .

Slab,July,1999E.C.

75

Roof A 205 0 0

3rd+2nd B 220.4 5 1102

floor C 220.4 10 2204

D 220.4 14 3085.6

E 220.4 3967.2 xs=14

F 220.4 23

G 205 28 5740

SUM 1512 21163.4

A 347.2 0 0

1st floor B 482 5 2410

C 482 10 4820

D 482 14 6748 xs=14

E 482 18 8676

F 482 23 11086

347.2 28 9721.6

sum 3104.8 43461.6

ground A 1029 0 0

floor B 1089 5 5445

C 1089 10 10890

D 1089 14 15246 xs=14

E 1089 18 19602

F 1089 23 25047

G 28 28812

SUM

7523 85440

Slab,July,1999E.C.

76

Yi

roof,3rd 1 541.8 9 4876.2

&2nd 1421. Ys=4.76

floor 2 45 7107 6

3 541.8 0 0

sum 2505 11983.2

1st floor 1 850 9 7650

1421.

2 4 5 7107 Y=4.728

3 850 0 0

sum 14757

2047.

ground 1 5 9 18427.5

floor 2 2923 5 14615 Y=4.708

2047.

3 5 0 0

sum 7018 33042.5

Slab,July,1999E.C.

77

Calculation of Eccentricities

Actual eccentricities

ex=xm-xs ey=ys-ym

level xm xs ex ym ys ey

Roof 14 14 0 4.6 4.766 0.166

2nd 14 14 0 4.66 4.766 0.106

3rd 14 14 0 4.66 4.766 0.106

1st 14 14 0 4.66 4.728 0.068

ground 14 14 0 4.755 4.708 -0.047

to cover un

Accidental Eccentricities certainities

exa=±0.05Lx eya=±0.05Ly

0.05*28=±1.4 ±0.05*9=±0.45

ed,x=ex+exa ed,y=ey+eya

Roof 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 0.166 ±0.45 0.616 -0.284

3rd 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 0.106 ±0.45 0.556 -0.344

2nd 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 0.106 ±0.45 0.556 -0.382

1st 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 0.068 ±0.45 0.518 -0.492

ground 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 -0.047 ±0.45 0.403 -0.497

Coefficient calculation for the shear correction due to Torsion effect developed due to the

above eccentricities

The corrected shear force on the frames is obtained for torsion correction by a factor α

αx=1+Σ Dx*ey*y/(Jx+Jy)

αix=1+(Dx)*ey*yi/ (Jx+Jy)

αiy=1+(Diy)*edx*x/ (Jx+Jy)

Jx,Jy = D_ value moment of inertia, ex & ey the design eccentricity in x & y direction

respectively

Jy=Σ(Dy xi2)- Σ(Dyxs2)

Slab,July,1999E.C.

78

Qn=Qd/ΣD formula for shear force for each storey according their

stiffness determined in previous pages. The corrected shear for torsion will be

Q Corrected=Qn α

To calculate the correction factor α the above eccentricity table and the following

table will be used using the above formula for the correction factor calculation.

Direction

Dix(ys-

Dix(ys-

yi)2

i

level

axis

yi)2

1 9 4.728 -4.272 850 15512.4864

x 2 5 4.728 -0.272 1421.4 105.1608576

3 0 4.728 4.728 850 19000.8864

sum

Jx 34618.53366

y B 5 14 -9 482 39042

C 10 14 -4 482 7712

D 14 14 0 482 0

E 18 14 4 482 7712

1st

floor F 23 14 9 482 39042

G 28 14 14 347.4 68090

sum Jy 229689

Jr 264307

2 5 4.71 -0.29 2923 245.8243

3 0 4.71 4.71 2047.5 45421.94475

sumJx 83350.1638

A 0 14 -14 1029 201684

B 5 14 -9 1089 88209

C 10 14 -4 1089 17424

D 14 14 0 1089 0

Slab,July,1999E.C.

79

E 18 14 4 1089 17424

F 23 14 9 1089 88209

G 28 14 14 1029 201684

ground

floor sum Jy 614634

Jr 697984

α αx α y

level direction axis α x1 x2 α y1 α y2 max max

1 0.99 1.05 1.05

x 2 0.999 1 1

3 1.01 0.99 0.99

B 0.98 1.02 1.02

y C 0.99 1.009 1.009

D 1 1 1

E 1.009 0.99 1.009

F 1.02 0.98 1.02

roof G 1.03 0.97 1.03

x 2 0.999 1 1

3 1.01 0.99 1.01

B 0.98 1.02 1.02

C 0.99 1.009 1.009

y D 1 1 1

E 1.009 0.99 1.009

F 1.02 0.98 1.02

2nd&3rd G 1.03 0.97 1.03

Slab,July,1999E.C.

80 αx αy

level direction αxis α x1 α x2 αy1 αy2 max max

1 0.99 1.05 1.05

x 2 0.999 1 1

3 1.01 0.99 0.99

0.98 1.02 1.02

0.99 1.009 1.009

y 1 1 1

1.009 0.99 1.009

1.02 0.98 1.02

1.03 0.97 1.03

1st floor

2 0.98 1.02 1.02

3 0.99 1.009 1.009

A 0.971 1.03 1.03

B 0.98 1.02 1.02

Y

D 1 1 1

E 1.01 0.99 1.01

F 1.02 0.983 1.02

G 1.03 0.971 1.03

ground flor

Slab,July,1999E.C.

