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# Mekelle University

## Faculty of science &Technology

Civil engineering Department

## Senior Project Report for Partial fulfillment of B.Sc. in Civil Engineering

Project Title:
Structural design of G+3 solid slab &Total cost estimation

## Project Advisor: Ato Yonas TekleHaimanot (M.Sc.)

Designed by:
1. Hailu Tesfaye
2. Kabtamu Getachew
3. Henok Kebede
4. Takelle Hika

## Date of submission: Sene 1999E.C

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Acknowledgement
First of all our thank goes to God for giving un limited things.Secondly,thanks to our Advisor ,Ato
Yonas T/Haimanot for giving us critical advices through out the project work & indicated us the practical
works of Engineering being done. Thirdly, to our department for giving us this project & providing computer
resources. Other people & organization giving information & material.Mu librarian, Mowel supplying reference
books on behalf of Mekelle University,Ackir construction company constructing building in MU, giving us
some construction materials used currently in building structure. At Last but not least, thanks to our parents for
giving their countless material & moral support.

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INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................. 4
SPECIFICATION ......................................................................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER ONE ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
1 ROOF DESIGN................................................................................................................................................... 7
1.1 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE ROOF & DESIGN LOAD ON ROOF ............................................................ 7
1.2 DESIGN OF THE EAGA SHEET ............................................................................................................................ 12
1.3 DESIGN OF THE LATTICE PURLIN ..................................................................................................................... 14
1.3.1 Check for aducacy of members in purlin lattice truss ………… 17
1.4 DESIGN OF THE ROOF TRUSS ............................................................................................................................ 19
1.4.1 CHECK FOR ADEQUACY OF TRUSS MEMBERS ........................................................................................ 21
CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................................. 23
2.1 .SLAB DESIGN.............................................................................................................................................. 23
2.2. DESIGN OF STAIR ............................................................................................................................................ 42
CHAPTER THREE............................................................................................................................................... 48
3.1 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE WALL OF THE BUILDING.............................................................. 48
3.2 EARTH QUAKE FORCE ANALYS............................................................................................................ 52
3.2.1 DETERMINATIONS OF EARTH QUAKE LOAD ................................................................................................... 52
3.2.2 MASS CENTER CALCULATION OF THE BUILDING FOR THE......................................................... 53
EARTH QUAKE LOAD CALCULATION ........................................................................................................ 53
3.2.3 THE DISTRIBUTION OF FLOOR LEVEL FORCES TO EACH FOR DIFFERENT DIRECTION OF EARTH QUAKE LOAD
AMONG EACH FRAMES ACCORDING TO THEIR STIFFNESS ( D_ VALUE .................................................................. 63
3.2.4 CALCULATION OF RIGIDITY OR STIFFNESS.................................................................................... 63
CHAPTER FOUR................................................................................................................................................. 84
4.0 DESIGN OF BEAMS,COLUMNS,FOUNDATION FOOTING .................................................................................... 84
4.1 THE DESIGN OF BEAM .............................................................................................................................. 84
4.1.1.Design of beam For flexure ................................................................................................................. 84
4.1.2.DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR SHEAR ....................................................................................................................... 90
4.2 DESIGN OF COLUMN .................................................................................................................................. 94
4.2.1 FRAME STABILTY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................ 95
4.2.2 DESIGN OF ISOLATED COLUMN........................................................................................................ 110
4.3) DESIGN OF FOUNDATION...................................................................................................................... 118
CHAPTER FIVE................................................................................................................................................. 128
5. BILL OF QUANTITY PREPARATION & TOTAL COST ESTIMATION .......................................... 128
CHAPTER SIX ................................................................................................................................................. 132
6.RESULTS ,CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION ................................................................................................... 132
REFERCES......................................................................................................................................................... 133

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.
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INTRODUCTION

Since ever increasing of population in our town, Mekelle, the people need residential houses, with low
cost. For the progress of low cost houses, three kind of economic & safety assessment being done for three kind
of slabs, namely solid slab, ribbed slab, precast ribbed slab, from the three our group works on solid slab design
building and its approximate cost. This project enable us in order to compile previous course of structure
specially theory of structure, reinforced concrete, structural design & to develop good engineering judgment
using our previous knowledge & working in group habit is developed & to solve current residential problems
The other thing the project furnish enough time for good understanding of uncertainties during previous

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learning using our respected advisors, sharing ideas that are reasonable, and using our code, Ethiopian Building
Code standard ,1995(1,2,3…………….,8).
The design was done in the following steps
¾ Roof design
¾ Suspended slab design(first floor, second floor, third floor)&Vertical load transfer
¾ Feeding data and drawing obtained from previous steps to sap 2000
¾ Design of beam , column, foundation & detail drawing of reinforcement
¾ Calculating quantity of each structural component from design results
¾ .Market assessment of each material in current time and determining unit cost & determine the
total cost select the feasible structure from the three alternatives described previously.

Specification
Purpose – Residential building G+3 reinforced concrete solid slab
METHOD OF DESIGN- Limit state design method
Material – Concrete – 25, class – I works
Steel S – 300 deformed bars
RHS for roof truss and purl in
EGA- 300 for roof cover is used.
Partial safety factors – concrete γc=1.5
Steel γs=1.15
Unit weight of concrete γc=24KN/m3
Supporting ground condition = allowable bearing capacity of 280KPa

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## Design Data and Materials

Concrete
fck = 0.8*25MPa =20MPa
fctk= 0.21*fck 2/3 =1.547MPa
fcd= 0.85*fck =11.33MPa
γc
fctd= fctk=1.032MPa
γc
Steel
fyk= 300MPa
fcd= 260.87MPa
pd= γf*Fk
Where
γf = partial safety factor for loads
Seismic condition of the Area
Location Mekelle, Zone 4

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CHAPTER ONE

1) ROOF DESIGN
1.1 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE ROOF

Roof type: The roof type is a doupitch roof type which is unsymmetrical about the ridge line as shown in
the lay below. Quasi_static method is used for the analysis of wind load. For Cd< 1.2(dynamic coefficient .
EBCS 1, 1995).

Ridge line

θ =12.4° θ=15°

0.5m 5m 4m 0.5m

## The external wind pressure is given by

Wex =qref*Cpe*ce(ze)
Where: qref is the reference wind pressure, which is given by

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Qref =½ *ρair*v²ref ,where ρair is the density of air at a given altitude, in our case Mekelle falls at an altitude of
1500m amsl, ρair =1Kg/m³
Vref is the reference wind speed, Vref =CALT*CDIR*CTEM *Vref,o
Where CALT= 1
CDIR= 1
CTEM =1
Vref,o =22m/s
Vref=1*1*1*22m/s=22m/s
Qref=½*1*22² =242N/m

COEFFICIENT CALCULATION
EXPOSURE COEFFICIENT,ce(z) =Cr²(z)*Ct²(z)*(1+7kt/cr(z)*Ct(z))
The building falls in category 3, this implies kt=0.22, Zo (m) =0.3m, Zmin=8m
Ct=topography coefficient =1(assuming the area is topographically unaffected
Cr (z) =roughness coefficient = kTln(Z/Zo) ,Zmin≤ Z ≤ 200m
Cr (z) =Cr (Zmin), Z<Zmin
Where z=the reference height =13021m >zmin and< 200m

## Cr (13.21) =0.22*ln (13.21/0.3) =0.833

b) External pressure coefficient, Cpe
we have two possible critical wind directions, θ=0° and θ = 90°
For θ =0° we have to consider wind from both directions of the roof due to the asymmetry of the roof about the
ridge.

6.61m

14.8m

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I J H Wind direction
θ=00

ridge G

## Here b= cross wind dimension =28m

Ze= h=reference wind height=13.21

e= min. 2h=26.42m
b = 28m,→e=26.42m
Area of each zone is greater than 10m², take cpe, 10

## Zone for wind direction θ = 0°

Pitch angle F G H I J
Cpe,10 Cpe,10 Cpe,10 Cpe,10 Cpe,10

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## 5 -1.7 -1.2 -0.6 -0.3 -0.3

12.4 -1.11 -1.01 -0.38 0.34 -0.818
15 -0.9 -0.8 -0.3 -0.4 -1.0
0.2 0.2 0.2

F
e/4=2.5m
H I

2m
G

3m G’
H’
I’

F
e/4 =2.5m

e/10=5m 4m 23m

b=10m
e= min b=10m
2h=26.42m

e=10m

## Zone for wind direction θ =90°

F G H I

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angle

## ce (ze) = ce (13.21m) =0.833² *1(1+7*0.22/0.833*1) =1.98

We =242*1.98* cpe =0.4784 cpe KN/m²
The external pressure for each zone is calculated as follow,
Here we calculate We based on the pitch angle which gives the larger value of cpe (either θ=12.4° or θ=15°),
accordingly.
Case 1) zone F, We =0.48* cpe, 10 =0.48*-1.11 =-0.531 KN/m²
G, We =0.48* cpe, 10 =0.48*-1.01 =-0.485 KN/m²
H, We =0.48* cpe, 10 =0.48*-0.38 =-0.18 KN/m²
J, We =0.48* cpe, 10 =0.48*-0.4 =-0.19 KN/m²
I,We =0.48* cpe,10 =0.48*-1.0 =-0.48 KN/m²
Net positive on zone F, G&H =0.4784*(0.2-(-0.5)) =0.335KN/ m²
Case 2),when θ =90°
On zone F, We = 0.48* cpe, 2.5 =0.48*-1.96 =-0.941 KN/m²
G’, We= =0.48* cpe,3 =0.48*-1.67 =0.8 KN/m²
G, We = =0.48* cpe,2 =0.48*-1.79 =-0.86 KN/m²
H, We = =0.48* cpe,10 =0.48*-0.626 = -0.3 KN/m²
H’, We = =0.48* cpe,10 = 0.48*-0.626 = -0.3 KN/m²
I=I’, We = 0.48* cpe,10 =0.48*-0.5 =-0.24 KN/m²
cpe for areas between 1.0 m² and 10.0 m² is calculated as follow
cpe = cpe,1 +( cpe,10 - cpe, )logA10
cpe,2 =-2.0+(-1.3-(-2) )log210 =-1.79
cpe,2.5 =-2.2+(-1.6-(-2.2))log2.510 = –1.96
cpe,3.0 =-2.0+(-1.3-(-2))log3.01 = -1.67
the internal wind pressure ,Wi =qref*cpi*ce(zi)

## qref =242N/ m² ,zi=ze=13.21m ,→ ce(zi) =1.98

The two critical cpi values are 0.8 or -0.5

## Wi =0.48*0.8 =0.384 KN /m²

Or =0.48*-0.5 =-0.24 KN /m²
The critical wind pressure occurs on zone F of θ=900,We=-0.94KN/m2
F, G & H of θ=00,We=0.097KN/m2

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## Net critical pressures

Net +ve =0.097-(-0.5*0.4784)=0.335KN/m2
Net –ve=-0.94-0.38=-1.325KN/m2
1.2 Design of the eaga sheet
For design we took Ega-300 with the following parameters from kaliti metal industry manual. Thickness
t=0.6mm, self weight=4.71Kg/m.
Moment of inertia of the Ega sheet per meter width,Ixx=98906mm3 and section modulus per meter,
Sx=2808mm2
Clear width of the sheet=823mm
Weight of the sheet per meter width on the projected area of the sheet =4.17*10*10-3/0.823=0.057KN/m2
The perpendicular weight to the inclined surface=wcosθ=0.057KN/m2cos12.40=0.56KN/m2, and parallel to the
inclined surface=wsinθ=0.057sin12.40=0.0123KN/m2
There are three types of imposed loads on the roof
1) Concentrated live load Qk=1KN/m on the projected area
2) Distributed live load qk=0.25KN/m2 on the projected area
W=+0.335KN/m2, which acts perpendicular to the sheet surface.
EBCS 1,1995 recommends the following load combinations
Pd= 1.3DL+1.6Qk art 1.9.4.5 of EBCS-1 1995 where Qk=1KN
The perpendicular Qk=1cos12.40=0.997KN and the parallel Qk=1*sin12.40=0.215KN.
Distributing the concentrated load over the width of the sheet:
0.997/0.823=1.19KN/m
0.215/0.823=0.261KN/m
Pd=0.0123KN/m2+0.261KN/m axial compression forces.
There fore the design loads in both directions are, load perpendicular=1.3*0.056+1.6*1.19=1.98KN/m Pd
parallel =1.3*0.0123+1.6*0.261=0.423KN/m respectively
We considered the purlin spacing=1.9m and truss spacing of 5m and 4m. 1.3*0.0123+1.6*0.261=0.423KN/m
respectively
1.904KN/m
0.0728KN/m2

1.9m

Mmax=1.904*1.9/4+0.0728*1.92/8=0.937KN/m-m
2) DL+distributed LL (qk) =1.3DL+1.6qk

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## The components of the live load will be:

0.25cos12.4=0.244KN/m2 perpendicular to the sheet and 0.25sin12.4=0.054KN/m2 parallel to the surface of the
sheet. There fore the perpendicular and the parallel loads will be Pd=1.3*0.056+0.244*1.6=0.4632KN/m2 and
Pd=0.0123*1.3+1.6*0.054=0.102KN/m2

0.4632KN/m2

Mmax=0.4682*1.92/8=0.21KN-m/m
=1.3*0.056-1.6*1.325=-2.05KN/m2

-2.05KN/m2

Mmax=-2.05*1.92/8=0.925KN-m/m
Axial force=0.0123*1.3=0.016KN/m2

## 3.2) DL+directed wind pressure

Pd1=1.3*0.056+1.6*0.335=0.609KN/m2 perpendicular to the surface.
Pd2=0.016KN/m parallel to the surface of the sheet.
0.609KN/m

1.9m

## 4) When the entire vertical load act at a time

Pd=ΣγGi+1.35ΣQki (art 1.9.4.5 of EBCS-1 1995)
Where γ factor of safety for permanent load, Qki is variable load and Gi is the permanent load.

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## Concentrated LL +directed wind pressure.

Concentrated LL +suction
Distributed LL+directed wind pressure.
Distributed LL+ Suction.
Among these combinations the critical one is case (i) when conc.LL+directed wind pressure come at a time
Pd=1.3DL+1.35(Qk+directed wind pressure)
1.3*0.056+1.35*(1+19KN/m+0.335KN/m2)
=0.5251KN/m2+1.904KN/m2

ST30=30*30*3mm3
φ16 ribbed bars

260mm

ST30=30*30*3mm3
φ16 ribbed bars

260

## 300 220 260

r 220

θ
200 200
Note: all dimensions in mm.

Section properties
Weight wt=2.36Kg/m
A=3.01cm2

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I=3.5cm4
S=2.34cm3
r =1.08cm
r= √(2002+2202) =297.32mm
θ=tan-1(220/200) =47.730
Total length of φ16 bars will be:
L1=22*297.32=6541.1mm for 5m span length and
L2=18*297.32=5351.8mm for 4m span length.

l
220mm

260mm

## Total length of the ST-30 section

L= 5000+2*340.6+11*400=10081.2mm when the span length is 5m and
L=4000+2*270.03+9*400=8144mm.

