You are on page 1of 217

BRAZILIAN ABNT NBR

STANDARD 5410
Second edition:
September 30, 2004

Effective date:
March 31, 2005

Amended version:
March 17, 2008

Low-voltage electrical installations


[existing English title:] Electrical installations of buildings - Low voltage

Key words: Electrical installations in buildings.


[existing English text:] Descriptors: Electrical installation of building.

ICS 91.140.50

ISBN 978-85-07-00562-9

BRAZILIAN Reference No.:


TECHNICAL ABNT NBR 5410:2004
STANDARDS 209 pages
ASSOCIATION
© ABNT 2004
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

© ABNT 2004
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication shall be reproduced or utilized in any form or
via any electronic or mechanical means, including photocopying and microfilm, without written permission from the ABNT.

ABNT headquarters:
Avenida Treze de Maio, 13th–28th floors
20003-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Phone: + 55 21 3974-2300
Fax: + 55 21 2220-1762
abnt@abnt.org.br
www.abnt.org.br

Printed in Brazil.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


ii
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Contents Page

Foreword .................................................................................................................................................... vii


1. Purpose ........................................................................................................................................... 1
2. References to other standards ..................................................................................................... 2
3. Definitions....................................................................................................................................... 7
3.1 Installation components................................................................................................................ 7
3.2 Protection against electric shocks............................................................................................... 7
3.3 Protection against electric shocks and protection against overvoltages and
electromagnetic disturbances ...................................................................................................... 7
3.4 Electrical lines ................................................................................................................................ 8
3.5 Safety services ............................................................................................................................... 9
4. Fundamental principles and determination of general characteristics ................................. 10
4.1 Fundamental principles............................................................................................................... 10
4.1.1 Protection against electric shocks............................................................................................. 10
4.1.2 Protection against thermal effects ............................................................................................. 10
4.1.3 Protection against overcurrents................................................................................................. 10
4.1.4 Circulation of fault currents ........................................................................................................ 10
4.1.5 Protection against overvoltages ................................................................................................ 10
4.1.6 Safety services ............................................................................................................................. 10
4.1.7 Emergency shutdown.................................................................................................................. 11
4.1.8 Disconnection .............................................................................................................................. 11
4.1.9 Independence of the electrical installation ............................................................................... 11
4.1.10 Accessibility of the components ................................................................................................ 11
4.1.11 Selection of the components ...................................................................................................... 11
4.1.12 Prevention of harmful or undesirable effects ........................................................................... 11
4.1.13 Installation of the components ................................................................................................... 11
4.1.14 Inspection of the installation ...................................................................................................... 12
4.1.15 Professional qualifications ......................................................................................................... 12
4.2 Determination of general characteristics .................................................................................. 12
4.2.1 Use and demand; power supply ................................................................................................. 12
4.2.2 The distribution system............................................................................................................... 13
4.2.3 Power supplies ............................................................................................................................. 17
4.2.4 Safety services ............................................................................................................................. 18
4.2.5 Division of the installation .......................................................................................................... 18
4.2.6 Classification of external influences.......................................................................................... 19
4.2.7 Compatibility ................................................................................................................................ 34
4.2.8 Maintenance ................................................................................................................................. 34
5. Protection to ensure safety......................................................................................................... 35
5.1 Protection against electric shocks............................................................................................. 35
5.1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 35
5.1.2 Protective measures .................................................................................................................... 36
5.1.3 Additional protection ................................................................................................................... 48
5.1.4 Application of the protective measures against electric shocks............................................ 50
5.1.5 Partial protection against electric shocks................................................................................. 51
5.1.6 Omission of protection against electric shocks ....................................................................... 53
5.2 Protection against thermal effects ............................................................................................. 56
5.2.1 General considerations ............................................................................................................... 56
5.2.2 Protection against fire ................................................................................................................. 56
5.2.3 Protection against burns............................................................................................................. 60
5.3 Protection against overcurrents................................................................................................. 61

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


iii
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.3.1 General considerations ............................................................................................................... 61


5.3.2 Protection based on the nature of the circuits ......................................................................... 61
5.3.3 Nature of the protective devices ................................................................................................ 62
5.3.4 Protection against overload currents ........................................................................................ 63
5.3.5 Protection against short-circuit currents .................................................................................. 65
5.3.6 Coordination between protection against overloads and protection against short
circuits .......................................................................................................................................... 68
5.3.7 Limitation of overcurrents by means of the characteristics of the power supply ................ 68
5.4 Protection against overvoltages and electromagnetic disturbances..................................... 69
5.4.1 Protection against temporary overvoltages.............................................................................. 69
5.4.2 Protection against transient overvoltages ................................................................................ 69
5.4.3 Prevention of electromagnetic influences on the installations and on their
components .................................................................................................................................. 71
5.5 Protection against voltage drops and faults ............................................................................. 73
5.6 Cut-off and control ....................................................................................................................... 73
5.6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 73
5.6.2 General considerations ............................................................................................................... 73
5.6.3 Cut-off............................................................................................................................................ 73
5.6.4 Cut-off for mechanical maintenance .......................................................................................... 74
5.6.5 Emergency cut-off and emergency shutdown .......................................................................... 75
5.6.6 Functional control ........................................................................................................................ 75
6. Selection and installation of the components .......................................................................... 76
6.1 Requirements common to all of the components of the installation ..................................... 76
6.1.1 General considerations ............................................................................................................... 76
6.1.2 Compliance with the standards .................................................................................................. 76
6.1.3 Service conditions and external influences .............................................................................. 77
6.1.4 Accessibility ................................................................................................................................. 86
6.1.5 Identification of the components ............................................................................................... 86
6.1.6 Independence of the components.............................................................................................. 87
6.1.7 Electromagnetic compatibility .................................................................................................... 87
6.1.8 Documentation of the installation .............................................................................................. 87
6.2 Selection and installation of the electrical lines ....................................................................... 88
6.2.1 General considerations ............................................................................................................... 88
6.2.2 Types of electrical lines............................................................................................................... 88
6.2.3 Conductors ................................................................................................................................... 88
6.2.4 Selection and installation in accordance with external influences ........................................ 95
6.2.5 Current-carrying capacities ........................................................................................................ 98
6.2.6 Phase conductors and the neutral conductor ........................................................................ 113
6.2.7 Voltage drops ............................................................................................................................. 115
6.2.8 Connections ............................................................................................................................... 116
6.2.9 General installation conditions ................................................................................................ 117
6.2.10 Location of the conductors....................................................................................................... 119
6.2.11 Installation requirements .......................................................................................................... 120
6.3 Protection, cut-off, and control devices .................................................................................. 125
6.3.1 General considerations ............................................................................................................. 125
6.3.2 Common requirements.............................................................................................................. 125
6.3.3 Devices intended to ensure the automatic cut-off of the power supply for
protection against electric shocks ........................................................................................... 125
6.3.4 Devices for protection against overcurrents .......................................................................... 127
6.3.5 Surge-protection devices (SPDs) ............................................................................................. 130
6.3.6 Coordination between different protective devices ............................................................... 138
6.3.7 Cut-off and control devices ...................................................................................................... 138
6.4 Grounding and equipotentialization ........................................................................................ 142
6.4.1 Grounding ................................................................................................................................... 142
6.4.2 Equipotentialization ................................................................................................................... 145

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


iv
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.4.3 Protective conductor (PE) ......................................................................................................... 147


6.4.4 Equipotentialization conductors .............................................................................................. 152
6.4.5 Functional equipotentialization ................................................................................................ 152
6.4.6 Grounding for functional reasons ............................................................................................ 153
6.4.7 Combined grounding (functional and protective) .................................................................. 153
6.5 Other components ..................................................................................................................... 154
6.5.1 Electric motors ........................................................................................................................... 154
6.5.2 Storage batteries ........................................................................................................................ 156
6.5.3 Power outlets, sockets, and extensions.................................................................................. 156
6.5.4 Protection, switching, and control equipment........................................................................ 157
6.5.5 Utilization equipment................................................................................................................. 158
6.6 Safety services ........................................................................................................................... 160
6.6.6 Safety sources............................................................................................................................ 161
6.6.7 Safety circuits............................................................................................................................. 162
6.6.8 Utilization equipment................................................................................................................. 163
7. Final inspection .......................................................................................................................... 163
7.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................ 163
7.2 Visual inspection........................................................................................................................ 163
7.3 Tests ............................................................................................................................................ 164
7.3.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................ 164
7.3.2 Continuity of the protective conductors, including the primary and supplemental
equipotentialization points ....................................................................................................... 164
7.3.3 Isolation resistance of the installation..................................................................................... 165
7.3.4 Isolation resistance applicable to SELV and PELV systems, and to electrical
separation ................................................................................................................................... 165
7.3.5 Verification of the protection conditions provided by equipotentialization and
automatic cut-offs of the power supply................................................................................... 165
7.3.6 The applied voltage test ............................................................................................................ 167
7.3.7 Functional tests.......................................................................................................................... 168
8. Maintenance ............................................................................................................................... 168
8.1 Interval ........................................................................................................................................ 168
8.2 Qualification of maintenance personnel.................................................................................. 168
8.3 Routine inspections and preventive maintenance ................................................................. 168
8.3.1 Conductors ................................................................................................................................. 168
8.3.2 Distribution panels and boards ................................................................................................ 169
8.3.3 Movable equipment.................................................................................................................... 169
8.3.4 Tests ............................................................................................................................................ 169
8.3.5 The general test.......................................................................................................................... 169
8.4 Corrective maintenance ............................................................................................................ 169
9. Additional requirements for specific installations or sites ................................................... 170
9.1 Sites containing a bathtub or shower ...................................................................................... 170
9.1.1 Scope of applicability ................................................................................................................ 170
9.1.2 Determination of general characteristics ................................................................................ 170
9.1.3 Protection to ensure safety....................................................................................................... 173
9.1.4 Selection and installation of the components ........................................................................ 173
9.2 Swimming pools and other pools ............................................................................................ 175
9.2.1 Scope of applicability ................................................................................................................ 175
9.2.2 Determination of general characteristics ................................................................................ 175
9.2.3 Protection to ensure safety....................................................................................................... 176
9.2.4 Selection and installation of the components ........................................................................ 177
9.3 Conductive compartments........................................................................................................ 179
9.3.1 Scope of applicability ................................................................................................................ 179
9.3.2 Supply of power to portable tools and to portable measurement devices .......................... 179
9.3.3 Supply of power to portable lamps .......................................................................................... 180

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


v
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9.3.4 Supply of power to stationary equipment ............................................................................... 180


9.3.5 SELV ............................................................................................................................................ 180
9.3.6 Individual electrical separation ................................................................................................ 180
9.4 Sites containing sauna heaters ................................................................................................ 180
9.4.1 Scope of applicability ................................................................................................................ 180
9.4.2 Volume classification ................................................................................................................ 180
9.4.3 Protection to ensure safety....................................................................................................... 181
9.4.4 Selection and installation of the components ........................................................................ 181
9.5 Residential premises ................................................................................................................. 182
9.5.1 Scope of applicability ................................................................................................................ 182
9.5.2 Load projection .......................................................................................................................... 182
9.5.3 Division of the installation ........................................................................................................ 184
9.5.4 Protection against overcurrents............................................................................................... 184
Attachment “A” (Standard) Voltage ranges ........................................................................................ 185
Attachment “B” (Standard) Basic means of protection (against electric shocks).......................... 186
B.1 (Basic) insulation of the live parts ........................................................................................... 186
B.2 Use of barriers or enclosures ................................................................................................... 186
Attachment “C” (standard) External influences and protection against electric shocks .............. 188
C.1 Determinant external influences .............................................................................................. 188
C.2 Situations 1, 2 and 3 .................................................................................................................. 188
C.3 Limit contact voltage ................................................................................................................. 189
Attachment “D” (informative) Protection of conductors in parallel against overcurrents ............ 190
D.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 190
D.2 Protection against overload of conductors in parallel........................................................... 190
D.3 Protection against short-circuits of conductors in parallel................................................... 192
Attachment “E” (informative) Transient impulse withstandability categories (overvoltage
categories, or levels of surge protection) ............................................................................... 195
E.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 195
E.2 Categories................................................................................................................................... 195
Attachment “F” (informative) Cross-section of the neutral conductor when the third-order
harmonic content of the phase currents is greater than 33% ............................................... 196
F.1 Determination of the neutral current........................................................................................ 196
F.2 Insulated conductors or single-core cables............................................................................ 197
F.3 Four-core and five-core cables................................................................................................. 197
Attachment “G” (informative) Primary equipotentialization.............................................................. 198
Attachment “H” (Standard) Verification of the actuation of differential-residual current-
protection devices (DR devices) .............................................................................................. 200
H.1.1 Method 1 (see Figure H.1) ......................................................................................................... 200
H.1.2 Method 2 (see Figure H.2) ......................................................................................................... 200
H.1.3 Method 3 ..................................................................................................................................... 201
Attachment “J” (Standard) Measurement of ground resistance....................................................... 202
J.1.1 Method 1 (see Figure J.1) .......................................................................................................... 202
J.1.2 Method 2 ..................................................................................................................................... 203
Attachment “K” (standard) Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current ........ 204
K.1 Method 1: Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current by means of the
voltage drop (see Figure K.1) ................................................................................................... 204
K.2 Method 2: Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current by means of a
separate source (see Figure K.2) ............................................................................................. 205
Attachment “L” (standard) Measurement of the resistance of the protective conductors ............ 207
Attachment “M” (standard) The applied voltage test ......................................................................... 209

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


vi
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Foreword
The Brazilian Technical Standards Association [Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas] (ABNT) is the national
standardization body. The Brazilian standards, whose contents are the responsibility of the Brazilian Committees
[Comitês Brasileiros] (ABNT/CB), the Sectorial Standardization Bodies [Organismos de Normalização Setorial]
(ABNT/ONS), and the Temporary Special Studies Commissions [Comissões de Estudo Especiais Temporárias]
(ABNT/CEET), are prepared by Study Commissions [Comissões de Estudo] (CEs) consisting of representatives of
the affected sectors, including producers, consumers, and neutral parties (universities, laboratories, and others).
The ABNT NBR 5410 standard was drawn up within the Brazilian Electricity Committee [Comité Brasileiro de
Eletricidade] (ABNT/CB-03) by the Low-Voltage Electrical Installations Study Commission (CE-03:064.01). The draft
standard was circulated for public comment pursuant to the provisions of Edict No. 9, of September 30, 2003, as
Draft Standard No. NBR 5410.
Starting on March 31, 2005, this standard shall nullify and replace the previous edition (ABNT NBR 5410:1997),
which has undergone technical revisions.
This standard includes attachments A, B, C, H, J, K, L, and M, which are normative, and attachments D, E, F, and G,
which are informative.
This amended version of the ABNT NBR 5410:2004 standard incorporates Erratum Sheet No. 1, of March 17, 2008.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


vii
BRAZILIAN STANDARD ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Low-voltage electrical installations

1. Purpose
1.1 This standard establishes the conditions that must be met by low-voltage electrical installations in order to
ensure the safety of persons and animals, proper operation of the installation, and the preservation of property.
1.2 This standard shall apply primarily to electrical installations located inside buildings, regardless of their
intended use (residential commercial, public, industrial, service-related, agricultural and livestock-related,
horticultural, etc.), including prefabricated structures.
1.2.1 This standard shall also apply to electrical installations that are:
a) Located in uncovered areas of the properties, outside the buildings;
b) Part of camping trailers or that are located at campsites, marinas, and similar facilities; and
c) Located at construction sites, fairgrounds, exhibition venues, and other temporary sites.
1.2.2 This standard shall apply to:
a) Electrical circuits supplied with nominal voltage less than or equal to 1,000 VAC at frequencies less than 400 Hz,
or 1,500 VDC;
b) Electrical circuits, other than internal equipment circuits, that operate at a voltage greater than 1,000 V and that
are supplied with power from an installed source whose voltage is less than or equal to 1,000 VAC (for example,
discharge lamp circuits, electrostatic precipitators, etc.);
c) All wiring and all electrical lines that are not covered by the standards regarding utilization equipment; and
d) Fixed electrical signaling lines (except for internal equipment circuits).
NOTE: The application to signal lines focuses on the prevention of the risks arising from the mutual effects of these lines and the
other electrical lines within the installation, particularly in terms of fire safety, electromagnetic compatibility, and protection against
electric shocks and harmful thermal effects.

1.2.3 This standard shall apply to new installations and also to renovated existing installations.
NOTE: Modifications intended, for example, to accommodate new electrical equipment (including signal equipment)
or to allow the replacement of existing equipment shall not necessarily be deemed to constitute a general renovation
of the installation.

1.3 This standard shall not apply to:


a) Electrical traction installations;
b) Electrical installations that are part of automotive vehicles; or
c) Electrical installations located on board ships, boats, or aircraft;

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


101
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

d) Equipment intended for the suppression of radio-frequency electrical disturbances, insofar as the safety of the
installations is not compromised;
e) Public lighting installations;
f) Public electrical-power distribution networks;
g) Installations intended to provide protection against direct lightning strikes. However, this standard shall take into
consideration the effects of atmospheric phenomena upon the installations (for example, in terms of the selection
of the devices intended to provide protection against overvoltages);
h) Installations located in mines; or
i) Installations associated with electrified fences (see the IEC 60335-2-76 standard).

1.4 The components of the installation shall be taken into consideration only in terms of their selection and the
conditions under which they are installed. This provision shall be equally valid for assemblies, in compliance with the
regulations that are applicable to them.

1.5 The application of this standard shall not entail exemption from compliance with other, supplementary
standards that are applicable to the specific installations and locations.
NOTE: Examples of standards that are supplementary to this standard include the ABNT NBR 13534, ABNT NBR 13570, and
ABNT NBR 5418 standards.

1.6 The application of this standard shall not entail exemption from obedience to the regulations, as issued by
the public authorities, with which the installations must comply.

1.7 The electrical installations covered by this standard shall also be subject to the regulations for the provision
of energy, as established by the regulatory authorities and by the electrical-power distribution companies, whenever
those regulations are pertinent.

2. References to other standards


The standards listed below contain provisions which, when cited in this text, shall constitute requirements pertaining
to this standard. The indicated editions were in force at the time of publication of this standard. Because all
standards are subject to revision, any parties entering into agreements based on this standard are advised to check
and confirm the appropriateness of the use of the most recent editions of the standards listed below. The ABNT has
information about the standards that are in force at any given time.
ABNT NBR 5361:1998. Low-voltage circuit-breakers.
ABNT NBR 5413:1992. Interior lighting. Procedure.
ABNT NBR 5418:1995. Electrical installations in explosive atmospheres.
ABNT NBR 5419:2001. Protection of structures against lightning.
ABNT NBR 5597:1995. Rigid carbon-steel electrical conduits and fittings with a protective coating, with ANSI/ASME
B1.20.1 threading. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 5598:1993. Rigid carbon-steel electrical conduits and fittings with a protective coating, with ANSI/ASME
6414 threading. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 5624:1993. Rigid carbon-steel electrical conduits and fittings with a protective coating, with ANSI/ASME
8133 threading. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 6147:200. Plugs and sockets for household use and similar uses. Specifications.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

ABNT NBR 6150:1980. Rigid PVC electrical conduits. Specifications.


ABNT NBR 6524:1998. Hard and semi-hard copper wires and cables, with or without a protective coating,
for overhead installations. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 6527:2000. Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 6812:1995. Electrical wires and cables. Vertical burning (fire). Test method.
ABNT NBR 7094:2003. Rotating electrical machinery. Induction motors. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 7285:2001. Power cables with extruded thermoset [cross-linked] polyethylene (XLPE) insulation for
voltages from 0.6 kV to 1 kV. No wrapping. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 7286:2001. Power cables with extruded ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) insulation for voltages from
1 kV to 35 kV. Design requirements.
ABNT NBR 7287:1992. Power cables with solid extruded cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation for voltages
from 1 kV to 35 kV. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 7288:1994. Power cables with solid extruded polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polyethylene (PE) insulation
fo voltages from 1 kV to 6 kV. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 8661:1997. Flat-form cables with extruded polyvinyl chloride (PVC) insulation for voltages up to 750 V.
Specifications.
ABNT NBR 9313:1986. Connectors for insulated power cables for voltages up to 35 kV. Copper or aluminum
conductors. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 9326:1986. Connectors for power cables. Thermal-cycling and short-circuit tests: Test method.
ABNT NBR 9513:1986. Splices for insulated power cables for voltages up to 750 kV. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 9518:1997. Electrical equipment for [use in] explosive atmospheres. General requirements.
ABNT NBR 11301:1990. Calculation of the current-conduction capacity of insulated cables under steady-state
voltage conditions (100% load factor). Procedure.
ABNT NBR 13248:2000. Power and control cables, and unwrapped insulated conductors, with extruded insulation
and with low smoke emission for voltages up to 1 kV. Design requirements.
ABNT NBR 13249:2000. Flexible cables and cords for voltages up to 750 V. Specifications.
ABNT NBR 13300:1995. On-site internal telephone networks. Terminology.
ABNT NBR 13534:1995. Electrical installations in healthcare establishments. Safety requirements.
ABNT NBR 13570:1996. Electrical installations in public places. Specific requirements.
ABNT NBR 14136:2002. Plugs and sockets for household and similar use, up to 20 A and 250 VAC.
Standardization.
ABNT NBR 14306:1999. Electrical protection and electromagnetic compatibility within internal telecommunications
networks located in buildings. Design.
ABNT NBR IEC 60050 (826):1997. International Electrotechnical Vocabulary. Chapter 826 (“Electrical installations
in buildings”).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


3
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

ABNT NBR IEC 60269-1:2003. Low-voltage fuse devices. Part 1 (“General requirements”).
ABNT NBR IEC 60269-2:2003. Low-voltage fuse devices. Part 2 (“Additional requirements for fuse devices intended
for use by authorized persons (fuse devices intended primarily for industrial applications)”).
ABNT NBR IEC 60269-3:2003. Low-voltage fuse devices. Part 3 (“Additional requirements for fuse devices intended
for use by unskilled persons (fuse devices intended primarily for household and similar applications)”).
ABNT NBR IEC 60439-1:2003. Low-voltage switchgear and control assemblies. Part 1 (“Totally type-tested
assemblies (TTA) and partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA)”).
ABNT NBR IEC 60439-3:2004. Low-voltage switchgear and control assemblies. Part 3 (“Specific requirements for
the installation of low-voltage accessories in locations accessible by unskilled persons during their use”). Distribution
panels.
ABNT NBR IEC 60947-2:1998. Low-voltage switchgear and control device. Part 2 (“Breakers”).
ABNT NBR NM 247-3:2002. Cables insulated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC), for nominal voltages up through 450
to 750 V. Part 3 (“Insulated conductors (no cover) for fixed installations (see IEC 60227-3, MOD)”).
ABNT NBR NM 60898:2004. Overcurrent-protection breakers for household and similar installations (IEC
60898:1995, MOD).
IEC 60038:2002. IEC standard voltages.
IEC 60079-0:2004. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres. Part 0 (“General requirements”).
IEC 60079-14:2002. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres. Part 14 (“Electrical installations in
hazardous areas (other than mines)”).
IEC 60146-2:1999. Semiconductor converters. Part 2 (“Self-commutated semiconductor converters including direct
DC converters”).
IEC 60255-22-1:1988. Electrical relays. Part 22 (“Electrical disturbance tests for measuring relays and protection
equipment”). Part 1 (“1 MHz burst disturbance tests”).
IEC 60309-1:1999. Plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes. Part 1 (“General requirements”).
IEC 60335-2-76:2002. Household and similar electrical appliances. Safety. Part 2-76 (“Particular requirements
for electric fence energizers”).
IEC 60364-5-51:2001. Electrical installations of buildings. Part 5-51 (“Selection and erection of electrical
equipment”). Common rules.
IEC 60364-5-52:2001. Electrical installations of buildings. Part 5-52 (“Selection and erection of electrical
equipment”). Wiring systems.
IEC 60364-5-54:2002. Electrical installations of buildings. Part 5-54 (“Selection and erection of electrical
equipment”). Earthing arrangements, protective conductors and protective bonding conductors.
IEC 60439-2:2000. Low-voltage switchgear and control-gear assemblies. Part 2 (“Particular requirements for
bus-bar trunking systems (busways)”).
IEC 60439-4:2004. Low-voltage switchgear and control-gear assemblies. Part 4 (“Particular requirements for
assemblies for construction sites (ACS)”).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


4
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

IEC 60439-5:1998. Low-voltage switchgear and control-gear assemblies. Part 5 (“Particular requirements for
assemblies intended to be installed outdoors in public places. Cable distribution cabinets (CDCs) for power
distribution in networks”).
IEC 60529:2001. Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).
IEC 60598-2-18:1993. Luminaires. Part 2 (“Particular requirements”), Section 18 (“Luminaires for swimming pools
and similar applications”).
IEC 60598-2-22:2002. Luminaires. Part 2-22 (“Particular requirements: Luminaires for emergency lighting”).
IEC 60614-1:1995. Conduits for electrical installations. Specifications. Part 1 (“General requirements”).
IEC 60664-1:2002. Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems. Part 1: (“Principles,
requirements and tests”).
IEC 60669-1:2000. Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations. Part 1 (“General requirements”).
IEC 60721-3-3:2002. Classification of environmental conditions. Part 3-3 (“Classification of groups of environmental
parameters and their severities: Stationary use at weather-protected locations”).
IEC 60721-3-4:1995. Classification of environmental conditions. Part 3-4 (“Classification of groups of environmental
parameters and their severities: Stationary use at non-weather-protected locations”).
IEC 60724:2000. Short-circuit temperature limits of electrical cables with rated voltages of 1 kV (Um = 1.2 kV) and
3 kV (Um = 3.6 kV).
IEC 61000-2-1:1990. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 2: (“Environment”), Section 1 (“Description of
the environment: Electromagnetic environment for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signaling in public
power-supply systems”).
IEC 61000-2-2:2002. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 2-2 (“Environment: Compatibility levels for low-
frequency conducted disturbances and signaling in public low-voltage power-supply systems”).
IEC 61000-2-5:1995. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 2: (“Environment”), Section 5 (“Classification
of electromagnetic environments”). Basic EMC publication.
IEC 61000-4-2:2001. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4-2 (“Testing and measurement techniques:
Electrostatic discharge immunity test”).
IEC 61000-4-3:2002. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4-3 (“Testing and measurement techniques:
Radiated, radio-frequency, and electromagnetic field immunity test”).
IEC 61000-4-4:2004. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4 (“Testing and measurement techniques:
Electrical fast-transient/burst-immunity test”).
IEC 61000-4-6:2003. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4-6 (“Testing and measurement techniques:
Immunity to conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequency fields”).
IEC 61000-4-8:2001. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4-8 (“Testing and measurement techniques:
Power-frequency magnetic-field immunity test”).
IEC 61000-4-12:2001. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4-12 (“Testing and measurement techniques:
Oscillatory-wave immunity test”).
IEC 61008-2-1:1990. Residual current-operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household
and similar uses (RCCBs). Part 2-1 (“Applicability of the general rules to RCCBs functionally independent of line
voltage”).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