81

Frame lateral force at each storey & axis in both x & y direction Shear forces

correction factors & corrected forces will be shown in the following tables.

leve ROO

l F 3rd 2nd 3rd 2nd

α

Axi αm Q αm Q Q ma Q αm Q

s Qi ax corr Qi Qi ax corr corr Qi x corr Qi ax corr

10.6 10.9 16.8 1.0 17.3 1.0

A 6 1.03 8 42.57 31.00 1.03 43.85 31.93 0 3 0 3.76 3 3.87

13.6 13.8 25.1 1.0 25.7 1.0

B 0 1.02 7 54.29 39.47 1.02 55.38 40.26 8 2 6 4.73 2 4.82

13.6 13.7 25.1 1.0 25.4 1.0

C 0 1.01 4 54.29 39.47 1.01 54.83 39.86 8 1 3 4.73 1 4.78

13.6 13.6 25.1 1.0 25.1 1.0

D 0 1.00 0 54.29 39.47 1.00 54.29 39.47 8 0 8 4.73 0 4.73

13.6 13.7 25.1 1.0 25.4 1.0

E 0 1.01 4 54.29 39.47 1.01 54.83 39.86 8 1 3 4.73 1 4.78

13.6 13.8 25.1 1.0 25.6 1.0

F 0 1.02 7 54.29 39.47 1.02 55.38 40.26 8 2 8 4.73 2 4.82

10.6 10.9 16.8 1.0 17.2 1.0

G 6 1.03 8 42.57 31.00 1.03 43.85 31.93 0 3 4 3.76 3 3.87

17.0 17.0 38.8 1.0 39.0 1.0

1.00 0 1.01 9 67.90 49.40 1.01 68.24 49.65 6 1 5 8.00 1 8.05

44.6 44.6 178.1 129.5 178.1 129.5 65.0 1.0 65.1 11.4 1.0 11.4

2.00 3 1.00 3 7 6 1.00 7 6 0 0 3 1 0 1

17.0 17.1 38.8 1.0 39.1 1.0

3.00 0 1.01 7 67.90 49.40 1.01 68.58 49.89 6 1 7 8.00 1 8.05

Slab,July,1999E.C.

82

Slab,July,1999E.C.

83

F5

F1

Using the above latera load & vertical load sap analysis is made for different

combination in order to obtain design forces as show in the sample frame .The detail

loading can be displayed in SAP 2000 Version 7.4 in display Mode. In the frame

Analysis there are five loading combination. ,From EBCS 8, 1995 recommends.

1. Comb1 =vertical Loading only=1.3ΣDead load+1.6ΣLive load

2.Comb2=0.75(Comb1)+Earth Quake in the X direction

3. Comb3=0.75(Comb1)+ Earth Quake in theY direction

4. Comb4=0.75(Comb1)+ Earth Quake in the -ve X direction

5 Comb5=.0.75(Comb1)+ Earth Quake in the -ve Y direction

Keeping the above data as it is, sap analiys made for the design of the structural

members for critical load combination.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

84

CHAPTER FOUR

Any structural element is designed for resisting the type of action acting on it.

Since beam a structural member it can be subjected to various actions like axial, bending,

shear, torsion. however from the analysis of the frame it was obtained that the most

dominating stresses are bending & shear forces. For the design purpose first it was

selected four frames which possibly similar loading & stress, frame having higher stress

from those groups .Selecting the critical frame again beams are grouped having similar

loading in to tie beam,slabsupporting beam, grade beam.thirdly,critical load combination

for each frame element for determine the reinforcement. The using the critical load

combination the beam design proceeds as follows.

4.1.2. Shear design of beams

1) Tie beam

Sap 2000 version 7.4 gives the result

5m 5m 4m 4m 5m 5m

The design of the reinforced beam begin from the determination of the section of

beam & reinforcement needed for . The section of the beam already determined

before from the vertical load transferred from slab& deflection requirement.

Material

Steel s_300Mpa

Concrete C_25Mpa

Class work one γ concrete=1.5, partial safety factor for concrete strength

Slab,July,1999E.C.

85

fcd=0.858fck/ γ concrete =(0.85*25/1.25)/1.5=11.33Mpa

fctd=0.21*(fck)2/3/ γ concrete=1.0315 Mpa

m=fyd/(0.8*fcd)=28.78

c1=2.5/m=0.0869

c2=.4*m*fyd=3003.13

ρ=0.75*ρb=(εC)/( εC+εS)*.8*fcd/fyd*0.75=0.019, εc=.0035 for

compound

for singly reinforced beam εs=0.87*10-3*fyk/200

εc concrete maximum strain, εs teel strain

ρmax=.04 both for tensile reinforcement & compression reinforcement

Detailing of rectangular beam ρmin=0.6/fyk

h

b

Design moments at support & span determining their

corresponding Reinforcement

Using design table & equation

d⊇(0.4+0.6*fyk/400)*Le/βa d’, considering one part of the frame as propped

cantilever beam, βa=24 which gives d=177mm⊂240 ok

the self weight already included IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE

FRAMEUREINFORCENMENT can be found using either the formula As=ρbd or

using design table.

Through out our design we used design table from EBCS 2,part two ,1995

the beam all in metre and KN

Km=(28.23/(.25*0.242 ) 0.5=44.27<57.83, single reinforced beam section

Since the exact value of km is not obtained in the table, we used linear interpolation.

Ks=4.267

As=ks*Msd/d, where A in mmm2

For the material specified C_25Mpa, S-300Mpa

Slab,July,1999E.C.

86

As=4.267*28.23/0.24=501.8mm2,use 2φ20

b) span reinforcement

The typical floor beam along the axis 2,sap result shows the maximum span

moment obtained when the building is loaded only vertical load. But at the support

maximum bending occurs at support in the right part of the member ( beam ) some

members even show positive bending moment at the support. Observing the two

critical condition we design the support with lateral load combination while the span

using the vertical load only.

a) Support

Maximum bending on the continuous beam,Md=153.61 KN.m

the section selected 250*450 mm*mm at the initial accounted in the analysis.

.

Since the beam is located at the middle of the slabs some part of the slab casted

monolitcally can participate in the beam loaod carrying. Therefore the beam will be

T _shape. at support it is rectangular structurally since the bottom portion of the

beeam is is in compression .the to will be in tension.

barslongutidinal.

be

Slab,July,1999E.C.