220mm l

160mm

## Weight of lattice truss

To calculate the weight of the lattice we have to know the density of the steel which is equal to 77Kg/m3 (from
EBCS 3 1995)
Area of φ16 bar = πD2/4=π*(16*10-3)2/4=2.011*10-4m2
G=10m/s2
Weight of the steel bar =2.011*10-4*77*10=0.155N/m
Wt=0.155*6541.1*10-3=0.001014KN per 5m span length and
Wt=0.155*5351.8*10-3=0.00083KN per 4m span length.
Weight of ST30 section=2.36*10*10.0812*10-3=0.238KN per 5m span and
Wt=2.36*10*8.144*10-3=0.192KN per 4m span
Total purlin weight=0.238+0.001014=0.239KN per 5m length and
Wt=0.192+0.00083=0.193KN per 4m span length.
The total weight analyzed above is carried by the lower nodes assuming each node carries equal weight.
-For the 5m span length there are 12 nodes.
Weight per node =0.239/12=0.02KN
-For 4m span length there are 10 nodes and weight per node=0.193/10=0.0193KN
Reactions from the adjacent Ega sheet
Taking the critical load combination case for the sheet the reactions on the purlin are analyzed as follows:

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1.904 KN/m2

0.525KN/m2

R1 R2

1.9m
R1=R2=1.904/2+1.9*0.525/2=0.952KN/m (concentrated) +0.499KN/m (distributed)
⇒ 2R1=1.904KN/m (concentrated) +1KN/m (distributed) along y-direction.
There fore the reaction on the lattice purlin vertically =2R1=2.954KN/m.
Along X-direction=0.016KN/m2+0.42KN/m2.
The distributed loads from the sheet are assumed to be carried by the upper nodes equally while the
concentrated one is assumed to act at the center of the purlin.
For the 5m span length:
Concentrated load reaction per meter width of the sheet=1.904KN/m.
=1.904*0.823=1.57KN at the center of the span.
Therefore the central node carries 0.385+1.57=1.952KN.
For the 4m span length:
Concentrated load reaction=1.904KN/m=1.904*0.823=1.57KN at the center.
⇒ The central node carries 1.57+0.4=1.934KN.
The reactions per node along X-axis for span length of 5m will be 0.016*0.03*5/13=0.0002KN. Or
0.0005KN/m and the concentrated load will be 0.42KN/m=0.42KN/m*0.823m=0.346KN at the center of the
span length.
Similarly the reactions per node along X- direction for 4m span length will be:
0.0005KN/10= 0.0002KN and the concentrated load will be 0.346KN at the centre of the span.

0.385KN 0.385 KN 0.385KN 0.385KN 1.952KN 1.952KN 0.385KN 0.385KN 0.385KN 0.385KN

R
R
0.02KN on each node
40 260 11@400 260 40

## Fig. Self weight and reaction on the 5m span length

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0.364KN 0.364KN 0.364KN 0.364KN 1.934KN 1.934KN 0.364KN 0.364KN 0.364KN 0.364KN

R R
0.02KN on each node
40 160 9@400 160 40

## Fig. Self wheight and reaction on the 4m span length.

Note: All dimensions are in mm

## 1.3.1 CHECK FOR ADEQUACY OF LATTICE TRUSS MEMBERS

(Member forces are attached at the back from sap result)
For the 5m span lattice truss (for the 30*30mm² the section)
Axial forces, Max. Compression =-18.76KN
Max. Tension =19.5KN
Length =4000mm
The maximum moment obtained is 0.08KN.m on the end diagonal tube whose effect is almost negligible.
Maximum shear occurs on the 40mmend tube used as support and its value is
Vmax =-3.41KN,on the left end
=3.41KN,on the right end
Use steel grade of s-430(fy =275Mpa)
Check for the ST30 (30mm*30mm) member
Check for tension
Max. tension =19.5KN
For members inaxial tension the design value of the axial tension force ,Nt,sd ay each cross – section shall
satisfy,
NT, SD ≤ Nt Rd (EBCS3, 1995
Where,Nt,Rd =A*fy/ϒM1 where, A=301mm²
ϒM1=1.1
fy = 275Mpa
Nt,Rd= (301*275*10-3 ) /1.1=75.25KN >19.5KN ok!
Check for compression members
The design compression resistance of a cross section ,Ncom,Rd may be determined as follow (Article 4.5.4.1of
EBCS3, 1995)
Ncom,Rd = A*fy/γMo, (for class 1, 2 & 3 cross-section)
Ncom,Rd =Aeff *fy/gMo , (for class 4 cross-section)
Where, γMo=1.1
fy =275Mpa
A = the area of the cross-section
Aeff =the effective area of the cross-section
Determination of class of the object
From table 4.1 of EBCS 1, 1995 for web, where the whole section is subjected to compression
d/tw ≤33ε,. .… For class 1 cross-section

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## d/tw≤ 44ε , …... for class 2 cross-section

d/tw≤ 51ε …for class 3 cross-section
ε =√235/fy =√235/275 =0.924

B =30mm
t = 3mm
Here b = d =30-2*3 =24mm
d/tw 24/ 3= 8 <33∈ =33*0.924=30.5, there fore the section is class 1
N COM, Rd = 301*275*10-3 /1.1 =75.25KN>18.76KN, ok!
Check for buckling
The design buckling resistance of a compression member shall be taken as,
Nb,RD =x*βA *A*fy /γM0
βA =1.0(for class 1 to 3 cross-section)
γM0 = 1.1
X =the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.
X =1/ (φ + (φ2 -λn2) ½ ≤1.0
φ =0.5(1+α(λn -0.2) +λn 2 )
α is an imperfection factor (which is function of buckling curve)
λn is the non-dimensional slenderness ratio =(λ /λ1 )*√ βA
λ1= π(E/fy) 0.5 =93.9ε =93.9*0.924 =86.76
λx =λy =L/i, i=√I/A =√3.5/3.01 =10.8mm
λ =400/10.8 =37.1 ,βA =1.0
λn =(37.1/86.76)* √1.0 =0.43
For cold formed hollow sections take buckling curve c
α =0.49and from table 4.9 of EBCS3, 1995
For λn = 0.43 of curve c x =0.881
Nd,Rd =0.881*301*275*10-3/1.1 =66.3KN>18.76KN,ok!
Resistance to shear
The design value of the shear force vsd at each cross-section should satisfy,
Vsd ≤ vpl, Rd, where vpl, Rd is the design shear resistance and is given by
Vsd =3.41KN

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## Vpl, Rd =Av (fy/√3)/γMo

Where Av is the shear area and given by
Av = (Ah/b+h), for rolled rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness and load parallel to the depth.
Av =3.01*3/3+3 =1.505cm2
vpl,Rd =150.5*(275/√3)*10-3/1.1=21.7KN>3.41KN
1.4)Design of the roof truss
1) Reactions from the purl in
For the middle trusses reactions from the purlin are twice of R(from the lattice purlin analysis) which is
6.812KN for the 5m span and 5.6KN for 4m span length.
For the two extreme end truss elements reaction from the purlin =3.406KN for the 5m span and 2.8KN for the
4m span.

2) Self weight of the truss: the truss model and materials used are as shown below.

RT60

RT53

RT30

θ=12.4° θ=15°

0.5m 5m 4m 0.5m

Materials:
I. 60x60 RT, for the rafters.
II. 50x30 RT,for horizontal, diagonal and, central vertical members.
III. 30x30 ST-30,for others
t=3mm from kaliti metal industry.

## RT-64 10.29 4.24 43.63

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## RT-30 2.38 2.36 5.62

∑ =117.30*10-2=1.173KN

## Ceiling weight: Let we consider a ceiling made of chip wood.

Thickness of the chip wood =8mm
γ = 8KN/m3 (from table 2.1 of EBCS 1, 1995)
Area of total floor system =9*28=252m2.
Total weight =8*8*252*10-3 =16.13KN, this weight is carried by the 7 trusses.counting the two end trusses as
one, chip wood weight carried by one middle truss = 16.13/6 =2.69KN.
Distributing this weight on the lower nodes, counting the two end nodes as one
Weight per node =2.69/8 =0.336KN, middle nodes
=0.168KN, end nodes.
Weight of truss =1.173KN, carried by the lower nodes.
Weight per node=1.173/8=0.147KN,idle nodes
=0.0733KN,end nodes.
Weight on lower nodes =0.336+0.147=0.483KN,middle nodes
=0.241KN, on end nodes.

## 6. 812KN, on each 5.6KN, on each

12
14
15 11

16 10

θ=12.4° θ=15°
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0.241KN 0.483KN, on each

0.22m 0.28m 1.3m 1.85m 1.85m 1.835m 1.835m 0.33m 0.21m 0.29m

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.
21

## members Axial members Axial members Axial

force(KN) force(KN) force(KN)
1-2 -14.53 10-11 -8.77 4-15 -9.11
2-3 -13.66 11-12 10.12 6-12 1.53
3-4 8.56 12-13 -1.74 2-16 -11.23
4-5 -0.45 13-14 10 1-16 14.04
5-6 -1.9 14-15 -3.54 3-16 21.63*
6-7 6.53 5-12 -14.09 3-15 -2.27
7-8 0.29 5-14 -15.9 15-16 -10.68
8-9 -0.23 5-13 -18.01** 7-10 6.67
9-10 0.25 4-14 2.45 8-10 -12.51
6-11 -8.42
Remark; ** maximum compression
* Maximum tension

## 1.6)Check for adequacy of truss members

Design reactions (from sap)
Max.compression =18.01KN,member 5_13,length 1.21m,50x30 X_section
Max.tension =21.63KN,member 3_15,length 0.394m,section 30mmx30mm
Max.shear =
The procedure and equations to be followed for checking the adequacy of truss members are the same with the
previous work.
Check for tension members
Max.tension =21.63KN
Section =30mmx30mm
A=301mm2 ,thickness t = 3mm
Nt,Rd =A*fy/γMo =301*275*10-3/1.1 =75.25KN>21.63KN ok!
Check for compression members
Max.comp. =18.01,L=1.21m,section =50mmx30mm,A =421mm2,.t =3mm
Class of cross-section
D =50 -2*3 =44mm
d/tw =44/3 =14.67
33ε =30.5 >14.67 ,the section is class 1 x_section
Ncom,Rd =A*fy/γMo =421*275*10-3/1.1 =105.25KN >18.01KN ,ok!
Buckling Resitance

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.
22

## Nb,Rd = x*βA*A*fy/γM1 , βA=1.0, γM1=1.1

λx=L/Ix=1.21*100/√(12.81/4.21) =69.388
λy =L/Iy =1.21*100/√(5.7/4.21) =103.99=104
λ x=(69.31/86.76)*√1 =0.8
λ y =(104/86.76) )*√1 =1.2
for λ x=0.8 and curve c,x=0.6622
for λ y=1.2 and curve c ,x=0.4338,⇒governing case
Nd,Rd =0.4338*421*275*10–3/1.1 45.66>18.01,ok!
Resistance to shear
Av = A*h/(b+h) =(4.21*3)/(3+3) =2.105cm2
Vpl,Rd=210.5*275/√3)*10-3/1.1 =30.4KN >6.54KN ,ok!

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.
23

CHAPTER TWO
2. slab design
The slabs are designed by following the procedures stated bellow.
Step-1 Depth determination:
The minimum depth required for the slab can be calculated from the minimum depth required for deflection.
d ≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa (EBCS 2-1995 Art 5.2.3)
Where fyk is the characteristic strength of the reinforcing bars.
Le is the effective span. For two-way solid slabs it is the shorter span.
βa is the appropriate which depends on the support condition of the slab.
Step-2 analysis of the design load:
The dead load is composed of the self weight of the slab itself , weights of the partition walls,weight of
the finishing and other considerable permanent loads.
Self weight of the slab is equal to the over all depth times unit weight of concrete.
Since the building is residential building we assume the live load to be 2KN/m2 (EBCS-2-1995)
Step-3 analysis of the design moment:
Analysis of the design moment will be done as per the EBCS-2-1995 Art A.3.2 for two-way solid slabs
and for one way solid slabs the calculation will be performed as 1m wide beam.
The support and the span moments will be adjusted to avoid over reinforcements and to achieve
economical design.
Step-5 reinforcement details:
After calculation of the design moment reinforcement detailing follows the appropriate rebar spacing.
Note: For the purpose of construction simplicity and monolithic construction the governing overall depth has
been taken.

MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid Slab,July,1999E.C.
LAYOUT OF THE GROUND TO 3RD FLOOR
SLABS
The layout of the floor slab is shown below.
P11

5m

P12

5m
P10
P9

4m
P7

P8

P5

P6

4m

5m
P4
P3

5m
P1

P2

5m 4m
25

## Step-1 depth determination

Panel 1/11:

4m

5m
Ly/Lx=1.25
d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=38
d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*4000/38=90mm
The over all depth can be calculated as:
D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2
Where c is concrete cover equal to 15mm and φ is diameter of the main
reinforcing bar.
D= 90+15+ φ10= 120mm
Support condition is type 4.
Panel-2/12

5m

5m

Ly/Lx=1.0

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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26

d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=40
d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*5000/40=106.25mm
The over all depth can be calculated as:
D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2
D=106.25+15+φ10=131.25mm

Panel-3/9

4m

5m
Ly/Lx=1.25
d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=37.5
d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*4000/37.5=90.67mm
The over all depth:
D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2
D=90.67+15+φ10=115.67mm
Panel-4/10

5m

5m

Ly/Lx=1.0
d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=40

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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27

d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*5000/40=106.25mm
The over all depth:
D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2
D=106.25+15+φ10=131.25mm

Panel-5/7.

4m

4m

Ly/Lx=1.0
d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=40
d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*4000/40=85.0mm
The over all depth:
D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2
D=85.0+15+φ10=110mm
Panel-6/8

5m

4m

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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28

Ly/Lx=1.25
d≥ (0.4+0.6fyk/400)Le/βa βa=42.5
d= (0.4+0.6*300/400)*4000/42.5=80.0mm
The over all depth:
D=d + c+ (φ/2+ (φ+φ/2))/2
D=80.0+15+φ10=105mm
Table Summary of the computed depths of the slabs:

Support
panel condition(EBCS- Le(mm) Ly/Le βa d(mm)
2-1995)
P1,P11 4 4000 1.25 37.5 90.67

## Note: d=max (d1,d2…d6)

Doverall=d+c+φ=106.97+15+10=131.5mm take D=140mm.