5
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

IEC 61009-2-1:1991. Residual current-operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household
and similar uses (RCBOs). Part 2-1 (“Applicability of the general rules to RCBOs functionally independent of line
voltage”).
IEC 61084-1:1993. Cable trunking and ducting systems for electrical installations. Part 1 (“General requirements”).
IEC 61140:2001. Protection against electric shock. Common aspects for installation and equipment.
IEC 60309-1:1999. Plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes. Part 1 (“General requirements”).
IEC 61312-1:1995. Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. Part 1: General principles.
IEC 61386-1:2000. Conduit systems for electrical installations. Part 1 (“General requirements”).
IEC 61558-2-4:1997. Safety of power transformers, power-supply units and similar [devices]. Part 2 (“Particular
requirements for isolating transformers for general use”).
IEC 61558-2-5:1997. Safety of power transformers, power-supply units and similar [devices]. Part 2-5 (“Particular
requirements for shaver transformers and shaver supply units”).
IEC 61558-2-6:1997. Safety of power transformers, power-supply units and similar [devices]. Part 2 (“Particular
requirements for safety isolating transformers for general use”).
IEC 61643-1:2002. Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power-distribution systems. Part 1
(“Performance requirements and testing methods”).
IEC 61663-2:2001. Lightning protection. Telecommunication lines. Part 2 (“Lines using metallic conductors”).
IEC/CISPR 11:2004. Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio-frequency equipment. Electromagnetic
disturbance characteristics. Limits and methods of measurement.
IEC/CISPR 12:2001. Vehicles, boats, and internal combustion engine-driven devices. Radio disturbance
characteristics. Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of receivers, except those installed in the
vehicle/boat/device itself or in adjacent vehicles/boats/devices.
IEC/CISPR 13:2003. Sound and television broadcast receivers and associated equipment. Radio disturbance
characteristics. Limits and methods of measurement.
IEC/CISPR 14-1:2002. Electromagnetic compatibility. Requirements for household appliances, electric tools and
similar apparatus. Part 1 (“Emission”).
IEC/CISPR 14-2:2001. Electromagnetic compatibility. Requirements for household appliances, electric tools and
similar apparatus. Part 2 (“Immunity”). Product-family standard.
IEC/CISPR 15:2002. Limits and methods of measurement of radio-disturbance characteristics of electrical lighting
and similar equipment.
IEC/CISPR 22:2003. Information technology equipment. Radio disturbance characteristics. Limits and methods
of measurement.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


6
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

3. Definitions
For the purposes of this standard, the definitions provided in the ABNT NBR IEC 60050(826) standard shall apply,
along with the following ones:
3.1 Installation components
3.1.1 Component (of an electrical installation): Term employed to designate items that are part of the installation
and that, depending on context, may be materials, accessories, devices, instruments, equipment (for the generation,
conversion, transformation, transmission, storage, distribution, or use of electricity), machinery, assemblies, or even
segments or parts of the installation (for example, electrical lines).
3.1.2 Main distribution panel: The first distribution panel located after the entry of the electrical line into the
building. Naturally, the term applies to any distribution panel that is the only distribution panel in a building.
NOTE: See the definition of “point of entry (into a building)” (Subsection 3.4.4).
3.2 Protection against electric shocks
3.2.1 Conductive element or conductive part: Element or part that is made of a conductive material, whether
or not it belongs to the installation, but that is not normally intended to conduct electric current.
3.2.2 Basic protection: Means intended to prevent contact with hazardous live parts under normal conditions.
3.2.3 Supplemental protection: Means intended to supplement protection against electric shocks when grounds
or accessible conductive parts accidentally become live.
3.2.4 Additional protection: Means for ensuring protection against electric shocks in situations involving a major
risk of the loss or deactivation of the normally applicable measures or difficulty achieving full compliance with the
safety conditions associated with a given protective measure, and/or in situations or on sites where the dangers of
electric shock are particularly severe.
3.2.5 Differential-residual current protection device (short forms: differential-residual current device,
differential device, DR device): A mechanical cut-off device, or combination of devices, intended to open contacts
when the differential-residual current reaches a given value under specified conditions.
NOTE: The term "device" must not be construed as indicating a particular product, but rather any possible form in which the
differential-residual protection may be implemented. Examples of such forms include switches, breakers, or sockets that
incorporate differential-residual protection; differential-residual protection blocks and modules that can be connected to breakers;
relays and current transformers that can be combined with breakers, etc.

3.2.6 SELV (from the English phrase "separated extra-low voltage"): An extra-low voltage system that is
electrically separated from ground and from other systems, in such a way that the occurrence of a single fault does
not pose a risk of electric shock.
3.2.7 PELV (from the English phrase "protected extra-low voltage"): An extra-low voltage system that is not
electrically separated from ground but that meets, and in equivalent manner, all of the requirements of an SELV.
3.3 Protection against electric shocks and protection against overvoltages and electromagnetic
disturbances
3.3.1 Equipotentialization: A procedure that consists of bonding specified elements in order to obtain the
equipotentiality that is necessary for the desired purposes. By extension, the term refers to the resulting network of
bonded elements.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


7
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTE: Equipotentialization is a resource employed for protection against electric shocks and for protection against overvoltages
and electromagnetic disturbances. A given equipotentialization may be satisfactory for protection against electric shocks but
insufficient in terms of protection against electromagnetic disturbances.

3.3.2 Main equipotentialization bus bar [“barramento de equipotencialização principal” (BEP)]: Bus bar
intended to serve as a means of interconnection for all of the elements that can be included in the primary
equipotentialization system (see Subsection 6.4.2.1).
NOTE: The term “bus bar” refers to the role played by the interconnection means, rather than to any particular configuration of the
element. Therefore, in principle the BEP may consist of a bar, a plate, a cable, etc.
3.3.3 Supplemental equipotentialization bus bar, or local equipotentialization bus bar [“barramento de
equipotencialização local” (BEL)]: Bus bar intended to serve as a means of interconnection for all of the elements
that can be included in a supplemental or local equipotentialization system.
3.3.4 Information technology equipment [“equipamento de tecnologia da informação” (ETI)]: Equipment
designed for the purpose of:
a) Receiving data from an external source (for example, from a data-input line or from a keyboard);
b) Processing the received data (for example, by performing calculations or by converting, recording, archiving,
sorting, storing, or transferring the data);
c) Providing output data (either [by sending the data] to other equipment or by reproducing data or images).
NOTE: This definition includes a broad range of equipment, including, for example, computers, receiving equipment, data hubs
and converters, telecommunications and data-transmission equipment, fire-alarm and intrusion-alarm systems, control systems,
building-automation systems, etc.

3.4 Electrical lines


3.4.1 (Electrical) signaling line: A line that carries electronic signals for telecommunications and data-exchange
purposes, or that carries control or automation signals, etc.
3.4.2 External line: A line that enters or leaves a building. It may consist of a power line, a signaling line, a water
pipe, a gas pipe, or a conduit for any other utility.
3.4.3 Delivery point: The point at which the electrical system of the electrical-power distribution company is
connected to the electrical installation of the consumer unit(s), and which determines the responsibilities of the
distributor, as defined by the competent regulatory authority.
3.4.4 Entry point (in a building): The point at which an external line penetrates the building structure.
NOTES:
1. For electrical-power lines in particular, the “entry point” must not be confused with the “delivery point.” The fundamental
reference for the “entry point” is the building, namely, the main body or each of the blocks of a piece of property. For buildings
whose floors are supported by columns or piers [“pilotis”] (usually the ground floor), and for which the external electrical line enters
at the level of the floor supported by the columns or piers, the “entry point” can be assumed to be the point at which the line
penetrates the space that provides access to the building (i.e., the lobby or entrance hall).
2. In addition to the building itself, another reference term that is inseparable from the “entry point” is the “main
equipotentialization bus bar” (BEP), which is located at, or very close to, the entry point (see Subsection 6.4.2.1).
3.4.5 Point of use: The point at which an electrical line is intended to be connected to the utilization equipment.
NOTES:
1. A point of use may be classified according to various criteria, including the voltage of the electrical line, the nature of the
expected load (e.g., a lighting point, a heater point, an air-conditioning system point, etc.), as well as according to the expected type
of connection (e.g., a socket or outlet point, or a direct-link point).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


8
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

2. An electrical line may have one or more points of use.

3. A single point of use may supply power to one or more pieces of utilization equipment.

3.4.6 Access point: The point of use at which the equipment to be supplied with electrical power is connected,
by means of a power socket or outlet.
NOTES:
1. An access point may contain one or more sockets or outlets.
2. An access point may be classified according to various criteria, including the voltage of the circuit that supplies electrical
power to it; the number of sockets or outlets that it is intended to contain; the type of equipment to which electric power is to be
supplied (when equipment is present that was specifically intended to use the point in question); and the nominal current of the
sockets or outlets utilized within it.

3.5 Safety services


3.5.1 Safety services: Essential building services, for:
- The safety of individuals; and
- The prevention of damage to the environment or to property.
NOTE: The following items are examples of safety services:
- Safety lighting (“emergency lighting”);
- Fire pumps;
- Elevators for firefighters and rescue personnel;
- Alarm systems, such as fire, smoke, carbon monoxide (CO), and intrusion alarms;
- Smoke exhaust systems; and
- Essential medical equipment.

3.5.2 Normal supply or source: The supply or source responsible for the regular provision of electrical power.
NOTE: A given supply may be the "normal" one during a certain period of time but not during another period of time. For
example, in an installation whose energy-consumption needs are met by the public distribution network during certain periods of the
day, but by its own generation capacity during other periods, the “normal source” may be the public network or the local generation
capacity, depending on the time period in question.

3.5.3 Reserve supply or source: A supply or source that replaces or supplements the normal source.
3.5.4 Safety supply or source: A supply or source intended to ensure the provision of electrical power to
essential safety-services equipment.
NOTES (for subsections 3.5.3 and 3.5.4):
1. The concept of a safety source is associated with the function (i.e., safety services) fulfilled by the equipment to which
energy is provided by the source, whereas the concept of a reserve source is associated with the fact that the [reserve] source
supplements the normal source or replaces it, in its absence. Although these attributes are different, they are not incompatible.
Therefore, a given source may serve simultaneously as a safety source and a reserve source, provided that it possesses both of the
said attributes. However, a reserve source intended to provide energy exclusively to equipment other than safety-services
equipment cannot be characterized as a safety source.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


9
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

2. A safety supply may optionally provide energy to equipment other than essential safety-services equipment, provided that
the requirements set forth in Subsection 6.6.6.5 are met.
3. The current edition of this standard does not include any specific requirements for reserve supplies that are intended for
services other than safety services.

4. Fundamental principles and determination of general characteristics


4.1 Fundamental principles
The principles that guide the goals and requirements set forth in this standard are described in subsections 4.1.1
through 4.1.15.
4.1.1 Protection against electric shocks
Persons and animals must be protected against electric shocks, regardless of whether the risk relates to accidental
contact with a dangerous live part or to failures that could accidentally apply voltage to a ground connection.
4.1.2 Protection against thermal effects
The electrical installation should be designed and constructed so as to prevent any risk of the ignition of inflammable
materials due to high temperatures or electric arcs. Furthermore, during normal service, there should be no risks of
burns to persons or animals.
4.1.3 Protection against overcurrents
Persons, animals, and property must be protected against the negative effects of excessive temperatures or
electromechanical stresses resulting from overcurrents to which the live conductors may be subjected.
4.1.4 Circulation of fault currents
Conductors other than live conductors, and other parts intended to drain fault currents, must be able to withstand
those currents without reaching excessive temperatures.
NOTES:
1. It should be recalled that these parts are subject to circulation ranging from small leakage currents to direct-fault currents
leading to ground or to the ground connection, including fault currents whose intensity is lower than that of a direct fault.
2. The ability of live conductors to withstand fault currents must be ensured by means of overcurrent protection, as described in
Subsection 4.1.3.

4.1.5 Protection against overvoltages


Persons, animals, and property must be protected against the harmful consequences of events that might cause
overvoltages, such as faults between the live parts of circuits under different voltages, during atmospheric
phenomena [e.g., lightning], and during handling.
4.1.6 Safety services
The operation of equipment intended to operate in emergency situations, such as fires, must be ensured at the time
and for the duration deemed necessary.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


10
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

4.1.7 Emergency shutdown


Whenever hazardous situations are foreseen in which a circuit must be de-energized, emergency shutdown devices
must be provided that are easily identifiable and rapidly maneuverable.
4.1.8 Disconnection
The supply of power to the electrical installation, to its circuits, and to its equipment must be capable of being
disconnected for maintenance purposes and for inspections, for determination of the location of defects, and for
repairs.
4.1.9 Independence of the electrical installation
The electrical installation must be designed and constructed so as to be free from any harmful reciprocal influences
between electrical and non-electrical installations.
4.1.10 Accessibility of the components
The components of the electrical installation must be arranged so as to allow sufficient space for the initial installation
and for the subsequent replacement of parts, as well as accessibility for the purposes of operation, inspections,
maintenance, and repairs.
4.1.11 Selection of the components
The components of the electrical installation must comply with the applicable technical standards, and their properties
and characteristics must be compatible with the electrical, operating, and environmental conditions to which the
components will be subjected. If a selected component does not, in its original form, possess the said properties and
characteristics, then compensatory measures must be provided that can render the said properties and
characteristics compatible with the requirements of the application.
4.1.12 Prevention of harmful or undesirable effects
When components are selected, consideration must be given to the potentially harmful or undesirable effects of each
component, during normal service (including handling operations), on other components or on the power-supply
system. The characteristics and phenomena that are capable of causing disturbances, or compromising the
satisfactory performance of the installation, include the following ones:
- The power factor
- The initial or energization currents
- Phase imbalance
- Harmonics
4.1.13 Installation of the components
All electrical installations require careful work by qualified persons in order to ensure, among other things, that:
- The characteristics of the components of the installation, as mentioned in Subsection 4.1.11, are not
compromised during assembly;
- The components of the installation – including, in particular, the conductors – are appropriately identified;
- Within the connections, the contact is safe and reliable;
- The components are installed with preservation of the specified cooling conditions;

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

- The components of the installation that can produce high temperatures or electric arcs are positioned or
housed so as to eliminate the risk of ignition of inflammable materials; and
- The external parts of components that are capable of reaching temperatures that might cause personal
injury are positioned or housed so as to ensure that there is no risk of accidental contact between persons
and the said parts.
4.1.14 Inspection of the installation
The electrical installations must be inspected and tested before being placed in operation, as well as after each
upgrade, to ensure that the installations were implemented in accordance with the provisions of this standard.
4.1.15 Professional qualifications
The design, implementation, inspection, and maintenance of the electrical installations must be entrusted only to
persons who are qualified to plan and perform the work in accordance with the provisions of this standard.

4.2 Determination of general characteristics


The design of an electrical installation must include the determination of the following characteristics:
a) The projected use and demand (see Subsection 4.2.1);
b) The distribution pattern (see Subsection 4.2.2);
c) The available energy supplies (see Subsection 4.2.3);
d) The need for safety services and appropriate sources (see Subsection 4.2.4);
e) Requirements regarding the division of the installation (see Subsection 4.2.5);
f) External influences to which the installation will be subjected (see Subsection 4.2.6);
g) The risks of incompatibility and interference (see Subsection 4.2.7); and
h) The maintenance requirements (see Subsection 4.2.8).

4.2.1 Use and demand; power supply


4.2.1.1 General considerations
4.2.1.1.1 The determination of the power supply is essential to the safe and economical design of an installation,
within appropriate limits on the rise in temperature and on the voltage drop.
4.2.1.1.2 The determination of the power supply for an installation, or for part of an installation, must include the
calculation of the utilization equipment to be powered, along with its respective nominal power consumption. Next,
consideration must be given to the possibilities of non-simultaneous operation of this equipment and to the reserve
capacity for future expansions.
4.2.1.2 Load projection
The load projection for an installation must comply with the requirements set forth in subsections 4.2.1.2.1 through
4.2.1.2.3.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


12
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

4.2.1.2.1 General considerations


a) The load to be considered for a piece of utilization equipment is the nominal power absorbed by that piece of
equipment, as indicated by the manufacturer or as calculated on the basis of the nominal voltage, the nominal
current, and the power factor; and
b) In those cases in which the nominal power produced by the equipment (i.e., the power output) is not the same as
the amount of power absorbed, then the performance and the power factor must be considered.
4.2.1.2.2 Lighting
a) The lighting loads must be determined as a result of the application of the ABNT NBR 5413 standard; and
b) For fixed lighting-discharge devices, the nominal power to be considered must include the power of the lamps,
the losses, and the power factor of the auxiliary equipment.
NOTE: Subsection 9.5.2.1 establishes the minimum criteria for lighting points within residential premises.
4.2.1.2.2 Access points
a) Within residential premises, the access points must be determined and dimensioned in accordance with the
provisions of Subsection 9.5.2.2.
b) At least one general-use access point must be provided in service halls, maintenance rooms, and equipment
rooms (such as engine rooms, pump rooms, breaker rooms, and similar locations). Power of at least 1,000 VA
must be allocated to the respective terminal circuits.
c) When an access point is specified for a particular use, the power that is allocated to that point must be equal to
the nominal power of the equipment to be operated, or to the sum of the nominal power of each individual piece
of equipment to be operated. If the specific figures are not known, then the power allocated to the access point
must comply with one of the following two criteria:
- The power (or the sum of the individual power) of the most powerful piece (or pieces) of equipment that will
be supplied with power at the access point; or
- The power as calculated according to the design current and voltage of the corresponding circuit.
d) Each of the access points for specific use must be located no more than 1.5 meters from the point designated as
the location of the equipment to be operated.
e) Access points intended to supply power to more than one piece of equipment must have an appropriate number
of sockets or outlets.
4.2.2 The distribution system
The distribution system may be classified according to the following criteria:
a) The system with live conductors, and
b) The grounding system.
4.2.2.1 The system with live conductors
Consideration shall be given to the following systems for live conductors:
a) Alternating current (AC):
- Single-phase with two conductors
- Single-phase with three conductors

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

- Two-phase with three conductors


- Three-phase with three conductors
- Three-phase with four conductors
b) Direct current (DC):
- Two conductors
- Three conductors
4.2.2.2 The grounding system
The standard takes into consideration the grounding systems described in subsections 4.2.2.2.1 through 4.2.2.3, in
accordance with the following remarks regarding the illustrations and the symbols that are used:
a) Figures 1 through 5, which illustrate the grounding systems, should be interpreted generically. They use three-
phase systems as an example. The ground connections that are shown are not limited to a single piece of
electrical equipment, but may represent any number of pieces. Furthermore, the figures should not be construed
as implying any spatial restrictions. In this regard, it should be noted that because a single installation may
include more than one building or structure, the ground connections that belong to a given single building or
structure must necessarily share the same grounding electrode. However, in principle, they may be connected
to different grounding electrodes if they are located in different buildings or structures, in which case each group
of ground connections will be associated with the grounding electrode of the respective building or structure.
The figures use the following symbols:

Neutral conductor (N)

Protective conductor (PE)

Conductor combining the functions of the


neutral conductor and the protective
conductor (PEN)

b) The classification of the grounding systems uses the following symbology:


- The first letter indicates the power status in relation to ground:
• T = a directly grounded point
• I = isolation of all of the live parts in relation to ground, or the grounding of a point through an
impedance
- The second letter indicates the status of the electrical installation’s ground connections in relation to ground:
• T = directly grounded ground connections, independently of the grounding, if any, of a supply point
• N = ground connections connected to a grounded supply point (in AC systems, the grounded point is
usually the neutral point)
- Other letters (if any) indicate the layout of the neutral conductor and of the protective conductor:
• S = the neutral and protective functions are fulfilled by separate conductors
• C = The neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor (i.e., the PEN conductor).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


14
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

4.2.2.2.1 The TN system


The TN system has a directly grounded supply point, and the ground connections are connected to this point via
protective conductors. Consideration shall be given to three variants of the TN system, in accordance with the layout
of the neutral conductor and of the protective conductor, namely:
a) The TN-S system, in which the neutral conductor and the protective conductor are separate (see Figure 1);
b) The TN-C-S system, in part of which the neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor (see
Figure 2); and
c) The TN-C system, in which the neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor throughout
the entire system (see Figure 3).

Grounding of the Ground connections Ground connections


power supply

Figure 1. — The TN-S system.

Grounding of the Ground connections Ground connections


power supply

NOTE: The functions of the neutral conductor and of the protective conductor are combined in a single conductor in part of the
system.
Figure 2. — The TN-C-S system.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

PEN*

Grounding of the Ground connections Ground connections


power supply

*PEN - the neutral and protective conductor

NOTE: The functions of the neutral conductor and of the protective conductor are combined in a single conductor throughout the
entire system.

Figure 3. — The TN-C system.

4.2.2.2.2 The TT system


The TT system has a directly grounded supply point, and the installation’s ground connections are connected to the
grounding electrode or electrodes that are electrically separated from the grounding electrode for the power supply
(see Figure 4).

PE*
PE* PE*

Ground Ground
connections connections
Grounding of the Ground connections Ground connections Grounding of the
power supply power supply

*PE - the protective conductor

Figure 4. — The TT system.

4.2.2.2.3 The IT system


In the IT system all of the live parts are isolated from ground, or a supply point is grounded through an impedance
(see Figure 5). The installation’s ground connections are grounded, in accordance with the following options:
- The ground connections are grounded by the same power-supply grounding electrode, if one is present; and
- The ground connections are grounded by one or more of their own grounding electrodes, either because there
is no power-supply grounding electrode or because the grounding electrode for the ground connections is
independent of the power-supply grounding electrode.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


16
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

PE* PE*

Impedance

Ground Grounding of the Ground


connections connections
power supply

PE* PE* PE* PE*

Impedance Ground Ground


Impedance Impedance
connections connections

Grounding of the Grounding of the Ground Ground Grounding of the Ground Ground
connections connections connections connections
power supply power supply power supply

*PE - the protective conductor

(1) Neutral may or may not be distributed.


A = The power supply is not grounded
B = The power supply is grounded through an impedance
B.1 = The ground connections are grounded by electrodes that are separate and independent from the power-supply
grounding electrode
B.2 = The ground connections are grounded collectively by an electrode that is independent from the power-supply
grounding electrode
B.3 = The ground connections are grounded collectively by the power-supply electrode

Figure 5. — The IT system.

4.2.3 Power supplies


4.2.3.1 The following characteristics must be determined for the sources that supply energy to the installation:
a) The nature of the current and the frequency
b) The nominal voltage value
c) The presumptive short-circuit current value at the supply point
d) The ability to meet the requirements of the installation, including the power demand
NOTE: The alternating-current (AC) or direct-current (DC) voltage ranges within which the installations must be classified on the
basis of their nominal voltage are shown in Attachment “A”.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

4.2.3.2 The characteristics listed in Subsection 4.2.3.1 must be obtained from the electrical-power distribution
company, when the electrical power is supplied via the public distribution network, and must be determined, when the
source is a proprietary one.
4.2.4 Safety services
When safety services are necessary, the power supplies for such services must have the appropriate capacity,
reliability, and availability for the specified operations. Subsection 6.6 describes the requirements for the safety-
services power supplies.
NOTE: The current edition of this standard does not include any specific requirements for reserve supplies that are intended for
services other than safety services.

4.2.5 Division of the installation


4.2.5.1 The installation should be divided into as many circuits as necessary, each of which should be designed
so as to be cut off with no risk of an inadvertent restoration of power via another circuit.
4.2.5.2 The division of the installation into circuits should allow the installation to meet the following requirements,
among others:
a) Safety: For example, preventing a failure in one circuit from cutting off power to an entire area;
b) Energy conservation: For example, allowing lighting and/or air-conditioning loads to be actuated in a manner
proportional to the corresponding needs;
c) Functional requirements: For example, enabling the creation of different environments, such as the ones
required in auditoriums, meeting rooms, demonstration areas, indoor recreation areas, etc.;
d) Production requirements: For example, minimizing the downtime caused by an event;
e) Maintenance requirements: For example, facilitating or enabling inspection and repair activities.
4.2.5.3 Different circuits should be provided for parts of the installation that require specific control measures, so
that these circuits are not affected by failures of other circuits (for example, building-monitoring circuits).
4.2.5.4 The division of the installation must also take into consideration future needs. The foreseeable
expansions should reflect not only the power supply, as discussed in Subsection 4.2.1, but also the occupancy level
of the conduits and of the distribution panels.
4.2.5.5 The terminal circuits should be customized according to the function of the utilization equipment to which
they supply power. In particular, separate terminal circuits should be provided for lighting points and for access
points.
NOTE: For residential spaces, see also Subsection 9.5.3.

4.2.5.6 The loads should be distributed among the phases, so as to produce the greatest possible equilibrium.
4.2.5.7 If the installation includes more than one power source (such as the public network, locally generated
power, etc.), the distribution system associated specifically with each power source should be separate and clearly
differentiated from the others. In particular, components that are linked specifically to a given power supply are
prohibited from sharing distribution panels and lines, including the line boxes, with elements linked to a different
power supply, except in the following cases:
a) Signaling and control circuits located inside the panels;
b) Switchgear specifically designed to allow power supplies to be exchanged; and/or

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


18
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

c) Open lines in which the conductors associated with different power supplies are probably identified.
4.2.6 Classification of external influences
This subsection establishes a classification and a code for the external influences that must be taken into
consideration in the design and implementation of electrical installations. Each external influence shall be designated
by a code that always consists of a group of two upper-case letters and one number, as described below:
a) The first letter indicates the general category of the external influence:
- A = the environment
- B = utilization
- C = building construction
b) The second letter (A, B, C, etc.) indicates the nature of the external influence, and
c) The number (1, 2, 3, etc.) indicates the class of each external influence.
NOTES:
1. The coding described in this subsection is not intended for the marking or labeling of the components. This issue (i.e., the
marking or labeling of components) is addressed in the standards for the individual components, and, overall, in more general
standards such as, for example, the one that defines and classifies the degrees of protection provided by enclosures (see the
IEC 60529 standard) or the one that defines the classes of protection against electric shocks (see the IEC 61140 standard).
2. Because of the tendency to associate the idea of “external influences” primarily with factors such as the ambient
temperature, weather conditions, the presence of water, and mechanical stresses, it is important to emphasize that the classification
described here covers a much broader range of influential variables, all of which affect aspects such as component selection, the
adequacy of the protective measures, etc. For example, the qualification of persons (in terms of their awareness and their
preparation for dealing with the risks posed by electricity), and situations that strengthen or weaken the electrical resistance of the
human body (such as dry skin, wet skin, immersion, etc.), as well as the level of contact between persons and the ground potential
are also so-called “external influences” that can determine whether a measure intended to provide protection against shocks is or is
not acceptable in a given location, depending on how these external influences are applied there.

4.2.6.1 The environment


4.2.6.1.1 Ambient temperature
The ambient temperature (see Table 1) taken into consideration for a component is the temperature at the site where
the component is to be installed, including the influence of other components installed and operating at the same site,
and excluding the thermal contribution of the specific element in question.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 1. — Ambient temperature.