87

Tensile Compression

Bw

Using the design table

Km/km*=64.384/57.83=1.11

AS=ks*Msd*ρ/d=1872mm2

As2=ks'*Msd*ρ'/d=357.5mm2

Total tensile positive reinforcement As tot=As1+As2=2222.5mm2

Use, 7φ20 Compression reinforcement=As2=357.5mm2, use 2φ16

b) span moment

be

Tensile Compression

bw

Slab,July,1999E.C.

88

Msd max=66.21 KN.m, since the moment is the the section participate in carrying

loads

To check the whether th section is rectangle or not

0.8x> hf=thickness of the slab,x depth of the neutral axis

X=ρactua md

be =min(le/5+bw,le)=min(5000/5+250,5000) for T _section

be= min(le/10+bw,le)=min(5000/10+250,5000), for inverted L edge

beams

X=15.42mm<hf=140mm

a) Support reinforcement, use 3φ20

b) span reinforcement ,use 2φ20

Simlarly the beams on other have been as above procedure out put

listed in the following tables

Tie beam

Slab supporting beam( 3 floor beam each toatal length 28

metre,1st,2nd,3rd, floor)

Grade beam

3.DESIGN OF BEAM ON Axis1 (3), edge beam

Tie beam

Slab supporting beam(3 floor beam each toatal length 28

metre,1st,2nd,3rd, floor)

Grade beam

Tie beam

Slab supporting beam(3 floor beam each toatal length 28

metre,1st,2nd,3rd, floor)

Grade beam

Slab,July,1999E.C.

89

FOR THE ABOVE BEAM EXPLAINED.

using the

km=(M/bd2)^0.5 Design table formulas ks interpolation

type of beam

referce axis

compressiom bars

provided tension

compAs(mm2)

Moment(KN)

tenAs(mm2)

designtable

number

b d

Tie bm support 28.23 0.25 0.24 501.87 2φ20

Axis 2

slab

s.bm support 153.61 0.25 0.39 2229.50 357.50 7φ20 2φ16

span 66.21 0.25 0.39 962.50 5φ16

gradebm support 80.00 0.25 0.39 897.73 3Φ20

span 60.81 0.25 0.39 661.00 2Φ20

Tie bm support 27.17 0.25 0.24 495.42 2Φ20

span 8.68 0.25 0.24 147.37 2Φ12

axis B

slab

s.bm support 160.26 0.25 0.39 1949.86 466.21 8Φ20 2Φ20

span 68.84 0.25 0.39 962.50 5φ16

gradebm support 97.92 0.25 0.39 1130.00 4Φ20

Slab,July,1999E.C.

90

Tie bm support 14.80 0.25 0.24 256.95 2φ16

span 5.00 0.25 0.24 117.50 2Φ12

slab

axis

1

gradebm support 48.72 0.25 0.29 737.37 3Φ20

span 28.33 0.25 0.29 230.00 2Φ12

Tie bm support 19.3 326.5 2φ16

span 7.2 118.7 2Φ12

slab

s.bm support 78.31 1247.6 4Φ20

axisA

gradebm support 51.7 513 2Φ20

span 20 193.2 2Φ12

Beams on axis A

Governing combination is comb.1(only vertical load).

Tie beam

Section =250mmx300mm

15.25 13.7

d

vd vc -13.14

-18.26

5m 4m

Slab,July,1999E.C.

91

design constants

fcd =11.33Mpa , fyd =260.87Mpa ,m =29 ,c1 =0.087 ,c2 =3003

geometric constants

k1 =1.6-d=1.6-0.261 =1.339m

k2= (1+50ρ) ,ρ =0.0062(from flexural reinforcement)

=1.308

Concrete shear capacity of the section ,vc is calculated as :

Vc =0.25*fctd*k1*k2*bw*d

Fctd =0.21(fck)2/3/γc=1.031Mpa

Vc =0.25*1.031*1.339*1.308*250*261=29.5KN

The diagonal compression resistance of the cross_section ,VRd

=0.25*fcd*bw*d=0.25*11.33*250*261=185KN

The design value of shear force Vd is taken at d distance from the face of the support,then

Vd=16.5KN

Since Vc is greater than Vd then we provide minimum shear reinforcement.

Let we use φ6 shear reinforcement.Asv =2*28.8 =56.6mm2

Smin min. (Asv*fyk)/0.4*bw =56.6*300/0.4*250 =169.8mm , use φ6 c/c 160mm

d=261mm

800mm

The beams on 3rd ,2nd,and 1st floor have nearly the same shear force diagram.theere fore

their shear reinforcement will be done based on the critical shear force diagram.

63.12 47.4

- 49.53

- 65.6

5m 4m

Vs =Vd –Vc =58.9-29.5 =29.4KN Vd =43.2KN

Vs =43.2-29.5 =13.7KN

S=Asv *fyd *(d-dc)/Vs

Slab,July,1999E.C.

92

Use φ6c/c 110mm =239mm,use φ6c/c 230mm

Grade beam

Section =250mm*450mm

d=450-25-8-6 =411mm

k1 =1.6-0.411=1.189

k2 =1.282

Vc =0.25*1.034*1.189*1.282*250*411=40.5KN

VRd =0.25*11.33*250*411 =291KN

Vd =39.8KN

36.43 47.18

vd

-49.74

-36.87

5m 4m

d=411mm

800mm

Following similar fassion shear reinforcement for beams on the other axis is calculated in

the table below.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

93

section

Beam Spacing,

Axis location (mm*mm) d(mm) K1 K2 vc(KN) VRd(KN) Vd(KN) S(mm)

4m 5m 4m 5m

Tie Smin Smin

B,C,D,E &F

beam 250x300 259 1.341 1.419 31.9 183.4 122.8 78.4 160 160

1st -3rd 250*450 409 1.191 1.614 50.81 289.62 13.9 14.5 Smin Smin

floor 160 160

Grade 250x450 409 1.191 1.614 50.81 289.62 24 30.8 Smin Smin

beam 160 160

Tie 250x300 257 1.343 1.084 24.1 182 12.5 12.5 Smin Smin

beam 160 160

Axis 1

1st -3rd 250x350 307 1.293 1.084 27.73 217.4 47.6 67 200 100

floor

Grade 300x400 357 1.243 1.084 37.19 217.4 36.9 36.9Smin Smin

beam 140 140

Tie 250x300 257 1.343 1.084 24.1 182 13.64 13.64 Smin Smin

beam 160 160

1st -3rd 250x450 405 1.195 1.084 33.8 286.8 59.8 108 200 70

Axis 2

floor

Grade 300x400 355 1.195 1.084 29.75 301.7 31.3 31.3 Smin Smin

beam 140 140

Slab,July,1999E.C.