- cement screed of 3cm thick, γ=20KN/m3
-terazzo tile of 3cm thick, γ=23KN/m3
-concrete slab 0f 14cm thick, γ=24KN/m3

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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29

Panel-1/11

4m

5m

## Total length of the partitionwall=8.22m

10cm thick HCB with γ=14KN/m3 and 3m high
W=0.1*8.22*3*14=34.524KN
W/A=34.524/20=1.7262KN/ m2
Pd1=1.3*(1.7262+4.65)+1.6*2=11.54KN/m2
Panel-2/12

5m

5m

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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30

Panel-3/9
Total length of the 10cm thick HCB of 3m high partition wall on this panel is 2.205m
W=0.1*3*2.205*14KN
w/A=0.463KN/m2
Pd3=1.3*(0.463+4.65)+1.6*2=9.85KN/m3

4m

5m

Panel-4/10

5m

5m

Total length of the 10cm thick HCB of 3m high partition wall on this panel is 13.33m
W=0.1*3*13.33*14KN
w/A=2.24KN/m2
Pd4=1.3*(2.24+4.65)+1.6*2=12.16KN/m2

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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31

Panel-5/7

4m

5m

Total length of the 10cm thick HCB of 3m high partition wall on this panel is 7.4m
W=0.1*3*7.4*14KN
W/A=1.94KN/m2
Pd5=1.3*(1.94+4.65)+1.6*2=11.767KN/m2

Panel-6/8

5m

4m

Total length of the 10cm thick HCB of partition wall 2.35m and the 20cm thick HCB is
2.375m.
W=2.35*0.1*3*14+2.375*0.2*3*14=102.858KN.
w/A=1.5KN/m2.
Pd6=1.3*(1.5+4.65)+1.6*2=11.25KN/m2

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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32

## panel P1/11 P2/12 P3/9 P4/10 P5/7 P6/8

pd(KN/m2) 11.54 10.48 9.85 12.16 11.77 11.25

## Step-3: Design moment analysis.

Panel-1:

4m

5m

Mi=αiPdLx2
Where αi is a constant that depends on the support condition and span ratio and Lx
is the dimension of the shorter span.
For this specific panel;
Ly/Lx=1.25 Mxs=0.066*11.54*16=12.2KN
αxs=0.066 Mxf=0.049*11.54*16=9.1KN
αys=0.047 Mys=0.047*11.54*16=8.75KN
αxf=0.049 Myf=0.036*11.54*16=6.7KN
αyf=0.036

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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Mxs

Mxs Myf Lx
Mxf

Ly

Similarly for other panels we calculated the support and span moments as shown in the
following table.

## Pd Lx2 Mxs Mxf Mys Myf

pane S. Ly/L (KN/m (m2 αxs αxf αys αyf (KN (KN (KN (KN
2
l C x ) ) ) ) ) )

P1/P 4 1.25 11.54 16 0.06 0.049 0.04 0.03 12.2 9.1 8.73 6.7
11 6 7 6

P2/P 4 1.0 10.48 25 0.04 0.036 0.04 0.03 12.2 9.43 12.2 9.43
12 7 7 6

P3/P 3 1.25 9.85 16 0.05 0.044 0.03 0.03 9.3 7.0 6.15 4.73
5 9 5 9

P4/P 3 1.0 12.16 25 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 11.8 9.12 11.8 9.12
10 9 9

P5/P 3 1.0 11.77 16 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 7.34 5.65 7.38 5.65
7 9 9

P6/P 2 1.25 11.25 16 0.05 0.041 0.03 0.03 10.6 8.02 7.02 5.4
8 9 5 9 2

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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P11

P12
P10
P9
P7

P8
P5

P6
P4
P3
P1

P2

## Step-4: Redistribution of support moments and adjustment of span moments.

For each support over which the slab is continuous, there are two different support

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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moments. The differences are distributed between the spans (panels) on either side of the
support to equalize the moments by the method given in EBCS-2-1995 A.3.3

ML MR

Method I
Md= (MR+ML)/2

Method I may be used when differences between initial support moments are less than
20% of the larger moment.
Methods I I
Md (larger) =Mmax-(1/Lx)/ (Lx-1+Ly-1)*∆M
Md (smaller) =Mmin+ (1/Lx)/ (Lx-1+Ly-1)*∆M
In this method consideration of the effects of changes of support moments is limited to
the adjacent spans. Since no effects on neighboring support sections need be considered
only a simple balancing operation is required at each edge and no iterative process is
involved.(EBCS-2-1995 Art A.3.3.3 method I I )

ML MR

Between panel-1 and panel-2 there is no moment distribution because both end moments
are equal.

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## Between Panel-1 and panel-3

8.73 6.15

5m 5m

∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR
=(8.73-6.15)*100/8.73=29.5%>20%
Md (larger) =Mmax-(1/Lx)/ (Lx-1+Ly-1)*∆M
= 8.73-(8.73-6.15)*4-1/(1/(4-1+4-1))
=7.44KN-m
Between panel-2 and 4

12.2 11.8

∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR
= (12.2-11.8)*100/12.2=3.2 %< 20%
Md= (MR+ML)/2
= (12.2+11.8)/2=12.08KN-m

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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37

9.3
11.8

∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR
= (11.8-9.3)*100/11.8=21.18% > 20%
Md (larger) =Mmax-(1/Lx)/ (Lx-1+Ly-1)*∆M
=9.30-(11.8-9.3)*4-1/(5-1+4-1)
=10.72KN-m
Between panel-3 and 5

6.15 7.34

## ∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR=16.2%

Md= (MR+ML)/2=6.75KN-m
Between panel-4 and 6

11.8 10.62

∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR
Md= (MR+ML)/2=11.24KN-m

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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7.34
7.02

## ∆M= (MR-ML)*1000/ MR =(7.34-7.02)*100/7.34=4.36%

Md= (MR+ML)/2=(7.34+7.02)/2=7.18KN-m
Between panel-5 and 7, between panel-6 and 8
No moment adjustment! Because in both cases the support moments are equal.

Span moment adjustment is calculated for those panels whose support moments are
decreased because of support adjustment in 4.1 above according to EBCS-2-1995.
Panel-1 and 11
∆Mys=Mys-Msd
=8.73-7.44=1.29KN-m
Mxfd=Mxf+Cx∆M1
Cx=0.3315
Mxfd=9.1+0.3315*1.29=9.53KN-m
∆Mxs=6.7+0.19=6.89KN-m
Panel-2 and 12
∆M=12.2-12.08=0.12KN-m
Cx=0.38
Mxfd=9.43+0.12*0.38=9.59KN-m
Myfd=9.43+0.12*0.38=9.59KN-m
Panel 4
∆M1=11.86-10.722=1.138KN-m
∆M2=11.86-11.24=0.62KN-m
Cx=Cy=0.38
Mxfd=Myfd=9.12+1.138*0.38+0.28*0.62=9.726KN-m
Panel-5
∆M1=7.34-6.75=0.59KN-m
Cx1=Cx2=0.38,Cy1=0.28
∆M2=7.34-7.18=0.16KN-m
Cy1=Cy2=0.38,Cx2=0.28
Mxd=Myd=5.62+0.26*0.28+0.38*0.59=5.92KN-m
Summary of the adjusted support and span moments

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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P11
5m

P12
5m
P10
P9
P7

P8

4m

4m
P5

P6

5m
P4
P3

5m
P1

P2

5m 4m
Step 5
Before we directly go to the reinforcement calculation first we have to check the
adequacy of the effective depth requirement using the maximum moment.
Mmax=10.722KN-m

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## From limit state design method formula

d= √(Mmax/ (0.8fcdρm (1-0.4ρm)))
fcd=11.33Mpa
fyd=fyk/γs=300/1.15=260.87Mpa
m=fyd/0.8fcd
c1=2.5/m=0.0869,c2=0.4fydm=3003.01
ρb=(εc/(εc+εs))*0.8fcd/fyd
= (0.0035/ (0.0035+0.8*300*10-3/200))0.8*11.33/260.87=0.0253
ρmax=0.75ρb=0.0189
d= √(10.722E6/ (0.8*1000*11.33*28.78*0.0189*(1-0.4*0.0189*28.78))
=52.72mm<110mm, serviceability limit governs the design.
Reinforcement calculation
The required reinforcement is calculated using the general design table (EBCS-2 part 2
1995)
Km=√(Msd/b)/d where d= D-φ-c-φ/2
d=140-10-15-5=110mm b=1000mm
As=KsMsd/d
According to the Ethiopian building code standard, the geometrical ratio of main
reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than the minimum area of reinforcement given by
the following:
ρmin=0.5/fyk=0.5/300=0.0017
Asmin=ρminbd=0.0017*1000*110=1185.3mm2
The spacing between the main bars shall not exceed 250mm.

## Reinforcement calculation in the form of table.

locatio Md Km ks As as Spacing(m length No.
n m)
7.44 25 3.99 269.87 50 φ8 c/c180 3.33 23
12.3 31.88 4.07 455 78 φ10c/c170 3.0 30
12.08 31.6 4.066 446.52 78 φ10c/c170 3.33 30
10.72 29.77 4.041 394 50 φ8c/c120 3.0 43
Support moments

2
reinforcements

## 11.24 30.47 4.049 413.7 50 φ8c/c120 3.0 43

6.75 23.6 3.98 244.3 50 φ8c/c200 3.0 21
7.18 24.3 3.98 260.16 50 φ8c/c190 3.0 22
7.34 26.63 3.987 266 50 φ8c/c180 2.67 23
10.62 29.62 4.04 390 50 φ8c/c 120 2.67 27
9.53 28 4.039 350 50 φ8c/c140 5.415 23
6.89 23.86 3.982 249.4 50 φ8c/c200 4.415 26
reinforcements

Span moment

## 7.0 24.06 3.984 253.5 50 φ8c/c190 5.415 28

4.73 19.7 3.952 169.9 50 φ8c/c250 4.415 20
9.73 28.35 4.039 357.3 50 φ8c/c130 5.415 39
5.92 22.1 3.97 213.7 50 φ8c/c230 4.415 32

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## 8.01 25.73 4.0 291.27 50 φ8c/c170 5.415 25

5.4 21.1 3.96 194.6 50 φ8c/c250 4.415 17

## Step 6 Load transfer to beams

The design loads on beams supporting the solid slabs spanning in to directions right
angles supporting uniformly distributed loads may be assessed by using EBCS-2 1995
Art A.3.8
The equn. Is given by the formula,
V=βv PdLx
βv a constant that depends on the support condition of the panel and Lx is the
shortest span of the panel.
The assumed distribution of the load on the supporting beam is shown. Which assures
that the load is assumed to be transferred only to 75% of the beam length.

0.75L

Panel-1/11

4m

Pd=11.54KN/m2
βvx=0.485
βvy =0.4 for the continues part

βvx =0.32 5m
βvy =0.26 for discontinues part
Vx(cont) = βvxPd*Lx=0.485*11.54*4=22.4KN/m
Vy(cont) =Pd*Lx*βvy=0.4*11.54*4=18.5KN/m
Vx(discon) =Pd*Lx*βv x=11.54*4*0.32=14.8KN/m
Vy(discon) =Pd*Lx*βvy=11.54*4*0.26=12.01KN/m

Likewise the loads from the slab is transferred to beams by using computer aided
program (SAP-2000) and analyzed to design the beam and the column.

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## 2.6. Design of Stair

The stair case is not structurally connected to the building .It is treated as one way solid
slab. Main reinforcement runs in the longer direction.
Design of stair 1

## d = (0.4+0.6 *fyk) le/βa fyk=300mpa, βa =25

400 le=5400
d = (0.4+ 0.6*300)*5400 =183.6mm
400 25
The overall depth,
D=183.6+15+8=206.6mm
Use D=210mm
d=187mm
 RC slab (inclined) = 0.21*1*24 =5.635KN/m
Cos 26.56
 Due to steps per meter width = 0.3*0.15*1*24*1 = 1.8KN/m
2 0.3
 Floor Finishing
Terrazzo tile (2cm) = 0.02*23 = 0.4KN/m2
Cement Screed (2 cm) = 0.02*20 = 0.4 KN/m2
Total = 0.86 KN/m2

## On the thread = 0.86*1m = 0.86 KN/m

On the riser = 0.86*0.15*1*10 = 0.43KN/m
3.0
Plastering = 0.02*20 = 0.4KN/ m2 * 1 = 0.4KN/m
Cos26.56

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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= 9.17KN/m
 Landing Slab = 0.21*1*24 = 5.04KN/m
 Plastering = 0.4*1 = 0.4KN/m
 Cement screed = 0.4*1 = 0.4KN/m
 Terrazzo tile = 0.46*1 = 0.46KN/m
6.3KN/m
Total load on the landing = 6.3KN/m
On stair category A, qt = 3 KN/m2 (EBCS-2,1995 table 2.10)
Total live load on stair case = 3 KN/m2 * 1m = 3 KN/m
On stair, DL1 = 1.3*9.17+1.6*3 = 16.72 KN/m
On landing, DL2 = 1.3*6.3+1.6*3 = 13 KN/m

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## d = (M/rb bw fyd (1-0.4rb m)) ½

= (58.27E6/(0.0187*1000*260.87*(1-0.4*0.0187*28.78))1/2
= 123.4mm<187mm OK!

Reinforcement Design

## Km = √(M/b) = √(58.27/1) = 40.82

d 0.187

Ks = 4.19
Hence
As = Ks * M = 4.19 * 58.27 = 1305.8 mm2
d 0.187
Spacing
S = as * b = 201 * 1000 = 153mm
As 1305.8
Spacing provided
Ф16 c/c 150

Design of Stair 2

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## d= (0.4+0.6fyk) le/ba fyk=300mpa, ba=25

400 le=4200

d=(0.4+0.6*300)*4200 =142.8
400 25

D=142.8+15+8 = 166mm

Use D=170mm
d=147m
Design load the same as stair case 1
DL1 = 16.72KN/m
DL2 = 13KN/m

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## Check depth for flexure

d = (35.52E6/(0.0187*1000*260.87*(1-0.4*0.0187*28.78))1/2
= 96.33mm < 147mm OK!

Rienforcement Design

d 0.147
Ks = 4.185

## As = Ks M = 4.185 * 35.52 = 1011.2 mm2

d 0.147
Spacing
S = 154 * 1000 = 152.3 mm
1011.2
Provide
Ф 14 c/c 150

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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As =ρmin*b*d =(0.5/300)*1000*147=245mm2
use φ8c/c200mm,in the shorter direction.

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Wind
3. 2 Earth quake

## 3.1 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE WALL OF THE

BUILDING

The external and the internal wind pressure on the wall of then building are computed as
:
We =qref*ce(ze)*cpe
Wi = qref*ce(zi)*cpi ,where the parameters have the same meaning as described in the
roof analysis.
From the previos analysis qref=242N/m2
The critical case is when the wind comes on the longer side of the building.

D
Wind E b=28m

A B C
d=9m

## Height of the building, h=12m

2b =2*28=56m, h (12m) < b (28m), we consider the whole building as one

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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h<b

ze = h =13.21m

Ground

e = min. b=28m
2h=26.42m, e=26.42m
D=9m<e=26.42m
Case:d<e
e/5=5.3m

h=13.21m

wind A B*

## External pressure pressure,cpe calculation

d/h=9/13.21=0.681<1.0
al the zones have exposure area >10m2 we take cpe,10

zone A B C D E
d/h cpe,10 cpe,10 cpe,10 cpe,10 cpe,10
≤1.0 -1.0 -0.8 -0.5 0.8 -0.3

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## .21) =3.84,from previos calculation.