Temperature ranges
Code Classification Lower limit Upper limit Applications and examples
(in °C) (in °C)
AA1 Freezing –60 +5
Freezer rooms
AA2 Very cold –40 +5
AA3 Cold –25 +5 –
AA4 Temperate –5 +40 –
Interior of buildings
AA5 Hot +5 +40
or other structures
AA6 Very hot +5 +60 –
AA7 Extreme –25 +55
AA8 –50 +40
NOTES:
1. The ambient temperature classes are applicable only when the influence of humidity is absent.
Otherwise, see Subsection 4.2.6.1.2.
2. The mean value over a period of 24 hours must not exceed the upper limit minus 5°C.
3. For certain environments it may be necessary to combine two temperature ranges. For example, open-
air installations may be subjected to temperatures between –5°C and +50°C, corresponding to AA4 + AA6.
4. Installations that are subject to temperatures other than the ones indicated here shall be the subject of
specific requirements.

4.2.6.1.2 Ambient weather conditions (combined influence of temperature and humidity)


See Table 2.
Table 2. — Ambient weather conditions.

Characteristics
Air temperature Relative humidity Absolute humidity
Code (in °C) (in %) (in g/m3) Applications and examples
Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper
limit limit limit limit limit limit
Internal and external
AB1 –60 +5 3 100 0.003 7 environments with extremely
low temperatures
Internal and external
AB2 –40 +5 10 100 0.1 7 environments with low
temperatures
Internal and external
AB3 –25 +5 10 100 0.5 7 environments with low
temperatures
Covered locations without
controlled temperature or
AB4 –5 +40 5 95 1 29
humidity. Heating means
may be used

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


20
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 2. (conclusion)

Characteristics
Air temperature Relative humidity Absolute humidity
3
Code (in °C) (in %) (in g/m ) Applications and examples
Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper
limit limit limit limit limit limit
Covered locations with
AB5 +5 +40 5 85 1 25 a controlled ambient
temperature
Internal and external
environments with extremely
high temperatures,
AB6 +5 +60 10 100 1 35 protected against low
ambient temperatures.
Presence of sunlight and
heat
Interior and covered
locations without controlled
temperature or humidity.
AB7 –25 +55 10 100 0.5 29
They may have openings to
the outside, and are
exposed to sunlight
Exterior environments with
no foul-weather protection,
AB8 –50 +40 15 100 0.04 36
subject to high and low
temperatures
NOTES:
1. All of the specified values are limits, with a low probability of being exceeded.
2. The lower and upper relative-humidity values are limited by the corresponding absolute humidity values.
Appendix “B” to the IEC 60364-5-51:2001 standard provides information about the interdependence of air
temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity for the specified classes of weather conditions.

4.2.6.1.3 Elevation
See Table 3.
Table 3. — Elevation.

Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples

AC1 Low < 2,000 meters For some components,


special measures may be
necessary at and above an
AC2 High > 2,000 meters
elevation of 1,000 meters

4.2.6.1.4 Presence of water


See Table 4.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 4. — Presence of water.


Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples
Sites whose walls usually do not display
The probability of the
AD1 Negligible humidity but may display it for brief periods,
presence of water is remote
drying rapidly with good ventilation
Sites where humidity occasionally condenses
Possibility of vertical drips or
AD2 Drips or trickles in the form of water droplets, or where water
trickles of water
vapor is occasionally present
Possibility of rainfall at a
Sites where water forms a continuous film
AD3 Precipitation maximum angle of 60° to the
on the walls and/or floors
vertical
Spray corresponds to the effect of “rainfall”
coming from any direction. Examples of
Possibility of rainfall in any components that are exposed to spray
AD4 Spray
direction include certain outdoor lighting fixtures and
the electrical panels of work sites that are
exposed to weather
Possibility of water jets Sites where washing is done with pressurized
AD5 Jets under pressure, in any water, such as public sidewalks, vehicle-
direction washing areas, etc.
Waterfront sites, such as beaches, piers,
AD6 Waves Possibility of waves of water
docks and mooring areas, etc.
Sites that are subject to flooding and/or that
are located where water can rise at least
Possibility of partial or total
15 cm above the highest point of the
AD7 Immersion immersion in water, on an
component of the electrical installation,
intermittent basis
whose lowest part is no more than 1 meter
below the surface of the water
Sites where the components of the electrical
Total, permanent installation are totally submerged, under
AD8 Submersion
submersion in water pressure of more than 10 kPa (0.1 bar or
1 mwc) [meter of water column]

4.2.6.1.5 Presence of solid bodies


See Table 5.
Table 5. — Presence of solid bodies.
Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples
Absence of any
appreciable quantities
AE1 Negligible –
of dust and/or foreign
bodies
Presence of solid
bodies whose smallest
Tools, granulated material,
AE2 Small objects dimension is greater
etc.
than or equal to
2.5 mm(1)

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


22
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 5. (conclusion)
Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples
Presence of solid
bodies whose smallest
AE3 Very small objects Metal strands, wires, etc.
dimension is greater
than or equal to 1 mm(1)
Deposit of dust, at a rate
Presence of a light greater than 10 mg/m2
AE4 Light dust
deposit of dust and a maximum of no more
than 35 mg/m2 per day
Deposit of dust, at a rate
Presence of a moderate greater than 35 mg/m2
AE5 Moderate dust
deposit of dust and a maximum of no more
than 350 mg/m2 per day
Deposit of dust, at a rate
Presence of a major greater than 350 mg/m[2]
AE6 Intense dust
deposit of dust and a maximum of no more
than 1,000 mg/m2 per day
NOTE: Dust may be present under conditions AE2 and AE3, provided that the dust has no
significant effect on the electrical components.

4.2.6.1.6 Presence of corrosive substances or contaminants


See Table 6.
Table 6. –– Presence of corrosive substances or contaminants.
Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples
The quantity or
nature of the
AF1 Negligible corrosive agents –
or contaminants
is not significant
Installations located near the sea, or
industrial establishments that produce
Significant presence
significant atmospheric pollution, such
of corrosive agents
AF2 Atmospheric as chemical plants, cement plants, etc.
or contaminants of
This type of pollution consists primarily
atmospheric origin
of the emission of abrasive, insulating,
or conductive dusts
Sites where chemical products are
handled in small quantities and where
Intermittent or
contact between these products and the
accidental presence
components of the installation is purely
Intermittent of commonly used
AF3 accidental. Such conditions can occur
or accidental corrosive chemical
in factory laboratories and in other types
products or
of laboratories, or at sites where
pollutants
hydrocarbons are used (e.g., heating
plants, offices, etc.)
Permanent presence
of significant
quantities of
AF4 Permanent Chemical plants, etc.
corrosive chemical
products or
contaminants

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

4.2.6.1.7 Mechanical stresses


See Table 7.
Table 7. — Mechanical stresses.
Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples
Impacts (AG)
Domestic areas, offices (conditions
AG1 Weak impacts Impacts less than or equal to 0.225 J appropriate for household use and
analogous conditions)
AG2 Moderate impacts Impacts less than or equal to 2 J Normal industrial conditions
AG3 Severe impacts Impacts less than or equal to 20 J Severe industrial conditions
Vibrations (AH)
Domestic and analogous conditions, where
No vibrations, or possible vibrations
AH1 Weak vibrations the effects of vibrations can usually be
with no significant effects
disregarded
Vibrations whose frequencies are
Moderate between 10 Hz and 50 Hz, and
AH2 Normal industrial conditions
vibrations whose amplitude is less than or
equal to 0.15 mm
Vibrations whose frequencies are
between 10 Hz and 150 Hz, and
AH3 Severe vibrations Severe industrial conditions
whose amplitude is less than or
equal to 0.35 mm

4.2.6.1.8 Presence of flora and mold


See Table 8.
Table 8. — Presence of flora and mold.
Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples
No risk of damage
AK1 Negligible –
due to flora or to mold
The risks depend on the local
conditions and on the nature
of the flora. The risks can be
AK2 Harmful Risk of harmful effects divided into the risks due to
the harmful development of
the vegetation and the risks
due to its abundance

4.2.6.1.9 Presence of fauna


See Table 9.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


24
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 9. — Presence of fauna.


Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples
No risk of damage
AL1 Negligible –
due to fauna
The risks depend on the
nature of the fauna. They can
be divided into hazards due to
Risk of harmful effects due insects in harmful quantities
AL2 Harmful to fauna (insects, birds, or of an aggressive nature,
and/or small animals) and the presence of small
animals or of birds in harmful
quantities or of an aggressive
nature

4.2.6.1.10 Electromagnetic, electrostatic, or ionizing effects


See tables 10 through 13.
Table 10. – Low-frequency electromagnetic phenomena (conducted or radiated).
Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples References
Harmonic and inter-harmonic phenomena (AM1)
Below the [values
Electromedical devices; shown in] Table 1 in
AM1-1 Controlled level Controlled situation
measurement instruments the IEC 61000-2-
2:2002 standard
Within the [value
Homes, range] specified in
AM 1-2 Normal level Low-voltage networks business premises, Table 1 in the
light industrial plants IEC 61000-2-2:2002
standard
Industrial plants or large
Locally above the
commercial premises
[values shown in]
supplied with power
AM 1-3 High level Polluted networks Table 1 in the
via dedicated HT/LT
IEC 61000-2-2:2002
[high-tension / low-tension]
standard
transformers
Signaling voltages (superimposed voltages for remote-control purposes) (AM2)
Protected installations
Residual Less than the [values]
AM2-1 Controlled level or a protected part
signals only specified below
of an installation
Presence of
Residential, commercial, IEC 61000-2-1 and
AM2-2 Medium level signaling voltages
and industrial installations IEC 61000-2-2
in the network
AM2-3 High level Resonance Special cases –
Variations in voltage amplitude (AM3)
Use of uninterruptible Sensitive loads, such as
AM3-1 Controlled level power supply (UPS) information-technology –
units equipment
Voltage fluctuations; Homes,
AM3-2 Normal level voltage dips and business premises, –
interruptions industrial plants

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 10. (conclusion)


Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples References
Voltage imbalance (AM4)
In accordance with
AM4 Normal level – – the IEC 61000-2-2
standard
Frequency variations (AM5)
+1 Hz, in accordance
AM5 Normal level Small frequency variations General case with the IEC 61000-
2-2 standard
Low-frequency induced voltages (AM6)
Generated continuously,
AM6 No classification General case ITU-T
or when faults occur
DC components in AC networks (AM7)
Occurrence of a fault
AM7 No classification General case –
downstream of rectifiers
Radiated magnetic fields (AM8)
Produced by power lines,
transformers, and other Homes, Level 2
AM 8-1 Medium level industrial-frequency business premises, of the IEC 61000-4-
equipment and their light industrial plants 8:2001 standard
harmonics
Heavy industrial plants,
Major proximity of the HT/LT substations, Level 4
AM 8-2 High level above-mentioned elements electrical panels, of the IEC 61000-4-
or of other, similar ones proximity of 8:2001 standard
railroad lines
Electrical fields (AM9)
AM 9-1 Negligible level General case – –
AM 9-2 Medium level In accordance with the
AM 9-3 High level voltage value and the Proximity of
The IEC 61000-2-5
location (i.e., inside or overhead HT lines
standard
AM 9-4 Very high level outside the building or HT substations
or structure)

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


26
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 11. – High-frequency conducted, induced, or radiated


electromagnetic phenomena (continuous or transient).
Applications and
Code Classification Characteristics References
examples
Oscillating induced voltages or currents (AM21)
Primarily common-mode
perturbations generated by AM
The IEC 61000-4-6
AM21 No classification [amplitude-modulated] or FM –
standard
[frequency-modulated]
electromagnetic fields
Conducted unidirectional transients, in the nanosecond range (AM22)
Level 1 of the
Computer rooms,
AM22-1 Negligible Protected environment IEC 61000-4-4:2004
control rooms
standard
Level 2 of the
AM22-2 Medium level Protected environment – IEC 61000-4-1:2004
standard
Switching of small inductive Level 3 of the
Low-voltage
AM22-3 High level loads; relay-contact bounce; IEC 61000-4-4:2004
network
failures standard
Heavy industrial
Level 4 of the
HT/LT substations; plants; main or
AM22-4 Very high level IEC 61000-4-4:2004
SF6 or vacuum switchgear intermediate
standard
distribution panels
Conducted unidirectional transients, in the microsecond-to-millisecond range (AM23)
Circuits or installations
equipped with devices that
Controlled
AM23-1 Controlled level provide protection against –
situations
overvoltages; grounded
transformers
Distant lightning discharge
(more than 1 km): waveform
of 10 μs/1000 μs
and source impedance Lightning
of 20 Ω to 300 Ω discharges
AM23-2 Medium level Switching transients occurring far from
(for example, interruption of underground
Subsections
fault current by a fuse): networks
4.2.6.1.12, 5.4.2 ,
waveform of 0.1 μs/1 ms
and 6.3.5
and source impedance of
50 Ω
Lightning
Nearby lightning discharge (less
discharges
than 1 km away): waveform of
occurring near
AM23-3 High level 1.2 μs/50 μs
an overhead
and source impedance of
network or a
1 Ω to 10 Ω
building

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 11. (conclusion)


Applications and
Code Classification Characteristics References
examples
Conducted oscillating transients (AM24)
Switching phenomena that are Residential,
The IEC 61000-4-12
AM24-1 Medium level routinely present in building commercial, and
standard
installations industrial sites
Phenomena associated HT/MT The IEC 60255-22-1
AM24-2 High level
with switching/shunting substations standard
High-frequency radiated phenomena (AM25)
Level 1 of the
Radio and television stations Residences and
AM25-1 Negligible level IEC 61000-4-2:2002
located more than 1 km away commercial sites
standard
Level 2 of the
Portable transceivers located Light industrial
AM25-2 Medium level IEC 61000-4-2:2002
at least 1 m away sites
standard
Heavy industrial
Level 3 of the
Nearby high-power sites and high-
AM25-3 High level IEC 61000-4-2:2002
transceivers reliability
standard
applications

Table 12. — Electrostatic discharges.


Applications and
Code Classification Characteristics References
examples
Level 1 of the
AM31-1 Low level IEC 61000-4-2:2001
standard
In particular, discharges Level 2 of the
AM31-2 Medium level generated by persons walking IEC 61000-4-2:2001
on synthetic carpets Depending on the standard
The level depends on required reliability Level 3 of the
AM31-3 High level the type of carpet and the IEC 61000-4-2:2001
humidity of the air standard
Level 4 of the
AM31-4 Very high level IEC 61000-4-2:2001
standard

Table 13. — Ionizing radiation.

Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples


Presence of hazardous
AM41-1 No classification –
ionizing radiation

4.2.6.1.11 Sunlight
See Table 14.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


28
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 14. — Sunlight.


Applications and
Code Classification Characteristics
examples
AN1 Negligible Intensity ≤ 500 W/m2 –
500 < Intensity ≤ 700 W/m 2
AN2 Mean –
700 < Intensity ≤ 1,120 W/m 2
AN3 High –

4.2.6.1.12 Atmospheric discharges (lightning)


See Table 15.

Table 15. — Atmospheric discharges (lightning).

Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples


AQ1 Negligible ≤ 25 days per year –
> 25 days per year. Risks Installations supplied with
AQ2 Indirect arising from the power- power from overhead
supply network networks
Risks arising from Parts of the installation
AQ3 Direct exposure of the located outside the buildings
installation’s components or structures

4.2.6.1.13 Air movement


See Table 16.

Table 16. — Air movement.

Applications and
Code Classification Characteristics
examples
AR1 Negligible Speed ≤ 1 m/s –
AR2 Moderate 1 m/s < speed ≤ 5 m/s –
AR3 Strong 5 m/s < speed ≤ 10 m/s –

4.2.6.1.14 Wind
See Table 17.

Table 17. — Wind.

Applications and
Code Classification Characteristics
examples
AS1 Negligible Speed ≤ 20 m/s –
AS2 Moderate 20 m/s < speed ≤ 30 m/s –
AS3 Strong 30 m/s < speed ≤ 50 m/s –

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

4.2.6.2 Utilization
4.2.6.2.1 Competence of persons
See Table 18.
Table 18. — Competence of persons.

Applications
Code Classification Characteristics
and examples
BA1 Ordinary Unaware persons –
Children at the sites
BA2 Children Nurseries, schools
intended for them(1)
Nursing homes,
Persons without full physical or
BA3 Disabled healthcare
mental capabilities (elderly, ill)
establishments
Sufficiently informed persons,
or those supervised by qualified
Electric service
BA4 Aware persons, such that they can avoid the
sites
dangers of electricity (maintenance
and/or operations personnel)
Persons with technical knowledge
or experience that allows them Non-public electric
BA5 Qualified
to avoid the dangers of electricity service sites
(engineers and technicians)
(1)
This classification does not necessarily apply to homes.

4.2.6.2.2 Electrical resistance of the human body


See Table 19.
Table 19. — Electrical resistance of the human body.

Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples


Circumstances under
which human skin is dry
BB1 High Dry conditions
(no humidity, including
sweat)
Passage of electrical
current from one hand to
the other or from a hand to
BB2 NORMAL Moist conditions
a foot, with skin moist due
to sweat and with a
significant contact surface
Passage of electrical
current between both
hands and both feet. The
BB3 Low Wet conditions people’s feet are wet
enough that the resistance
of the skin and of the feet
can be disregarded.
Persons immersed in
BB4 Very low Immersed conditions water, such as in bathtubs
or swimming pools

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


30
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

4.2.6.2.3 Contact between persons and the potential of the earth


See Table 20.
Table 20. — Contact between persons and the potential of the earth.

Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples


Sites whose floor and walls are insulating,
Non-conductive
BC1 None and that do not contain any conductive
sites
elements
Under normal
conditions, persons Sites whose floor and walls are insulating,
are not in contact with small quantities of conductive
BC2 Rare with conductive elements, or conductive elements
elements, and do not of small size, such that the likelihood
stand on conductive of contact is negligible
surfaces
Persons are in
Sites whose floor and walls are conductive
contact with
or that possess conductive elements in
BC3 Frequent conductive elements,
substantial quantities or conductive
or stand on
elements of substantial size
conductive surfaces
Sites with boilers or metal vessels, whose
Persons are in
dimensions are such that the persons who
continuous contact
enter them are continuously in contact with
with metal walls, and
the walls. The reduced freedom of their
BC4 Continuous the likelihood of
movement may, on the one hand, prevent
being able to
persons from voluntarily breaking contact,
interrupt this contact
and, on the other hand, increase the risks
is small
of involuntary contact

4.2.6.2.4 Personnel evacuation during emergencies


See Table 21.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


3
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 21. — Personnel evacuation during emergencies.


Applications and
Code Classification Characteristics
examples(1)
Residential buildings less
than 50 meters high, and
Low occupational density; non-residential buildings
BD1 Normal
short evacuation route with low occupational
density that are less than
28 meters high
Residential buildings more
than 50 meters high, and
Low occupational density; non-residential buildings
BD2 Long
long evacuation route with low occupational
density that are more than
28 meters high
Public places (theaters,
department stores,
schools, etc.); non-
High occupational density;
BD3 Crowded residential buildings with
short evacuation route
high occupational density
that are less than 28 m
high
Large-scale public places
(shopping malls, major
hotels and hospitals,
educational institutions
Long and High occupational density; occupying multiple floors
BD4
crowded long evacuation route of a building, etc.); non-
residential buildings with
high occupational density
that are more than
28 meters high
NOTE: The applications and examples are intended only to support the assessment of actual situations,
through the provision of elements that are more qualitative than quantitative. Local fire-safety and anti-
panic codes may contain more restrictive parameters. See also the ABNT NBR 13248:2000 standard.

4.2.6.2.5 Nature of processed or stored materials


See Table 22.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


32
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 22. — Nature of processed or stored materials.

Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples


BE1 Negligible risks – –
Sites intended for the
processing or storage of
Presence of combustible
paper, hay, stray, wood
substances, such as fibers
BE2 Fire risks shavings, kindling wood,
and liquids with a high
cotton or wool fibers,
flash point
hydrocarbons, or granulated
plastic materials
Sites intended for the
processing or storage of
combustible powders
Presence of inflammable
(cornstarch, sugar, flour,
substances, such as liquids
phenolic resins, plastics,
with a low flash point; gases
BE3 Risks of explosion sulfur, aluminum,
and fumes; combustible
magnesium, etc.); chemical
powders subject to explosion;
plants and oil refineries; gas
and explosive substances
plants and storage facilities;
explosives factories and
storage facilities
Food-product industrial
plants; large-scale kitchens.
Presence of food products, Certain precautions may
pharmaceutical products, be necessary in order to
BE4 Risks of contamination
and similar products, prevent in-process products
with no protection from being contaminated, for
example, by fragments of
lamps.

4.2.6.3 Building and edifice construction


4.2.6.3.1 Construction materials
See Table 23.
Table 23. — Construction materials.

Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples

CA1 Non-combustible – –

Buildings and edifices


Wooden buildings and
CA2 Combustible constructed predominantly
other edifices
with combustible materials

4.2.6.3.2 The structure of buildings and edifices


See Table 24.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


3
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 24. — The structure of buildings and edifices.

Code Classification Characteristics Applications and examples


CB1 Negligible risks
Buildings and edifices whose Very tall buildings and
Subject to fire shape and size facilitate fire edifices, or those with
CB2
propagation propagation (for example, forced-air ventilation
due to the chimney effect) systems
Risks due, for example, to
shifts between different parts
Long buildings and edifices,
Subject to of a building or edifice, or
CB3 or those constructed on
movement between the structure and the
unstable ground
ground; settling of the ground
or of the foundations
Fragile structures or those Tents, inflatable structures,
Flexible or
CB4 subject to movement removable partitions, and
unstable
(for example, oscillation) suspended ceilings

NOTE: For more specific component classifications that go beyond the ones indicated in tables 1 through 24, please refer to the
IEC 60721-3-3 and IEC 60721-3-4 standards.

4.2.7 Compatibility
4.2.7.1 Appropriate measures should be taken when any characteristics of the components of the installation may
have harmful effects on other components, on other services, or on the proper operation of the power supply. These
characteristics involve, for example:
- Transient overvoltages
- Rapid power fluctuations
- Starting currents
- Harmonic currents
- DC components
- High-frequency oscillations
- Leakage currents

4.2.7.2 All of the components of an electrical installation must comply with the electromagnetic compatibility
requirements and with the specifications set forth in the applicable standards. However, such compliance does not
entail an exemption from compliance with the measures intended to reduce the effects of induced overvoltages and
of electromagnetic disturbances in general, as described in Subsection 5.4.
4.2.8 Maintenance
An estimate must be prepared of the frequency and quality of the maintenance work to be performed on the
installation throughout the duration of its useful lifetime. This factor must be taken into consideration for the
application of the requirements described in sections 5, 6, 7, and 8 below, so that:
- The periodic inspections, the tests, the maintenance work, and the necessary repairs can be performed easily
and safely;
- The effectiveness of the protective measures will be ensured; and
- The reliability of the components, in terms of the proper operation of the installation, will be compatible with the
expected useful lifetime of the installation.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


34
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5. Protection to ensure safety


5.1 Protection against electric shocks
5.1.1 Introduction
5.1.1.1 Fundamental principle
The underlying principle of the protective measures against shocks, as specified in this standard, can be summarized
in the following way:
- Hazardous live parts should not be accessible; and
- Accessible conductive ground connections or parts should not pose a hazard, either under normal conditions
or, in particular, in the event of a fault or failure that accidentally renders them live.
Accordingly, protection against electric shocks generally consists of two types of protection:
a) Basic protection (see Section 3.2.2), and
b) Supplemental protection (see Section 3.2.3).

NOTES:
1. The concepts and principles of protection against electric shocks that have been adopted here are the same ones set forth in
the IEC 61140 standard.
2. The concepts of "basic protection" and "supplemental protection" correspond respectively to the concepts of "protection against
direct contacts" and "protection against indirect contacts" that were in force up through the previous edition of this standard.
3. Examples of basic protection:
- Basic isolation or basic separation;
- The use of a barrier or enclosure; and
- Voltage limitation.
4. Examples of supplemental protection:
- Equipotentialization and automatic power cut-offs;
- Supplemental isolation; and
- Electrical separation.

5.1.1.2 General rule


The general rule for protection against electric shocks is that compliance with the principle stated in
Subsection 5.1.1.1 should be ensured, at a minimum, through the joint provision of basic protection and supplemental
protection, in the form of a combination of independent means or through the application of a measure that can
provide both types of protection simultaneously.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


3
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTE: Exceptions are described in subsections 5.1.5 and 5.1.6, which designate, respectively, the cases in which only partial
protection is acceptable and the cases in which the omission of any protection against electric shocks is acceptable.
5.1.1.3 Additional protection
The cases in which additional protection against electric shocks is required are specified in Subsection 5.1.3 and in
Section 9.
NOTE: See the definition of “additional protection” (in Subsection 3.2.4). The implementation of supplemental equipotentialization
measures and the use of high-sensitivity differential-residual protection are two examples of additional protection against electric
shocks.

5.1.2 Protective measures


5.1.2.1 General considerations
The protective measures against electric shocks are described in subsections 5.1.2.2 through 5.1.2.5. The
application of these measures, in general terms, is discussed in Subsection 5.1.4. The application of these measures
in specific situations or at specific sites is described in Section 9.
Regarding additional protection, the means of protection are described in Subsection 5.1.3, along with the cases of a
general nature in which this type of protection is mandatory. The requirement for additional protection is implicitly
present in the requirements set forth in Section 9.
NOTES:
1. Different measures may coexist within a single given installation.
2. In this standard, the term “measure”, as used in the phrase “protective measure against shocks", expressly refers to provisions
that comply with the general rule on protection against shocks (see Subsection 5.1.1.2) – that is, provisions that are capable of
ensuring, at a minimum, supplemental protection in addition to basic protection. The term “means”, as used in the phrase "means of
protection", is intended to characterize a resource as supplemental protection or as basic protection.

5.1.2.2 Equipotentialization and automatic power cut-offs


5.1.2.2.1 A precondition for basic protection must be satisfied through the isolation of the live parts and/or
through the use of barriers or enclosures, as described in Attachment "B".
5.1.2.2.2 Supplemental insurance must be ensured jointly through equipotentialization, as described in
Subsection 5.1.2.2.3, and through an automatic cut-off of the power supply, as described in Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.
NOTES:
1. Equipotentialization and the automatic cut-off of the power supply inseparably complement each other, because when
equipotentialization is not sufficient to prevent the occurrence of hazardous contact voltages, the automatic cut-off resource is
actuated, causing the shutdown of the circuit in which the hazardous contact voltage occurred.
2. For more information about this protective measure (i.e., equipotentialization and the automatic cut-off of the power supply),
see also the requirements in Subsection 5.1.4 and in Section 9.
5.1.2.2.3 Equipotentialization
NOTE: The requirements set forth in subsections 5.1.2.2.3.1 through 5.1.2.2.3.6 reflect the basic principles of equipotentialization
as applied to protection against electric shocks, presented in detailed form. In specific situations, compliance with any of these
requirements may automatically entail non-compliance with one or more other requirements.