94

Determination storey buckling load Ncr(EBCS_2 1995Art

4.4.12)

(1)The buckling load of a storey is assumed to be equal to that of

the substitute frame defined in fig 4.6(art 4.4.12)

Ncr=Π2EIe/Le2

Where EIe_is the effective length of the substitute column

Le is effective length

(2) EIe=.2EcIc+EsIs

Where Ec=1100fcd

Es=modulus of elasticity

Ic,Is =moment of inertia of the

concrete and reinforcement sections, respectively of the substitute

column with respect to the centroid of the concrete section.

(3)le may be determined in accordance with art 4.4.7using the

stiffness properties of the gross concrete section for both beams

and columns of the substitute frame.

(4) the equivalent reinforcement area in the substitute column to be

used for calculating Isin(2) above may be obtained by designing

the substitute column at each floor level to carry the storey design

axial load and amplified sway moment at the critical section (see

art 4.4.11).The equivalent column dimension of the substitute

column may be taken as shown in fig 4.6 in case of rectangular

columns.

(5)The amplified sway moment, to be used for the design of

substitute column by taking the first order design moment in the

substitute column as an initial value.

(6)The first order design moment, Md= (α2+3)*Hl/ (α1+α2+6)

Where α1&α2 are defined in art 4.4.7 and shall

not exceed 10.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

95

Design of the substitute column

112.5 112.5 140.625 140.625 112.5 112.5 1462.5

1462.5

Axis-2

Slab,July,1999E.C.

96

Axis-A

Calculation of α1, α2,, αm , Le, s, Ac and Ic

1) The effective buckling length Le of a column in a given plane may be obtained from

the following approximate equations; provided that the sections below is complied with,

α m + 0.4

(a) Non-sway mode: Le/L= ≥ 0.7

α m + 0.8

α1=ΣKc1/ΣKb1

α2 =ΣKc2/ΣKb2

αm= (α1+α2)/2

Where Kc1 and Kc2 are column stiffness coefficients (EI/L)

Kb2 and Kb2 are the effective beam stiffness coefficients (EI/L)

Slab,July,1999E.C.

97

ΣI=s4/12

S= (ΣI*12)1/4

Assuming the columns to be in sway mode initially α, αm, Le, s, Ac, Ic are calculated as

follows in the next pages.

Axis-1

(mm)

Axis-2

Slab,July,1999E.C.

98

Axis-3

Axis-A

Level α1 α2 αm Le S (mm) Ac(103mm2) Ic(109mm4)

Found

1.58 1.0 1.3 2.86 360 129.6 1.4

Ground

3.6 1.58 2.59 5.26 360 129.6 1.4

First

3.6 3.6 3.6 5.91 360 129.6 1.4

2nd

3.1 3.6 3.35 5.755 360 129.6 1.4

3rd

1.286 3.1 2.2 4.984 330 108.9 0.99

Axis-B

Level α1 α2 αm Le S (mm) Ac(103mm2) Ic(109mm4)

Slab,July,1999E.C.

99

Md1= (α1+3)*HL/ ( α1+ α2+6)

Axis-1

m)

Found 1.28 1.0 182.08 2.0 824.61 175.9 0.17 0.37 0.75 6596.2

Ground 2.98 1.28 174.03 3 717.48 217.8 0.21 0.313 0.71 6245

First 2.98 2.98 134.98 3 498.53 202.47 0.196 0.22 0.35 3078.2

2nd 2.56 2.98 85.33 3 277.06 132.6 0.128 0.12 0.12 1620

Axis-2

N)

Found 1.48 1.0 428.9 2 1717.2 404.62 0.32 0.66 0.65 6480.0

Ground 1.186 1.48 417.49 3 1578.9 647.48 0.52 0.6 1.1 9181.47

7

First 1.186 1.186 287.76 3 1072.2 431.89 0.35 0.41 0.6 5981.58

3

2nd 1.0 1.186 109.76 3 576.12 168.38 0.14 0.22 0.15 1435.4

Slab,July,1999E.C.

100

3rd 1.04 1.0 44.63 3 73.31 66.61 0.087 0.04 0.15 1322.8

m)

Found 1.28 1.0 182.55 2 458.31 176.38 0.17 0.2 0.24 2110.8

Ground 2.98 1.28 174.5 3 389.92 220 0.21 0.17 0.36 3166

First 2.98 2.98 135.04 3 271.62 203.5 0.196 0.12 0.38 3342

2nd 2.56 2.98 85.75 3 155.71 133.4 0.128 0.07 0.25 2198

3rd 1.06 2.56 17.17 3 58.11 29.7 0.038 0.025 0.05 365

Axis-A

m)

1.58 1.0

3.6 1.58

3.6 3.6

3.1 3.6

1.286 3.1

Slab,July,1999E.C.

101

Axis B

m)

Found 3.043 1.0 140 2 1687.17 111.52 0.15 0.91 0.33 2342.76

Ground 2.43 3.043 135.22 3 1525 213.67 0.285 0.82 0.6 4259.56

First 2.43 2.43 109.46 3 1054.51 164.19 0.22 0.57 0.3 2129.78

2nd 1.60 2.43 69.25 3 564.60 112.47 0.15 0.3 0.133 1307.66

3rd 1.29 1.6 13.87 3 67.96 21.53 0.053 0.055 0.1 865.93

d’/h=0.1

Calculation of Nsd/Ncr

Ele

Ncr= π 2 2

Le

as

No. of bars n =

As

Slab,July,1999E.C.