We=qref*c(ze)*cpe(z) ,accordingly We of each zone is tabulated below.

zone
We(kn/m2)
A -0.478
B* 0.384
D 0.384
E 0.137
Internal wind pressure
Wi ==qref*ce(zi)*cpi ,in our case ce(zi)=ce(ze)=1.983
Taking the most crituical cases ,cpi =+0.8 or -0.5
qref =242n/m2
Wi =242*1.983*0.8=0.384KN/m2
=242*1.983*-0.5 =-0.24 KN/m2
The net wind pressure

## Ce(13.21) =3.84,from previos calculation.

We=qref*c(ze)*cpe(z) ,accordingly We of each zone is tabulated below.

zone
We(kn/m2)
A -0.478
B* 0.384
D 0.384
E 0.137
Internal wind pressure
Wi ==qref*ce(zi)*cpi ,in our case ce(zi)=ce(ze)=1.983
Taking the most crituical cases ,cpi =+0.8 or -0.5
qref =242n/m2
Wi =242*1.983*0.8=0.384KN/m2
=242*1.983*-0.5 =-0.24 KN/m2
The net wind pressure,Wnet =We-Wi
The critical wind pressure occurs on zone A of the building.
Wnet ,max =-0.478-0.384 = -0.862KN/m2 ,suction pressure.
Approximate wind force calculation on the wall at each level
The approximate wind force on the wall at each level is obtained by multiplying the wind
pressure by the area of the building contributing force at that level.

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Roof level
3m

## 3rd floor level

3m
AREA CONTRIBUTING FORCE AT THE
SECOND FLOOR LEVEL
2nd floor level
3m

2m

b= 28m

## level hi(m) Fi (KN)

Roof 14 0.864*28*1.5=36.3
3rd floor 11 0.864*28*3=72.6
2nd floor 8 0.864*28*3=72.6
1st floor 5 0.864*28*3=72.6
Ground floor 2 0

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## 3.2 EARTH QUAKE FORCE ANALYS

From EBCS 8,1995 the expression for determination of the base shear
depending on the mass of the structure ,soil condition ,seismic zone, regularity of the
structure both in plan & elevation.Equivalent _static Method is used since T1<2sec

## α =αo*I, Earth quake zone ground acceleration coefficient since

the site is located in Mekele zone 4 αo=0.1, I, Importance factor
Since the building is ordinary residential, , EBCS,8, 1995E provides I=1.0

β=1.2*S/(T2/3 )≤2.5
Mekelle with good rock condition, the soil class A is taken & S=1

## T1 the fundamental period of the building in seconds

T1=C1 H 0.75
C1 =0.075 for moment resisting frame from EBCS,8, 1995
Our frame moment resistive reinforced concrete frame

## H= height of the frame structure=14m

Using the above expression T1=0.543 sec, β=1.8≤2.5

## 3 parameter showing the ductility of the building

γ=γo*KD*KR*Kw, frame system γo=0.2
Since the building is regular both in elevation & plan, kR=1.0, factor reflecting
regularity
KD=2, for low ductility class building, factor reflecting
structural ductility
Kw=1.0, for frame & dual system, factor reflecting
prevailing failure
γ=0.2*2*1*1=0.4≤0.7
SdT1=0.1*1.8*0.4=0.072
only for upper floor, not including ground floor & roof
Fb= SdT1*Wtotal
0.072*10987.51=791.10

0.0,T1≤0.7 sec
Ft = 0.07* T1* Fb≤ 0.25 Fb,for T1>0.7sec

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## 3.2.2 MASS CENTER CALCULATION OF THE BUILDING FOR

THE
Initial Beams& columns determined from Vertical Load transfer from slab
analyzing by approximate method of analysis, deflection requirement ( our code
EBCS,1995)
Using the following floor plan layout the mass center of the lumped mass
will calculated employing symbols used to represent walls, beams, and column
Since the floor is typical the mass center of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd is the same. From
the plan given it is observed that the mass center of x directionis symmetrical. It
lays at the center of the plan in the x direction xm=14m. The mass center along
the y _ direction will calculated in the following tables. The mass center will be
calculated as
Y=Σwiyi/Σwi wi=γ*volume of the mass
Where γ=unt weight of the (structural or non structural
component on the building, concrete,HCB wall.

Y axis

## panel 1 panel 3 panel 5 panel 7 panel 9 panel 11

A' B' C' D' E' F' G'

panel
panel 2 panel 4 panel 6 panel 8 10 panel 12 X axis

## Axis B Axis C Axis D Axis E Axis F Axis G G

5m 5m 4m 4m 5m 5m

Wi (KN) arm(yi) M Wiyi (KN.M)
Beam
axis 1(25*30) 0
A"B" 9 9 81
B"C" 9 9 81
C"D" 7.2 9 64.8

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## D"E" 7.2 9 64.8

E"F" 9 9 81
F"G" 9 9 81
Axis 2(30*40)
A'B' 14.4 5 72
B'C' 14.4 5 72
C'D' 11.52 5 57.6
D'E' 11.52 5 57.6
E'F' 14.4 5 72
F'G' 14.4 5 72
AXIS 3
AB 9 0 0
BC 9 0 0
CD 7.2 0 0
DE 7.2 0 0
EF 9 0 0
FG 9 0 0
AXIS A
AA' 9 2.5 22.5
A'A" 7.2 7 50.4
AXIS B
BB' 14.4 2.5 36
B'B" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS C 0
CC' 14.4 2.5 36
C'C" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS D 0
DD' 14.4 2.5 36
D'D" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS E 0
EE' 14.4 2.5 36
E'E" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS F 0
FF' 14.4 2.5 36
F'F" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS G 0
GG' 9 2.5 22.5
G'G" 7.2 7 50.4
COLUMN 0
AXIS 1 0
A_1 11.52 9 103.68
B_1 8.84 9 79.56
C_1 8.84 9 79.56
D_1 8.84 9 79.56
E_1 8.84 9 79.56
F_1 8.84 9 79.56
G_1 11.52 9 103.68
AXIS 2 0

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## A_2 8.64 5 43.2

B_2 11.52 5 57.6
C_2 11.52 5 57.6
D_2 11.52 5 57.6
E_2 11.52 5 57.6
F_2 11.52 5 57.6
G_2 8.64 5 43.2
AXIS 3 0
A_3 11.52 0 0
B_3 8.64 0 0
C_3 8.64 0 0
D_3 8.64 0 0
E_3 8.64 0 0
F_3 8.64 0 0
G_3 11.52 0 0
PARTITION WALL ON BEAMS 0
AXIS 1
A"B" 35.95 9 323.55
B"C" 35.95 9 323.55
C"D" 18.48 9 166.32
D"E" 18.48 9 166.32
E"F" 35.95 9 323.55
F"G" 35.95 9 323.55
AXIS 2 0
A'B' 3.28 5 16.4
B'C' 42 5 210
E'F' 42 5 210
F'G' 3.28 5 16.4
AXIS 3 0
AB 36.96 0 0
FG 36.96 0 0
0
AXIS A 0
AA' 42 2.5 105
A'A" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS B 0
BB' 31.92 2.5 79.8
B'B" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS C 0
CC' 31.92 2.5 79.8
C'C" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS D 0
DD' 31.92 2.5 79.8
D'D" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS E 0
EE' 31.92 2.5 79.8
E'E" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS F 0

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## FF' 42 2.5 105

F'F" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS G 0
GG' 42 2.5 105
G'G" 33.6 7 235.2
0
SLAB INCLUDING FLOOR FINISH 0
panel 0
1 93 7 651
2 116.25 2.5 290.625
3 93 7 651
4 116.25 2.5 290.625
5 74.4 7 520.8
6 93 2.5 232.5
7 74.4 7 520.8
8 93 2.5 232.5
9 93 7 651
10 116.25 2.5 290.625
11 93 7 651
12 116.25 2.5 290.625
partition walls on slab 0
pane1 0
w1 6.51 5.85 38.0835
w2 13.1 7.44 97.464
w3 6.51 5.85 38.0835
pane11 0
w1 6.51 5.85 38.0835
w2 13.1 7.44 97.464
w3 6.51 5.85 38.0835
pane 2 0
w1 6.51 2.65 17.2515
w2 9.7 3.78 36.666
w3 7.035 1.74 12.2409
pane12 0
w1 6.51 2.65 17.2515
w2 9.7 3.78 36.666
w3 7.035 1.74 12.2409
panel 3 0
w1 6.615 8.11 53.64765
w2 2.65 7.33 19.4245
panel 9 0
w1 6.615 8.11 53.64765
w2 2.65 7.33 19.4245
panel 4 0
w1 28.1 1.3 36.53
w2 10.58 1.9 20.102
w3 10 4.4 44
w4 5.3 1.84 9.752

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## w5 7.1 2.72 19.312

w6 4.83 3.62 17.4846
panel10 0
w1 28.1 1.3 36.53
w2 10.58 1.9 20.102
w3 10 4.4 44
w4 5.3 1.84 9.752
w5 7.1 2.72 19.312
w6 4.83 3.62 17.4846
panel 5 0
w1 5.46 5.4 29.484
w2 10.63 6.95 73.8785
w3 8.4 8.1 68.04
w4 3.36 5.4 18.144
panel 7 0
w1 5.46 5.4 29.484
w2 10.63 6.95 73.8785
w3 8.4 8.1 68.04
w4 3.36 5.4 18.144

panel 6 0
w1 10.08 1.4 14.112
w2 13.23 1.4 18.522
w3 3.26 1.788 5.82888
w4 6.615 2.93 19.38195
sum
panel 8 0
w1 10.08 1.4 14.112
w2 13.23 1.4 18.522
w3 3.26 1.788 5.82888
w4 6.615 2.93 19.38195
sum 2928.87 13613.57
Σω ι Σwiyi
y=ΣWiyi/Σωι
Mass center of1st,2nd,3rd,floor the same,ym=4.66 Y m= 4.66

## Center mass Ground Floor

Descrpition wi yi wiyi
(40*30cm*cm)
Axis 1
A"B" 14.4 9 129.6
B"C" 14.4 9 129.6
C"D" 11.52 9 103.68
D"E" 11.52 9 103.68
E"F" 14.4 9 129.6
F"G" 14.4 9 129.6

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Axis 2 0
A'B' 14.4 5 72
B'C' 14.4 5 72
C'D' 11.52 5 57.6
D'E' 11.52 5 57.6
E'F' 14.4 5 72
F'G' 14.4 5 72
AXIS 3 0
AB 14.4 0 0
BC 14.4 0 0
CD 11.52 0 0
DE 11.52 0 0
EF 14.4 0 0
FG 14.4 0 0
AXIS A 0
AA' 14.4 2.5 36
A'A" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS B 0
BB' 14.4 2.5 36
B'B" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS C 0
CC' 14.4 2.5 36
C'C" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS D 0
DD' 14.4 2.5 36
D'D" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS E 0
EE' 14.4 2.5 36
E'E" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS F 0
FF' 14.4 2.5 36
F'F" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS G 0
GG' 14.4 2.5 36
G'G" 11.52 7 80.64
column on ground floor lumped mass 2m foundation
column & 3m all above groundcolumn 0
AXIS 1 0
A_1 9.6 9 86.4
B_1 7.2 9 64.8
C_1 7.2 9 64.8
D_1 7.2 9 64.8
E_1 7.2 9 64.8
F_1 7.2 9 64.8
G_1 9.6 9 86.4
AXIS 2 0
A_2 7.2 5 36
B_2 9.6 5 48
C_2 9.6 5 48

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D_2 9.6 5 48
E_2 9.6 5 48
F_2 9.6 5 48
G_2 7.2 5 36
AXIS 3 0
A_3 9.6 0 0
B_3 7.2 0 0
C_3 7.2 0 0
D_3 7.2 0 0
E_3 7.2 0 0
F_3 7.2 0 0
G_3 9.6 0 0
Axis 1 0
A"B" 35.95 9 323.55
B"C" 35.95 9 323.55
C"D" 18.48 9 166.32
D"E" 18.48 9 166.32
E"F" 35.95 9 323.55
F"G" 35.95 9 323.55
Axis 2 0
B'C' 42 5 210
E'F' 42 5 210
AXIS 3 0
AB 36.96 0 0
FG 36.96 0 0
AXIS A 0
AA' 42 2.5 105
A'A" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS B 0
BB' 42 2.5 105
B'B" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS C 0
CC' 31.92 3.1 98.952
C'C" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS D 0
DD' 31.92 3.1 98.952
D'D" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS E 0
EE' 31.92 3.1 98.952
E'E" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS F 0
FF' 42 2.5 105
F'F" 33.6 7 235.2
AXIS G 0
GG' 42 2.5 105
G'G" 33.6 7 235.2
sum 1433.8 7164.336

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Σwi Σwiyi

## mass center y gruond ymg Σwiyi/Σwi 4.755

ROOF
MASS
CENTER

Description wi yi wiyi
Purlin
p1 1.453 9.58 13.91974
p2 1.453 9.28 13.48384
p3 1.453 7.52 10.92656
p4 1.453 5.76 8.36928
p5 1.453 4 5.812
p6 1.453 4 5.812
p7 1.453 3.52 5.11456
p8 1.453 0.48 0.69744
p9 1.453 -0.5 -0.7265
Trusses 0
T1 1.76 4.5 7.92
T2 1.76 4.5 7.92
T3 1.76 4.5 7.92
T4 1.76 4.5 7.92
T5 1.76 4.5 7.92
T6 1.76 4.5 7.92
T7 1.76 4.5 7.92
T8 1.76 4.5 7.92
T9 1.76 4.5 7.92
T10 1.76 4.5 7.92
T11 1.76 4.5 7.92
T12 1.76 4.5 7.92
T13 1.76 4.5 7.92
TIE BEAM ON ROOF LEVEL
Axis 1
25*30 cm*cm
A"B" 9 9 81
B"C" 9 9 81
C"D" 7.2 9 64.8
D"E" 7.2 9 64.8
E"F" 9 9 81
F"G" 9 9 81
Axis 2
30cm*40cm
A'B' 14.4 5 72
B'C' 14.4 5 72
C'D' 11.52 5 57.6
D'E' 11.52 5 57.6

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E'F' 14.4 5 72
F'G' 14.4 5 72
AXIS 3
25*30cm*cm
AB 9 0 0
BC 9 0 0
CD 7.2 0 0
DE 7.2 0 0
EF 9 0 0
FG 9 0 0
AXIS A
AA' 9 2.5 22.5
A'A" 7.2 7 50.4
AXIS B
BB' 14.4 2.5 36
B'B" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS C 0
CC' 14.4 2.5 36
C'C" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS D 0
DD' 14.4 2.5 36
D'D" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS E 0
EE' 14.4 2.5 36
E'E" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS F 0
FF' 14.4 2.5 36
F'F" 11.52 7 80.64
AXIS G 0
GG' 9 2.5 22.5
G'G" 7.2 7 50.4
Half column to roof level lumped mass 0
corner column 40*40 cm*cm,30*40 cm*cm
middle column 0
AXIS 1 0
A_1 5.76 9 51.84
B_1 4.32 9 38.88
C_1 4.32 9 38.88
D_1 4.32 9 38.88
E_1 4.32 9 38.88
F_1 4.32 9 38.88
G_1 5.76 9 51.84
AXIS 2 0
A_2 4.32 5 21.6
B_2 5.76 5 28.8
C_2 5.76 5 28.8
D_2 5.76 5 28.8
E_2 5.76 5 28.8
F_2 5.76 5 28.8

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## G_2 4.32 5 21.6

AXIS 3 0
A_3 5.76 0 0
B_3 4.32 0 0
C_3 4.32 0 0
D_3 4.32 0 0
E_3 4.32 0 0
F_3 4.32 0 0
G_3 5.76 0 0
Parapet wall on axis A&G 0
AXIS A 0
AA' 16.8 2.5 42
A'A" 13.44 7 94.08
AXIS G 0
GG' 16.8 2.5 42
G'G" 13.44 7 94.08
sum 543.557 2509.609
Σwi Σwiyi
roof
mass center ymg 4.617012

For the distribution of base shear forces according to their height for floor level using
the following formula from our code,EBCS 8,1995

Fi=(Fb-Ft)*wihi/(Σwihi)=791.10/82839.44=0.00955wihi

wihi(kN
level hi(m) wi(kN) m) Fi(kN)
ground 2 1433.8 2867.6 27.39

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## first 2988.9 14944.

floor 5 5 75 142.72
second 2988.9 23911.
floor 8 5 6 228.36
2988.9 32878.
third 11 5 45 313.99
8239.8
roof 14 588.56 4 78.69

From the above calculation wind load & Earth Quake are compared & the maximum
lateral load is earth quake. The structure designed for resisting the maximum load, the
earth quake.