5.1.2.2.3.1 All of the ground connections in an installation must be bonded to protective conductors.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


36
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTES:
1. The accessible conductive parts of components that are the subject of another protective measure against electric shocks
(other than equipotentialization and the automatic cut-off of the power supply) should not be bonded to protect conductors, unless
their grounding or equipotentialization was provided for functional reasons and does not compromise the safety provided by the
protective measure of which the said parts are the subject. As a general rule, examples of ungroundable accessible conductive
parts include metal enclosures for Class II components (see Subsection 5.1.2.3); equipment ground connections that are the subject
of individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4); and ground connections of Class III equipment (driven by an SELV
power source; see Subsection 5.1.2.5). For more information about the classification of installation components based on protection
against electric shocks (classes I, II, and III), see the IEC 61140 standard.
2. For more information about protective conductors, see Subsection 6.4.3.

5.1.2.2.3.2 Primary equipotentialization should be provided in each building or structure, in compliance with the
conditions specified in Subsection 6.4.2.1, along with as many supplemental equipotentialization measures as
necessary.
NOTE: For more information about supplemental equipotentialization measures, see Subsection 5.1.3.1.
5.1.2.2.3.3 All of the ground connections of the installation that are located in the same building or structure must
be linked to the primary equipotentialization of the building or structure, and, consequently (see Subsection 6.4.2.1),
to a single, unique grounding electrode. These arrangements shall be implemented without prejudice to any
additional equipotentialization measures that may be necessary for protection against shocks and/or for
electromagnetic compatibility.
5.1.2.2.3.4 Simultaneously accessible ground connections must be linked to a single grounding electrode,
without prejudice to any additional equipotentialization measures that may be necessary for protection against shocks
and/or for electromagnetic compatibility.
5.1.2.2.3.5 Ground connections that are protected against electric shocks by the same single device, in
accordance with the rules for protection via the automatic cut-off of the power supply (see Subsection 5.1.2.2.4),
should be linked to the same single grounding electrode, without prejudice to any additional equipotentialization
measures that may be necessary for protection against shocks and/or for electromagnetic compatibility.
NOTE: (common to all of the requirements set forth in subsections 5.1.2.2.3.3 through 5.1.2.2.3.5): The "link” mentioned in these
subsections should not be interpreted in the restricted sense of a direct bond with the grounding electrode. Furthermore, in most
practical cases, this bond is an indirect one, implemented via protective conductors. The branched structure of the protective
conductors creates a natural interconnection between the grounding electrode and the ground connections, regardless of how far
away they are located.

5.1.2.2.3.6 All of the circuits must have a protective conductor over their entire length.
NOTE: A protective conductor may be shared by more than one circuit, in compliance with the provisions of Subsection 6.4.3.1.5.
5.1.2.2.3.7 Exemption from the equipotentialization measures shall be authorized for the following elements:
a) The metal brackets of insulators for overhead lines that are secured to a building or structure and that are
beyond arm's reach;
b) Reinforced-concrete posts in which the armature is not accessible; and
c) Ground connections that, because of their small size (up to approximately 50 mm x 50 mm) or because of their
arrangement, cannot be grasped or cannot establish significant contact with a part of the human body, provided
that the link to a protective conductor is difficult or unreliable.
NOTE: This provision applies, for example, to bolts, pins, data plates, and the clamps used to secure conductors.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


3
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.1.2.2.4 Automatic cut-off of the power supply


5.1.2.2.4.1 General considerations
The principle of the automatic cut-off of the power supply, its relationship with the various grounding systems, and the
general aspects relating to its application and the conditions under which additional protection is necessary are
described below.
a) The automatic cut-off principle: A protective device should automatically cut off the supply of power to the circuit
or to the piece of equipment that is protected by it whenever a fault (between a live part and the ground
connection, or between a live part and a protective conductor) in the circuit or in the piece of equipment produces
a contact voltage that is greater than the pertinent value of the limit contact voltage (UL);
NOTES:
1. The limit contact voltages for different situations, depending on the dominant external influences, are shown in
Attachment “C”.
2. In the particular case of IT systems, an automatic cut-off is generally neither desirable nor necessary for the first
occurrence of a fault (see paragraph (b) of Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.4).

b) Automatic cut-off and grounding systems: The conditions to be observed in connection with the automatic cut-off
of the power supply (including the maximum acceptable time for actuation of the protective device) shall be the
ones described in Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.2, for the TN grounding system; in Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.3, for the TT
grounding system; and in Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.4, for the IT grounding system.
c) Longer cut-off times: (i) Regardless of the grounding system, a cut-off time shall be permitted that is longer than
the ones discussed in paragraph (b), but not longer than 5 seconds, for distribution circuits and for terminal
circuits that supply power only to stationary equipment, provided that a fault in the distribution circuit, terminal
circuit, or stationary equipment (for which the cut-off time of up to 5 seconds is being considered), does not
propagate – to portable equipment or to movable equipment that is operating and that is being manually
relocated, which equipment is linked to other terminal circuits within the installation – a contact voltage that
exceeds the pertinent UL value;
d) Longer cut-off times: (ii) As indicated in Subsection 5.1.4.4, cut-off times shall be permitted that are longer than
the maximum ones imposed by a given situation involving an external influence, if compensatory provisions are
adopted;
e) Additional protection: If, during the application of the automatic cut-off of the power supply, it is not possible to
achieve the maximum cut-off times mentioned in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d), then supplemental
equipotentialization must be provided, as described in Subsection 5.1.3.1.
5.1.2.2.4.2 The TN system
The following requirements must be obeyed:
a) Equipotentialization via protective conductors, as described in Subsection 5.1.2.2.3, must be provided by a single
general system involving all of the installation's ground connections, and must be interlinked with the grounded
supply point (usually the neutral point); and
b) it is recommended that the protective conductors be grounded at as many points as possible. For large-scale
structures, such as high-rise buildings, local equipotentializations between protective conductors and conductive
building elements serve as multiple grounding points for the protective conductor;
c) The use of a single, unique conductor to serve as both a protective conductor and a neutral conductor (i.e., the
PEN conductor) shall be subject to the provisions of Subsection 5.4.3.6, the requirements of Subsection 6.4.6.2,
and, furthermore, shall be permitted only in fixed installations;

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


38
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

d) The characteristics of the protective device and the impedance of the circuit must be such that, if a negligible
impedance fault occurs at any point between a phase conductor and the protective conductor or a ground
connection, the automatic cut-off will take place within a period of time that is equal, at a maximum, to the time
specified in Table 25. The requirement shall be deemed to have been met if the following condition is satisfied:

where:
Zs is the impedance (in ohms) of the fault-current path, consisting of the source, from the live conductor to
the point where the fault occurred, and of the protective conductor, from the point where the fault occurred to
the source;
Ia is the current (in amperes) that ensures the actuation of the protective device within a period of time that is
equal, at a maximum, to the time specified in Table 25 or to 5 seconds, for the cases described in
paragraph (c) of Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.1; and
Uo is the nominal voltage (in volts) between phase and neutral. This value is effective for alternating current.
e) In the TN system, the automatic cut-off for protection against electric shocks may make use of the following
protective devices:
- Overcurrent protection devices;
- Differential-residual current-protection devices (DR devices), in compliance with the provisions of paragraph (f)
below; and
f) In the TN-C variant of the TN system, the automatic cut-off function for protection against electric shocks must
not be assigned to the DR devices.
NOTES:
1. In order for the use of a DR device to be permitted, the TN-C system must be converted, immediately upstream of the device
installation point, into a TN-C-S system. In other words, the PEN conductor must be divided into two separate conductors for the
neutral and PE functions. This separation must be done on the source side of the DR device, with the neutral conductor then
running inside the device and the PE conductor running outside of it.
2. In the separation between neutral and PE mentioned in Note 1 above, the conductor responsible for fulfilling the PE function
does not need to be bonded to the PEN on the source side of the DR device, but instead may be bonded to any grounding electrode
whose resistance is compatible with the device-actuation current. In this case, however, the circuit protected in this way must then
be deemed to be compliant with the TT system, such that the requirements set forth in Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.3 shall be applicable.

Table 25. — Maximum cut-off times in the TN system.

Uo Cut-off time (in seconds)


V
Situation 1 Situation 2
115, 120, 127 0.8 0.35
220 0.4 0.20
254 0.4 0.20
277 0.4 0.20
400 0.2 0.05
NOTES:
1. Uo is the nominal voltage between phase and neutral. This value is effective for
alternating current.
2. Situations 1 and 2 are defined in Attachment “C”.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


3
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.1.2.2.4.3 The TT system


The following requirements must be obeyed:
a) In the TN system, the automatic cut-off for protection against electric shocks may make use of differential-
residual current devices (DR devices);
b) The following condition must be met:

where:
RA is the sum of the resistances (in ohms) of the grounding electrode and of the protective conductors of the
ground connections;
IΔn is the nominal differential-residual current of the DR device (in amperes); and
UL is the limit contact voltage (in volts).
NOTE: The limit contact voltages for different situations, depending on the dominant external influences, are shown in
Attachment “C”. When a given single installation contains ground connections that are in different situations (for example, with
some ground connections subject to external influences, characterizable as “Situation 1”, and with other ground connections in
“Situation 2”) and that are bonded to the same grounding electrode, then the lower value of UL must be adopted.

5.1.2.2.4.4 The IT system


The following requirements must be obeyed:
a) In the IT system, as defined in Subsection 4.2.2.2.3, the power supply is isolated from ground or is grounded
through an impedance having a sufficiently high value. In this case, the grounded point is the neutral point of the
power supply or an artificial neutral point. If the neutral point is an artificial one, it may be bonded directly to
ground if its zero-sequence impedance is high or sufficient;
NOTE: The need to reduce overvoltages and the need to damp voltage oscillations may lead to the implementation of an IT
system with grounding through impedance or artificial neutral points. The characteristics of this type of grounding must be
compatible with the characteristics of the installation.

b) In an IT-based installation, the fault current (in the event of a single fault to ground or to a ground connection) is
a low-intensity current, such that the automatic cut-off of the power supply will not be mandatory if the condition
set forth in paragraph (c) is met. However, steps should be taken to avoid the risk of hazardous contact voltages
in the event of the occurrence of a second fault, involving another live conductor, as prescribed in paragraph (e);
NOTE: Bearing in mind the typical reasons for the adoption of an IT system, the adoption of this system in practice is pointless if
the first fault is not detected and eliminated early.

c) In order for an automatic cut-off not to be mandatory in the event of a first fault to ground or to a ground
connection, the following condition must be met:

where:
RA is the resistance (in ohms) of the grounding electrode for the ground connections;

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


40
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Id is the fault current (in amperes) resulting from a first direct fault between a phase conductor and a ground
connection. The value of Id takes into consideration the natural leakage currents and the overall impedance
of the installation’s grounding system; and
UL is the limit contact voltage.
NOTE: When a given single installation contains ground connections that are in different situations (for example, with some
ground connections subject to external influences, characterizable as “Situation 1”, and with other ground connections in
“Situation 2”) and that are bonded to the same grounding electrode, then the lower value of UL must be adopted.

d) An isolation monitoring device (IMD) must be provided, in order to indicate the occurrence of an initial fault to
ground or to a ground connection. This device should actuate an audible and/or visual alarm, which should
continue for as long as the fault persists. If there are two alarms (audible and visual), then the audible alarm may
be deactivated. However, the visual alarm must not be deactivated, but instead must continue until the fault has
been resolved.
NOTE: The initial fault must be located and resolved as quickly as possible. Therefore, the use of fault-location monitoring
systems is recommended.

e) The automatic cut-off of the power supply in order to provide protection against electric shocks in the event of a
second fault must be worked out in accordance with the rules defined for the TN or TT system, depending on
how the ground connections are grounded:
- When the protection involves ground connections or groups of ground connections bonded to different
grounding electrodes, the applicable conditions shall be the ones prescribed for the TT system.
- When the protection involves ground connections or groups of ground connections that are all interlinked by
a protective conductor (and all of them are bonded to the same grounding electrode), the applicable
considerations shall be the ones for the TN system. When neutral is not distributed, the following condition
must be met:

or the following condition, if neutral is distributed:

where:
Zs is the impedance (in ohms) of the fault-current path when neutral is not distributed, consisting of the
phase conductor and the circuit-protection conductor;
Z’s is the impedance (in ohms) of the fault-current path when neutral is distributed, consisting of the neutral
conductor and the circuit-protection conductor;
U is the nominal voltage between phases (in volts). This value is effective for alternating current;
Uo is the nominal voltage (in volts) between phase and neutral. This value is effective for alternating current;
Ia is the current that ensures the actuation of the protective device within a period of time that is equal, at a
maximum, to the time specified in Table 26 or to 5 seconds, for the cases described in paragraph (c) of
Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.1.
f) In the IT system, the automatic cut-off for protection against electric shocks in the event of a second fault can
make use of the following protective devices:
- Overcurrent protection devices;
- Differential-residual current-protection devices (DR devices).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


4
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 26. — Maximum cut-off times in the IT system (second fault).

Nominal circuit voltage Cut-off time (in seconds)


U Uo Non-distributed neutral Distributed neutral
V V Situation 1 Situation 2 Situation 1 Situation 2
208, 220, 230 115, 120, 127 0.8 0.4 5 1
380, 400 220, 230 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.5
440, 480 254, 277 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.5
690 400 0.2 0.06 0.4 0.2
NOTES:
1. U is the nominal voltage between phases. This value is effective for alternating current.
2. Uo is the nominal voltage between phase and neutral. This value is effective for alternating current.
3. For intermediate voltage values, the immediately next higher value (in the table) should be adopted.

5.1.2.3 Dual or reinforced insulation


5.1.2.3.1 General considerations
5.1.2.3.1.1 Dual or reinforced insulation is a measure in which:
a) Basic protection is provided by basic insulation, and supplemental protection is provided by supplemental
insulation; or
b) Both basic and supplemental protection are provided simultaneously by reinforced insulation located between
the live parts and the accessible parts.
5.1.2.3.1.2 The implementation of this measure as a single means of protection (for example, in the form of
circuits or parts of the installation consisting entirely of components with dual insulation or with reinforced insulation)
will be accepted only if all of the proper steps are taken to ensure that any subsequent changes do not pose a risk to
the effectiveness of the measure. Furthermore, under no circumstances will the application of dual or reinforced
insulation be accepted as the sole protective measure for lines that contain access points.
NOTE: The steps mentioned in Subsection 5.1.2.3.1.2 may include the direct and ongoing control of the resulting part by aware
or qualified persons (BA4 or BA5; see Table 18).

5.1.2.3.1.3 The use of dual or reinforced insulation as a protective measure involves two options:
a) Components whose dual or reinforced insulation is part of their original equipment; or
b) Components whose dual or reinforced insulation is provided during the creation of the installation.
In the case in paragraph (a), the pertinent specifications are the ones set forth in Subsection 5.1.2.3.2, and in the
case in paragraph (b), they are the ones set forth in Subsection 5.1.2.3.3. In the specific case of electrical lines, the
requirements of Subsection 5.1.2.3.4 must also be met.
5.1.2.3.2 Original dual or reinforced isolation
5.1.2.3.2.1 The components must have undergone type-testing, shall be labeled in accordance with the
applicable standards, and shall consist of:
a) Components with dual or reinforced insulation (Class II equipment); or

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


42
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

b) Assemblies with full insulation (see parts 1 and 3 of the ABNT NBR IEC 60439-1 standard and parts 2, 4, and 5
of the IEC 60439 standard).
NOTES:

1. These products shall be identified by the symbol .


2. For more information about the classification of installation components based on protection against electric
shocks (classes I, II, and III), see the IEC 61140 standard.
5.1.2.3.2.2 The installation of the components (securing, connection of the conductors, etc.) shall be done in
accordance with the respective standards, in such a way that their original protection is not harmed.
5.1.2.3.3 Dual or reinforced insulation provided during installation
5.1.2.3.3.1 Supplemental insulation (for components with basic insulation), or dual or reinforced insulation (for
components with no insulation) must be provided in the form of insulating enclosures that meet the requirements set
forth in subsections 5.1.2.3.3.2 through 5.1.2.3.3.6. The safety afforded by the supplemental, dual, or reinforced
insulation must be equivalent to the safety of the components that comply with the provisions of
Subsection 5.1.2.3.2.1.
NOTES:

1. The symbol must be affixed in a visible position on the outside and on the inside of the enclosure.
2. The use of reinforced insulation shall be acceptable for components with no insulation only if the conditions do not allow the
use of dual insulation.

5.1.2.3.3.2 The insulating enclosure intended to provide supplemental insulation (for components whose
insulation is part of their original equipment, or for components whose basic insulation was provided, on a preliminary
basis, during the installation phase) should have a protection level of at least Class IPXXB or Class IP2X.
5.1.2.3.3.3 The insulating enclosure must not be penetrated by conductive parts or elements that might
propagate a potential. The insulating enclosure must not have bolts made of an insulating material whose
replacement by metallic bolts might compromise the insulation provided by the enclosure.
NOTE: If the insulating enclosure must be penetrated by mechanical coupling parts (such as the control levers of devices or
equipment located inside the enclosure), the said parts must be arranged so as not to compromise the (supplemental) protection
provided by the enclosure.

5.1.2.3.3.4 If the insulating enclosure has covers or doors that can be opened without the use of a tool or key, an
insulating barrier must be provided that prevents accidental contact between persons and the conductive parts that
otherwise, without the barrier, might become accessible when the cover or door is opened. This barrier must ensure
at least a Class IPXXB or Class IP2X level of protection, and must not be removable without the use of a tool.
5.1.2.3.3.5 Conductive parts located inside the insulating enclosure must not be bonded to the protective
conductor. If the insulating enclosure must be penetrated by protective conductors that constitute an integral part of
circuits intended to supply power to other equipment, then these protective conductors and their connections must be
insulated as through they were live parts. Furthermore, their connections must also be appropriately marked or
identified.
Similarly, accessible conductive parts and intermediate conductive parts must not be bonded to the protective
conductor, unless such bonding is required and indicated in the specifications for the piece of equipment in question,
particularly for reasons other than protection against shocks.
5.1.2.3.3.6 The enclosure must not impair the operation of the equipment protected by it.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


4
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.1.2.3.4 Electrical lines


5.1.2.3.4.1 Electrical lines that meet the requirements of Subsection 6.2 may be implemented in accordance with
the concept of dual or reinforced insulation if they:
a) consist of single-core or multicore cables that may or may not be located in conduits, and, in this case,
regardless of the type of conduit; or
b) are placed in non-metallic closed conducts, in accordance with the provisions of the IEC 61084-1, IEC 60614-1,
or IEC 61386-1 standard, provided that, at a minimum, insulated conductors are used.

However, such electrical lines should not be identified by the symbol or by the symbol.
5.1.2.3.4.2 The fact that an electrical circuit is intended to supply power to Class II equipment shall not constitute
an exemption from the requirement for the presence of a protective conductor, even if the electrical line that contains
the circuit is implemented in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.3.4.1.
5.1.2.4 Use of individual electrical separation
5.1.2.4.1 The precondition of basic protection in the separated circuit must be met by isolating the live parts
and/or by using barriers or enclosures, as described in Attachment ”B”, without of course excluding dual or reinforced
isolation, as described in Subsection 5.1.2.3.
5.1.2.4.2 In order for supplemental protection to be ensured, the following three conditions must be met:
a) Protective separation between the circuit that is the subject of the measure (i.e., the separated circuit) and any
other circuit, including the primary circuit that supplies power to it;
b) (Basic) isolation between the separated circuit and ground;
c) Limitation of the load supplied (by the separated circuit) to any single piece of equipment.
Thus, these conditions imply the presence of a source of separation, which must comply with the requirements of
Subsection 5.1.2.4.3, and observance of the appropriate precautions in the implementation of the separated circuit,
as described in Subsection 5.1.2.4.4.
NOTE: It is recommended that the product of the nominal voltage (in volts) of the separated circuit, [multiplied] by the length (in
meters) of its constituent electrical line not exceed 100,000 [volts], and that the length of the electrical line not exceed 500 meters.

5.1.2.4.3 Separation source


5.1.2.4.3.1 The source of the separated circuit, as described in Subsection 5.1.2.4.2, must have protective
separation. This means that the source must be:
a) A separation transformer, in compliance with the IEC 61558-2-4 standard and/or in compliance with other
specifications in the IEC 61558 series, such as the IEC 61558-2-5 standard; or
b) A source, such as an appropriate motor-generator set, that ensures a level of safety equivalent to that of the
above-mentioned separation transformer.
5.1.2.4.3.2 Mobile separation sources must comply with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.3.
5.1.2.4.3.3 Stationary separation sources must:
a) comply with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.3, or

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


44
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

b) Be such that the secondary circuit is separated from the primary circuit and from the enclosure by isolation that
satisfies the conditions described in Subsection 5.1.2.3.
5.1.2.4.4 Separated circuit
5.1.2.4.4.1 The live parts of the separated circuit must not be connected, at any point, to another circuit, to
ground, or to a protective conductor.
NOTE: In particular, live parts of devices such as relays, contactors, and auxiliary switches must maintain, in relation to any part
of other circuits, including those to which they are magnetically coupled, a level of separation equivalent to the one provided by the
protective separation.

5.1.2.4.4.2 Cables and flexible cords must be visible over the entire length of any and all segments that are
subject to mechanical damage.
5.1.2.4.4.3 It is recommended that the separated circuit be an exclusive electrical line, physically separated from
the lines of other circuits. If a single electrical line must unavoidably be shared by the conductors of the separated
circuit and by the conductors of other circuits, the line must consist of:
a) Insulated conductors located in an insulating closed conduit; or
b) A multicore cable without a metal covering (sharing of the longitudinal housing or sheath (“vein”) of a multicore
cable),
with all of the insulated conductors for the highest nominal voltage being present, and with the further requirement
that each circuit be protected against overcurrents.
5.1.2.4.4.4 The accessible conductive parts (ground connections) of the separated circuit must not be bonded to
protective conductors, to the ground connections of other circuits, or to ground.
NOTE: If it is possible that the ground connections of the separated circuit might come into contact, either accidentally or
intentionally, with the ground connections of other circuits, then the protection against electric shocks must no longer depend solely
on the protection provided by the electrical separation, but rather on the means of protection of which the other ground connections
are the subject.

5.1.2.5 Use of extra-low voltage: SELV and PELV


NOTE: SELV [separated extra-low voltage] circuits do not contain any grounded points or any ground connections.
PELV [protected extra-low voltage] circuits may be grounded and may have ground connections.
5.1.2.5.1 Depending on the nominal voltage of the SELV or PELV system and on the conditions of use, basic
protection shall be provided by means of:
a) Voltage limitation; or
b) Basic insulation, or the use of barriers or enclosures.
Accordingly, the live parts of an SELV or PELV system do not necessarily need to be inaccessible, and may possess
basic insulation, a barrier, or an enclosure, if:
a) The nominal voltage of the SELV or PELV system does not exceed 25 V (effective value for alternating current)
or 60 V (for direct current without ripples), and the system is used under conditions of external influence whose
severity, in terms of safety against electric shocks, does not exceed the severity level for Situation 1 as defined in
Attachment C; or
b) The nominal voltage of the SELV or PELV system does not exceed 12 V (effective value for alternating current)
or 30 V (for direct current without ripples), and the system is used under conditions of external influence whose
severity, in terms of safety against electric shocks, does not exceed the severity level for Situation 2 as defined in
Attachment C; and

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


4
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

c) Furthermore, for PELV systems, if the ground connections, and/or the live parts intended to be grounded, are
bonded via protective conductors to the primary equipotentialization.
If these conditions are not satisfied, then the live parts of the SELV or PELV system must have basic insulation
and/or barriers or enclosures, as described in Attachment ”B”.
In any event, the nominal voltage of the SELV or PELV system shall not exceed the upper limit of Range I (see
Attachment ”A”), i.e., 50 VAC or 120 VDC without ripples.
NOTE: DC voltage “without ripples” is traditionally defined as voltage whose ripple rate does not exceed 10% in terms of effective
value. The maximum peak value should not exceed 140 V for a DC system without ripples and a nominal rating of 120 V, or 70 V
for a DC system without ripples and a nominal rating of 60 V.

5.1.2.5.2 In SELV and PELV systems, supplemental protection is provided by:


a) Protective separation between the SELV or PELV system and any circuits that are not SELV or PELV circuits,
including the primary circuit of the SELV or PELV source;
b) Basic insulation between the SELV or PELV system and other SELV or PELV systems; and
c) Specifically for SELV systems, basic insulation between the SELV system and ground.
The source of the SELV or PELV system must comply with the requirements of Subsection 5.1.2.5.3, and [the source
of] the SELV or PELV circuits must comply with the requirements of Subsection 5.1.2.5.4.
5.1.2.5.3 SELV or PELV sources
5.1.2.5.3.1 Acceptable SELV or PELV sources shall be the ones that are listed in subsections 5.1.2.5.3.2 through
5.1.2.5.3.5.
NOTES:
1. If the extra-low-voltage system is driven, starting from a higher-voltage system, by any source that does not
ensure at least basic separation between the two systems (as occurs in the case of autotransformers, semiconductor
devices, etc.), then the output circuit shall be treated as part of the input circuit and must be the subject of means of
protection applied to the input circuit.
2. If the extra-low-voltage system is driven, starting from a higher-voltage system, by a piece of equipment that
ensures at least basic separation between the two systems but does not meet the requirements of the options listed
in subsections 5.1.2.5.3.2 through 5.1.2.5.3.5, it shall be classified only as a “functional extra-low-voltage systems”
(abbreviated as “FELV”). However, it shall not be treated as a means of protection, and therefore the system and its
[power] source must be the subject of a protective measure applied to the highest-voltage system from which it is
derived. This protective measure typically consists of protection via equipotentialization and the automatic cut-off of
the power supply.
5.1.2.5.3.2 The safety separation transformer must comply with the provisions of the IEC 61558-2-6 standard.
5.1.2.5.3.3 Current source guaranteeing a level of safety equal to that of the safety separation transformer
specified in Subsection 5.1.2.5.3.2 (for example, a motor-generator set with windings providing equivalent insulation.
NOTE: Semiconductor[-based] converters that produce extra-low DC output voltages (see the IEC 60146-2 standard) require an
internal AC voltage circuit in order to [supply] power [to] the rectifier stage. For physical reasons, this internal AC voltage exceeds
the DC output voltage. However, the protective separation required for an SELV or PELV source, between the extra-low-voltage
output circuit and the primary higher-voltage circuit that powers it, shall not apply to this internal AC voltage circuit of the
semiconductor[-based] converter.

5.1.2.5.3.4 Electrochemical sources (such as batteries or capacitors) or other sources that do not depend on
higher-voltage circuits (such as a thermal-motor generator group).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


46
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.1.2.5.3.5 Certain electronic devices, in accordance with the applicable standards, in which steps have been
taken to ensure that, even in case of an internal failure, the voltage at the output terminals cannot exceed the limits
indicated in Subsection 5.1.2.5.1. However, higher values may be permitted if it is ensured that, in case of contact
with a live part or in case of a fault between a live part and ground, the voltage at the output terminals is immediately
reduced to a value less than or equal to these limits.
NOTES:
1. Examples of such devices include isolation test equipment and isolation monitoring devices.
2. Even if the voltage initially detected at the output terminals is higher, the requirement stated in Subsection 5.1.2.5.3.5 may be
deemed to have been met if, after measurement with a voltmeter indicating a minimum internal resistance of 3,000 Ω, the voltage at
the output terminals is between the limits specified in Subsection 5.1.2.5.1.