102

πd 2

as = where as is the x-sectional areas of individual bar.

4

Is= n × ( πD )

2 2

+ πD 2 × x

4 4

As/2

D As/2

x

A frame may be classified as non sway frame if for a given load case the critical load

ratio, Nsd/Ncr satisfies the criterion.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

103

Axis-1

of (106) of

bars sway

ness

Found 6596.2 16 2.845 5.4721 0.961 3.417 824.61 11718.13 0.07 Non-

sway

Ground 6245 14 4.93 4.79 0.9475 3.417 717.48 3847.6 0.19 Sway

First 3078.2 8 5.52 2.736 0.9064 3.417 498.53 2936 0.17 Sway

2nd 1620 4 5.32 1.37 0.8791 3.417 277.06 30066 0.09 Non-

sway

Slab,July,1999E.C.

104

Axis-2

bars (106) of

sway

ness

Found 6480.0 8(φ32) 2.82 238.4 5.86 4.39 1717.2 72.73 0.024 Non-

sway

Ground 9181.47 12(φ32) 4.31 338.82 7.87 4.39 1578.97 41.76 0.038 Non-

sway

First 5981.58 8(φ32) 4.19 238.4 5.86 4.39 1072.23 32.94 0.033 Non-

sway

2nd 1435.4 4(φ24) 4.11 55 2.19 4.39 576.12 12.82 0.045 Non-

sway

3rd 1322.8 4(φ24) 4.04 35.06 1.27 2.28 73.31 7.68 0.01 Non-

sway

Axis-3

(mm2) of (106) of

bars sway

ness

sway

Ground 3166 10 4.9 125 0.335 3.417 389.92 13.8 0.028 Non-

sway

First 3342 10 5.47 125 0.335 3.417 271.62 11.05 0.025 Non-

sway

sway

Slab,July,1999E.C.

105

3rd 1345 4 4.66 41.6 0.1417 2.35 58.11 6.44 0.012 Non-

sway

Axis-A

bars (106) of

sway

ness

2.86 1.4 sway

5.26 1.4

5.91 1.4

5.76 1.4 sway

4.984 0.99 sway

Axis-B

bars (106) of

sway

ness

Found 2342.76 8φ20 3.23 61.33 1.782 2.23 1689.17 16.86 0.1 Non-

sway

Ground 4259.56 14φ20 5.36 111.51 2.78 2.23 1525 9.55 0.16 Sway

First 2129.78 7φ20 5.15 55.76 1.67 2.23 1054.51 6.2 0.17 Sway

2nd 1307.66 5φ20 4.85 34.24 1.24 2.23 564.6 5.21 0.11 Sway

3rd 865.93 5φ16 4.4 15 5.43 0.976 67.96 2.77 0.024 Non-

Slab,July,1999E.C.

106

sway

Axis-3

(mm2) of (106) of

bars sway

ness

sway

Ground 3166 10 4.9 125 0.335 3.417 389.92 13.8 0.028 Non-

sway

First 3342 10 5.47 125 0.335 3.417 271.62 11.05 0.025 Non-

sway

sway

3rd 1345 4 4.66 41.6 0.1417 2.35 58.11 6.44 0.012 Non-

sway

Axis-A

bars (106) of

sway

ness

2.86 1.4 sway

5.26 1.4

5.91 1.4

5.76 1.4 sway

Slab,July,1999E.C.

107

4.984 0.99 sway

Axis-B

bars (106) of

sway

ness

Found 2342.76 8φ20 3.23 61.33 1.782 2.23 1689.17 16.86 0.1 Non-

sway

Ground 4259.56 14φ20 5.36 111.51 2.78 2.23 1525 9.55 0.16 Sway

First 2129.78 7φ20 5.15 55.76 1.67 2.23 1054.51 6.2 0.17 Sway

2nd 1307.66 5φ20 4.85 34.24 1.24 2.23 564.6 5.21 0.11 Sway

3rd 865.93 5φ16 4.4 15 5.43 0.976 67.96 2.77 0.024 Non-

sway

For isolated columns, slenderness ratio is defined by;

λ=Le/i where Le is effective buckling length

I is minimum radius of gyration

Limits of slenderness

consideration in the following cases:

first order moments at the ends. M2 being always positive and greater in

magnitude than M1. M1 is positive if member is bent in single curvature and

negative if bent in double curvature.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

108

νd =Nsd/fcd*Ac

α + 0 .4

Le/L= m ≥ 0 .7

α m + 0 .8

Axis-1

Axis-2

level αm Lex(m) Ley(m)

Foundation 1.24 1.6 1.72

Ground 1.35 2.44 5.36

1st 1.186 2.396 5.15

2nd 1.093 2.37 4.85

3rd 1.02 2.34 2.61

Axis-3

level αm Lex(m) Ley(m)

Foundation 1.14 1.59 1.59

Ground 2.1 2.59 4.9

1st 2.91 2.68 5.47

2nd 5.41 2.64 2.64

3rd 1.77 2.53 2.53

Foundation 1.14 1.59 1.59

Ground 1.28 4.93 4.93

1st floor 2.98 5.52 5.52

2nd floor 2.77 2.66 2.66

3rdfloor 1.81 2.54 2.54

Slab,July,1999E.C.

109

Axis- A

level αm Lex(m) Ley(m)

Foundation 1.3 1.49 1.56

Ground 2.59 1.956 4

1st 3.6 2.4 5.1

2nd 3.35 2.4 2.4

3rd 2.2 2.3 2.53

λ=Le/ri, ri=√(Ii/A)

λ≤25 ⇒ short for sway frame

λ≤50-25*M1/M2 ⇒ short for none sway frame.