3.2.3 The distribution of floor level forces to each for different direction
of earth quake Load Among Each frames According to their stiffness ( D_
Value)

## 3.2.4 CALCULATION OF RIGIDITY OR STIFFNESS

Assuming that the frame s are rigid laterally the total lateral force is distributed
through the vertical members on proportion to their relative rigidity. The location of the
center of rigidity is determined as follows

Xs=Σ(Diy*xi)/ΣDiy, ys=Σ(Dix*yi)/ΣDix

## Where x,y= coordinates of the center of rotation

Dx,Dy=Lateral stiffness of a particular element along x and y axis, respectively ( D _
values)

D=akc
Where a= (0.5+ k )/(2+ k ) for fixed column base

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## Kb= beam stiffness=bh3/(12*L)

The corrected shear force on the frames is obtained for torsion correction by a
factor α
αx=1+Σ Dx*ey*y/(Jx+Jy)

αy=1+ΣDy*ex*x/ (Jx+Jy)

Jx,Jy = D value moment of inertia, ex & ey the design eccentricity in x & y direction

## The shear force is calculated as follows

Qn=Qd/ΣD
The corrected shear for torsion will be
Q Corrected=Qn α

Since there is no shear wall the entire load should be supported by the frame only
For the calculation of each parameters
Initial Beams& columns determined from Vertical Load transferred from slab
analyzing by approximate method of analysis, deflection requirement ( our code
EBCS,1995)

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axis A A B C D E F G

axis
C1 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 1

4m
axis2
C2 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3

5m

C1 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 axis3
5m 5m 4m 4m 5m 5m

## column section beam section

C1=400mm*30
0mm *400mm axis1,3,A,G=250*300a
C1=400mm*30 axis2,B,C.D,E,F=300*40
0mm *400mm 0
C1=400mm*30 *400m Beam
0mm m stiffness
lengt
axis h kb
1125
1,3 5m 00
1406
A,G 4m 30
stiffness 2,B, 3200
=bh^3/12 C 5m 00
D,E, 4000
F 4m 00
colum lengt
n b h l KY KX h kb
71111 71111 3200
1_A 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1 5m 00
53333 30000 4000
1_B 300 400 3000 3.3 0 4m 00
53333 30000
1_C 300 400 3000 3.3 0
53333 30000
1_D 300 400 3000 3.3 0
53333 30000
1_E 300 400 3000 3.3 0
53333 30000
1_F 300 400 3000 3.3 0

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71111 71111
1_G 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1
53333 30000
2_A 300 400 3000 3.3 0
71111 71111
2-B 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1
71111 71111
2_C 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1
71111 71111
2_D 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1
71111 71111
2_E 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1
71111 71111
2_F 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1
53333 30000
2_G 300 400 3000 3.3 0
71111 71111
3_A 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1
53333 30000
3_B 300 400 3000 3.3 0
53333 30000
3_C 300 400 3000 3.3 0
53333 30000
3_D 300 400 3000 3.3 0
53333 30000
3_E 300 400 3000 3.3 0
53333 30000
3_F 300 400 3000 3.3 0
71111 71111
3_G 400 400 3000 1.1 1.1

## D_value calculation for Each Frames

y_Axis
For axis A& G

column 1_A

kbar=140630/711111.1=.0.19
140630 8
kc
711111.
1
a=0.09
D=akc=64
140630

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67

column2-A

140630 112500
k=140630+112500/300000=.84
300000
a=.296
140630 112500 D=89

column3-A

112500 k=.158

711111.1 a=.0733

112500 D=52.12

## 140630 140630 112500 k=.356

k=.26
533333.3 711111.1 a=.151
a=.116
140630 140630 112500 D=107.4
D=62
column3-B

112500 k=.21

533333.3 a=.095

112500 D=51

## D_value for ground column

Axis A and G Axis B,C,D,E and F

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400000 k=.75

140630 k=.38
a=.16 533333.3 a=.273
711111.1
400000 D=145.45
400000 D=113.6
column2-B

column2_A

## 400000 320000 k=1.013

140630 112500 k=1.62
711111.1 a=.34
300000 a=.45
400000 320000 D=239
400000 320000 D=135

column3-A column3-B

## D_value for foundation column

axis B,C.D.Eand F
axis Aand G
column1-B

column 1-
A
400000 k=.375

1066700
a=.37 400000 k=.5
D=395
800000 a=.4
column2-A column2-B

a=.58 a=.44
450000 1066700
D=263 D=469

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column3-A

column3-B
320000 k=.3
a=.35

D=371 a=.375
800000
D=300

## D_ value calculation for each frames along X axis

Axis 2
Axis 1 and 3 ground up to third floor
First up to third floor
column1-A
column2-A

## 112500 k=.158 320000 k=.6

a=.23
711111.1 a=.073 533333.3
D=123
112500 D=52
column1-B 320000

## 112500 112500 column2-B

300000 a=.273
320000 320000 k=.9
112500 112500 D=81.9 a=.31
711111.1
column1-C D=220.7

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## 112500 140630 D=89 320000 400000 k=1.013

a=.34
711111.1
column1-D D=239

320000 400000
140630 140630 k=.938

300000 a=.32

column2-D

## 400000 400000 k=1.13

71111101
a=.36
400000 400000 D=256

## ground floor columns foundation columns

column1-A column2-A

## 112500 k=.304 320000 k=.4

711111.1 a=.132 a=.375
800000
320000 D=93.85 D=300

column1-B

## 112500 112500 k=1.44

300000 a=.42 column2-B

## 320000 320000 D=126 320000 320000 k=.6

a=.42
column1-C 1066700

D=451
112500 140630 k=1.62
300000 a=.45

## 320000 400000 D=134

column1-D column2-C

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## 140630 140630 k=1.8 320000 400000 k=.675

300000 a=.47 a=.44
1066700
400000 400000 D=142.2 D=468

column2-D

foundation columns
400000 400000 k=.75
column1-A a=.45

1066700
320 k=.3 D=485
a=.35
1066700
D=373

column1-B

a=.56
450000
D=252

column1-C

a=.583
450000
D=263

column1-D

a=.6
450000
D=271.43

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Along Y_axis
axis A and G axis B,C.D.F and F
sum of
sum of D D
64 89 52 205 62 107.4 51 220.4

## 395 263 371 1029 320 469 300 1089

Along X axis
axis 1 and 3
52 81.9 89 96 89 81.9 52

52 81.9 89 96 89 81.9 52

52 81.9 89 96 89 81.9 52

axis 2

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## 300 451 468 485 468 451 300

Divide the Floor level force on Each Frame according to the proportion of their
D_value

## A. Roof level summation of the floor D_ value=∑D=2505

Frame axis 2 summation of the D_ value=∑D axis2

## Axis 2 frame force at roof level=(∑D axis2/∑Dfloor)*roof level force

(1421.4/2505)*78.66=44.63
Since the stiffness of the frame axis one and three is the same the remaining will be
divided equally to each frames. There fore
Axis 1 & 3 = 17 KN each LUMPED MASS PRESENTATION

## Axis 2=1421.4/2505*(314) =178.170 KN F4

Axis 1& 3 =67.90KN each
C. 2nd floor level
Axis 2=1421.4/2505*(228.36)=129.56 KN F3
axis 1& 3=49.4 KN each
D. 1st floor level F2
Axis 2 =1421.4/(1421.4+850)*142.7=65KN
Axis 1 & 3=38.6 KN each F1
E.Ground floor at grade beam level
Axis 2 = 2923/ (2923+2*2047.5)

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A. Roof level

Axis A & G have the same stiffness so they share equal force
Axis AS &G 0.5*(2*2505/ (2*2505+5*22.4))*78.66=10.66 KN each
Since the remaining axis B,D,C ,E,F the stiffness share equally the remaining force
B. 3rd floor level

## Axis A & G 205*314/1512=42.57 KN

Remaining axes will be 54.29 KN each
C. 2nd floor level

## Other axes will be 39.7 KN each

D. 1st floor level
Axis A &G = 16.8 KN.

## E.Ground floor at grade beam level

Axis A&G 1029/(1029+5*1089)=3.76 KN
Other axis will share each 4.73KN
After the lateral force is put on each frame it should be corrected for torsion
effect which occurs either it due to accidental or due to eccentricity between
stiffness center & mass center. The lateral force due to earth quake acts at the mass
center of the modeled lumped mass.
The result is shown on the following serious of tables .

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## level axis Dy Xi DyXi

Roof A 205 0 0
3rd+2nd B 220.4 5 1102
floor C 220.4 10 2204
D 220.4 14 3085.6
E 220.4 3967.2 xs=14
F 220.4 23

G 205 28 5740
SUM 1512 21163.4
A 347.2 0 0
1st floor B 482 5 2410
C 482 10 4820
D 482 14 6748 xs=14
E 482 18 8676
F 482 23 11086
347.2 28 9721.6
sum 3104.8 43461.6
ground A 1029 0 0
floor B 1089 5 5445
C 1089 10 10890
D 1089 14 15246 xs=14
E 1089 18 19602
F 1089 23 25047
G 28 28812

SUM

7523 85440

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Yi

## level axis Dx DxYi

roof,3rd 1 541.8 9 4876.2
&2nd 1421. Ys=4.76
floor 2 45 7107 6
3 541.8 0 0
sum 2505 11983.2
1st floor 1 850 9 7650
1421.
2 4 5 7107 Y=4.728
3 850 0 0
sum 14757
2047.
ground 1 5 9 18427.5
floor 2 2923 5 14615 Y=4.708
2047.
3 5 0 0
sum 7018 33042.5

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Calculation of Eccentricities

Actual eccentricities

ex=xm-xs ey=ys-ym

level xm xs ex ym ys ey
Roof 14 14 0 4.6 4.766 0.166
2nd 14 14 0 4.66 4.766 0.106
3rd 14 14 0 4.66 4.766 0.106
1st 14 14 0 4.66 4.728 0.068
ground 14 14 0 4.755 4.708 -0.047

to cover un
Accidental Eccentricities certainities

exa=±0.05Lx eya=±0.05Ly
0.05*28=±1.4 ±0.05*9=±0.45

ed,x=ex+exa ed,y=ey+eya

## level ex exa ed,x1 ed,x2 ey eya ed,y1 ed,y2

Roof 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 0.166 ±0.45 0.616 -0.284
3rd 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 0.106 ±0.45 0.556 -0.344
2nd 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 0.106 ±0.45 0.556 -0.382
1st 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 0.068 ±0.45 0.518 -0.492
ground 0 ±1.4 1.4 -1.4 -0.047 ±0.45 0.403 -0.497

Coefficient calculation for the shear correction due to Torsion effect developed due to the
above eccentricities
The corrected shear force on the frames is obtained for torsion correction by a factor α
αx=1+Σ Dx*ey*y/(Jx+Jy)

αix=1+(Dx)*ey*yi/ (Jx+Jy)
αiy=1+(Diy)*edx*x/ (Jx+Jy)

Jx,Jy = D_ value moment of inertia, ex & ey the design eccentricity in x & y direction
respectively

## Jx=Σ(Dx yi2)- Σ(Dxys2)

Jy=Σ(Dy xi2)- Σ(Dyxs2)

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Qn=Qd/ΣD formula for shear force for each storey according their
stiffness determined in previous pages. The corrected shear for torsion will be
Q Corrected=Qn α
To calculate the correction factor α the above eccentricity table and the following
table will be used using the above formula for the correction factor calculation.

## yi ys x xs ys-yi xi-xs Dix Diy

Direction

Dix(ys-

Dix(ys-
yi)2
i
level

axis

yi)2
1 9 4.728 -4.272 850 15512.4864
x 2 5 4.728 -0.272 1421.4 105.1608576
3 0 4.728 4.728 850 19000.8864
sum
Jx 34618.53366

## A 0 14 -14 347.4 68090

y B 5 14 -9 482 39042
C 10 14 -4 482 7712
D 14 14 0 482 0
E 18 14 4 482 7712
1st
floor F 23 14 9 482 39042
G 28 14 14 347.4 68090
sum Jy 229689
Jr 264307

## 1 9 4.71 -4.29 2047.5 37682.39475

2 5 4.71 -0.29 2923 245.8243
3 0 4.71 4.71 2047.5 45421.94475
sumJx 83350.1638
A 0 14 -14 1029 201684
B 5 14 -9 1089 88209
C 10 14 -4 1089 17424
D 14 14 0 1089 0

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E 18 14 4 1089 17424
F 23 14 9 1089 88209
G 28 14 14 1029 201684
ground
floor sum Jy 614634
Jr 697984

α αx α y
level direction axis α x1 x2 α y1 α y2 max max
1 0.99 1.05 1.05
x 2 0.999 1 1
3 1.01 0.99 0.99

## A 0.97 1.03 1.03

B 0.98 1.02 1.02
y C 0.99 1.009 1.009
D 1 1 1
E 1.009 0.99 1.009
F 1.02 0.98 1.02
roof G 1.03 0.97 1.03

x 2 0.999 1 1
3 1.01 0.99 1.01

## A 0.97 1.03 1.03

B 0.98 1.02 1.02
C 0.99 1.009 1.009
y D 1 1 1
E 1.009 0.99 1.009
F 1.02 0.98 1.02
2nd&3rd G 1.03 0.97 1.03

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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80 αx αy
level direction αxis α x1 α x2 αy1 αy2 max max
1 0.99 1.05 1.05
x 2 0.999 1 1
3 1.01 0.99 0.99

0.98 1.02 1.02
0.99 1.009 1.009
y 1 1 1
1.009 0.99 1.009
1.02 0.98 1.02
1.03 0.97 1.03
1st floor

## X 1 0.97 1.03 1.03

2 0.98 1.02 1.02
3 0.99 1.009 1.009
A 0.971 1.03 1.03
B 0.98 1.02 1.02
Y

## C 0.99 1.01 1.01

D 1 1 1
E 1.01 0.99 1.01
F 1.02 0.983 1.02
G 1.03 0.971 1.03
ground flor

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Frame lateral force at each storey & axis in both x & y direction Shear forces
correction factors & corrected forces will be shown in the following tables.