5.1.2.5.3.6 Mobile versions of SELV or PELV sources must also comply with the provisions of
Subsection 5.1.2.3.
5.1.2.5.4 SELV and PELV circuits
5.1.2.5.4.1 The protective separation mentioned in Subsection 5.1.2.5.2 between the live parts of the SELV or
PELV circuits and the live parts of non-SELV or non-PELV circuits must be ensured by:
a) Dual or reinforced insulation, scaled for the highest voltage that is present; or
b) Basic insulation and protective shielding, likewise scaled for the highest voltage that is present.
NOTE: Protective separation must be provided between the live parts of devices such as relays, contacts, or auxiliary switches
and any parts of a higher-voltage system. This protective separation must be equivalent at least to the protective separation that is
present between the primary and secondary windings of a safety separation transformer.

5.1.2.5.4.2 In accordance with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.5.2, basic insulation must be provided:
a) Between the live parts of an SELV or PELV circuit, and between them and the live parts of other SELV or PELV
circuits; and
b) Between the live parts of an SELV circuit and ground.
5.1.2.5.4.3 The forms of protective separation described in Subsection 5.1.2.5.4.1 lead to the following options
for the implementation of the SELV or PELV electrical lines, any one of which shall be acceptable:
a) The conductors in the SELV and/or PELV circuits are equipped with non-metallic coverings or are surrounded by
an insulating wrapper, in addition to their basic insulation;
b) The conductors in the SELV and/or PELV circuits are equipped with basic insulation [and are] separated from the
conductors in the circuits at other voltages by a grounded metal covering or by grounded metal shielding;
c) Sharing, by the SELV and/or PELV circuit and other circuits at other voltages, of a single multicore cable,
provided that the conductors (especially those of the SELV and/or PELV circuit) are insulated with regard to the
highest voltage that is present;
d) SELV and/or PELV conductors, and conductors in other circuits at other voltages, are all provided with their
basic insulation, forming a group, provided that the conductors (especially those of the SELV and/or PELV
circuit) are insulated with regard to the highest voltage that is present;
e) Conductors in the SELV and/or PELV circuits that are physically separated from the conductors in any other
circuit(s).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


4
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.1.2.5.4.4 The plugs and sockets of the SELV and PELV circuits must meet the following requirements:
a) It must not be possible to insert an SELV or PELV plug into sockets at other voltages;
b) The SELV or PELV socket must prevent the insertion of plugs relating to other voltages; and
c) The sockets in the SELV system must not be in contact with a protective conductor.
5.1.2.5.4.5 The live parts of the SELV circuits must not be connected to ground or to the live parts or protective
conductors of other circuits.
5.1.2.5.4.6 The ground connections of the SELV circuits must not be intentionally connected:
- To ground;
- To protective conductors or to ground connections in other circuits; and/or
- To conductive elements, unless the connection to conductive elements is a necessity inherent in the use of the
equipment supplied with SELV power, and provided that it is possible to rule out the risk of propagation, to the
SELV ground connection, of the difference in potential greater than the limit contact voltage that is valid for the
applicable external-influence situation (see Attachment ”C”).
NOTE: If it is possible that the ground connections of the SELV’s circuit might come into contact, either accidentally or
intentionally, with the ground connections of other circuits, then the protection against electric shocks must no longer depend solely
on the protection provided by the SELV system, but also on the means of protection applied to those other circuits.

5.1.2.5.4.7 The PELV systems and/or their ground connections may be grounded.
5.1.3 Additional protection
5.1.3.1 Supplemental equipotentialization
5.1.3.1.1 Supplemental equipotentialization must be implemented whenever the conditions associated with the
means of protection through equipotentialization and the automatic cut-off of the power supply (see
Subsection 5.1.2.2) cannot be fully satisfied, and in all of the cases, as described in Section 9, in which it is required.
NOTES:
1. Supplemental equipotentialization shall not obviate the need for the cut-off of the power supply for other reasons
(for example, protection against fire, against overheating of the equipment, etc.).
2. Supplemental equipotentialization may involve the entire installation, a part thereof, a piece of equipment, or a
site.
3. Additional requirements may be necessary for specific sites (see Section 9) or for other purposes.
5.1.3.1.2 Supplemental equipotentialization must cover all simultaneously accessible conductive elements,
whether they are the ground connections of stationary equipment or the conductive elements of the building or
structure or of its utilities, including the armatures of reinforced concrete. Connections must be provided between this
equipotentialization and the protective conductors of all of the equipment, including the protective conductors of the
power sockets.
NOTE: No bonding for the purpose of equipotentialization or grounding, including connections to the armatures of the [reinforced]
concrete, shall be used as an alternative to the protective conductors of the circuits. As specified in Subsection 5.1.2.2.3.6, all of the
circuits must have a protective conductor over their entire length (see also Subsection 6.4.3.1.5).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


48
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.1.3.1.3 In the event of uncertainty, the effectiveness of the supplemental equipotentialization must be checked
and confirmed, ensuring that the resistance (R) between any ground connection and any simultaneously accessible
conductive element (regardless of whether it is another ground connection or a conductive element that does not
belong to the electrical installation) meets the following condition:

where:
UL is the limit contact voltage (in volts);
Ia is the actuation current (in amperes) of the protective device, corresponding to:
- IΔn for differential-residual current protective devices; or
- 5-second actuation current for overcurrent devices.
NOTE: The limit contact voltages for different situations are listed in Attachment ”C”.
5.1.3.2 Use of high-sensitivity differential-residual devices
5.1.3.2.1 General considerations
5.1.3.2.1.1 The use of differential-residual current protective devices whose nominal differential-residual current
(IΔn) is less than or equal to 30 mA shall be recognized as additional protection against electric shocks.
NOTE: The additional protection provided by the use of a high-sensitivity differential-residual device relates to circumstances
such as the failure of other means of protection and the carelessness or recklessness of the user.

5.1.3.2.1.2 The use of such devices shall not be recognized as constituting, per se, a full protective measure.
Under no circumstances shall it constitute an exemption from the use of one of the protective measures described in
subsections 5.1.2.2 through 5.1.2.5.
5.1.3.2.2 Cases in which the use of a high-sensitivity differential-residual device as additional protection
is mandatory
In addition to the cases described in Section 9, and regardless of the grounding system, the following circuits must be
the subject of additional protection provided by differential-residual current devices whose nominal differential-
residual current (IΔn) is less than or equal to 30 mA:
a) Circuits that serve points of use located in areas containing bathtubs or showers (see Subsection 9.1);
b) Circuits that feed power sockets located in areas outside the building or structure;
c) Circuits of power sockets that are located in internal areas and that may be used to supply power to equipment
located outside the building or structure;
d) Circuits that, in residences, serve points of use located in kitchens, pantries, laundry rooms, service areas,
garages, and other internal rooms that are wet during normal use or that are subject to being washed;
e) Circuits that, in non-residential buildings, serve access points located in kitchens, pantries, laundry rooms,
service areas, garages, and, in general, internal areas that are wet during normal use or that are subject to being
washed.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


4
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTES:
1. For power sockets, the requirement for additional protection via high-sensitivity DR devices applies to sockets whose nominal
current is up to 32 A.
2. This requirement shall not apply to circuits or to sectors of the installation that are designed in accordance with the IT system,
with a view toward ensuring continuity of service when such continuity is essential to personal safety and to the preservation of life,
such as the provision of power to hospital operating rooms or safety services.
3. Points that supply power to lighting fixtures located at a height equal to or greater than 2.50 meters shall be excluded from the
points listed in paragraph (d) above.
4. When the risk of the disconnection of freezers due to untimely actuation of the protection, associated with a hypothesized
prolonged absence of persons, entails significant losses and/or health-related consequences, it is recommended that the power
sockets provided for such pieces of equipment are protected by DR devices with a high level of immunity to transient perturbations;
that, whenever possible, the freezer’s own power circuit is an independent one; and that, if another DR device is present and is
located upstream of the high-immunity DR device, selectivity between the devices is ensured. (For more information about
selectivity between DR devices, see Subsection 6.3.6.3.2.) Alternatively, instead of a DR device, the socket intended for the freezer
may be protected by individual electrical separation, in which case it is recommended that the associated circuit be independent,
and that if a DR device is located upstream, it should be of a type that is immune to transient perturbations.

5. The protection of the circuits may be implemented individually, by point of use, by circuit, or by group of circuits.

5.1.4 Application of the protective measures against electric shocks


5.1.4.1 Different protective measures against electric shocks may be applied and may coexist in the same
installation.
5.1.4.2 The general measure to be used for protection against shocks consists of equipotentialization and the
automatic cut-off of the power supply (see Subsection 5.1.2.2). The other protective measures against electric
shocks, as described in this standard, shall be accepted or even required in certain specific situations, in order to
compensate for general difficulties in the provision of the measure or in order to compensate for the insufficiency of
the measure in areas or situations in which the risks of electric shock are greater or the consequences are more
hazardous.
5.1.4.3 The protective measure consisting of equipotentialization and the automatic cut-off of the power supply
shall not be applicable in Situation 3, as defined in Attachment ”C”.
5.1.4.4 In the application of the protective measure consisting of equipotentialization and the automatic cut-off of
the power supply, the maximum cut-off times in Situation 2 shall be the ones that are valid for Situation 1 if at least
one of the following compensatory arrangements is adopted:
a) Supplemental equipotentialization, as described in Subsection 5.1.3.1. The condition prescribed in
Subsection 5.1.3.1.3 must be met for the limit contact voltage value UL for Situation 2; or
b) Use of differential-residual current devices whose nominal differential-residual current does not exceed 30 mA,
as specified in Subsection 5.1.3.2.1.
NOTE: Situations 1, 2, and 3 are defined in Attachment ”C”.
5.1.4.5 In SELV or PELV systems (see Subsection 5.1.2.5) in which the SELV or PELV circuits consist, in whole
or in part, of accessible live parts, the nominal voltage of the SELV or PELV circuit must not exceed:
a) An effective value of 25 VAC, or 60 VDC without ripples, if the system is used in Situation 1, as defined in
Attachment ”C”; or
b) An effective value of 12 VAC, or 30 VDC without ripples, if the system is used in Situation 2, as defined in
Attachment ”C”.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


50
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.1.4.6 The protective measures against electric shocks to be applied in specific installations or areas shall be the
ones described in the pertinent subsections of Section 9. These application sites shall include areas or situations in
which persons may be immersed (Situation 3, as described in Attachment ”C”).
5.1.4.7 if, when a protective measure is applied, certain conditions associated with it cannot be satisfied, then
supplemental provisions must be adopted to ensure, overall, a level of safety equivalent to the one that would have
been obtained if the original measure had been fully applied.
5.1.4.8 Steps shall be taken to ensure that there are no mutually prejudicial influences between the different
protective measures that are applied in a given installation, part, or component of the installation.
5.1.5 Partial protection against electric shocks
5.1.5.1 General considerations
The use of obstacles, as described in Subsection 5.1.5.3, and placement out of reach, as described in
Subsection 5.1.5.4, shall be treated as means for partial protection against electric shocks.
NOTE: The use of obstacles and placement out of reach are intended to prevent contact with live parts, and therefore can not be
classified as means of basic protection. Furthermore, the basic protection that they provide shall be treated as only partial.

5.1.5.2 Cases in which partial protection against electric shocks is accepted


Partial protection against electric shock through the use of obstacles and/or placement out of reach, as described in
subsections 5.1.5.3 and 5.1.5.4, respectively, shall be accepted in areas that are accessible only to aware persons
(BA4 in Table 18) or to qualified persons (BA5 in Table 18), and provided that:
a) The nominal voltage of the existing circuits in these areas is not greater than the limits of Voltage Range II (see
Attachment ”A”); and
b) The areas are clearly and visibly designated by means of appropriate signs.
5.1.5.3 Use of obstacles
NOTE: The obstacles are intended to prevent involuntary contact with live parts, but not the contact that might result from a
deliberate action of ignoring or circumventing the obstacle.

5.1.5.3.1 The obstacles must prevent:


a) An unintentional physical approach to the live parts; or
b) Unintentional contacts with live parts during activities involving the equipment while the equipment is in normal
service.
5.1.5.3.2 The obstacles may be removable without the use of a tool or key, but must be secured in such a way as
to prevent any involuntary removal.
5.1.5.3.3 The minimum distances to be observed for the passageways intended for operation and/or
maintenance shall be the ones indicated in Table 27 and illustrated in Figure 6.
NOTE: Under specific circumstances, the adoption of higher values may be desirable for safety purposes.
5.1.5.3.4 Passageways longer than 20 meters must be accessible at both ends. It is recommended that service
passageways that are shorter, but that are more than 6 meters long, also be accessible at both ends.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


5
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 27. — Minimum distances for passageways intended for operation and/or maintenance when partial
protection is ensured by means of obstacles.
Situation Distance
1. Distance between obstacles, between the controls of electrical devices (handles, 700 mm
wheels, levers, etc.), between obstacles and the wall, or between the controls and the wall
2. Height of the passageway under the screen or panel 2,000 mm
NOTE: The indicated distances shall be valid assuming that all of the parts of the panels are properly installed and
closed.

Live parts

Panel or screen
Obstacles

Figure 6. — Passageways with partial protection by means of obstacles.

5.1.5.4 Placement out of reach


5.1.5.4.1 Simultaneously accessible parts with different potentials must be located outside of the normal reach
area.
NOTES:
1. Two parts shall be deemed to be simultaneously accessible if the clearance distance between them does not
exceed 2.50 meters.
2. The volume indicated in Figure 7 shall be defined as the “normal reach zone”.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


52
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

where S = the surface on which persons stand or walk.


Figure 7. — The normal reach zone.

5.1.5.4.2 If the spaces in which the presence of (aware and/or qualified) persons or foot traffic is typically
expected contain any obstacles (such as guardrails or screens) whose level of protection is less than IPXXB or IP2X,
such that mobility in the horizontal plane is limited, then the demarcation of the normal reach area must start at the
obstacle in question. The delimitation of the normal reach area in the vertical plane must reflect the distance of
2.50 meters from the surface (S), as indicated in Figure 7, regardless of the presence of any obstacle whose level of
protection is less than IPXXB or IP2X between the surface (S) and the live parts.
NOTE: The clearance distances delimiting the normal reach area shall be valid based on the risk hypothesis that the live parts
may be touched directly by bare hands, without considering factors such as tools or ladders.

5.1.5.4.3 In areas in which long or voluminous objects are customarily handled, the clearance distances required
in subsections 5.1.5.4.1 and 5.1.5.4.2 must be increased, taking into consideration the dimensions of such objects.
5.1.6 Omission of protection against electric shocks
5.1.6.1 The omission of protection against electric shocks shall be permitted in areas that are accessible only to
aware persons (BA4 in Table 18) or to qualified persons (BA5 in Table 18), and if the conditions set forth in
subsections 5.1.6.2 through 5.1.6.7 are simultaneously satisfied.
5.1.6.2 The BA4 or BA5 individual (see Table 18) must be properly instructed regarding the conditions of the area
and the tasks to be performed within it.
5.1.6.3 The areas must be clearly and visibly designated by means of appropriate signs.
5.1.6.4 It must not be possible to enter the areas without the use or release of a special device.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


5
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.1.6.5 The doors providing access to the sites must allow persons to leave easily, opening in the exit direction
(i.e., opening outward). It must be possible to open the doors from inside the areas without the use of keys, even if
the doors are locked on the outside.
5.1.6.6 The minimum clearance distances to be observed for the passageways intended for operation and/or
maintenance shall be the ones indicated in Table 28 and illustrated in figures 8 and 9.
NOTE: Under specific circumstances, the adoption of higher values may be desirable for safety purposes.
5.1.6.7 Passageways longer than 20 meters must be accessible at both ends. It is recommended that service
passageways that are shorter, but that are more than 6 meters long, also be accessible at both ends.

Table 28. — Minimum distances for passageways that are intended for operation and/or
maintenance and that have no protection against contact with live parts.
Situation Distance
1. Only one side of the passageway has unprotected live parts (see Figure 8):
1.1 Width of the passageway between the wall and the live parts ......................................... 1,000 mm
1.2 Open passageway facing the controls (knobs, wheels, levers, etc.) of electrical devices 700 mm
2. Both sides of the passage have live parts (see Figure 9):
2.1 Width of the passageway between the live parts and/or live conductors on each side:
a) Passageway intended exclusively for maintenance, assuming that any maintenance work 1,000 mm
will be preceded by the installation of protective barriers .....................................................
b) Passageway intended exclusively for maintenance, with no expectation that the 1,500 mm
maintenance work will be preceded by the installation of protective barriers .......................
c) Passageway intended for both operations and maintenance, assuming that any 1,200 mm
maintenance work will be preceded by the installation of protective barriers .......................
d) Passageway intended for both operations and maintenance, with no expectation that the 1,500 mm
maintenance work will be preceded by the installation of protective barriers .......................
2.2 Open passageway facing the controls (knobs, wheels, levers, etc.) of electrical devices:
a) Passageway intended for maintenance .......................................................................... 900 mm
b) Passageway intended for operations .............................................................................. 1,100 mm
3. Height of the live parts above the floor ..................................................................................... 2,300 mm

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


54
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Live
parts

Figure 8. — Passageways without protection and with live parts on one side only.

Live parts

Passageway
intended for
maintenance
Passageway
intended for
operations
1) All maintenance work is preceded by the installation of protective barriers (see subsections 2.1(a) and 2.1(c) in
Table 28).
2) Maintenance work is not preceded by the installation of protective barriers (see subsections 2.1(b) and 2.1(d) in
Table 28).

Figure 9. — Passageways without protection and with live parts on both sides.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


5
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.2 Protection against thermal effects


5.2.1 General considerations
Persons, as well as the stationary equipment and materials located adjacent to components of the electrical
installation, must be protected against the harmful thermal effects that may be produced by those components, such
as:
a) The risk of burns;
b) Combustion or degradation of the materials; and
c) Compromise of the operational safety of the installed components.
NOTE: Protection against overcurrents as discussed in Subsection 5.3.
5.2.2 Protection against fire
5.2.2.1 General rules
5.2.2.1.1 The components of the installation must not pose a fire hazard to the adjacent materials. In addition to
the requirements set forth in this standard, the respective manufacturers’ instructions must be observed.
5.2.2.1.2 Stationary components whose outer surfaces may reach temperatures that can cause the adjacent
materials to catch fire must be:
a) Installed on, or enclosed by, materials that can withstand such temperatures and whose thermal conductivity is
low; or
b) Separated from the construction elements of the building or structure by materials that can withstand such
temperatures and whose thermal conductivity is low; or
c) Installed in such a way as to maintain a sufficient clearance distance from any material whose integrity may be
harmed by such temperatures, and to ensure safe heat dissipation, in conjunction with the use of materials
whose thermal conductivity is low.
5.2.2.1.3 If, during normal operation, a fixed or stationary component of the installation is capable of producing
arcing or sparking, it must be:
a) Fully enclosed by arc-resistant material; or
b) Separated, by arc-resistant material, from the construction elements of the building or structure upon which the
arcs may have harmful thermal effects; or
c) Installed at a sufficient distance from the construction elements upon which the arcs may have harmful thermal
effects, so as to allow the safe extinction of the arc.
The above-mentioned arc-resistant materials must be incombustible. Their thermal conductivity must be low, and
they must be thick enough to ensure mechanical stability.
5.2.2.1.4 Stationary components that have a heat-concentrating affect must be located sufficiently far from any
stationary objects or construction elements such that, under normal conditions, those objects or elements are not
subjected to hazardous temperatures.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


56
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.2.2.1.5 Installation components that contain significant volumes of inflammable liquids must be the subject of
precautions, such that in the event of fire, the liquid which has ignited, the smoke, and the toxic gases are prevented
from propagating to other parts of the edifice. Such precautions may consist, for example of:
a) Construction of a drainage ditch in order to collect spilled liquids and to ensure the extinction of the flames in the
event of fire;
b) Installation of the components in a fire-resistant room, ventilated solely by the external atmosphere, with sills or
other elements for preventing the liquid which has ignited from propagating to other parts of the edifice.

NOTES:
1. In general, a volume equal to or greater than 25 liters shall be deemed “significant.” For volumes less than 25 liters, any
provision that prevents spillage of the liquid shall be sufficient.
2. It is recommended that the power supply be cut off as soon as a fire starts.

5.2.2.1.6 The constituent materials of enclosures or wrappings applied to the components of the installation
during the execution of the work must withstand the highest temperature that the component can reach. Enclosures
or wrappings made of a combustible material shall be accepted only if preventive measures – such as coating with a
material that is incombustible or whose combustion is difficult, and whose thermal conductivity is low – are taken
against the risk of ignition.
5.2.2.2 Protection against fire in BD2, BD3, and BD4 areas
5.2.2.2.1 The requirements set forth in subsections 5.2.2.2.2 through 5.2.2.2.5, along with the ones set forth in
Subsection 5.2.2.1, shall be applicable to electrical installations located in areas that can be classified as BD2, BD3,
or BD4 (see Table 21). If the area or areas to which the requirement refers are not expressly identified, then the
requirement shall be understood as referring to all three areas.
NOTES:
1. As defined in Subsection 4.2.6.2.4 (Table 21), the BD classification for an area refers to the conditions displayed by it from the
viewpoint of personnel evacuation in emergency situations. Conditions BD2, BD3, and BD4 are defined in the following way:
- BD2: Low occupational density, long evacuation route;
- BD3: High occupational density, short evacuation route; and
- BD4: High occupational density, long evacuation route.
2. The legislation pertaining to buildings and to fire safety may contain provisions that describe in detail and that govern the BD
conditions or analogous conditions.

5.2.2.2.2 Electrical lines must not be located along the evacuation route (escape pathways), unless they are
guaranteed for the time specified in the standards applicable to the construction elements of emergency exits, or, in
the absence of such standards, for 2 hours,
a) Unless the electrical line will not propagate, or contribute to the propagation of, a fire; and
b) Unless the electrical line will not reach a temperature that is high or sufficient enough to ignite adjacent materials.
If the electrical line is visible, it must be located outside each area, or must be protected against the mechanical
damage that might occur during an evacuation.
The line must be as short as possible.
NOTE: For more information about the normal reach area, see Figure 7.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


5
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.2.2.2.3 In common areas, traffic areas, and public gathering places located in BD2, BD3, or BD4 areas, the
embedded electrical lines must be fully encased in an incombustible material, whereas visible lines and lines located
inside cavity walls or in other construction spaces must comply with one of the following conditions:
a) For lines consisting of cables attached to walls or located in ceilings, the cables must be non-flame-propagating,
free from halogen, and have low emissions of smoke and toxic gases;
b) For lines consisting of open conduits, the cables must be non-flame-propagating, free from halogen, and with low
emissions of smoke and toxic gases. Non-metallic conduits, or conduits that are made of another incombustible
material, must be non-flame-propagating, free from halogen, and have low emissions of smoke and toxic gases.
c) For lines located in closed conduits, any non-metallic conduits, or conduits that are not made of another
incombustible material, must be non-flame-propagating, free from halogen, and have low emissions of smoke
and toxic gases. In the first case (metal conduits or conduits made of another incombustible metal), conductors
and cables may be used that are only non-flame-propagating. In the second case, non-flame-propagating cables
must be used that are free from halogen, and whose emissions of smoke and toxic gases are low.
NOTE: For the purposes of this requirement, a well or shaft (i.e., a vertical construction space) may be treated as an embedded
electrical line if it has at least a Class IP5X level of protection, is accessible only by means of a key or tool, and meets the
requirements of Subsection 6.2.9.6.8.

5.2.2.2.4 In BD3 and BD4 areas, the handling and protection devices (except for certain devices intended to
facilitate evacuation during emergencies) should be accessible only by authorized personnel. If such devices are
located in traffic areas, they must be housed in cabinets or in boxes made of a material that is incombustible or
combustible only with difficulty.
5.2.2.2.5 The use of components containing inflammable liquids shall not be permitted in the electrical
installations located in BD3 or BD4 areas, or in emergency exits.
NOTE: The individual auxiliary capacitors incorporated into the equipment (for example, capacitors of discharge lamps and
motor-starter capacitors) shall not be subject to this requirement.

5.2.2.3 Protection against fire in BE2 areas


5.2.2.3.1 The requirements set forth in subsections 5.2.2.2.2 through 5.2.2.2.5, along with the ones set forth in
Subsection 5.2.2.1, shall be applicable to electrical installations located in areas that can be classified as BE2.
NOTES:
1. As defined in Subsection 4.2.6.2.5 (see Table 22), the BE classification of an area is based on the nature of the materials that
are processed or stored within it. In particular, BE2 areas are those that have a greater risk of fire due to the presence of significant
quantities of combustible substances.
2. The legislation pertaining to fire safety, occupational safety, etc. may contain provisions that describe in detail and that govern
the quantity of combustible material, the footprint or volume, and other aspects of BE2 areas.
3. For information about areas with risks of explosions, see the ABNT NBR 9518 and IEC 60079-14 standards.

5.2.2.3.2 Electrical equipment should be limited to the pieces required by the area for the activities performed
therein. Therefore, the area may be penetrated or traversed by other electrical lines, in addition to those intended to
serve points located within the area, provided that the conditions set forth in Subsection 5.2.2.3.7 are met.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


58
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.2.2.3.3 If combustible dust is expected to accumulate on the enclosures of the electrical components in such a
way as to pose a risk of fire, precautions must be taken to prevent the said enclosures from reaching the ignition
temperatures of the dust.
5.2.2.3.4 The components of the installation must be selected and installed in such a way that their normal
heating, as well as the overheating that can be foreseen in the event of a failure or operation under overload
conditions, cannot cause a fire. The pertinent provisions may be based on the original construction characteristics of
the component or on precautions taken during its installation. If the temperature of the surfaces of the components is
not capable of causing the combustion of materials located nearby, no measures shall be necessary.
5.2.2.3.5 The protective, control, and cut-off devices must be located outside the BE2 areas, unless they are
housed in enclosures whose degree of protection is appropriate for those areas (at least Class IP4X).
5.2.2.3.6 If the electrical lines are not fully embedded (encased) in incombustible material, then precautions must
be taken to ensure that they do not propagate flames. In particular, the conductors and cables must be non-flame-
propagating.
5.2.2.3.7 The electrical lines that pass through a BE2 area but that are not intended to serve points located within
the area, must satisfy the following conditions:
a) They must comply with the provisions of Subsection 5.2.2.3.6;
b) The segments located inside the area must not contain any connections, unless the said connections are
contained within fire-resistant closures; and
c) They must be protected against overcurrents, in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 5.2.2.3.11.
5.2.2.3.8 Automatically or remotely controlled motors, or those that are not continuously supervised, must be
protected against overheating, by means of thermal sensors.
5.2.2.3.9 The lighting fixtures must be appropriate for the areas, and must be equipped with enclosures that offer
a level of protection equivalent at least to Class IP4X. If the area poses a risk of mechanical damage to the lighting
fixtures, then the lamps and other components of the fixtures must be protected by plastic covers, grilles, or impact-
resistant glass covers, except for the lamp sockets (unless they already include such accessories).
5.2.2.3.10 If it is necessary to limit the risks of fire posed by the circulation of fault currents, then the corresponding
circuit must be:
a) Protected by means of a differential-residual current device (i.e., a DR device) whose actuating nominal
differential-residual current does not exceed 500 mA; or
b) Monitored by an IMD (isolation monitoring device) or by a differential-residual monitoring device, adjusted to
signal the occurrence of a ground fault that is equivalent, at a maximum, to the limit value mentioned in
paragraph (a).
A bare monitoring conductor may be incorporated into the line of the said circuit. This function may be performed by
the protective conductor, if it possesses the specified characteristic.
5.2.2.3.11 The circuits that provide power to BE2 areas, or that pass through them, must be protected against
overloads and against short circuits by means of protective devices located upstream of the said areas.
5.2.2.3.12 The options discussed in Subsection 5.1.2.5.1 shall not be accepted for SELV and PELV circuits.
Regardless of the nominal voltage of the SELV or PELV circuit, the live parts must be:
a) Contained within enclosures whose level of protection is equivalent to Class IP2X or Class IPXXB; or
b) Equipped with insulation that can withstand a test voltage of 500 V for 1 minute.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


5
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.2.2.3.13 PEN conductors shall not be permitted in BE2 areas, except for circuits that only pass through the area.
5.2.2.4 Protection against fire in CA2 areas
5.2.2.4.1 The requirements set forth in this subsection, along with the ones set forth in Subsection 5.2.2.1, shall
be applicable to electrical installations located in areas that can be classified as CA2.
NOTE: As defined in Subsection 4.2.6.3.1 (Table 23), CA2 areas are those that are constructed predominantly of combustible
materials.

