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Development of technology over the years has taken place at an uneven pace.

When science was


not very developed technological development progressed at a slow pace. As scientific knowledge
increased, the rate of technological development also increased. Let us see how technological
developed from 600 BC to the present.

Development of Technology between 600 BC and AD 1800

During Ad 1500-1800 technology developed at a faster pace than before. One of the prime
reasons for the slow development of technology before this period was the hit or miss of to the
fabrication of tools. Instead of knowing the scientific principles required, people built things by
trial and error. Quite often, the scientific principles became clear to them after they tried to
explain why an invention worked. The importance of systematic study of science was stressed by
eminent scientists like Alhazen (11th century), Roger Bacon (13th century), Francis Bacon,
Copernicus and Galileo (16th and 17th centuries). They stressed on scientific observations from
which scientific laws could be deduced. They also insisted on the verification of scientific
theories. When such scientific methods became established, it was easier to develop tools
systematically rather than by empirical approach.

Development of Technology between AD 1800- 1900


During the 19th century, science progressed rapidly. Consequently, technology also progressed
rapidly. The major technological developments during this period. The interrelationship between
science and technology became firmly established in the 19th century. New technologies emerged
which incorporated a number of scientific principles. Examples of this are Davy’s safety lamp and
electric generator.

When a number of scientific principles became known, several of these principles were applied to
manufacture a sophisticated machine. For example, an electric generator involves the principles
of electricity, mechanical engineering, heat conduction, etc.

During this period better engines and machines were developed. Alternate sources of energy were
found. This led to large scale industrialization across Europe and America. Now it was possible to
produce goods on a mass scale. Take the example of cloth produced on a hand operated loom. It
takes a long time to weave a few meters of cloth. However, a power-operated loom can produce
cloth at a higher speed and requires fewer workers. Thus, with machines it is possible to produce
goods on a mass scale and the goods, thus, produced are cheaper and consistent in quality.

These factors coupled with the availability of alternate energy sources brought about a revolution
in manufacturing, and the period from about 1770-1870 is known as the Period of Industrial
revolution. During the industrial Revolution rapid progress was made in the field of
transportation. The technology of steam-engine was used in making railway engines and steam-
powered ships. These developments helped in rapid transportation of goods and people. Later,
petrol engines were developed which eventually led to the development of cars and airplanes.