Axis-1

level Le λx λy slenderness

X Y

Foundation 1.59 11.3 15.4 Short Short

Ground 4.93 48.8 48.8 Long Long

1st 5.52 54.65 54.65 Long Long

2nd 2.66 27.42 26.4 Short Short

3rd 2.54 17.92 25.14 short Short

Axis-2

level Lex Ley λx λy slenderness

X Y

Foundation 1.6 1.72 14.89 23.83 Short Short

Ground 2.44 5.36 46.42 33.9 Short Long

1st 2.396 5.15 44.6 33.2 Short Long

2nd 2.37 4.85 42.0 32.84 Short Long

Slab,July,1999E.C.

110

Axis-3

level Lex Ley λx λy slenderness

X Y

Foundation 1.59 1.59 15.74 22 Short Short

Ground 2.59 4.9 25.64 68 Short Long

1st 2.68 5.47 26.5 75.6 Short Long

2nd 2.64 2.64 26.14 36.67 Short long

3rd 2.53 2.53 25.05 35 short short

Axis-A

slenderness

level Lex(m) Ley(m) λx λy X Y

Foundation 1.59 1.56 20.63 15.44 short short

Ground 1.96 4 27.11 39.53 short long

1st 2.4 5.1 33.3 50.41 short long

2nd 2.4 2.4 33.33 33.3 short short

3rd 2.3 2.53 31.8 35.1 long short

Design eccentricity

ed= ea+ e0+e2

Where ea = Le/300≥20mm this accounts for

imperfection.

e0= first order moment

e0 ≥ {0.6e02 + 0.4e01 or 0.4e02

where e2 is second order effect and it will be amplified

by using the amplification factor,σs.

σs=1/(1-Nsd/Ncr)

Axis-1

level ea(mm) e0x(mm) eoy(mm) e2x(mm) e2y Mdox(KN- Mdoy

Slab,July,1999E.C.

111

m)

Foundation 20 0.074 11 0 0 74.73 15.6

Ground 20 0.123 20 amplified amp 118.26 29.4

1st 20 0.17 20.5 amplified amp 103.4 30.6

2nd 20 0.245 14 0 0 64.27 25

3rd 20 0.479 12 0 0 23.26 20.34

Axis-2

(KNm)

Foundation 20 3 39.47 0 0 75.8 29.25

Ground 20 1 32.3 0 Amp 77.38 25

1st 20 1.2 36 0 Amp 45.96 18

nd

2 20 3 23 0 Amp 46.15 9.66

rd

3 20 28 42 0 0 12.06 2.63

Axis _3

level ea(mm) eox(m) eoy(mm) e2x e2y mdx(KN.M) Md(KN.m)

Foundation 20 0.1 14 0 0 55 15.6

Ground 20 0 23 0 Amp 62.5 29.4

1st 20 0 24.5 0 Amp 57.04 30.6

2nd 20 0.15 16 0 0 26.5 25

3rd 20 0.25 19 0 Amp 15.7 20.3

From minimum and maximum allowable area of reinforcements we

have the following relations from EBCS-2 1995:

Asmin =.008Ac

Asmax =.04Ac

Axis-1

level axial Mx My µx µy ν ω As # of

Slab,July,1999E.C.

112

bars

Foundation 786.94 58.23 15.6 0.168 0.063 0.8 0.4 1520 8φ16

Ground 665.06 81.8 29.4 0.236 0.12 0.67 0.73 2774 6φ24

1st 448.13 76.18 30.6 0.22 0.123 0.452 0.61 2318 8φ20

2nd 240.17 58.73 25 0.17 0.1 0.243 0.4 1520 8φ16

3rd 46.23 22.14 20.34 0.064 0.08 0.05 Asmin 500 4φ14

level axial Mx My µx µy ν ω As # of

bars

Foundation 1329.77 75.8 29.25 0.186 0.054 0.98 0.8 4169.43 12φ24

Ground 1222.02 71.38 25 0.175 0.046 0.9 0.65 3387.664 8φ24

1st 771.2 53.98 17 0.19 0.038 0.68 0.54 2347.1 8φ20

2nd 419.87 46.15 9.66 0.16 0.021 0.37 0.165 800 8φ16

3rd 54.84 12.06 2.63 0.068 0.015 0.077 0.174 500 4φ14

level axial Mx My µx µy ν ω As # of

bars

Foundation 458.31 55 15.6 0.22 0.063 0.46 0.212 806 6φ14

Ground 389.62 58.4 29.4 0.23 0.12 0.4 0.42 1596 6φ20

1st 271.62 62.5 30.6 0.25 0.123 0.27 0.4 1520 6φ20

2nd 155.71 26.5 25 0.1 0.1 0.16 0.21 806 6φ14

3rd 58.11 20.34 20.34 0.06 0.08 0.164 Asmin 500 4φ14

Axis-A

level µx µy ν ω As # of

Axial(KN) Mx(KN.m) My(KN.m) bars

Foundation 688 66.16 15.0 0.19 0.06 0.7 0.5 1896 8φ20

Ground 617.2 37.4 26.3 0.11 0.106 0.62 0.25 946.3 8φ14

1st 431.3 26.6 28.6 0.075 0.16 0.44 0.298 1132.5 8φ14

nd

2 249 21.5 21.5 0.062 0.087 0.25 0.095 700(Asmin) 4φ16

Slab,July,1999E.C.

113

3rd 70.41 17.6 13.71 0.1 0.08 0.1 0.28 726 4φ16

According EBCS 2 1995 art 4.5.3.3 the centre to centre spacing of lateral

reinforcement shall not exceed:

1) 12*φdl where φdl is diameter of longitudinal bar.

2) Least dimension of column.

3) 300mm

The diameter of transverse bars shall be ≤ (φl/4 or 6mm)

The maximum design shear force should be less than the limiting value of

ultimate shear force resisted by the concrete section given by:

0.1bwd

Vcn= * N sd

Ac

0.1 * 0.25 * 0.25

= * N sd for Axis-1 and axis-2

0.25 * 0.35

The maximum allowable center to center spacing in mm of lateral ties for each

column is shown below.