5.2.2.4.2 Precautions must be taken to ensure that the components of the electrical installation cannot cause
combustion of the walls, ceilings, and/or floors.
5.2.2.5 Protection against fire in CB2 areas
5.2.2.5.1 The requirements set forth in this subsection, along with the ones set forth in Subsection 5.2.2.1, shall
be applicable to electrical installations located in areas that can be classified as CB2.
NOTE: As defined in Subsection 4.2.6.3.2 (Table 24), CA2 buildings and edifices are those whose structure
facilitates the propagation of fire.
5.2.2.5.2 Precautions must be taken to ensure that the electrical installations cannot propagate fires (for example,
due to the chimney effect).
NOTE: Fire detectors may be provided that actuate means intended to block the propagation of the fire – for example, by closing
dampers in ducts or galleries.

5.2.3 Protection against burns


The accessible parts of the installation’s components that are located inside the normal reach area must not reach
temperatures that might cause persons to be burned, and must comply with the maximum values indicated in
Table 29. All of the parts of the installation that, during normal service, may reach temperatures greater than the limit
values shown in Table 29, even for brief periods, must be located or sheltered so as to ensure that persons run no
risk of accidental contact with these parts.
Table 29. — Maximum temperatures, during normal service, of the accessible parts
of the installation’s components located inside the normal reach area.
Type of material of which the Maximum temperatures
Accessible parts
accessible parts are made (in °C)
Metallic 55
Levers, wheels, or knobs of control devices
Non-metallic 65
Metallic 70
[Parts] intended to be touched, but not grasped
Non-metallic 80
Metallic 80
[Parts] not intended to be touched during normal service
Non-metallic 90
NOTES:
1. This requirement shall not apply to components for which the temperature limits of the accessible surfaces are set by a
specific standard.
2. The distinction between metallic and non-metallic surfaces depends on the thermal conductivity of the surface in question.
Layers of paint or varnish shall not be deemed sufficient to affect the thermal conductivity of the surface. On the other hand,
certain plastic coatings may noticeably reduce the thermal conductivity of a metallic surface and allow it to be treated as non-
metallic.
3. Higher temperatures may be permitted for handling devices, if the part in question is accessible only after the wrapping or
the cover enclosing it has been opened, and if the device in question is only infrequently actuated.
4. For more information about the normal reach area, see Figure7.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


60
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.3 Protection against overcurrents


5.3.1 General considerations
5.3.1.1 Live conductors must be protected, by one or more automatic cut-off devices, against overloads and
against short-circuits. Exceptions shall be made for those cases in which the overcurrents are limited, as described
in Subsection 5.3.7, and for those cases in which the omission of such protection is possible or even advisable, as
discussed in subsections 5.3.4.3, 5.3.4.4, and 5.3.5.3.
5.3.1.2 The protection against overloads and the protection against short circuits must be coordinated, as
described in Subsection 5.3.6.
5.3.1.3 The devices mentioned in Subsection 5.3.1.1 are intended to interrupt overcurrents before they become
hazardous, due to their thermal and mechanical effects, or cause a rise in temperature that is harmful to the
insulation, the connections, and/or the terminations of the conductors, or to their surroundings.
NOTE: The protection of the conductors, as implemented in accordance with the provisions of this subsection, does not
necessarily guarantee the protection of the equipment connected to the said conductors.

5.3.2 Protection based on the nature of the circuits


5.3.2.1 Protection of the phase conductors
5.3.2.1.1 Overcurrent detection must be provided for all of the phase conductors, with the exception mentioned in
Subsection 5.3.2.1.2, and must cause the cut-off of the conductor in which the overcurrent was detected, without
necessarily cutting off the other live conductors.
NOTES:
1. If the cut-off of one single phase may cause a hazard (for example, in the case of three-phase motors), the appropriate
precautions must be taken.
2. For information about homes and other residential spaces, see Subsection 9.5.4.

5.3.2.1.2 In the TT system, in circuits that are supplied with power between phases and in which the neutral
conductor is not distributed, overcurrent detection may be omitted from one of the phase conductors, provided that
the following conditions are simultaneously satisfied:
a) Differential protection is provided, either in the circuit itself or upstream of it, that causes the cut-off of all of the
phase conductors;
b) The neutral conductor is not distributed from an artificial neutral point in the circuits located downstream of the
differential device mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
5.3.2.2 Production of the neutral conductor
5.3.2.2.1 The TT and TN systems
5.3.2.2.1.1 If the cross-section of the neutral conductor is at least equal or equivalent to the cross-section of the
phase conductors, neither overcurrent detection nor a cut-off device needs to be provided on the neutral conductor.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


6
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.3.2.2.1.2 If the cross-section of the neutral conductor is less than that of the phase conductors, then
overcurrent detection that is appropriate for the cross-section of the neutral conductor must be provided on this
conductor. The said detection must cause the cut-off of the phase conductors, but not necessarily of the neutral
conductor. However, overcurrent detection on the neutral conductor may be omitted if the following two conditions
are simultaneously met:
a) The neutral conductor is protected against short-circuits by the protective device for the circuit’s phase
conductors; and
b) The maximum current that can pass through the neutral conductor during normal service is clearly lower than the
current-carrying capacity of this conductor.
NOTE: The condition described in paragraph (b) shall be deemed to have been satisfied if the power carried by the circuit is
distributed as uniformly as possible among the various phases (for example, if the total power absorbed by the pieces of utilization
equipment that are supplied with power between each phase and neutral is much lower than the total potential carried by the circuit
in question). The cross-section of the neutral conductor must be equal at least to the values specified in Subsection 6.2.6.2.

5.3.2.2.2 The IT system


It is recommended that in IT systems the neutral conductor not be distributed. However, if it is distributed,
overcurrent detection on the neutral conductor must be provided for all of the circuits, and this detection must cut off
all of the live conductors of the corresponding circuit, including its neutral conductor. This measure shall not be
necessary, if:
a) The neutral conductor in question is effectively protected against short circuits by a protective device installed
upstream, in compliance with the provisions of Subsection 5.3.5.5; or
b) The circuit in question is protected by a differential-residual current protection device whose nominal differential-
residual current is less than or equal to 0.15 times the current-carrying capacity of the corresponding neutral
conductor. This device must cut off all of the live conductors of the corresponding circuit, including the neutral
conductor.
5.3.2.3 Cut-off and closing of the neutral conductor
If the cut-off of the neutral conductor is required, then the opening and closing of the corresponding circuits must
ensure that the neutral conductor is not cut off before, or re-established after, the [cut-off and reestablishment of]
phase conductors.
5.3.3 Nature of the protective devices
The protective devices must be selected from among the ones indicated in subsections 5.3.3.1 through 5.3.3.3.
5.3.3.1 Devices capable of providing protection simultaneously against overload currents and against
short-circuit currents
These protective devices must be able to interrupt any overcurrent that is less than or equal to the presumed short-
circuit current at the point where the device is installed. They must meet the requirements described in subsections
5.3.4 and 5.3.5.5.1. Such devices may consist of:
a) Breakers in accordance with the ABNT NBR 5361, ABNT NBR IEC 60947-2, ABNT NBR NM 60898, or
IEC 61009-2.1 standard;
b) Type gG fusible devices in accordance with the ABNT NBR IEC 60269-1 and ABNT NBR IEC 60269-2 or ABNT
NBR IEC 60269-3 standard; or
c) Breakers associated with fusible devices, in accordance with the ABNT NBR IEC 60947-2 or ABNT
NBR NM 60898 standard.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


62
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTES:
1. The term “fusible device” covers all of the constituent parts of the protective device.
2. The use of a device whose interrupting capacity is less than the presumed short-circuit current at the installation point shall be
subject to the requirements of Subsection 5.3.5.5.1.
3. Bearing in mind that one of the parameters of the equation for protection against short circuits, as discussed in
Subsection 5.3.5.5, is the Joule integral (energy) that the protective device allows to pass, attention must be paid to the fact that the
ABNT NBR 5361 standard does not specify this characteristic, which must be provided by the manufacturer of the device.

5.3.3.2 Devices that can only provide protection against overload currents
Such devices are generally actuated in inverse-time mode, and can display an interrupting capacity that is less than
the presumed short-circuit current at the installation point. The requirements of Subsection 5.3.4 must be met.
5.3.3.3 Devices that can only provide protection against short-circuit currents
Such devices can be used when overload protection is provided by other means, or in cases in which the omission of
overload protection is acceptable (see Subsection 5.3.4). These devices must be able to interrupt any short-circuit
current that is less than or equal to the presumed short-circuit current, and must meet the requirements of
Subsection 5.3.5. The following devices may be used:
a) Breakers in accordance with the ABNT NBR 5361, ABNT NBR IEC 60947-2, ABNT NBR NM 60898, or
IEC 61009-2.1 standard;
b) Fusible devices with type gG, gM, or aM fuses, in accordance with the ABNT NBR IEC 60269-1 and ABNT
NBR IEC 60269-2 or ABNT NBR IEC 60269-3 standards.
NOTE: Bearing in mind that one of the parameters of the equation for protection against short circuits, as discussed in
Subsection 5.3.5.5, is the Joule integral (energy) that the protective device allows to pass, attention must be paid to the fact that the
ABNT NBR 5361 standard does not specify this characteristic, which must be provided by the device manufacturer.

5.3.4 Protection against overload currents


NOTE: Live conductors that are protected against overloads in accordance with the provisions of this subsection shall also be
deemed to be protected against any fault that can produce overcurrents within the overload-current range.

5.3.4.1 Coordination between conductors and protective devices


To ensure that the conductors are protected against overloads, the actuation characteristics of the device intended to
provide the said protection must be such that:

a) and

b)
where:
IB is the design current of the circuit;
Iz is the current-carrying capacity of the conductors, under the conditions specified for their installation (see
6.25),
In is the nominal current of the protective device (or, for adjustable devices, the adjustment current), under
the conditions specified for its installation; and

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


6
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

I2 is the conventional actuation current (for breakers), or the conventional fusing current (for fuses).
NOTE: The condition described in paragraph (b) is applicable when it can be assumed that the limit overload temperature of the
conductors (see Table 35) will not persist for more than 100 hours over 12 consecutive months, or for more than 500 hours over the
useful lifetime of the conductor. If this does not occur, the condition described in paragraph (b) must be replaced by: I2 ≤ Iz.

5.3.4.2 Location of the devices that ensure protection against overloads


5.3.4.2.1 Devices that ensure protection against overloads of all of the points where a change (for example, in
cross-section, nature, installation method, or constitution) causes a reduction in the current-carrying capacity of the
conductors must be provided. The exceptions to this rule are indicated in subsections 5.3.4.2.2 and 5.3.4.3.
5.3.4.2.2 The device intended to protect an electrical line against overloads cannot be positioned exactly at the
point specified in Subsection 5.3.4.2.1, but must be shifted along the length of the line if the portion of the line located
between, on the one hand, a change in cross-section, nature, installation method, or constitution, and, on the other
hand, the protective device, does not contain any shunts or power sockets and complies with one of the following two
conditions:
a) It is protected against short circuits, in accordance with the requirements of Subsection 5.3.5; or
b) Its length does not exceed 3 meters; it is installed in a manner that minimizes the risk of a short circuit; and it is
not located in proximity to combustible materials (see Subsection 5.3.5.5.1).
Furthermore, this shift option is not permitted in IT systems.
5.3.4.3 Omission of protection against overloads
5.3.4.3.1 The options for the omission of protection against overloads, as set forth in Subsection 5.3.4.3.2, shall
not be valid for installations located in areas that pose risks of fire or exposure (see conditions BE2 and BE3 in
Table 22); installations that are governed by specific requirements that entail an exemption from, or that do not
recognize, these options; and installations implemented according to the IT system. The valid omission options for IT
systems are described in Subsection 5.3.4.3.3.
5.3.4.3.2 Protection against overloads may be omitted:
a) For lines that are located downstream of a change in cross-section, nature, installation method, or constitution
and that are effectively protected against overloads by a protective device located upstream;
b) For lines that are not subject to the circulation of overload currents, that are protected against short circuits in
accordance with the provisions of Subsection 5.3.5, and that do not contain shunts or power sockets; and
c) For signaling lines, including control circuits.
5.3.4.3.3 In IT systems, protection against overloads may be omitted if the circuit in question is protected by a
differential-residual current device that is reliably actuated in the event of the occurrence of a second fault. In the
specific case of an IT system in which the neutral conductor is not distributed, the device for protection against
overloads may be omitted from one of the phases if the circuit is equipped with a differential-residual current
protection device.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


64
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.3.4.4 Cases in which the omission of protection against overloads is recommended for safety reasons
It is recommended that protective devices against overloads be omitted from circuits that supply power to utilization
equipment in those cases in which the unexpected shutdown of the circuit produces a hazardous situation, or,
conversely, disables equipment that is essential in the event of a hazardous situation. Examples of such cases
include:
a) Excitation circuits for rotating machines;
b) Power-supply circuits of electromagnets, for lifting loads;
c) Secondary circuits of current transformers; and
d) Circuits of motors used in safety services (fire pumps, smoke-extraction systems, etc.).
NOTE: In these cases it may be worthwhile to provide an overload signaling device.
5.3.4.5 Protection against overloads of parallel conductors
5.3.4.5.1 When parallel conductors are protected against overloads by a single device, the conductors must not
contain any shunts or cut-off or handling devices.
5.3.4.5.2 If parallel conductors are protected against overloads by a single device, and if the total current is
divided equally among these conductors (i.e., conductors that carry currents of the same intensity), then the value of
Iz to be utilized in the equation relating to the conditions required in Subsection 5.3.4.1 shall be the sum of the
current-carrying capacities of the several conductors.
NOTE: Is assumed that the parallel conductors are carrying currents of the same intensity, if the requirements of
Subsection 6.2.5.7 are met.

5.3.4.5.3 If the use of parallel conductors is unavoidable, in view of the impracticability of using one single
conductor per phase, and if the currents in the parallel conductors are unequal, then the design current and the
protection against overloads must be calculated individually for each of the parallel conductors.
NOTE: The currents in the parallel conductors shall be deemed to be unequal when the difference between any two of them is
greater than 10% of the current that would be carried by each conductor if the total current (i.e., the design current) were divided
equally among them. Attachment ”D” provides guidelines on this point (see Subsection D.2).

5.3.5 Protection against short-circuit currents


5.3.5.1 Determination of presumed short-circuit currents
The presumed short-circuit currents must be determined at all of the points of the installation for which this
determination is deemed necessary. This determination may be made by calculation or by measurement.
5.3.5.2 Location of the devices that provide protection against short circuits
5.3.5.2.1 Devices must be provided that ensure protection against short circuits at all of the points where a
change (for example, in cross-section) causes a change in the current-carrying capacity of the conductors. The
exceptions to this rule are indicated in subsections 5.3.5.2.2 and 5.3.5.3.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


6
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.3.5.2.2 The device intended to provide protection against short-circuits cannot be positioned exactly at the point
specified in Subsection 5.3.5.2.1 if the portion of the line located between the reduction in cross-section or another
change and the location contemplated for the device complies with one of the following two conditions:
a) Its length does not exceed 3 meters; it is installed in a manner that minimizes the risk of a short circuit (for
example, by means of protection that is reinforced against external influences); and it is not located in proximity
to combustible materials;
b) It is protected against short circuits, in compliance with the provisions of Subsection 5.3.5.5.2, by a protective
device located upstream.
5.3.5.3 Cases in which protection against short circuits may be omitted
Protection against short circuits may be omitted in the cases listed below, provided that the line is installed in a
manner that minimizes the risk of a short circuit (for example, by means of protection that is reinforced against
external influences) and is not located in proximity to combustible materials:
a) Lines connecting generators, transformers, rectifiers, and storage batteries to the corresponding control panels
or distribution panels, when the protective devices are located in the said panels;
b) Circuits whose shutdown may pose hazards to the corresponding installation, such as the ones mentioned in
Subsection 5.3.4.4; and
c) Certain measurement circuits.
5.3.5.4 Protection against short-circuits of parallel conductors
Protection against short-circuits of parallel conductors may employ a single protective device, under the conditions
described in subsections 5.3.5.4.1 and 5.3.5.4.2, or more than one device, under the conditions described in
Subsection 5.3.5.4.3.
5.3.5.4.1 Parallel conductors may be protected against short circuits by a single device, if the characteristics of
the device ensure effective actuation even under the most adverse circumstances, such as a situation in which a fault
occurs at the most unfavorable point of any of the parallel conductors. Consideration should be given to the division
of the short-circuit current among the parallel conductors, and, furthermore, to the fact that a fault can be fed from
both ends of a parallel conductor.
5.3.5.4.2 If the effectiveness of the actuation, as required by Subsection 5.3.5.4.1, cannot be guaranteed, then
the use of a single device will be acceptable, if the line is installed in a manner that minimizes the risk of a short
circuit for all of the parallel conductors (for example, through the provision of protection against mechanical damage)
and is not located in proximity to combustible materials.
5.3.5.4.3 If the protection of parallel conductors against short circuits is provided through the use of more than
one device, the following criteria must be met:
a) For two parallel conductors, a device that provides protection against short circuits must be placed at the origin
of each parallel conductor; and
b) For more than two parallel conductors, a device that provides protection against short circuits must be placed at
each end (the “source” end and the “load” end) of each parallel conductor.
NOTE: Attachment ”D” provides guidelines on this point (see Subsection D.3).
5.3.5.5 Characteristics of the devices intended to provide protection against short-circuit currents
All of the devices intended to provide protection against short circuits must comply with the conditions specified in
subsections 5.3.5.5.1 and 5.3.5.5.2.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


66
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.3.5.5.1 The interrupting capacity of the device must be at least equal to the presumed short-circuit current at
the point where the device is installed. A device with a lesser interrupting capacity shall be accepted only if another
device, located upstream, possesses the necessary interrupting capacity. In this case, the characteristics of the two
devices must be coordinated in such a way that the energy that they allow to pass does not exceed the energy that
can be withstood, with no damage, by the device located downstream and by the lines protected by them.
NOTE: In certain cases, it may be necessary to check the characteristics of the downstream device in terms of the
dynamic forces and the arc energy. Details of the characteristics that must be coordinated should be obtained from
the device manufacturers.
5.3.5.5.2 The Joule integral that the device allows to pass must be less than or equal to the Joule integral needed
to heat the conductor to the maximum temperature for continuous service up to the short-circuit temperature limit,
which can be indicated by the following expression:

where:

is the Joule integral (energy) that the protective device allows to pass, in amperes squared per second;

k2S2 is the Joule integral (energy) that can raise the temperature of the conductor from the maximum continuous-
service temperature to the short-circuit temperature, assuming adiabatic heating. The value of k is indicated in
Table 30, and “S” is the cross-section of the conductor in square millimeters (m2).
NOTE: For short circuits of any duration in which the asymmetry of the current is not significant, and for asymmetrical short
circuits whose duration satisfies the condition 0.1 sec ≤ t ≤ 5 sec, the expression can be written in the following way:

where:
I is the current of the presumably symmetrical short circuit, in amperes (effective value); and t is the duration of
the short circuit, in seconds.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


6
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 30. — Values of k for conductors with PVC [polyvinyl chloride], EPR [ethylene-propylene rubber],
or XLPE [crosslinked polyethylene] insulation.
Conductor insulation
PVC
EPR or XLPE
≤ 300 mm2 > 300 mm2
Conductor material
Temperature
Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final
70°C 160°C 70°C 140°C 90°C 250°C
Copper 115 103 143
Aluminum 76 68 94
Welded seams in copper conductors 115 – –
NOTES:
1 Other values of k, for the cases mentioned below, have not yet been standardized:
2
- Conductors with a small cross-section (primarily for cross-sections smaller than 10 mm );
- Short circuits lasting longer than 5 seconds;
- Other types of seams in conductors; and
- Bare conductors.
2 The values of k shown in the table are based on the IEC 60724 standard.

5.3.5.5.3 The nominal current of the device intended to provide protection against short circuits may be greater
than the current-carrying capacity of the conductors in the circuit.
5.3.6 Coordination between protection against overloads and protection against short circuits
5.3.6.1 Types of protections provided by a single device
The device intended to provide protection against overloads, as selected in accordance with the provisions of
Subsection 5.3.4, may also provide protection against short circuits of the line located downstream of the point at
which the device was installed, if the interrupting capacity of the said device is at least equal to the presumed short-
circuit current at that point and if the said device complies with the provisions of Subsection 5.3.5.5.2.
5.3.6.2 Types of protection provided by different devices
If protection against overloads is provided by one device and protection against short circuits is provided by another
different device, then the provisions of Subsection 5.3.4 shall apply to the said first device and the provisions of
Subsection 5.3.5 shall apply to the said second device. However, the characteristics of both devices must be
coordinated in such a way that the energy that is allowed to pass, during a short-circuit event, by the device that
provides protection against short circuits does not exceed the energy that can be withstood, with no damage, by the
device that provides protection against overloads.
5.3.7 Limitation of overcurrents by means of the characteristics of the power supply
Naturally, conductors that are fed by a source with impedance shall be deemed to be protected against overcurrents,
such that that the maximum current supplied by the said source does not exceed the current-carrying capacity of the
conductors. This is the case, for example, for certain field transformers, certain welding transformers, and certain
generators powered by a thermal [i.e., gasoline or diesel] engine.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


68
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.4 Protection against overvoltages and electromagnetic disturbances


5.4.1 Protection against temporary overvoltages
5.4.1.1 Certain events may cause phase-neutral circuits to undergo overvoltages that may reach the value of the
interphase voltage. These events may consist of:
a) Loss of the neutral conductor in the TN and TT systems, in three-phase systems with neutral, in two-phase
systems with neutral, and in single-phase systems with three conductors; or
b) A ground fault involving any of the phase conductors in an IT system.
In case (b), the components of the electrical installation must be selected in such a way that their nominal insulation
voltage is at least equal to the value of the nominal voltage between the phases of the installation (see
Subsection 6.1.3.1.1). In case (a), the same provision should be adopted when the overvoltages in question, in
conjunction with the probability of their occurrence, constitute an unacceptable risk.
5.4.1.2 In installations that use the TT system, steps should be taken to determine whether the temporary
overvoltages caused by the occurrence of a ground fault in the medium-voltage [circuit] are compatible with the
voltage that can be withstood, at an industrial frequency, by the components of the low-voltage installation. This
condition shall be deemed to have been met if:
a) R x Im ≤ 250 V, if the ground fault has been eliminated by the primary protection of the MT/LT [medium
voltage/low-voltage] transformer substation within a period of more than 5 seconds; or
b) R x Im ≤ 200 V, if the ground fault has been eliminated by the primary protection of the medium voltage/low-
voltage (MT/LT) transformer substation within a period of no more than 5 seconds,
where:
R is the grounding resistance of the ground connections of the medium voltage/low-voltage (MT/LT) transformer
substation; and
Im is the portion of the current of the ground fault in the medium-voltage circuit that circulates through the
grounding electrode of the ground connections of the medium voltage/low-voltage (MT/LT) transformer
substation.
NOTE (common to both subsections 5.4.1.1 and 5.4.1.2): When surge-protection devices (SPDs) are selected, the
examination of the maximum continuous operating voltage to which these devices will be subjected at their intended installation
point must take into consideration the probability of temporary overvoltages at that point, as well as the magnitude of those
temporary overvoltages. See Subsection 6.3.5.2.4(b).

5.4.1.3 The examination specified in Subsection 5.4.1.2 may be limited to the low-voltage equipment of the
medium voltage/low-voltage (MT/LT) transformer substation if the grounding electrode of the neutral conductor is
electrically separated from the grounding electrode of the ground connections of the transformer substation.
5.4.2 Protection against transient overvoltages
5.4.2.1 Protection against transient overvoltages on power lines
5.4.2.1.1 Protection must be provided against transient overvoltages, through the use of the means mentioned in
Subsection 5.4.2.1.2, under the following circumstances:
a) If the installation is supplied with power from a line that is entirely or partially an overhead line, or if the
installation has its own overhead line, and if it is located in a region that is subject to conditions of external
influence in Class AQ2 (more than 25 days of thunderstorms per year); or
b) If the installation is located in a region that is subject to conditions of external influence in Class AQ3 (see
Table 15).
NOTE: The protection against overvoltages, as required according to the provisions of Subsection 5.4.2.1.1, may be omitted if the
consequences of this omission, from a purely physical viewpoint, constitute a calculated and assumed risk. Under no
circumstances shall the protection be omitted if the consequences of this omission might pose a direct or indirect risk to personal
health and/or safety.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


6
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.4.2.1.2 The protection against overvoltages, as required by the provisions of Subsection 5.4.2.1.1, must be
provided:
a) By surge-protection devices (SPDs), in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 6.3.5.2; or
b) By other means that ensure the attenuation of the overvoltages [by an amount that is] equivalent at least to the
attenuation obtained in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a).
5.4.2.2 Protection against transient overvoltages on/in power lines
5.4.2.2.1 All external signaling lines, whether they are telephone lines, data-communication lines, video lines, or
lines carrying any other type of electronic signal, must be provided with surge protection at the entry and/or exit points
of the building or structure, in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 6.3.5.3.
NOTES:
1. The prescription shall be applicable to metal lines, and shall cover not only lines that are connected to a public network (such
as those of the telephone systems or of subscription-based TV networks), but also the lines that are associated with external
antennas and the lines that provide connections with nearby buildings or other structures.
2. The entry and/or exit points of the building or structure mentioned in Subsection 5.4.2.2.1 reflect the concept of network
termination points (NTPs), as specified in the ABNT NBR 13300 and ABNT NBR 14306 standards.
3. As indicated in the note in Subsection 6.4.2.1.2, the external signal lines must enter the building or structure at the same point
where the power line enters.