## 1st floor ground

leve ROO
l F 3rd 2nd 3rd 2nd
α
Axi αm Q αm Q Q ma Q αm Q
s Qi ax corr Qi Qi ax corr corr Qi x corr Qi ax corr
10.6 10.9 16.8 1.0 17.3 1.0
A 6 1.03 8 42.57 31.00 1.03 43.85 31.93 0 3 0 3.76 3 3.87
13.6 13.8 25.1 1.0 25.7 1.0
B 0 1.02 7 54.29 39.47 1.02 55.38 40.26 8 2 6 4.73 2 4.82
13.6 13.7 25.1 1.0 25.4 1.0
C 0 1.01 4 54.29 39.47 1.01 54.83 39.86 8 1 3 4.73 1 4.78
13.6 13.6 25.1 1.0 25.1 1.0
D 0 1.00 0 54.29 39.47 1.00 54.29 39.47 8 0 8 4.73 0 4.73
13.6 13.7 25.1 1.0 25.4 1.0
E 0 1.01 4 54.29 39.47 1.01 54.83 39.86 8 1 3 4.73 1 4.78
13.6 13.8 25.1 1.0 25.6 1.0
F 0 1.02 7 54.29 39.47 1.02 55.38 40.26 8 2 8 4.73 2 4.82
10.6 10.9 16.8 1.0 17.2 1.0
G 6 1.03 8 42.57 31.00 1.03 43.85 31.93 0 3 4 3.76 3 3.87
17.0 17.0 38.8 1.0 39.0 1.0
1.00 0 1.01 9 67.90 49.40 1.01 68.24 49.65 6 1 5 8.00 1 8.05
44.6 44.6 178.1 129.5 178.1 129.5 65.0 1.0 65.1 11.4 1.0 11.4
2.00 3 1.00 3 7 6 1.00 7 6 0 0 3 1 0 1
17.0 17.1 38.8 1.0 39.1 1.0
3.00 0 1.01 7 67.90 49.40 1.01 68.58 49.89 6 1 7 8.00 1 8.05

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## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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F5

F1

combination in order to obtain design forces as show in the sample frame .The detail
loading can be displayed in SAP 2000 Version 7.4 in display Mode. In the frame
2.Comb2=0.75(Comb1)+Earth Quake in the X direction
3. Comb3=0.75(Comb1)+ Earth Quake in theY direction
4. Comb4=0.75(Comb1)+ Earth Quake in the -ve X direction
5 Comb5=.0.75(Comb1)+ Earth Quake in the -ve Y direction

Keeping the above data as it is, sap analiys made for the design of the structural

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CHAPTER FOUR

## 4.1 THE DESIGN OF BEAM

Any structural element is designed for resisting the type of action acting on it.
Since beam a structural member it can be subjected to various actions like axial, bending,
shear, torsion. however from the analysis of the frame it was obtained that the most
dominating stresses are bending & shear forces. For the design purpose first it was
selected four frames which possibly similar loading & stress, frame having higher stress
from those groups .Selecting the critical frame again beams are grouped having similar
for each frame element for determine the reinforcement. The using the critical load
combination the beam design proceeds as follows.

## 4.1.1. Bending design (flexural design of beams)

4.1.2. Shear design of beams

## 4.1.1.Design of beam on axis 2 For flexure

1) Tie beam
Sap 2000 version 7.4 gives the result

5m 5m 4m 4m 5m 5m

## Support moment maximum Msd=28.23 kN.m, span maximum=6.38 kN.m

The design of the reinforced beam begin from the determination of the section of
beam & reinforcement needed for . The section of the beam already determined
before from the vertical load transferred from slab& deflection requirement.

## Step1.Design constant calculation

Material
Steel s_300Mpa
Concrete C_25Mpa
Class work one γ concrete=1.5, partial safety factor for concrete strength

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## γ steel=1.15, partial safety factor for steel strength

fcd=0.858fck/ γ concrete =(0.85*25/1.25)/1.5=11.33Mpa

## fyd=300Mpa/ γ steel=300/1.15=260.87 Mpa

fctd=0.21*(fck)2/3/ γ concrete=1.0315 Mpa
m=fyd/(0.8*fcd)=28.78
c1=2.5/m=0.0869
c2=.4*m*fyd=3003.13
ρ=0.75*ρb=(εC)/( εC+εS)*.8*fcd/fyd*0.75=0.019, εc=.0035 for
compound
for singly reinforced beam εs=0.87*10-3*fyk/200
εc concrete maximum strain, εs teel strain
ρmax=.04 both for tensile reinforcement & compression reinforcement
Detailing of rectangular beam ρmin=0.6/fyk

## Tie beam section 250* 300mm*mm

h
b
Design moments at support & span determining their
corresponding Reinforcement
Using design table & equation

## Check minimum effective depth required d for deflection

d⊇(0.4+0.6*fyk/400)*Le/βa d’, considering one part of the frame as propped
cantilever beam, βa=24 which gives d=177mm⊂240 ok
the self weight already included IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE
FRAMEUREINFORCENMENT can be found using either the formula As=ρbd or
using design table.
Through out our design we used design table from EBCS 2,part two ,1995

## Km=(Md/(bd2 ) 0.5,where md=design moment,d effective depth,bwidtth of

the beam all in metre and KN
Km=(28.23/(.25*0.242 ) 0.5=44.27<57.83, single reinforced beam section
Since the exact value of km is not obtained in the table, we used linear interpolation.
Ks=4.267
As=ks*Msd/d, where A in mmm2
For the material specified C_25Mpa, S-300Mpa

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As=4.267*28.23/0.24=501.8mm2,use 2φ20

b) span reinforcement

## 2)Slab supporting beams

The typical floor beam along the axis 2,sap result shows the maximum span
moment obtained when the building is loaded only vertical load. But at the support
maximum bending occurs at support in the right part of the member ( beam ) some
members even show positive bending moment at the support. Observing the two
critical condition we design the support with lateral load combination while the span
a) Support
Maximum bending on the continuous beam,Md=153.61 KN.m
the section selected 250*450 mm*mm at the initial accounted in the analysis.
.
Since the beam is located at the middle of the slabs some part of the slab casted
monolitcally can participate in the beam loaod carrying. Therefore the beam will be
T _shape. at support it is rectangular structurally since the bottom portion of the
beeam is is in compression .the to will be in tension.

## Taking d'=65mm=concrete cover+stirrup+ centriod of the reinforcing

barslongutidinal.

be

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Tensile Compression

Bw

## Msd=153.61kN.m, using design chart d=D- d'=450-65=385mm

Using the design table

## Using the design table for doubly reinforced

Km/km*=64.384/57.83=1.11
AS=ks*Msd*ρ/d=1872mm2
As2=ks'*Msd*ρ'/d=357.5mm2
Total tensile positive reinforcement As tot=As1+As2=2222.5mm2
Use, 7φ20 Compression reinforcement=As2=357.5mm2, use 2φ16

b) span moment

be

Tensile Compression

bw

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Msd max=66.21 KN.m, since the moment is the the section participate in carrying
To check the whether th section is rectangle or not
0.8x> hf=thickness of the slab,x depth of the neutral axis

X=ρactua md
be =min(le/5+bw,le)=min(5000/5+250,5000) for T _section
be= min(le/10+bw,le)=min(5000/10+250,5000), for inverted L edge
beams

## ρactua =0.5*(c1-(c12-4Md/(be*c2*d))0.5)=1.3916*10-3<ρmin =0.6/fyk=0.002

X=15.42mm<hf=140mm

## 3) Grade beam design, following the same procedure above

a) Support reinforcement, use 3φ20
b) span reinforcement ,use 2φ20

Simlarly the beams on other have been as above procedure out put
listed in the following tables

## 2. DESIGN OF BEAM ON AXIS _B( C,D,E,F), middle beam x_ direction

Tie beam
Slab supporting beam( 3 floor beam each toatal length 28
metre,1st,2nd,3rd, floor)
3.DESIGN OF BEAM ON Axis1 (3), edge beam

Tie beam
Slab supporting beam(3 floor beam each toatal length 28
metre,1st,2nd,3rd, floor)

## 4. Design of beam on axis A(G),edge beam

Tie beam
Slab supporting beam(3 floor beam each toatal length 28
metre,1st,2nd,3rd, floor)

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## THE REINFORCEMENT WILL SUMMARIZE BELOW TABLE.

FOR THE ABOVE BEAM EXPLAINED.

## Material Class work I C_25,S_300

using the
km=(M/bd2)^0.5 Design table formulas ks interpolation
type of beam

## point on the beam

referce axis

compressiom bars
provided tension
compAs(mm2)
Moment(KN)

tenAs(mm2)
designtable

number
b d
Tie bm support 28.23 0.25 0.24 501.87 2φ20
Axis 2

## span 12.00 0.25 0.24 202.00 2φ12

slab
s.bm support 153.61 0.25 0.39 2229.50 357.50 7φ20 2φ16
span 66.21 0.25 0.39 962.50 5φ16
gradebm support 80.00 0.25 0.39 897.73 3Φ20
span 60.81 0.25 0.39 661.00 2Φ20
Tie bm support 27.17 0.25 0.24 495.42 2Φ20
span 8.68 0.25 0.24 147.37 2Φ12
axis B

slab
s.bm support 160.26 0.25 0.39 1949.86 466.21 8Φ20 2Φ20
span 68.84 0.25 0.39 962.50 5φ16
gradebm support 97.92 0.25 0.39 1130.00 4Φ20

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## span 64.10 0.25 0.39 699.84 4Φ16

Tie bm support 14.80 0.25 0.24 256.95 2φ16
span 5.00 0.25 0.24 117.50 2Φ12
slab
axis

1

## span 28.93 0.25 0.29 396.43 2φ16

gradebm support 48.72 0.25 0.29 737.37 3Φ20
span 28.33 0.25 0.29 230.00 2Φ12
Tie bm support 19.3 326.5 2φ16
span 7.2 118.7 2Φ12
slab
s.bm support 78.31 1247.6 4Φ20
axisA

## span 28 392 2φ16

span 20 193.2 2Φ12

## 4.1.2.Design of beams for shear

Beams on axis A
Governing combination is comb.1(only vertical load).
Tie beam
Section =250mmx300mm

15.25 13.7
d

vd vc -13.14
-18.26
5m 4m

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## d (from fleture )=300-25-16/2-6=261mm

design constants
fcd =11.33Mpa , fyd =260.87Mpa ,m =29 ,c1 =0.087 ,c2 =3003
geometric constants
k1 =1.6-d=1.6-0.261 =1.339m
k2= (1+50ρ) ,ρ =0.0062(from flexural reinforcement)
=1.308
Concrete shear capacity of the section ,vc is calculated as :
Vc =0.25*fctd*k1*k2*bw*d
Fctd =0.21(fck)2/3/γc=1.031Mpa
Vc =0.25*1.031*1.339*1.308*250*261=29.5KN
The diagonal compression resistance of the cross_section ,VRd
=0.25*fcd*bw*d=0.25*11.33*250*261=185KN
The design value of shear force Vd is taken at d distance from the face of the support,then
Vd=16.5KN
Since Vc is greater than Vd then we provide minimum shear reinforcement.
Let we use φ6 shear reinforcement.Asv =2*28.8 =56.6mm2
Smin min. (Asv*fyk)/0.4*bw =56.6*300/0.4*250 =169.8mm , use φ6 c/c 160mm
d=261mm
800mm

## Slab supporting beams

The beams on 3rd ,2nd,and 1st floor have nearly the same shear force diagram.theere fore
their shear reinforcement will be done based on the critical shear force diagram.

63.12 47.4

- 49.53

- 65.6
5m 4m

## Vd (5m) =58.9KN , Vd(4m) =43.2KN

Vs =Vd –Vc =58.9-29.5 =29.4KN Vd =43.2KN
Vs =43.2-29.5 =13.7KN
S=Asv *fyd *(d-dc)/Vs

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## =56.6*260.87(261-39)/29.4 =111mm S =56.6*260.87*(261-39)/13.7

Use φ6c/c 110mm =239mm,use φ6c/c 230mm

Section =250mm*450mm
d=450-25-8-6 =411mm
k1 =1.6-0.411=1.189
k2 =1.282
Vc =0.25*1.034*1.189*1.282*250*411=40.5KN
VRd =0.25*11.33*250*411 =291KN
Vd =39.8KN

36.43 47.18

vd
-49.74
-36.87
5m 4m

## Smin = min. (Asv*fyk)/0.4*bw =56.6*300/0.4*250 =169.8mm , use φ6 c/c 160mm

d=411mm
800mm

Following similar fassion shear reinforcement for beams on the other axis is calculated in
the table below.

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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section
Beam Spacing,
Axis location (mm*mm) d(mm) K1 K2 vc(KN) VRd(KN) Vd(KN) S(mm)
4m 5m 4m 5m
Tie Smin Smin
B,C,D,E &F

beam 250x300 259 1.341 1.419 31.9 183.4 122.8 78.4 160 160
1st -3rd 250*450 409 1.191 1.614 50.81 289.62 13.9 14.5 Smin Smin
floor 160 160
Grade 250x450 409 1.191 1.614 50.81 289.62 24 30.8 Smin Smin
beam 160 160
Tie 250x300 257 1.343 1.084 24.1 182 12.5 12.5 Smin Smin
beam 160 160
Axis 1

1st -3rd 250x350 307 1.293 1.084 27.73 217.4 47.6 67 200 100
floor
Grade 300x400 357 1.243 1.084 37.19 217.4 36.9 36.9Smin Smin
beam 140 140
Tie 250x300 257 1.343 1.084 24.1 182 13.64 13.64 Smin Smin
beam 160 160
1st -3rd 250x450 405 1.195 1.084 33.8 286.8 59.8 108 200 70
Axis 2

floor
Grade 300x400 355 1.195 1.084 29.75 301.7 31.3 31.3 Smin Smin
beam 140 140

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## 4.2 DESIGN OF COLUMN

Determination storey buckling load Ncr(EBCS_2 1995Art
4.4.12)
(1)The buckling load of a storey is assumed to be equal to that of
the substitute frame defined in fig 4.6(art 4.4.12)
Ncr=Π2EIe/Le2
Where EIe_is the effective length of the substitute column
Le is effective length
(2) EIe=.2EcIc+EsIs
Where Ec=1100fcd
Es=modulus of elasticity
Ic,Is =moment of inertia of the
concrete and reinforcement sections, respectively of the substitute
column with respect to the centroid of the concrete section.
(3)le may be determined in accordance with art 4.4.7using the
stiffness properties of the gross concrete section for both beams
and columns of the substitute frame.
(4) the equivalent reinforcement area in the substitute column to be
used for calculating Isin(2) above may be obtained by designing
the substitute column at each floor level to carry the storey design
axial load and amplified sway moment at the critical section (see
art 4.4.11).The equivalent column dimension of the substitute
column may be taken as shown in fig 4.6 in case of rectangular
columns.
(5)The amplified sway moment, to be used for the design of
substitute column by taking the first order design moment in the
substitute column as an initial value.
(6)The first order design moment, Md= (α2+3)*Hl/ (α1+α2+6)
Where α1&α2 are defined in art 4.4.7 and shall
not exceed 10.