Axis-1

level

S(φ6)

Foundation

240

Ground

240

1st

240

nd

2

240

rd

3

240

Axis-2

level

S(φ6)

Foundation

300

Ground

280

Slab,July,1999E.C.

114

1st

240

nd

2

140

rd

3

190

Axis-3

level S(φ6)

Foundation

240

Ground

240

1st

240

nd

2

240

3rd

240

Axis-A

level S(φ6)

Foundation 240

Ground 240

1st 240

2nd 240

3rd 240

1) Basic anchorage length

straight reinforcing bar.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

115

Lb=φ/4*(fyd/fbd) for deformed bar fbd is twice of fctd. EBCS 2 1995 art

7.1.6.1

3) Lap length

Lo=≥a1*lb n et ≥lo, mi n

or 200mm.

Axis _1

0.3lb 10φ

Slab,July,1999E.C.

116

0.42 lb 15φ

Axis 2

level lo lo used(mm)

3rd 497 0

level L o(mm)

found 540

Ground 750

Slab,July,1999E.C.

117

1st 710

2nd 540

3rd 0

Axis _3

Axis _A

level lo

found 660

Ground 670

1st 490

2nd 610

3rd 0

Slab,July,1999E.C.

118

Footing design;

Design axial loads and bending moments are obtained from SAP analysis and

the combinations are selected depending on large reinforcement requirements.

Df =2m

C D

My

s Mx X

A B

Slab,July,1999E.C.

119

description

The axial loads transferred from the supper structure are reduced by factor of 1.4

in order to use un factored load for economical design of the footing.

6 786.94 562.1

5 1675.36 1196.7

1 458.31 327.4

2 720.8 514.86

Design eccentricities

ex=My/Pd

ey=Mx/pd

Footing description ex ey

6 0 0.159

5 0.005 0.002

Slab,July,1999E.C.

120

1 0.011 0.25

2 0 0.162

Area proportioning

Assuming the footing to be square of side ‘a’ and using the general formula for

rigid footing stress distribution due to vertical loading on soil;

6e 6e

σ all ≥ pd A 1 ± x ± y Where σ all is the allowable soil bearing capacity

a a

which is taken to be equal to 280Mpa

From the above expression the initial value of ‘a’ will be determined by trial and

error.

Footing description a

6 1.5

5 2.06

1 1.535

2 1.70

Assuming appropriate depth of the concrete slab of the footing we calculate the

dead weights of the concrete slab and the surcharge due to the weight of the soil

which will be:

taken to be 24Mpa

After calculating the total stress coming from the two portions the calculated initial

values of ‘a’ will be modified as follows.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

121

6 1.6

5 2.2

1 1.8

2 1.90

Using the total vertical load on the footing the stress distribution will be

determined from the following formula.

Pd 6ea 6eb

σ≥ 1 ± a ± a

a2

6ea 6eb

σ1 = P 1+ +

a

2

a a

6ea 6eb

σ2 = P 1− +

a

2

a a

6ea 6eb

σ3 = P 1− −

a

2

a a

6ea 6eb

σ4 = P 1+ − Where σ n is the magnitude of the stress at

a

2

a a

edge n.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

122

Footing-6

265.4 A

265.4 B

262.4 C

262.4 D

Footing-5

343.46 A

352.60 B

339.694 C

348.83 D

Footing-1

27.15 A

27.15 B

245.25 C

245.25 D

Footing-2

251.71 A

251.71 B

81.33 C

81.33 D

Slab,July,1999E.C.

123

339.694 348.85

339.649 348.85

343.46 a 352.60

343.46 352.60

Depth of the footing will be determined from shear resistance of the concrete

footing subjected by the supper structure which will be determined by considering

the following possible modes of failure of the concrete footing.

a) Punching shear: The punching shear force due to the axial load and weight of

the column together with the weight of the soil above the concrete slab of the

footing will be checked at the zones of high stress and should be less than the

concrete shear capacity given by EBCS-2/7 1995.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

124

footing.

d/2 d+s2 L

s1

d+s1

f ck 25 / 1.25

Where f ctd = 0.35 = 0.35 * = 1.04 * 103 Kpa

γc 1 .5

0.5

ρ min=

f yk

u is the perimeter of the punching zone.

d is the depth of the footing.

But the punching shear should be resisted by the concrete only.

∴ Vresisting ≥ Vacting

Then by equating equation (1) and (2) we obtain another equation in terms of

depth from which the value of d may be obtained by trial and error.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

125

Footing description d

6 0.44

5 0.5

1 0.56

2 0.443

3) Wide beam shear: The wide beam shear is assumed to act at d distance

from the face of the column and is to be checked wither the depth

obtained is adequate for the shear applied or not and the stress at that

point is obtained by interpolation. The resisting capacity of the concrete is

given by:

Where Vresisting is the concrete shear capacity at d distance from the face of

the support and bw is width of the footing which is equal to ‘a’.

2 2

d

d a

a 1

Taking axis 1-1 as the critical shear values at highly stressed zones for each

footing we will tabulate the results as follows.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

126

description 1-1 2-2

1 66 42.38 578.3

The design moments introduced by the stresses are calculated at

the face of the column and the reinforcements required are calculated as per

EBCS-2 part 21995.

As before axis 1-1 is taken to be the zones critical moments and axis 2-2 is taken

to be the zones of less moment distributions.

M nn = σ sl 2 a / 2

Where Mnn is the design moment at the face of the column along axis n-n.

σ s is the maximum stress at the face of the support.

description m) no of bars no of bars along 1-1 along 2-

Along 1-1 Along 2-2 (mm) 2(mm)

Slab,July,1999E.C.

127

Slab,July,1999E.C.

128

CHAPTER FIVE

ESTIMATION

After calculating all the quantity of the structural component to obtain the cost of

material it is multiplied by the unit price.