5.4.2.2.2 In addition to the entry/exit points, as described in Subsection 5.4.2.2.1, it may also be necessary to
provide protection against surges at other points along the length of the internal installation, and, in particular, at
points associated with the most sensitive equipment, when protection cannot be incorporated into that equipment.
5.4.2.3 Selection of the components of the installation based on their ability to withstand transient
overvoltages
The components of the installation must be selected in such a way that the nominal value of the impulse voltage that
they can withstand is not less than the values shown in Table 31.
NOTE: The impulse voltage that can be withstood characterizes the level of the transient overvoltages that the insulation of a
product can withstand with no disruptions. This value should be reported by the manufacturer, and should be equal to or greater
than the value specified by the standard for the product in question. The minimum values shown in Table 31 are the reference
values indicated in the IEC 60664-1 standard (see Attachment ”E”).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


70
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 31. — Impulse [voltage] withstandability required for the components of the installation.

Nominal voltage Required withstandable impulse voltage (in kV)


of the installation (in V)
Product category
Product to be Product to be used Utilization Products
used at the entry in distribution equipment with special
Single-phase point of the circuits and in protection
Three-phase
systems with installation terminal circuits
systems
neutral voltage
Impulse withstandability category
IV III II I
115–230
120 / 208
120–240 4 2.5 1.5 0.8
127 / 220
127–254
220 / 380, 230 / - 6 4 2.5 1.5
400, 277 / 480
400 / 690 - 8 6 4 2.5
NOTES:
1 Attachment ”E” provides guidelines regarding this table.
2 The values that are valid specifically for breakers and breaker-interrupters appear in Table 50.
3 For components associated with the signaling lines utilized at the entry point of the installation (withstandability Category IV),
the minimum withstandable impulse voltage shall be 1,500 V (see the IEC 61663-2 standard).

5.4.3 Prevention of electromagnetic influences on the installations and on their components


5.4.3.1 The shielding, mountings, covers, and metal layers of the external lines, as well as the conductors of
those lines (when they are metallic), must be included in the primary equipotentialization, in accordance with the
provisions of Subsection 6.4.2.1.1.
NOTES:
1. Depending on the circumstances, the bonding of the metal coatings of the line to the primary equipotentialization need not take
place through a direct link to the BEP [“barramento de equipotencialização principal” (main equipotentialization bus bar)], but may
be indirect – for example, through a link to the BEL [“barramento de equipotencialização local” (local equipotentialization bus bar)]
nearest to the point where the line enters or exits the building, or through a direct link to the grounding electrode of the building (as
illustrated, conceptually and generically, in Figure G.3 in Attachment ”G”). This is the case for a power line that exits the building in
order to supply power to another, nearby building, or to supply power to associated structures or edifices; for a signaling line that is
also directed toward a nearby building; and for a signaling line associated with an external antenna.

2. The local equipotentialization bus bars (BELs) of a building must include the armature of the concrete.

5.4.3.2 For signaling lines, when the connection between the shielding or metal layer and the equipotentialization,
in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 5.4.3.1, may give rise to noise or to electrolytic corrosion, this
connection may be made through the installation of a surge-protection device (SPD) of the short-circuiting [i.e.,
shunting] type.
5.4.3.3 Similarly, for the installation inside the building, when the shielding or metal layer of a signaling line is
connected to a local equipotentialization bus bar or to the terminal bonded to the ground connection of a piece of
equipment, and this connection may give rise to noise or to electrolytic corrosion, this connection may be made
through the installation of a surge-protection device (SPD) of the short-circuiting [i.e., shunting] type.
NOTE: The connection made by means of the installation of a surge-protection device (SPD) of the short-circuiting [i.e., shunting]
type must be limited to one end or the other of the signaling line.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


7
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.4.3.4 Any and all metal signaling lines that interlink buildings must have a parallel equipotentialization conductor
throughout their entire length. This conductor shall be connected to the equipotentialization points of both buildings
to which the signaling line is bonded.
5.4.3.5 In addition to compliance with the provisions of subsections 6.1.7.1 and 6.1.7.2, and with the applicable
requirements of Subsection 6.4, the necessary measures must be adopted in order to reduce the effects of the
induced overvoltages and of electromagnetic interference to acceptable levels.
NOTE: Examples of measures that help to reduce the effect of induced overvoltages and of electromagnetic interference are
listed below:

a) Proper positioning of the potential sources of disturbances in relation to sensitive equipment;


b) Proper positioning of the sensitive equipment in relation to circuits and equipment with high currents, such as
distribution bus bars and elevators;
c) The use of filters and/or surge-protection devices (SPDs) in circuits that supply power to sensitive equipment;
d) The selection of protective devices with adequate timing, so as to prevent undesirable shutdowns due to
transients;
e) The equipotentialization of metal enclosures and shielding;
f) Appropriate separation, by means of physical distance or shielding, between the power lines and the signaling
lines, as well as a layout in which such lines cross at a right angle;
g) Appropriate separation, by means of physical distance or shielding, between the power lines and the signaling
lines, in relation to the down-conductors of the system that provides protection against atmospheric discharges
[i.e., lightning];
h) Reduction of the induction loops, through the adoption of a common segment for the lines of the various
systems;
i) Use of shielded cables for the signal traffic;
j) The shortest possible equipotentialization connections;
k) Lines with separated conductors (for example, isolated conductors or single-core cables), contained in grounded
metal conduits or equivalent supporting members;
l) Avoidance of the TN-C system, in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 5.4.3.6;
m) Concentration of the entries and/or exits of the external lines at a single point in the building (see the note in
Subsection 6.4.2.1.2); and
n) Use of fiber-optic links without a metal coating, or wireless communication links, to interconnect signaling
networks located in areas with separated equipotentialization points [and] with no interconnections.
5.4.3.6 In all buildings to which power is supplied by an electrical line according to the TN-C system, the PEN
conductor must be separated, starting at the point where the line enters the building or else starting at the main
distribution panel, into separate conductors for the neutral and protective-conductor functions. The electrical power
supply, which up to this point used the TN-C system, then shifts to a TN-S system. (The system as a whole is a
TN-C-S system.)
NOTES:
1. An exception to this rule is provided for buildings whose purpose makes it possible safely to rule out the immediate or future
use of electronic equipment that is interlinked by, or that shares, signaling lines (including, in particular, signaling lines based on
metal cables).
2. The PEN conductor of the power line that comes to a building must be included in the main equipotentialization, in accordance
with the requirement described in Subsection 6.4.2.1.1, and therefore must be connected, either directly or indirectly, to the BEP
[i.e., the main equipotentialization bus bar] (see Subsection 6.4.2.1 and Attachment ”G”).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


72
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.5 Protection against voltage drops and faults


5.5.1 Precautions must be taken to prevent a voltage drop or a total voltage fault, whether or not associated with
the subsequent re-establishment of the voltage in question, from posing a danger to persons or causing damage to
any part of the installation, to the utilization equipment, or to property in general. The use of devices that provide
protection against voltage drops and faults may not be necessary if the damage to which the installation and the
equipment are exposed under these circumstances represents an acceptable risk, and provided that there is no
danger to persons.
5.5.2 Examples of the devices that may be used for protection against voltage drops and faults include:
a) Undervoltage relays or triggers that act on contactors or circuit breakers; and
b) Contactors equipped with an auxiliary self-powering contact.
5.5.3 The actuation of the devices that provide protection against voltage drops and faults may be timed, if the
protected equipment can tolerate, with no drawbacks, a brief fault or voltage drop.
5.5.4 If contactors are used, the timing of the opening or closing must not, under any circumstances, interfere with
the instantaneous cut-off imposed by the actuation of the other control and protection devices.
5.5.5 If the re-closing of a protective device might cause a hazardous situation, then the said re-closing must not
take place automatically.

5.6 Cut-off and control


5.6.1 Introduction
This subsection discusses the non-automatic local or remote cut-off and control measures intended to prevent or
eliminate hazards involving the electrical installations or the equipment and machinery powered by them.
5.6.2 General considerations
NOTE: For more information about the selection and installation of the cut-off and control devices, see Subsection 6.3.7.
5.6.2.1 The measures described in this subsection do not constitute alternatives to the protective measures
described in subsections 5.1 through 5.5.
5.6.2.2 Regardless of the grounding system, the protective conductor, including the PEN conductor of the TN-C
systems, must not be cut off. It is unnecessary to cut off the neutral conductor In the TN-S system.
5.6.3 Cut-off
5.6.3.1 All of the live conductors in all of the circuits must be capable of being cut off, except for the ones
specified in Subsection 5.6.2.2. A set of circuits may share a common cut-off device, which may or may not be a
supplement to the cut-off means with which each circuit is individually equipped, provided that the service conditions
allow common or shared cut-offs.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


7
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.6.3.2 Appropriate measures must be provided to prevent the inadvertent energization of any equipment.
NOTES:
1. These precautions may include one or more of the following measures:
- Locking of the cut-off device with a padlock;
- Attachment of warning signs; and
- Installation in an area or enclosure locked with a key.
2. As a supplemental measure, the live parts may be short-circuited and grounded.

5.6.3.3 If a piece of equipment or enclosure contains live parts associated with more than one power supply, then
a sign must be attached that warns, in the event of access to the live parts, of the need to cut off the several power
supplies, unless an interlock is present that ensures the simultaneous cut-off of all of them.
5.6.3.4 Appropriate means must be provided for ensuring, when necessary, the discharge of the stored electrical
energy.
5.6.4 Cut-off for mechanical maintenance
5.6.4.1 Cut-off means must be provided when mechanical maintenance involves a risk of personal injury.
NOTES:
1. The mechanical maintenance mentioned here consists of the maintenance performed on mechanical equipment actuated by
electrical power, including rotating machines, heating systems, and electromagnetic equipment. Thus, the requirements do not
apply to systems or machines whose driving force is something other than electricity (such as pneumatic, hydraulic, or steam
power). In such cases, the cut-off of the power supply to the parts that depend on electricity may not be a sufficient precaution.
2. Examples of installations that require a cut-off for mechanical maintenance include:
- Cranes;
- Elevators;
- Escalators;
- Conveyor belts;
- Machine tools; and
- Pumps.
5.6.4.2 Appropriate measures must be provided to prevent any inadvertent re-closing/re-connection of the
equipment during its mechanical maintenance, unless the cut-off device is continuously under the control of
personnel responsible for performing this maintenance work.
NOTE: These precautions may include one or more of the following measures:
- Locking of the cut-off device with a padlock;
- Attachment of warning signs; and
- Installation in an area or enclosure locked with a key.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


74
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.6.5 Emergency cut-off and emergency shutdown


5.6.5.1 Emergency cut-off means must be provided for all of the parts of the installation in which it may be
necessary to disconnect the power supply in order to eliminate an unexpected hazard.
NOTE: Examples of installations that require emergency cut-offs (independently of the emergency shutdown described in
Subsection 5.6.5.5) include:
a) The pumping of inflammable liquids;
b) Ventilation systems;
c) Large computers;
d) High-voltage discharge lamps (such as neon lights);
e) Certain large-scale buildings (such as department stores);
f) Electrical laboratories and test platforms;
g) Boiler rooms; and

h) Large-scale (industrial and commercial) kitchens.

5.6.5.2 The emergency cut-off device must cut off all of the live conductors, in compliance with the restrictions
specified in Subsection 5.6.2.2.
5.6.5.3 The emergency cut-off means, including the emergency shutdown, must act as directly as possible on the
pertinent power-supply conductors, and must ensure that a single action is sufficient to cut off these conductors.
5.6.5.4 The emergency cut-off [device] must be designed in such a way that its operation does not introduce any
other hazards and does not interfere with the full operation that is necessary in order to eliminate the hazard.
5.6.5.5 Means must be provided for an emergency shutdown when the movements produced by electrical actions
may pose a hazard.
NOTE: Examples of installations that require an emergency shutdown include:
- Escalators;
- Elevators;
- Conveyor belts;
- Electrically controlled doors and gates;
- Machine tools; and
- Vehicle-washing facilities.
5.6.6 Functional control
5.6.6.1 General considerations
5.6.6.1.1 Every circuit or part of a circuit that needs to be controlled independently of other parts of the installation
should be equipped with a functional control device.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


7
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

5.6.6.1.2 The functional control devices do not necessarily need to cut off all of the live conductors of the circuit.
Single-pole control devices are not permitted on the neutral conductor.
NOTE: Those circuits for which the non-interruption of all of the live conductors might pose a risk or cause damage to persons,
components, and/or equipment shall be excluded.

5.6.6.1.3 All utilization equipment should be provided with a functional control device. A single functional control
device can control several pieces of equipment that are intended to operate simultaneously.
NOTE: The utilization equipment may come from the factory with an integrated functional command device; otherwise, the device
must be provided during installation.

5.6.6.1.4 Plugs and sockets may be used as functional control devices, provided that their nominal current does
not exceed 20 A.
5.6.6.1.5 Functional control devices intended to switch power sources must act on all of the live conductors, and
must not be able to place the sources in parallel, unless this condition is specified in the installation plans.
Furthermore, in these cases the PEN conductors and the protective conductors must not be cut off.
5.6.6.2 Control circuits (auxiliary circuits)
The control circuits must be designed, installed, and protected in such a way as to limit the hazards resulting from a
failure between these circuits and other conductive parts that are capable of compromising the proper functioning (for
example, through inadvertent handling) of the controlled equipment.

6. Selection and installation of the components


6.1 Requirements common to all of the components of the installation
6.1.1 General considerations
The components should be selected and installed in such a way as to satisfy the requirements set forth in this
section, as well as the applicable requirements of the other sections of this standard.
6.1.2 Compliance with the standards
6.1.2.1 The components of the installation must comply with the applicable Brazilian standards, and, in their
absence, with the IEC and ISO standards.
6.1.2.2 In the absence of Brazilian, IEC, or ISO standards, the components should be selected on the basis of
regional standards, recognized foreign standards, or, in their absence, based on a special agreement between the
manager of the project into which the electrical installation will be incorporated and the manager of the electrical
installation.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


76
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.1.3 Service conditions and external influences


6.1.3.1 Service conditions
6.1.3.1.1 Voltage
The components must be adapted to the nominal voltage (i.e., the effective value under alternating current) of the
installation. If, in the IT system, the neutral conductor is distributed, then the components connected between a
phase and neutral must be isolated with regard to the interphase voltage.
NOTE: For certain components, it may be necessary to take into consideration the highest voltage or the lowest voltage that may
occur under normal conditions.

6.1.3.1.2 Current
The selection of the components must take into consideration the design current (i.e., the effective value under
alternating current) that must pass through the components during normal service. Consideration must also be given
to the current that may pass through them under abnormal conditions, including the duration of the passage of this
current, based on the actuation characteristics of the protective devices.
6.1.3.1.3 Frequency
If frequency has an effect on the characteristics of the components, then the nominal frequency of the component
must correspond to the frequency of occurrence in the corresponding circuit.
6.1.3.1.4 Power
The components that are selected based on the power characteristics must be appropriate for normal service
conditions, taking into consideration the operational system under which they will function.
6.1.3.1.5 Compatibility
Unless the installation of the components is accompanied by a suitable compensatory measures, the components
should be selected so that under normal service, including handling, they do not have harmful effects on the other
components, or compromise the proper performance of the power sources.
6.1.3.2 External influences
6.1.3.2.1 The components of the installation should be selected and installed in accordance with the
requirements indicated in Table 32. This table indicates the characteristics of the components in accordance with the
external influences to which they will be subjected (see Subsection 4.2.6). The characteristics of the components
shall be determined according to a level of protection or based on compliance with tests.
6.1.3.2.2 If a component does not possess construction characteristics that are compatible with the external
influences present in the area, it may still be used, provided that, when the installation is implemented, the
component is equipped with appropriate supplemental protection. This protection must not affect the operational
conditions of the component.
6.1.3.2.3 Different external influences may occur simultaneously, their effects may be independent or combined,
and the levels of protection should be chosen accordingly.
6.1.3.2.4 The choice of the characteristics of the components based on external influences is necessary not only
for their proper operation, but also to ensure the reliability of the protective measures specified in the standard. The
protective measures associated with the construction of the components shall be valid for certain conditions of
external influences only if the corresponding tests, as specified in the standards for the component, were conducted
under those conditions.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


7
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTES:
1. For the purposes of this standard, the following classes of external influences shall be treated as “normal”:
- AA (ambient temperature): AA4;
- AB (atmospheric humidity): AB4;
- Other environmental conditions (AC through AS): XX1 for each parameter; and
- Conditions of utilization and the construction conditions of the buildings (B and C): XX1 for each parameter, except for the
BC parameter, for which it shall be BC2.
2. The word “normal” that appears in the third column of Table 32 means that a component that meets the requirements of the
applicable technical standards, under the operating conditions defined as normal by those standards, has the necessary
characteristics to operate satisfactorily under the external influences as described.

Table 32. — Characteristics of the components of the installation, based on external influences.

Characteristics required for the selection


Code External influences References
and installation of the components
A: Environmental conditions (Subsection 4.2.6.1)
AA: Ambient temperature (Subsection 4.2.6.1.1)
Temperature ranges
Lower limit (in °C) Upper limit (in °C)
AA1 –60 +5
AA2 –40 +5 Components designed especially for the
application, or adequate measures(1)
AA3 –25 +5
Normal (special precautions may be
AA4 –5 +40
necessary in certain cases)
AA5 +5 +40 Normal
Components designed especially for the
AA6 +5 +60
application, or adequate measures(1)
AA7 –25 +55
Components designed especially for the
AA8 –50 +40 application, or adequate measures(1)

AB: Ambient weather conditions (Subsection 4.2.6.1.2)


Air Relative Absolute
temperature humidity humidity (in
(in °C) (in %) g/m3)
Lower

Upper

Lower

Upper

Lower

Upper
limit

limit

limit

limit

limit

limit

AB1 –60 +5 3 100 0.003 7 Adequate measures are required(2)


AB2 –40 +5 10 100 0.1 7 Adequate measures are required(2)
AB3 –25 +5 10 100 0.5 7 Adequate measures are required(2)

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


78
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 32. (continued)

Characteristics required for the selection


Code External influences References
and installation of the components
AB: Ambient weather conditions (Subsection 4.2.6.1.2)
AB4 –5 +40 5 95 1 29 Normal
AB5 +5 +40 5 85 1 25 Normal
(2)
AB6 +5 +60 10 100 1 35 Adequate measures are required
AB7 – 25 +55 10 100 0.5 29 Adequate measures are required(2)
AB8 – 50 +40 15 100 0.04 36 Adequate measures are required(2)
AC: Altitude (Subsection 4.2.6.1.3)
AC1 ≤ 2,000 m Normal
Special cautions may be necessary, with
the application of correction factors
AC2 > 2,000 m NOTE: For some components, special
measures may be necessary at and above an
elevation of 1,000 meters
AD: Presence of water (Subsection 4.2.6.1.4)
AD1 Negligible IPX0
AD2 Drips or trickles IPX1 or IPX2
AD3 Precipitation IPX3
AD4 Spray IPX4
AD5 Jets IPX5
AD6 Waves IPX6
AD7 Immersion IPX7
AD8 Submersion IPX8
AE: Presence of solid bodies (Subsection 4.2.6.1.5)
AE1 Negligible IP0X
AE2 Small objects (2.5 mm) IP3X
AE3 Very small objects (1 mm) IP4X

AE4 Mild dust IP5X, if dust penetration does not impair


the functionality of the component

IP6X, if dust should not penetrate the


AE5 Moderate dust
component

AE6 Intense dust IP6X

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


7
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 32. (continued)


Characteristics required for the selection
Code External influences References
and installation of the components
AF: Presence of corrosive substances or contaminants (Subsection 4.2.6.1.6)
AF1 Negligible Normal
AF2 Atmospheric agents Depending on the nature of the agents
Corrosion protection, as defined by the
AF3 Intermittent
specifications for the components
Specially designed components,
AF4 Permanent
depending on the nature of the agents
AG: Mechanical shocks (Subsection 4.2.6.1.7)
IEC 60721-3-3:2002,
classes 3M1/3M2/3M3,
Normal. For example, components
AG1 Weak and IEC 60721-3-
intended for household and similar use
4:1987, classes
4M1/4M2/4M3
IEC 60721-3-3:2002,
Components intended for industrial classes 3M4/3M5/3M6,
AG2 Moderate use, if applicable, or reinforced and IEC 60721-3-
protection 4:1987, classes
4M4/4M5/4M6
IEC 60721-3-3:2002,
classes 3M7/3M8, and
AG3 Severe Reinforced protection
IEC 60721-3-4:1987,
classes 4M7/4M8
AH: Vibrations (Subsection 4.2.6.1.7)
AH1 Weak vibrations Normal
AH2 Moderate vibrations Components designed especially for
the application, or adequate
AH3 Severe vibrations (1)
measures
AK: Presence of flora or mold (Subsection 4.2.6.1.8)
AK1 Negligible Normal
Special protection, such as:
- Increased level of protection (see
“AE”)
AK2 Harmful - Special components, or coatings
protecting the enclosures
- Measures to avoid the presence of
flora

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


80
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 32. (continued)


Characteristics required for the selection
Code External influences References
and installation of the components
AL: Presence of fauna (Subsection 4.2.6.1.9)
AL1 Negligible Normal

The protection may include:


- An adequate level of protection
against penetration by solid bodies (see
“AE”)
- Sufficient mechanical strength (see
AL2 Harmful
“AG")
- Precautions for avoiding the presence
of fauna (such as cleaning and/or the
use of pesticides)
- Special components, or coatings
protecting the enclosures
AM: Electromagnetic, electrostatic, or ionizing effects (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AM1: Harmonics and inter-harmonics (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
Below [the values
Precautions should be taken to prevent shown in] Table 1
AM1-1 Controlled level
interference with the controlled situation in the IEC 61000-2-
2:2002 standard
In accordance with
[the values shown in]
AM1-2 Normal level Table 1 in the
IEC 61000-2-2:2002
standard
Special measures, such as filters, in the
Locally above [the
design of the installation
values shown in]
Table 1 in the
AM1-3 High level
IEC 61000-2-2:2002
standard

AM2: Signaling voltages (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)


AM2-1 Less than the [values]
Controlled level Locking circuits, for example
specified below
AM2-2 IEC 61000-2-1 and
Medium level No additional requirements
IEC 61000-2-2
AM2-3 High level Adequate measures are required
AM3: Variations in voltage amplitude (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AM3-1 Controlled level
AM3-2 Normal level See subsections 5.4 and 5.5
AM4: Voltage imbalance (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AM4 Normal level In accordance with
the IEC 61000-2-2
standard
AM5: Frequency variations (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AM5 Normal level ±1 Hz, in accordance
with the IEC 61000-2-
2 standard

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


8
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 32. (continued)


Characteristics required for the
Code External influences selection and installation of the References
components
AM6: Low-frequency induced voltages (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
See Subsection 5.4.3
High withstandability of the signaling
AM6 No classification ITU-T
and control systems of the handling
devices
AM7: DC components in AC networks (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
Measures to limit their level and
AM7 No classification duration in the utilization equipment or
in proximity to it
AM8: Radiated magnetic fields (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
Level 2 of the
AM8-1 Medium level Normal IEC 61000-4-8:2001
standard
Protection provided by adequate Level 4 of the
AM8-2 High level measures, such as shielding and/or IEC 61000-4-8:2001
separation standard
AM9: Electrical fields (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AM9-1 Negligible level Normal
AM9-2 Medium level See the IEC 61000-2-5 standard
AM9-3 High level See the IEC 61000-2-5 standard The IEC 61000-2-5
standard
AM9-4 Very high level See the IEC 61000-2-5 standard
AM21: Oscillating induced voltages or currents (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AM21 No classification Normal The IEC 61000-4-6
standard
AM22: Conducted unidirectional transients, in the nanosecond range (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
Level 1 of the
Protective measures are required
AM22-1 Negligible level IEC 61000-4-4:2004
(see Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
standard
Level 2 of the
Protective measures are required
AM22-2 Medium level IEC 61000-4-4:2004
(see Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
standard
Level 3 of the
AM22-3 High level Normal equipment IEC 61000-4-4:2004
standard
Level 4 of the
AM22-4 Very high level High-immunity equipment IEC 61000-4-4:2004
standard
AM23: Conducted unidirectional transients, in the microsecond-to-millisecond range (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AM23-1 Controlled level Ability of the components to withstand
AM23-2 Medium level impulses, and protection against
overvoltages, taking into
consideration the nominal voltage of 4.2.6.1.12, 5.4.2,
the installation and the withstand and 6.3.5
AM23-3 High level
ability category, in accordance with
the provisions of Subsection 5.4.2

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


82
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 32. (continued)


Characteristics required for the
Code External influences selection and installation of the References
components
AM24: Conducted oscillating transients (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
The IEC 61000-4-12
AM24-1 Medium level See the IEC 61000-4-12 standard
standard
The IEC 60255-22-1
AM24-2 High level See the IEC 60255-22-1 standard
standard
AM25: High-frequency radiated phenomena (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
Level 1 of the
AM25-1 Negligible level IEC 61000-4-3:2002
standard
Level 2 of the
AM25-2 Medium level Normal IEC 61000-4-3:2002
standard
Level 3 of the
AM25-3 High level Reinforced level IEC 61000-4-3:2002
standard
AM31: Electrostatic discharges (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
Level 1 of the
AM31-1 Low level Normal IEC 61000-4-2:2001
standard
Level 2 of the
AM31-2 Medium level Normal IEC 61000-4-2:2001
standard
Level 3 of the
AM31-3 High level Normal IEC 61000-4-2:2001
standard
Level 4 of the
AM31-4 Very high level Reinforced IEC 61000-4-2:2001
standard
AM41: Ionizing radiation (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AM41-1 No classification Special protection, such as distancing
from the source, the installation of
shielding, and enclosures or
wrappings made of special materials
AN: Sunlight (Subsection 4.2.6.1.10)
AN1 Negligible Normal The IEC 60721-3-3
standard
AN2 Mean Adequate measures are required(2) The IEC 60721-3-3
standard
AN3 High Adequate measures are required(2), The IEC 60721-3-4
such as: standard
- Components that are resistant to
ultraviolet radiation
- Coatings in special colors
- installation of screens or shields
AQ: Atmospheric discharges (lightning) (Subsection 4.2.6.1.12)
AQ1 Negligible Normal
AQ2 Indirect See subsections 5.4.2 and 6.3.5
See subsections 5.4.2 and 6.3.5.
If applicable, the protection against
AQ3 Direct atmospheric discharges (lightning)
must comply with the provisions of the
ABNT NBR 5419 standard

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


8
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 32. (continued)


Characteristics required for the
Code External influences selection and installation of the References
components
AR: Air movement (Subsection 4.2.6.1.13)
AR1 Negligible Normal
AR2 Mean Adequate measures are required(2)
AR3 Strong Adequate measures are required(2)
AS: Wind (Subsection 4.2.6.1.14)
AS1 Negligible Normal
AS2 Moderate Adequate measures are required(2)
AS3 Strong Adequate measures are required(2)
B: Utilization (Subsection 4.2.6.2)
BA: Competence of persons (Subsection 4.2.6.2.1)
BA1 Common Normal
Component whose level of protection
is greater than Class IP2X.
Components whose external surface
BA2 Children
temperature is greater than 80°C
(60°C for nurseries and similar
facilities) should be inaccessible
In accordance with the nature of the
BA3 Disabled
disability
Components that are not protected
against direct contacts shall be
BA4 Aware
permitted only in areas whose access
BA5 Qualified
is restricted to properly authorized
persons
BB: Electrical resistance of the human body (Subsection 4.2.6.2.2)
BB1 High Normal
BB2 Normal Normal
Adequate protective measures
BB3 Low (see Subsection 5.1, Section 9,
and Attachment “C”)
Adequate protective measures
BB4 Very low (see Subsection 5.1, Section 9,
and Attachment “C”)
BC: Contact between persons and the ground potential (Subsection 4.2.6.2.3)
An exceptional condition, not taken
into consideration, in practice, with The IEC 61000-2001
BC1 None
regard to the selection of the standard
components
BC2 Rare Components in classes I, II, and III
BC3 Frequent Components in classes I, II, and III
BC4 Continuous Special measures

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


84
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 32. (continued)


Characteristics required for the
Code External influences selection and installation of the References
components
BD: Personnel evacuation during emergencies (Subsection 4.2.6.2.4)
BD1 Normal Normal
BD2 Long
BD3 Crowded

See Subsection 5.2.2.2


BD4 Long and crowded

BE: Nature of the processed or stored materials (Subsection 4.2.6.2.5)


BE1 Negligible risks Normal Subsection 5.2.2.3
Components made of non-flame-
propagating materials. Precautions in
order to prevent a significant
BE2 Fire risks
temperature rise or a spark in the
component from causing an external
fire
Components that are appropriate for
BE3 Risks of explosion
explosive atmospheres
Adequate measures, such as:
- Protection against lamp fragments
BE4 Risks of contamination and other fragile objects
- Screens for harmful radiation,
such as infrared and ultraviolet rays
C: Building and edifice construction (Subsection 4.2.6.3)
CA: Construction materials (Subsection 4.2.6.3.1)
CA1 Non-combustible Normal
CA2 Combustible See Subsection 5.2.2.4
CB: The structure of buildings and edifices (Subsection 4.2.6.3.2)
CB1 Negligible risks Normal
NOTE: Components made of non-flame-
propagating materials, including those of
CB2 Subject to fire propagation non-electric origin. Fire barriers
Subsection 5.2.2.5
NOTE: Fire detectors may be provided.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


8
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 32. (conclusion)


Characteristics required for the
Code External influences selection and installation of the References
components
CB: The structure of buildings and edifices (Subsection 4.2.6.3.2)
CB3 Subject to movement Contraction or expansion joints in the
electrical lines
CB4 Flexible or unstable (under study)
(1)
Supplemental precautions (such as special lubrication) may be necessary.
(2)
Special measures should be agreed upon between the designer of the installation and the manufacturer of the component, for
example, regarding components specially designed for the application.