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## 4.2.1 FRAME STABILTY ANALYSIS

Design of the substitute column
112.5 112.5 140.625 140.625 112.5 112.5 1462.5

1462.5

Axis-2

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## 227.9 227.9 227.9 683.7

Axis-A
Calculation of α1, α2,, αm , Le, s, Ac and Ic

1) The effective buckling length Le of a column in a given plane may be obtained from
the following approximate equations; provided that the sections below is complied with,

α m + 0.4
(a) Non-sway mode: Le/L= ≥ 0.7
α m + 0.8

## 2) Stiffness coefficient α1 and α2 are obtained from:

α1=ΣKc1/ΣKb1

α2 =ΣKc2/ΣKb2

αm= (α1+α2)/2
Where Kc1 and Kc2 are column stiffness coefficients (EI/L)
Kb2 and Kb2 are the effective beam stiffness coefficients (EI/L)

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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ΣI=s4/12
S= (ΣI*12)1/4
Assuming the columns to be in sway mode initially α, αm, Le, s, Ac, Ic are calculated as
follows in the next pages.

Axis-1

(mm)

Axis-2

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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Axis-3

## 3rd 1.06 2.56 1.81 4.69 410 168.100 2.35

Axis-A
Level α1 α2 αm Le S (mm) Ac(103mm2) Ic(109mm4)

Found
1.58 1.0 1.3 2.86 360 129.6 1.4

Ground
3.6 1.58 2.59 5.26 360 129.6 1.4

First
3.6 3.6 3.6 5.91 360 129.6 1.4

2nd
3.1 3.6 3.35 5.755 360 129.6 1.4

3rd
1.286 3.1 2.2 4.984 330 108.9 0.99

Axis-B
Level α1 α2 αm Le S (mm) Ac(103mm2) Ic(109mm4)

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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## Analysis of moment due to horizontal EQ force

Md1= (α1+3)*HL/ ( α1+ α2+6)

Axis-1

## Level α1 α2 H(KN) L(m) Nsd(KN) Md1(KN- µ ν ω As(mm2)

m)

Found 1.28 1.0 182.08 2.0 824.61 175.9 0.17 0.37 0.75 6596.2

Ground 2.98 1.28 174.03 3 717.48 217.8 0.21 0.313 0.71 6245

First 2.98 2.98 134.98 3 498.53 202.47 0.196 0.22 0.35 3078.2

2nd 2.56 2.98 85.33 3 277.06 132.6 0.128 0.12 0.12 1620

Axis-2

## Level α1 α2 H(KN) L(m) Nsd(K Md1(KN-m) µ ν ω As(mm2)

N)

Found 1.48 1.0 428.9 2 1717.2 404.62 0.32 0.66 0.65 6480.0

Ground 1.186 1.48 417.49 3 1578.9 647.48 0.52 0.6 1.1 9181.47
7

First 1.186 1.186 287.76 3 1072.2 431.89 0.35 0.41 0.6 5981.58
3

2nd 1.0 1.186 109.76 3 576.12 168.38 0.14 0.22 0.15 1435.4

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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3rd 1.04 1.0 44.63 3 73.31 66.61 0.087 0.04 0.15 1322.8

## Level α1 α2 H(KN) L(m) Nsd(KN) Md1(KN- µ ν ω As(mm2)

m)

Found 1.28 1.0 182.55 2 458.31 176.38 0.17 0.2 0.24 2110.8

Ground 2.98 1.28 174.5 3 389.92 220 0.21 0.17 0.36 3166

First 2.98 2.98 135.04 3 271.62 203.5 0.196 0.12 0.38 3342

2nd 2.56 2.98 85.75 3 155.71 133.4 0.128 0.07 0.25 2198

3rd 1.06 2.56 17.17 3 58.11 29.7 0.038 0.025 0.05 365

Axis-A

m)

1.58 1.0

3.6 1.58

3.6 3.6

3.1 3.6

1.286 3.1

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Axis B

## Level α1 α2 H(KN) L(m) Nsd(KN) Md1(KN- µ ν ω As(mm2)

m)

Found 3.043 1.0 140 2 1687.17 111.52 0.15 0.91 0.33 2342.76

Ground 2.43 3.043 135.22 3 1525 213.67 0.285 0.82 0.6 4259.56

First 2.43 2.43 109.46 3 1054.51 164.19 0.22 0.57 0.3 2129.78

2nd 1.60 2.43 69.25 3 564.60 112.47 0.15 0.3 0.133 1307.66

3rd 1.29 1.6 13.87 3 67.96 21.53 0.053 0.055 0.1 865.93

d’/h=0.1

## Asmin=0.008Ac=0.008*479.12=1836mm2 for other column.

Calculation of Nsd/Ncr
Ele
Ncr= π 2 2
Le

as
No. of bars n =
As

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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πd 2
as = where as is the x-sectional areas of individual bar.
4

Is= n × ( πD )
2 2
+ πD 2 × x
4 4
As/2

D As/2
x

## Determination of frame stability (EBCS-2 1995 art 4.4.4)

A frame may be classified as non sway frame if for a given load case the critical load
ratio, Nsd/Ncr satisfies the criterion.

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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Axis-1

## level As No Le Is EIe(1013) Ic(109) Nsd Ncr(103) Nsd/Ncr Mode

of (106) of
bars sway
ness

Found 6596.2 16 2.845 5.4721 0.961 3.417 824.61 11718.13 0.07 Non-
sway

Ground 6245 14 4.93 4.79 0.9475 3.417 717.48 3847.6 0.19 Sway

First 3078.2 8 5.52 2.736 0.9064 3.417 498.53 2936 0.17 Sway

2nd 1620 4 5.32 1.37 0.8791 3.417 277.06 30066 0.09 Non-
sway

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Axis-2

## level As No of Le Is EIe(1013) Ic(109) Nsd Ncr(103) Nsd/Ncr Mode

bars (106) of
sway
ness

Found 6480.0 8(φ32) 2.82 238.4 5.86 4.39 1717.2 72.73 0.024 Non-
sway

Ground 9181.47 12(φ32) 4.31 338.82 7.87 4.39 1578.97 41.76 0.038 Non-
sway

First 5981.58 8(φ32) 4.19 238.4 5.86 4.39 1072.23 32.94 0.033 Non-
sway

2nd 1435.4 4(φ24) 4.11 55 2.19 4.39 576.12 12.82 0.045 Non-
sway

3rd 1322.8 4(φ24) 4.04 35.06 1.27 2.28 73.31 7.68 0.01 Non-
sway

Axis-3

## level As No Le Is EIe(1013) Ic(109) Nsd Ncr(103) Nsd/Ncr Mode

(mm2) of (106) of
bars sway
ness

## Found 2110.8 6 2.765 75 0.235 3.417 458.31 30.3 0.015 Non-

sway

Ground 3166 10 4.9 125 0.335 3.417 389.92 13.8 0.028 Non-
sway

First 3342 10 5.47 125 0.335 3.417 271.62 11.05 0.025 Non-
sway

sway

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3rd 1345 4 4.66 41.6 0.1417 2.35 58.11 6.44 0.012 Non-
sway

Axis-A

bars (106) of
sway
ness

2.86 1.4 sway

5.26 1.4

5.91 1.4

5.76 1.4 sway

4.984 0.99 sway

Axis-B

## level As No of Le Is EIe(1013) Ic(109) Nsd Ncr(103) Nsd/Ncr Mode

bars (106) of
sway
ness

Found 2342.76 8φ20 3.23 61.33 1.782 2.23 1689.17 16.86 0.1 Non-
sway

Ground 4259.56 14φ20 5.36 111.51 2.78 2.23 1525 9.55 0.16 Sway

First 2129.78 7φ20 5.15 55.76 1.67 2.23 1054.51 6.2 0.17 Sway

2nd 1307.66 5φ20 4.85 34.24 1.24 2.23 564.6 5.21 0.11 Sway

3rd 865.93 5φ16 4.4 15 5.43 0.976 67.96 2.77 0.024 Non-

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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sway

Axis-3

## level As No Le Is EIe(1013) Ic(109) Nsd Ncr(103) Nsd/Ncr Mode

(mm2) of (106) of
bars sway
ness

## Found 2110.8 6 2.765 75 0.235 3.417 458.31 30.3 0.015 Non-

sway

Ground 3166 10 4.9 125 0.335 3.417 389.92 13.8 0.028 Non-
sway

First 3342 10 5.47 125 0.335 3.417 271.62 11.05 0.025 Non-
sway

## 2nd 2198 6 6.92 75 0.235 3.417 155.71 4.84 0.03 Non-

sway

3rd 1345 4 4.66 41.6 0.1417 2.35 58.11 6.44 0.012 Non-
sway

Axis-A

bars (106) of
sway
ness

2.86 1.4 sway

5.26 1.4

5.91 1.4

5.76 1.4 sway

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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4.984 0.99 sway

Axis-B

## level As No of Le Is EIe(1013) Ic(109) Nsd Ncr(103) Nsd/Ncr Mode

bars (106) of
sway
ness

Found 2342.76 8φ20 3.23 61.33 1.782 2.23 1689.17 16.86 0.1 Non-
sway

Ground 4259.56 14φ20 5.36 111.51 2.78 2.23 1525 9.55 0.16 Sway

First 2129.78 7φ20 5.15 55.76 1.67 2.23 1054.51 6.2 0.17 Sway

2nd 1307.66 5φ20 4.85 34.24 1.24 2.23 564.6 5.21 0.11 Sway

3rd 865.93 5φ16 4.4 15 5.43 0.976 67.96 2.77 0.024 Non-
sway

## Checking for slenderness ratio(EBCS-2 1995 art 4.4.5 and 4.4.6)

For isolated columns, slenderness ratio is defined by;
λ=Le/i where Le is effective buckling length
I is minimum radius of gyration

Limits of slenderness

## 2) second order effect in compressive members need not be taken in to

consideration in the following cases:

## For non-sway frames λ≤50-25*M1/M2 where M1 and M2 are the

first order moments at the ends. M2 being always positive and greater in
magnitude than M1. M1 is positive if member is bent in single curvature and
negative if bent in double curvature.

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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νd =Nsd/fcd*Ac

## Modification of effective lengths for non sway modes

α + 0 .4
Le/L= m ≥ 0 .7
α m + 0 .8
Axis-1

Axis-2
level αm Lex(m) Ley(m)
Foundation 1.24 1.6 1.72
Ground 1.35 2.44 5.36
1st 1.186 2.396 5.15
2nd 1.093 2.37 4.85
3rd 1.02 2.34 2.61

Axis-3
level αm Lex(m) Ley(m)
Foundation 1.14 1.59 1.59
Ground 2.1 2.59 4.9
1st 2.91 2.68 5.47
2nd 5.41 2.64 2.64
3rd 1.77 2.53 2.53

## level αm Lex(m) Ley(m)

Foundation 1.14 1.59 1.59
Ground 1.28 4.93 4.93
1st floor 2.98 5.52 5.52
2nd floor 2.77 2.66 2.66
3rdfloor 1.81 2.54 2.54

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Axis- A
level αm Lex(m) Ley(m)
Foundation 1.3 1.49 1.56
Ground 2.59 1.956 4
1st 3.6 2.4 5.1
2nd 3.35 2.4 2.4
3rd 2.2 2.3 2.53

## Calculation of slenderness ratio

λ=Le/ri, ri=√(Ii/A)
λ≤25 ⇒ short for sway frame
λ≤50-25*M1/M2 ⇒ short for none sway frame.
Axis-1
level Le λx λy slenderness
X Y
Foundation 1.59 11.3 15.4 Short Short
Ground 4.93 48.8 48.8 Long Long
1st 5.52 54.65 54.65 Long Long
2nd 2.66 27.42 26.4 Short Short
3rd 2.54 17.92 25.14 short Short

Axis-2
level Lex Ley λx λy slenderness
X Y
Foundation 1.6 1.72 14.89 23.83 Short Short
Ground 2.44 5.36 46.42 33.9 Short Long
1st 2.396 5.15 44.6 33.2 Short Long
2nd 2.37 4.85 42.0 32.84 Short Long

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## 3rd 2.34 2.61 36.5 32.42 short short

Axis-3
level Lex Ley λx λy slenderness
X Y
Foundation 1.59 1.59 15.74 22 Short Short
Ground 2.59 4.9 25.64 68 Short Long
1st 2.68 5.47 26.5 75.6 Short Long
2nd 2.64 2.64 26.14 36.67 Short long
3rd 2.53 2.53 25.05 35 short short

Axis-A
slenderness
level Lex(m) Ley(m) λx λy X Y
Foundation 1.59 1.56 20.63 15.44 short short
Ground 1.96 4 27.11 39.53 short long
1st 2.4 5.1 33.3 50.41 short long
2nd 2.4 2.4 33.33 33.3 short short
3rd 2.3 2.53 31.8 35.1 long short

## 4.2.2 DESIGN OF ISOLATED COLUMN

Design eccentricity
ed= ea+ e0+e2
Where ea = Le/300≥20mm this accounts for
imperfection.
e0= first order moment
e0 ≥ {0.6e02 + 0.4e01 or 0.4e02
where e2 is second order effect and it will be amplified
by using the amplification factor,σs.