A-SUB STRUCTURE

total

qtyy unit

amount

of

1. EXCAVATION & EARTH WORK price br

pnt

Clear and remove top soil to an average

depth of 200mm. m2 330 3.00 990.00

Bulk excavation in ordinary soil to a depth

not exceeding 700mm. m3 0 18.00 0.00

Pit excavation in ordinary soil to a depth

not exceeding 1500mm from reduced

ground level. m3 0 20.00 0.00

Ditto but exceeding 1500mm but not

exceeding 3000mm. m3 263 25.00 6,581.50

Trench excavation in ordinary soil for

masonry foundation to depth of 1500 mm

from reduced level. m3 92 20.00 1,846.80

Back fill around foundation with selected

material from quarry waste and compact

in layers not exceeding 200mm thick. m3 0 35.00 0.00

Fill under hardcore with selected material

from quarry waste and compact in layers

not exceeding 200mm thick. m3 50 35.00 1,764.00

Load and cart away excavated material to a

appropriate tip. m3 254 15.00 3,810.00

250mm thick basaltic stone hardcore well

rolled, consolidated and blinded with

crushed stone . m2 234 30.00 7,020.00

Total carried to Summary 22,012.30

2. CONCRETE WORK

Slab,July,1999E.C.

129

cement/m3, under

a) Footings m2 84 30.00 2,532.00

b) Masonry m2 34 30.00 1,026.00

c) Ground floor slab & beam m2 252 30.00 7,560.00

Reinforced concrete quality C-25,360 kg of

cement/m3 filled in to form work and

vibrated around rod reinforcement

(formwork and reinforcement measured

separately)

a) In footings m3 46 1,000.00 46,300.00

b) In foundation columns m3 3 1,000.00 3,000.00

c) In grade beams m3 17 1,000.00 16,540.00

d) In 10 cm thick basement slab and

ground m2 233 100.00 23,315.00

Provide, cut and fix in position sawn zigba

wood or steel formwork :

a)To footings m2 92 50.00 4,608.00

b)To foundation columns m2 39 50.00 1,930.00

c) To grade beams m2 169 50.00 8,452.50

Mild steel reinforcement according to

structural drawings. Price includes cutting,

bending, placing in position and tying

wire.

a) Dia 6 mm plain bar kg 45 15.00 678.90

b) Dia 8 mm deformed bar kg 0 15.00 0.00

c) Dia 14 mm deformed bar kg 2,459 15.00 36,878.10

d) Dia 16 mm deformed bar kg 337 15.00 5,055.00

e) Dia 20 mm deformed bar kg 617 15.00 9,261.00

Total carried to Summary 167,136.50

3. MASONRY WORK

bedded in cement mortar (1:3).Price shall

include mortar bed.

a) below ground level m3 16 300.00 4,800.00

b) above ground level m3 0 400.00 0.00

Slab,July,1999E.C.

130

B-SUPER STRUCTURE

1. CONCRETE WORK

cement/m3 filled in to form work and

vibrated around rod reinforcement

(formwork and reinforcement measured

separately)

a) In elevation columns m3 23 1,000.00 22,750.00

b) In floor beams m3 44 1,000.00 44,060.00

c)solid slabs m3 106 1,000.00 106,000.00

d) In roof beams m3 11 1,000.00 11,050.00

e) In 10cm thick concrete gutter and

parapete. m2 0 100.00 0.00

f) 10cm thick Sun breakers m2 0 100.00 0.00

Provide, cut and fix in position sawn zigba

wood or steel formwork to:

a) To elevation columns m2 293 60.00 17,550.00

b)To solid slabs m2 756 60.00 45,360.00

b) To floor beams m2 573 60.00 34,380.00

c) To roof beams m2 132 60.00 7,938.00

d) To 10cm thick concrete gutter and

parapete. m2 0 60.00 0.00

e) To 10cm thick Sun breakers m2 0 60.00 0.00

Mild steel reinforcement according to

structural drawings. Price includes cutting,

bending, placing in position and tying

wire.

a) Dia 6 mm plain bar kg 1,690 15.00 25,350.00

b) Dia 8 mm deformed bar kg 2,352 15.00 35,280.00

c) Dia 10 mm deformed bar kg 0 15.00 0.00

d) Dia 14 mm deformed bar kg 851 15.00 12,765.00

e) Dia 16 mm deformed bar kg 3,737 15.00 56,052.00

f) Dia 20 mm deformed bar kg 8,505 15.00 127,572.00

Total carried to Summary 546,107.00

Slab,July,1999E.C.

131

740,055.80

Sum of total cost=740055.80 birr

Remark the above cost estimation doesn’t include all costs but only the structuralm

component is included.( not include also the staircase & roof in cost Analysis)

Slab,July,1999E.C.

132

CHAPTER FIVE

Results ,conclusion, Recommendation

So far we have been thought different component of structural members such as

beams, columns, slabs,foundation,steel structure which have taken as course in

different semesters.The project make easier to compile the mentioned structural

members and memorize so that we apply directly in practical engineering work all

needed to be designed simultaneously. For the design of members the initial assign

of the load is the basic for the whole design in selection of design critical members,

frames, and load combination. The use of sap analysis to some extent recognized but

it gives results only if the loads are inserted correctly otherwise error could occur

selection of design forces, members.

For engineers in addition to build safe structure design they must account the

economy. The cost analysis indicates that the coming load to the structure should be

determined which need specific quantity of material to built. For example design

moments for members vary highly when building is faced with lateral load & vertical

load.

Recommendation

The project we have done is very interesting & encouraging. This kind should be

continued to future for best selection of economical structure provided that it is safe.

So that our society should be served with available resource as much as possible ,the

final target.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

133

REFERCES

1. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 1,1995

2. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 2, Part one & Part two,1995

3. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 31995

4. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 7,1995

5. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 8,1995

6. Current Market cost of construction Material.

Slab,July,1999E.C.

134

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00

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