σs=1/(1-Nsd/Ncr)

Axis-1
level ea(mm) e0x(mm) eoy(mm) e2x(mm) e2y Mdox(KN- Mdoy

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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m)
Foundation 20 0.074 11 0 0 74.73 15.6
Ground 20 0.123 20 amplified amp 118.26 29.4
1st 20 0.17 20.5 amplified amp 103.4 30.6
2nd 20 0.245 14 0 0 64.27 25
3rd 20 0.479 12 0 0 23.26 20.34

Axis-2

## level ea(mm) e0x(mm) eoy(mm) e2x e2y(mm) Mdox(KNm) Mdoy

(KNm)
Foundation 20 3 39.47 0 0 75.8 29.25
Ground 20 1 32.3 0 Amp 77.38 25
1st 20 1.2 36 0 Amp 45.96 18
nd
2 20 3 23 0 Amp 46.15 9.66
rd
3 20 28 42 0 0 12.06 2.63

Axis _3
level ea(mm) eox(m) eoy(mm) e2x e2y mdx(KN.M) Md(KN.m)
Foundation 20 0.1 14 0 0 55 15.6
Ground 20 0 23 0 Amp 62.5 29.4
1st 20 0 24.5 0 Amp 57.04 30.6
2nd 20 0.15 16 0 0 26.5 25
3rd 20 0.25 19 0 Amp 15.7 20.3

## Determination of area of steel (EBCS-2, 1995)

From minimum and maximum allowable area of reinforcements we
have the following relations from EBCS-2 1995:
Asmin =.008Ac
Asmax =.04Ac
Axis-1

level axial Mx My µx µy ν ω As # of

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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bars
Foundation 786.94 58.23 15.6 0.168 0.063 0.8 0.4 1520 8φ16
Ground 665.06 81.8 29.4 0.236 0.12 0.67 0.73 2774 6φ24
1st 448.13 76.18 30.6 0.22 0.123 0.452 0.61 2318 8φ20
2nd 240.17 58.73 25 0.17 0.1 0.243 0.4 1520 8φ16
3rd 46.23 22.14 20.34 0.064 0.08 0.05 Asmin 500 4φ14

## Axis-2 using bi axial chart # 11&12

level axial Mx My µx µy ν ω As # of
bars
Foundation 1329.77 75.8 29.25 0.186 0.054 0.98 0.8 4169.43 12φ24
Ground 1222.02 71.38 25 0.175 0.046 0.9 0.65 3387.664 8φ24
1st 771.2 53.98 17 0.19 0.038 0.68 0.54 2347.1 8φ20
2nd 419.87 46.15 9.66 0.16 0.021 0.37 0.165 800 8φ16
3rd 54.84 12.06 2.63 0.068 0.015 0.077 0.174 500 4φ14

## Axis -3 using bi axial

level axial Mx My µx µy ν ω As # of
bars
Foundation 458.31 55 15.6 0.22 0.063 0.46 0.212 806 6φ14
Ground 389.62 58.4 29.4 0.23 0.12 0.4 0.42 1596 6φ20
1st 271.62 62.5 30.6 0.25 0.123 0.27 0.4 1520 6φ20
2nd 155.71 26.5 25 0.1 0.1 0.16 0.21 806 6φ14
3rd 58.11 20.34 20.34 0.06 0.08 0.164 Asmin 500 4φ14

Axis-A
level µx µy ν ω As # of
Axial(KN) Mx(KN.m) My(KN.m) bars
Foundation 688 66.16 15.0 0.19 0.06 0.7 0.5 1896 8φ20
Ground 617.2 37.4 26.3 0.11 0.106 0.62 0.25 946.3 8φ14
1st 431.3 26.6 28.6 0.075 0.16 0.44 0.298 1132.5 8φ14
nd
2 249 21.5 21.5 0.062 0.087 0.25 0.095 700(Asmin) 4φ16

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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3rd 70.41 17.6 13.71 0.1 0.08 0.1 0.28 726 4φ16

## Designing the lateral ties or transversal reinforcement

According EBCS 2 1995 art 4.5.3.3 the centre to centre spacing of lateral
reinforcement shall not exceed:
1) 12*φdl where φdl is diameter of longitudinal bar.
2) Least dimension of column.
3) 300mm
The diameter of transverse bars shall be ≤ (φl/4 or 6mm)
The maximum design shear force should be less than the limiting value of
ultimate shear force resisted by the concrete section given by:
0.1bwd
Vcn= * N sd
Ac
0.1 * 0.25 * 0.25
= * N sd for Axis-1 and axis-2
0.25 * 0.35
The maximum allowable center to center spacing in mm of lateral ties for each
column is shown below.

Axis-1
level
S(φ6)
Foundation
240
Ground
240
1st
240
nd
2
240
rd
3
240

Axis-2
level
S(φ6)
Foundation
300
Ground
280

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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1st
240
nd
2
140
rd
3
190

Axis-3

level S(φ6)
Foundation
240
Ground
240
1st
240
nd
2
240
3rd
240

Axis-A

level S(φ6)
Foundation 240
Ground 240
1st 240
2nd 240
3rd 240

## Lap length calculation

1) Basic anchorage length

## Is the embedment length required to develop full design strength of

straight reinforcing bar.

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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Lb=φ/4*(fyd/fbd) for deformed bar fbd is twice of fctd. EBCS 2 1995 art
7.1.6.1

## or ≥200mm EBCS-2-1995 art 7.1.6.2

3) Lap length
Lo=≥a1*lb n et ≥lo, mi n

or 200mm.

Axis _1

0.3lb 10φ

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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0.42 lb 15φ

## 3rd 356 498.4 184 210 498.4 0

Axis 2

level lo lo used(mm)

3rd 497 0

level L o(mm)

found 540

Ground 750

## MU, Civil Enging Department ,Structural Design &Cost estimation of Solid

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1st 710

2nd 540

3rd 0

Axis _3

Axis _A

level lo

found 660

Ground 670

1st 490

2nd 610

3rd 0

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Footing design;

## The design of foundation is based on EBCS-7 1995

Design axial loads and bending moments are obtained from SAP analysis and
the combinations are selected depending on large reinforcement requirements.

Df =2m

C D

My

s Mx X

A B

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description

## 2 Comb-5 720.8 -83.37 neglected

The axial loads transferred from the supper structure are reduced by factor of 1.4
in order to use un factored load for economical design of the footing.

6 786.94 562.1

5 1675.36 1196.7

1 458.31 327.4

2 720.8 514.86

Design eccentricities

ex=My/Pd

ey=Mx/pd

Footing description ex ey

6 0 0.159

5 0.005 0.002

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1 0.011 0.25

2 0 0.162

Area proportioning

Assuming the footing to be square of side ‘a’ and using the general formula for

 6e 6e 
σ all ≥ pd A 1 ± x ± y  Where σ all is the allowable soil bearing capacity
 a a 
which is taken to be equal to 280Mpa

From the above expression the initial value of ‘a’ will be determined by trial and
error.

## Table initial values of ‘a’

Footing description a

6 1.5

5 2.06

1 1.535

2 1.70

Assuming appropriate depth of the concrete slab of the footing we calculate the
dead weights of the concrete slab and the surcharge due to the weight of the soil
which will be:

## Weight of footing=d’*a2*γc where γc is unit weight of the concrete

taken to be 24Mpa

## Weight of the soil above the footing =(a2-Ac)*(Df –d’)* σ

After calculating the total stress coming from the two portions the calculated initial
values of ‘a’ will be modified as follows.

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6 1.6

5 2.2

1 1.8

2 1.90

## Stress distribution at the four corners of the footing:

Using the total vertical load on the footing the stress distribution will be
determined from the following formula.

Pd  6ea 6eb 
σ≥ 1 ± a ± a 
a2  

 6ea 6eb 
σ1 = P 1+ +
a 
2
a a 

 6ea 6eb 
σ2 = P 1− +
a 
2
a a 

 6ea 6eb 
σ3 = P 1− −
a 
2
a a 

 6ea 6eb 
σ4 = P 1+ − Where σ n is the magnitude of the stress at
a 
2
a a 
edge n.

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Footing-6

265.4 A

265.4 B

262.4 C

262.4 D

Footing-5

343.46 A

352.60 B

339.694 C

348.83 D

Footing-1

27.15 A

27.15 B

245.25 C

245.25 D

Footing-2

251.71 A

251.71 B

81.33 C

81.33 D

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339.694 348.85

339.649 348.85

343.46 a 352.60

343.46 352.60

## Determination of depth of the footing

Depth of the footing will be determined from shear resistance of the concrete
footing subjected by the supper structure which will be determined by considering
the following possible modes of failure of the concrete footing.

a) Punching shear: The punching shear force due to the axial load and weight of
the column together with the weight of the soil above the concrete slab of the
footing will be checked at the zones of high stress and should be less than the
concrete shear capacity given by EBCS-2/7 1995.

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footing.

d/2 d+s2 L

s1

d+s1

## Vresisting = 05 f ctd * (1 + 50 ρ ) * u * d …………… (2)

f ck 25 / 1.25
Where f ctd = 0.35 = 0.35 * = 1.04 * 103 Kpa
γc 1 .5
0.5
ρ min=
f yk
u is the perimeter of the punching zone.
d is the depth of the footing.
But the punching shear should be resisted by the concrete only.
∴ Vresisting ≥ Vacting
Then by equating equation (1) and (2) we obtain another equation in terms of
depth from which the value of d may be obtained by trial and error.

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Footing description d

6 0.44

5 0.5

1 0.56

2 0.443

3) Wide beam shear: The wide beam shear is assumed to act at d distance
from the face of the column and is to be checked wither the depth
obtained is adequate for the shear applied or not and the stress at that
point is obtained by interpolation. The resisting capacity of the concrete is
given by:

## Vresisting = 0.3 f ctd * (1 + 50 ρ )bw * d

Where Vresisting is the concrete shear capacity at d distance from the face of
the support and bw is width of the footing which is equal to ‘a’.

2 2
d

d a

a 1

Taking axis 1-1 as the critical shear values at highly stressed zones for each
footing we will tabulate the results as follows.

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## Footing Vacting (KN) along Vacting (KN) along Vresisting (KN)

description 1-1 2-2

1 66 42.38 578.3

## Calculation of the design moment and reinforcement requirement

The design moments introduced by the stresses are calculated at
the face of the column and the reinforcements required are calculated as per
EBCS-2 part 21995.
As before axis 1-1 is taken to be the zones critical moments and axis 2-2 is taken
to be the zones of less moment distributions.
M nn = σ sl 2 a / 2
Where Mnn is the design moment at the face of the column along axis n-n.
σ s is the maximum stress at the face of the support.

## Footing M1-1(KN-m) M2-2(KN- Required Required Spacing Spacing

description m) no of bars no of bars along 1-1 along 2-
Along 1-1 Along 2-2 (mm) 2(mm)

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CHAPTER FIVE

## 5. BILL OF QUANTITY PREPARATION & TOTAL COST

ESTIMATION

After calculating all the quantity of the structural component to obtain the cost of
material it is multiplied by the unit price.

A-SUB STRUCTURE
total
qtyy unit
amount
of
1. EXCAVATION & EARTH WORK price br
pnt
Clear and remove top soil to an average
depth of 200mm. m2 330 3.00 990.00
Bulk excavation in ordinary soil to a depth
not exceeding 700mm. m3 0 18.00 0.00
Pit excavation in ordinary soil to a depth
not exceeding 1500mm from reduced
ground level. m3 0 20.00 0.00
Ditto but exceeding 1500mm but not
exceeding 3000mm. m3 263 25.00 6,581.50
Trench excavation in ordinary soil for
masonry foundation to depth of 1500 mm
from reduced level. m3 92 20.00 1,846.80
Back fill around foundation with selected
material from quarry waste and compact
in layers not exceeding 200mm thick. m3 0 35.00 0.00
Fill under hardcore with selected material
from quarry waste and compact in layers
not exceeding 200mm thick. m3 50 35.00 1,764.00
Load and cart away excavated material to a
appropriate tip. m3 254 15.00 3,810.00
250mm thick basaltic stone hardcore well
rolled, consolidated and blinded with
crushed stone . m2 234 30.00 7,020.00
Total carried to Summary 22,012.30

2. CONCRETE WORK

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## 5 cm lean concrete quality C-5, 150 kg of

cement/m3, under
a) Footings m2 84 30.00 2,532.00
b) Masonry m2 34 30.00 1,026.00
c) Ground floor slab & beam m2 252 30.00 7,560.00
Reinforced concrete quality C-25,360 kg of
cement/m3 filled in to form work and
vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork and reinforcement measured
separately)
a) In footings m3 46 1,000.00 46,300.00
b) In foundation columns m3 3 1,000.00 3,000.00
c) In grade beams m3 17 1,000.00 16,540.00
d) In 10 cm thick basement slab and
ground m2 233 100.00 23,315.00
Provide, cut and fix in position sawn zigba
wood or steel formwork :
a)To footings m2 92 50.00 4,608.00
b)To foundation columns m2 39 50.00 1,930.00
c) To grade beams m2 169 50.00 8,452.50
Mild steel reinforcement according to
structural drawings. Price includes cutting,
bending, placing in position and tying
wire.
a) Dia 6 mm plain bar kg 45 15.00 678.90
b) Dia 8 mm deformed bar kg 0 15.00 0.00
c) Dia 14 mm deformed bar kg 2,459 15.00 36,878.10
d) Dia 16 mm deformed bar kg 337 15.00 5,055.00
e) Dia 20 mm deformed bar kg 617 15.00 9,261.00
Total carried to Summary 167,136.50

3. MASONRY WORK

## 500mm thick hard trachytic stone masonry

bedded in cement mortar (1:3).Price shall
include mortar bed.
a) below ground level m3 16 300.00 4,800.00
b) above ground level m3 0 400.00 0.00

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## Total carried to Summary 4,800.00

B-SUPER STRUCTURE

1. CONCRETE WORK

## Reinforced concrete quality C-25,360 kg of

cement/m3 filled in to form work and
vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork and reinforcement measured
separately)
a) In elevation columns m3 23 1,000.00 22,750.00
b) In floor beams m3 44 1,000.00 44,060.00
c)solid slabs m3 106 1,000.00 106,000.00
d) In roof beams m3 11 1,000.00 11,050.00
e) In 10cm thick concrete gutter and
parapete. m2 0 100.00 0.00
f) 10cm thick Sun breakers m2 0 100.00 0.00
Provide, cut and fix in position sawn zigba
wood or steel formwork to:
a) To elevation columns m2 293 60.00 17,550.00
b)To solid slabs m2 756 60.00 45,360.00
b) To floor beams m2 573 60.00 34,380.00
c) To roof beams m2 132 60.00 7,938.00
d) To 10cm thick concrete gutter and
parapete. m2 0 60.00 0.00
e) To 10cm thick Sun breakers m2 0 60.00 0.00
Mild steel reinforcement according to
structural drawings. Price includes cutting,
bending, placing in position and tying
wire.
a) Dia 6 mm plain bar kg 1,690 15.00 25,350.00
b) Dia 8 mm deformed bar kg 2,352 15.00 35,280.00
c) Dia 10 mm deformed bar kg 0 15.00 0.00
d) Dia 14 mm deformed bar kg 851 15.00 12,765.00
e) Dia 16 mm deformed bar kg 3,737 15.00 56,052.00
f) Dia 20 mm deformed bar kg 8,505 15.00 127,572.00
Total carried to Summary 546,107.00

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740,055.80
Sum of total cost=740055.80 birr

Remark the above cost estimation doesn’t include all costs but only the structuralm
component is included.( not include also the staircase & roof in cost Analysis)

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CHAPTER FIVE
Results ,conclusion, Recommendation

## Results & Conclusion

So far we have been thought different component of structural members such as
beams, columns, slabs,foundation,steel structure which have taken as course in
different semesters.The project make easier to compile the mentioned structural
members and memorize so that we apply directly in practical engineering work all
needed to be designed simultaneously. For the design of members the initial assign
frames, and load combination. The use of sap analysis to some extent recognized but
it gives results only if the loads are inserted correctly otherwise error could occur
selection of design forces, members.
For engineers in addition to build safe structure design they must account the
economy. The cost analysis indicates that the coming load to the structure should be
determined which need specific quantity of material to built. For example design
moments for members vary highly when building is faced with lateral load & vertical
Recommendation
The project we have done is very interesting & encouraging. This kind should be
continued to future for best selection of economical structure provided that it is safe.
So that our society should be served with available resource as much as possible ,the
final target.

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REFERCES
1. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 1,1995
2. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 2, Part one & Part two,1995
3. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 31995
4. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 7,1995
5. Ethiopian Building Code Standard 8,1995
6. Current Market cost of construction Material.

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00

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