6.1.4 Accessibility
Components, including the electrical lines, must be arranged in such a way as to facilitate their operation, inspection,
and maintenance, as well as access to their connections. Access must not be significantly reduced by the installation
of the components in enclosures or compartments.
6.1.5 Identification of the components
6.1.5.1 General considerations
Data plates, labels, and other appropriate means of identification must make it possible to identify the purpose of the
control, handling, and/or protective devices, unless there is no possibility of confusion. If the actuation of the control,
handling, and/or protective device cannot be seen by the operator, such that a hazard is posed, then signaling must
be provided that can be seen by the operator.
6.1.5.2 Electrical lines
The electrical lines should be arranged or labeled in such a way as to allow them to be identified when inspections,
tests, or repairs are performed on the installation, or when changes are made in it.
6.1.5.3 Conductors
6.1.5.3.1 Any insulated conductor, single-core cable, or core of a multicore cable that is used as a neutral
conductor must be identified according to its function. If color-coding is employed, a light-blue color should be used
on the insulation of the insulated conductor or of the core of the multicore cable, or on the cover of a single-core
cable.
NOTE: The core of a multicore cable with light-blue insulation may be used for other functions, apart from [serving as the] neutral
conductor, if the circuit does not have a neutral conductor or if the cable has a peripheral conductor that is used as neutral.

6.1.5.3.2 Any insulated conductor, single-core cable, or core of a multicore cable that is used as a protective
conductor (PE) must be identified according to its function. If color-coding Is employed, two colors (green and yellow)
or green alone – the colors used exclusively to indicate the protective function – should be used on the insulation of
the insulated conductor or of the core of the multicore cable, or on the cover of a single-core cable.
6.1.5.3.3 Any insulated conductor, single-core cable, or core of a multicore cable that is used as a protective
conductor (PE) must be identified according to its function. If color-coding is employed, a light-blue color, with green-
and-yellow rings, should be used on the visible or accessible points, on the insulation of the insulated conductor or of
the core of the multicore cable, or on the cover of the single-core cable.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


86
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.1.5.3.4 Any insulated conductor, single-core cable, or core of a multicore cable that is used as a phase
conductor must be identified according to its function. In case of identification by color, any color may be used, in
compliance with the restrictions set forth in subsections 6.1.5.3.1, 6.1.5.3.2, and 6.1.5.3.3.
NOTE: For safety reasons, the exclusively yellow color of the insulation should not be used where there is a risk of confusion with
the dual green-and-yellow color-coding, which colors are used exclusively for the protective conductor.

6.1.5.4 Protective devices


The protective devices must be arranged and identified in such a way that the respective protected circuits can be
easily recognized.
6.1.6 Independence of the components
6.1.6.1 The components must be chosen and arranged in such a way as to prevent any harmful influence
between the electrical installations and the non-electrical installations, as well as between the electrical energy
installations and the electrical signaling installations of the building or structure.
6.1.6.2 If the components to be grouped, on the distribution board, panel, control desk, or similar assembly
include parts that carry different voltages or that carry currents of different types, a separation must be implemented
that can prevent any mutually harmful influences between the components of these different subsystems.
6.1.7 Electromagnetic compatibility
6.1.7.1 When the levels of immunity of the components of the installation are specified, consideration must be
given to the electromagnetic influences (see Subsection 4.2.6.1.10) that may occur during normal operation.
Consideration must also be given to the level of continuity of the planned or desired service, bearing in mind the use
of the installation.
6.1.7.2 Components must be selected that have sufficiently low emission levels, so that they do not generate
electromagnetic interference, via conduction or via propagation over the air, with other components located inside or
outside the building. If necessary, attenuation means should be provided in order to reduce the emissions.
NOTE: The IEC/CISPR 11, IEC/CISPR 12, IEC/CISPR 13, IEC/CISPR 14, IEC/CISPR 15, IEC/CISPR 22 standards, and the
IEC 61000 series standards, contain requirements regarding electromagnetic compatibility, many of which are applicable to the
components of electrical installations.

6.1.8 Documentation of the installation


6.1.8.1 The installation must be implemented in accordance with the specific design, which must include, at a
minimum:
a) Plans;
b) Single-line diagrams, and others, if applicable;
c) Assembly details, if necessary;
d) A descriptive memorandum for the installation;
e) The component specifications (i.e., their description, their nominal characteristics, and the standards that they
must meet); and
f) The design parameters (short-circuit currents, voltage drops, likely demand factors, ambient temperature, etc.).
6.1.8.2 After the installation has been concluded, the documentation mentioned in Subsection 6.1.8.1 must be
reviewed and updated so that it accurately reflects the work that was performed (i.e., the "as-built" documentation).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


8
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTE: This update may be done by the project designer, by the implementer, or by another professional, as previously agreed by
and between the parties.
6.1.8.3 If an installation does not include permanent operating, monitoring, and/or maintenance equipment that is
managed by aware or qualified persons (BA4 or BA5 in Table 18), then a user’s manual must be provided that is
written in language accessible to laypeople, that contains at least the following elements:
a) One or more diagrams of the distribution panel(s), with an indication of the circuits and their respective purposes,
including, for terminal circuits, a list of the feed points;
b) The maximum voltages that can be connected to each terminal circuit that is effectively available;
c) The maximum voltages that are planned for the terminal circuits that are left as a reserve, if applicable; and
d) Explicit notice that the existing protective devices present in the panel(s) should not be replaced by devices with
different characteristics.
NOTE: Examples of such installations include the ones intended for residential units, small business
establishments, etc.
6.2 Selection and installation of the electrical lines
6.2.1 General considerations
6.2.1.1 The selection and installation of electrical lines must take in consideration the basic principles, as stated in
Subsection 4.1, that are applicable to the conductors, to their terminations and fittings, to the supports and brackets
associated with them, and to their enclosures or the methods employed to protect them against external influences.
6.2.1.2 The following requirements are applicable, in particular, to live conductors (for AC circuits, the phases and
neutral). For more information about protective conductors, see Subsection 6.4.3.
6.2.2 Types of electrical lines
6.2.2.1 The types of electrical lines are illustrated in Table 33.
6.2.2.2 Other types of electrical lines, apart from the ones shown in Table 33, may be used, provided that they
meet the general requirements set forth in this subsection.
6.2.2.3 Prefabricated lines (e.g., shielded bus-bars) must comply with the provisions of the IEC 60439-2 standard.
These lines must be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and must meet the requirements set
forth in subsections 6.2.4, 6.2.7, 6.2.8 , and 6.2.9.
6.2.3 Conductors
NOTE: Because the requirements set forth in this standard with regard to the selection and installation of the electrical lines are
intended particularly for the power lines, the pertinent conductors are power conductors or cables. Accordingly, for specific
guidelines regarding control cables, instrumentation cables, or other electrical signaling lines, the standards specifically applicable to
these products and to their manufacturers should be consulted. The same remark also applies to power cables intended for specific
uses, such as equipment-interconnection cables, including high-temperature cables.

6.2.3.1 All of the conductors must be equipped, at a minimum, with insulation, unless the use of bare conductors
or conductors equipped only with a covering is expressly permitted.
6.2.3.2 Single-core and multicore cables must comply with the provisions of the following standards:
a) Cables with EPR insulation: the ABNT NBR 7286 standard;
b) Cables with XLPE insulation: the ABNT NBR 7287 standard; and

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


88
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

c) Cables with PVC insulation: the ABNT NBR 7288 standard or the ABNT NBR 8661.
NOTE: Cables that comply with the provisions of the ABNT NBR 13249 standard shall not be authorized for use in the installation
methods indicated in Table 33, inasmuch as these cables are intended only for the connection of equipment.

6.2.3.3 For the purposes of this standard, conductors with XLPE insulation that meet the requirements of the
ABNT NBR 7285 standard, including insulated cables and multiplexed cables, shall be treated as single-core and
multicore cables, respectively.
NOTE: Although they have no cover, these conductors have insulation that is thick enough or sufficient to ensure results
equivalent to those of a double layer (i.e., insulation plus a cover).

6.2.3.4 Conductors equipped with PVC insulation, in accordance with the ABNT NBR NM 247-3 standard, must
be non-flame-propagating.
6.2.3.5 Non-flame-propagating cables that are halogen-free and whose emission of smoke and toxic gases is low
must comply with the provisions of the ABNT NBR 13248 standard.
NOTE: Non-flame-propagating cables that are halogen-free and whose emission of smoke and toxic gases is low may be
insulated conductors, single-core cables, or multicore cables.

6.2.3.6 Copper conductors with no insulation (i.e., bare wire and cables, or wires and cables with a protective
cover) must comply with the provisions of the ABNT NBR 6524 standard.
6.2.3.7 The conductors used in the electrical lines must be made of copper or aluminum, with the proviso that,
when aluminum conductors are used, they must comply with the requirements of Subsection 6.2.3.8.
6.2.3.8 The use of aluminum conductors shall be permitted only under the conditions described in subsections
6.2.3.8.1 and 6.2.3.8.2.
NOTE: The restrictions on the use of aluminum conductors reflect the current state of the art for connections in Brazil. Technical
solutions for connections that comply with the provisions of the ABNT NBR 9313, ABNT NBR 9326, and ABNT NBR 9513
standards, and that affect these restrictions, should be taken into consideration in supplemental standards, and incorporated into the
standard at some point in the future.

6.2.3.8.1 Aluminum conductors may be used in installations located within industrial facilities, provided that,
simultaneously:
a) The nominal cross-section of the conductors is at least 16 mm²;
b) The installation is supplied with power directly from a high-tension network, via a transformer or a transformer
substation, or has its own power source; and
c) The installation work and the maintenance activities are performed by qualified persons (BA5 in Table 18).
6.2.3.8.2 Aluminum conductors may be used in installations located within commercial establishments, provided
that, simultaneously:
a) The nominal cross-section of the conductors is at least 50 mm²;
b) The areas consist exclusively of BD1 areas (see Table 21); and
c) The installation work and the maintenance activities are performed by qualified persons (BA5 in Table 18).
6.2.3.8.3 The use of aluminum conductors shall not be permitted under any circumstances in BD4 areas (see
Table 21).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


8
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 33. — Types of electrical lines.

Installation
method Illustrative diagram Description Reference method (1)
No.

Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a


1 Inner conduit with a circular cross-section embedded in A1
surface a thermally insulating wall(2)

Inner Multicore cable in a conduit with a circular cross-


2 A2
surface section embedded in a thermally insulating wall(2)

Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a


visible conduit with a circular cross-section,
3 mounted on a wall or spaced from a wall by a B1
distance less than 0.3 times the diameter of the
conduit

Multicore cables in a visible conduit with a circular


cross-section, mounted on a wall or spaced from
4 B2
a wall by a distance less than 0.3 times the
diameter of the conduit

Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a


5 visible conduit with a non-circular cross-section B1
mounted on a wall

Multicore cable in a visible conduit with a non-


6 B2
circular cross-section mounted on a wall

Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a


7 conduit with a circular cross-section embedded in B1
masonry work

Multicore cable in a conduit with a circular cross-


8 B2
section embedded in masonry work

Single-core cables or multicore cable mounted on


11 a wall or spaced from a wall by a distance less C
than 0.3 times the diameter of the cable

Single-core cables or multicore cable secured


11A C
directly to the ceiling

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


90
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 33. (continued)

Installation
method illustrative diagram Description Reference method(1)
No.

Single-core cables or multicore cable spaced from


11B the ceiling by a distance more than 0.3 times the C
diameter of the cable

Single-core cables or multicore cable on a non-


12 C
perforated, profiled tray or shelf(3)

Single-core cables or multicore cable on a E (multicore)


13
perforated horizontal or vertical tray(4) F (single-core)

Single-core cables or multicore cable on a


E (multicore)
14 horizontally supported wireframe cable tray or
F (single-core)
screen

Single-core cables or multicore cable spaced from


E (multicore)
15 a wall by a distance more than 0.3 times the
F (single-core)
diameter of the cable

E (multicore)
16 Single-core cables or multicore cable in a bed
F (single-core)

Single-core cables or multicore cables suspended


E (multicore)
17 by means of a supporting cable, which may or
F (single-core)
may not be incorporated

18 Bare or insulated conductors on insulators G

Single-core cables or multicore cables in a


construction space (5), whether they are applied
directly to the surface of the construction space or B2
21
installed on supports or on open conduits (e.g., a
tray, shelf, screen, or bed) located inside the
B1
construction space(5)(6)

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


9
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 33. (continued)

Installation
method illustrative diagram Description Reference method(1)
No.

Insulated conductors in a conduit with a circular B2


22 (5)(7)
cross-section inside a construction space
B1

Single-core cables or multicore cable in a conduit


23 with a circular cross-section inside a construction B2
space(5)(7)

Insulated conductors in a conduit with a non-


circular cross-section, or in a cable tray, inside a B2
24
construction space(5)
B1

Single-core cables or multicore cable in a conduit


25 with a non-circular cross-section, or in a cable B2
tray, inside a construction space(5)

Insulated conductors in a conduit with a non- B2


26 circular cross-section embedded in masonry
work(6)
B1

Single-core cables or multicore cable in a conduit


27 with a non-circular cross-section embedded in B2
masonry work

31 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a


cable tray on a wall, running horizontally or B1
32 vertically

31a Multicore cable in a cable tray on a wall, running


B2
32a horizontally or vertically

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


92
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 33. (continued)

Installation
method illustrative diagram Description Reference method(1)
No.

Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a


33 B1
closed channel embedded in the floor

Multicore cable in a closed channel embedded in


34 B2
the floor

Insulated cables or single-core cables in a


35 B1
suspended cable tray or shaped rail

Multicore cable in a suspended cable tray or


36 B2
shaped rail

Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a


B2
41 conduit with a circular cross-section contained in
a closed channel with a horizontal or vertical run(7)
B1

Insulated conductors in a conduit with a circular


42 cross-section contained in a ventilated channel B1
embedded in the floor

Single-core cables or multicore cable in a


43 B1
ventilated channel embedded in the floor

Multicore cable embedded directly in a thermally


51 (2) A1
insulating wall

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


9
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 33. (continued)

Installation
method illustrative diagram Description Reference method(1)
No.

Single-core cables or multicore cable embedded


52 directly into masonry work with no additional C
mechanical protection

Single-core cables or multicore cable embedded


53 directly into masonry work with additional C
mechanical protection

Multicore cable in a conduit (with or without a


61 circular cross-section) or in a non-ventilated D
buried channel

Single-core cables in a conduit (with or without a


61A non-circular cross-section) or in a non-ventilated D
buried channel(8)

Directly buried single-core cables or multicore


63 (9) D
cable, with additional mechanical protection

Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a


71 A1
molded block

Signal Signal
72: Insulated conductors or single-core cables in
72 1 1 a channel equipped with separators and mounted B1
Signal Signal
2 2
on a wall

72A: Multicore cable in a channel equipped with


72A B2
separators and mounted on a wall

Insulated conductors in a conduit, single-core


73 cables or multicore cable embedded in a A1
doorframe

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


94
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 33. (continued)

Installation
method illustrative diagram Description Reference method(1)
No.
Insulated conductors in a conduit, single-core
74 cables or multicore cable embedded in a A1
doorframe

75: Insulated conductors or single-core cables in


75 B1
a channel embedded in a wall

75A: Multicore cable in a channel embedded in a


75A B2
wall

(1)
Reference method to be used in the determination of the current-carrying capacity. See Subsection 6.2.5.1.2.
(2) 2
It is assumed that the thermal conductivity of the inner surface of the wall is at least 10 W/m .K.
(3)
Insulated conductors in a shaped rail shall be permitted, provided that the conditions described in the note in
Subsection 6.2.11.4.1 are met.
(4)
The current-carrying capacity for a perforated tray was determined on the basis of the assumption that the
perforations occupy at least 30% of the area of the tray. If the perforations occupy less than 30% of the area of the
tray, then the tray shall be assumed to be “non-perforated."
(5)
In accordance with the provisions of the ABNT NBR IEC 60050 (826), the wells, galleries, technical floors, conduits
made of honeycomb blocks, suspended ceilings, raised floors, and internal spaces that are present in certain types of
partitions (such as, for example, plasterboard walls) are treated as construction spaces.
(6)
For multicore cables, “De” is the outside diameter of the cable. For single-core cables or insulated conductors, there
are two different situations:
– Three single-core cables (or insulated conductors) in a trefoil arrangement: The value of De should be assumed to be
equal to 2.2 times the diameter of the single-core cable or of the insulated conductor;
– Three single-core cables (or insulated conductors) grouped in the same plane: The value of De should be assumed
to be equal to 3 times the diameter of the single-core cable or of the insulated conductor.
(7)
For conduits with a circular cross-section, De is the outside diameter of the conduit; or, for cable trays and conduits
with a non-circular cross-section, De is the height or depth of the cable tray or conduit.
(8)
The use of insulated conductors shall also be permitted, provided that the conditions described in the note in
Subsection 6.2.11.6.1 are met.
(9)
Cables that are buried directly with no additional mechanical protection shall be permitted, provided that such cables
are shielded (see Subsection 6.2.11.6). However, it should be noted that this standard does not provide values for the
current-carrying capacity of shielded cables. These capacities must be determined in the manner indicated in the
ABNT NBR 11301 standard.
NOTE: For vertical lines or segments, when ventilation is limited, attention should be paid to the risk of a substantial
rise in ambient temperature at the top of the vertical segment.

6.2.4 Selection and installation in accordance with external influences


NOTE: The requirements regarding the selection and installation of lines from the viewpoint of the external influences described
in Subsection 4.2.6 are shown in Table 34.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


9
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 34. — Selection and installation of electrical lines in accordance with external influences.

Code Classification Selection and installation of the lines


A: Environmental conditions (Subsection 4.2.6.1)
AA: Ambient temperature (Subsection 4.2.6.1.1)
AA1 –60°C +5°C
AA2 –40°C +5°C At temperatures below –10°C, conductors or cables with insulation and/or
PVC covers, as well as PVC conduits, should not be handled or subjected
AA3 –25°C +5°C to mechanical stresses, because the PVC could become brittle.
AA4 –5°C +40°C
AA5 +5°C +40°C
It the ambient temperature (or the temperature of the ground) is greater
AA6 +5°C +60°C than the reference values (20°C for underground lines and 30°C for the
AA7 –25°C +55°C others), then the current-carrying capacities of the conductors and of the
insulated cable should be reduced, as shown in Subsection 6.2.5.3.3.
AA8 –50°C +40°C
AC: Altitude (Subsection 4.2.6.1.3) (no influence)
AD: Presence of water (Subsection 4.2.6.1.4)
AD1 Negligible The use of wooden blocks shall be permitted only for AD1 conditions.
AD2 Drips or trickles
AD3 Precipitation Under conditions from AD3 through AD6, only lines with additional
protection against water penetration and with appropriate IP levels, and,
AD4 Spray in principle, with no external metal coating, should be used,
AD5 Jets Single-core and multicore cables with extruded coverings may be used on
AD6 Waves any types of lines, even with metallic conduits.
Single-core and multicore cables with water-resistant insulation (such as
AD7 Immersion
EPR and XLPE).
AD8 Submersion Special cables for submerged use.
AE: Presence of solid bodies (Subsection 4.2.6.1.5)
AE1 Negligible No limits.
AE2 Small objects No limits, provided that there is no exposure to mechanical damage.
AE3 Very small objects No limits.
AE4 Light dust Precautions may be necessary to prevent the deposition of dust or other
substances from reaching the point of interfering with the heat dissipation
AE5 Moderate dust
of the electrical lines. These include the selection of an installation method
AE6 Intense dust that facilitates the removal of the dust.
AF: Presence of corrosive substances or contaminants (Subsection 4.2.6.1.6)
AF1 Negligible No limits.
AF2 Atmospheric The lines must be protected against corrosion or against chemical agents.
The single-core and multicore cables with extruded coverings shall be
AF3 Intermittent considered adequate. Insulated conductors shall be used only in conduits
with adequate resistance to the agents that are present.
The use of single-core or multicore cables shall be permitted only if the
AF4 Permanent
cables are appropriate in view of the chemical agents that are present.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


96
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 34. (continued)

Code Classification Selection and installation of the lines


AG: Mechanical shocks (Subsection 4.2.6.1.7)
AG1 Weak No limits.
Lines with light protection. Standard single-core and multicore cables shall
AG2 Moderate be considered adequate. Insulated conductors may be used in conduits
that comply with the ABNT NBR 5624 and ABNT NBR 6150 standards.
Lines with reinforced protection. Single-core and multicore cables with
metal shielding shall be considered adequate. Insulated conductors may
AG3 Severe
be used in conduits that comply with the ABNT NBR 5597 and ABNT
NBR 5598 standards.
AH: Vibrations (Subsection 4.2.6.1.7)
AH1 Weak vibrations No limits.
AH2 Moderate vibrations Flexible lines may be necessary.
Flexible lines may be used only if they consist of flexible single-core or
AH3 Severe vibrations
multicore cables, or flexible insulated conductors, in a flexible conduit.
AK: Presence of flora or mold (Subsection 4.2.6.1.8)
AK1 Negligible No limits.
The need to use the following components should be evaluated:
- Cables equipped with shielding, if they are directly buried
AK2 Harmful - Insulated conductors located in conduits with an adequate level of
protection
- Special materials or adequate coatings that protect cables or conduits
AL: Presence of fauna (Subsection 4.2.6.1.9)
AL1 Negligible No limits.
Lines with special protection. If the presence of rodents and termites
poses a risk, one of the following solutions should be used:
- Cables equipped with shielding
AL2 Harmful - Insulated conductors located in conduits with an adequate level of
protection
- Materials with special additives, or suitable coatings, for cables or
conduits
AN: Sunlight (Subsection 4.2.6.1.11)
AN1 Negligible No limits.
AN2 Mean Open-air cables or cables located in open conduits must be resistant to
bad weather. The calculations of current-carrying capacity must take into
AN3 High consideration the rise in temperature at the surface of the conductors or
cables.
B: Utilization
BA: Competence of persons (Subsection 4.2.6.2.1) (no effect)
BB: Electrical resistance of the human body (Subsection 4.2.6.2.2)
BB1 High No limits.
BB2 Normal
BB3 Low See Subsection 5.1 and Section 9.
BB4 Very low

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


9
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 34. (conclusion)

Code Classification Selection and installation of the lines


BC: Contact between persons and the potential of the earth (Subsection 4.2.6.2.3)
BC1 None No limits.
BC2 Rare
BC3 Frequent See Subsection 5.1 and Section 9.
BC4 Continuous
BD: Personnel evacuation during emergencies (Subsection 4.2.6.2.4)
BD1 Normal No limits.
BD2 Long
BD3 Crowded See Subsection 5.2.2.2.
BD4 Long and crowded
BE: Nature of the processed or stored materials (Subsection 4.2.6.2.5)
BE1 Negligible risks No limits.
BE2 Fire risks See Subsection 5.2.2.3.
BE3 Risks of explosion Lines protected due to the proper choice of the installation method (for the
BE4 Risks of contamination BE3 condition, see the ABNT NBR 9518 standard).
C: Building and edifice construction
CA: Construction materials (Subsection 4.2.6.2.1)
CA1 Non-combustible No limits.
CA2 Combustible See Subsection 5.2.2.4
CB: The structure of buildings and edifices (Subsection 4.2.6.3.2)
CB1 Negligible risks No limits.
Subject to fire
CB2 See Subsection 5.2.2.5.
propagation
CB3 Subject to movement Flexible lines, or lines that contain dilatation [sic] and expansion joints.
CB4 Flexible Flexible lines.

6.2.5 Current-carrying capacities


6.2.5.1 Introduction
6.2.5.1.1 The requirements set forth in this subsection are intended to ensure a satisfactory lifetime for the
conductors and insulators that are subjected to the thermal effects of the circulation of currents equivalent to their
current-carrying capacities for prolonged periods during normal service. Other considerations also play a role in the
determination of the cross-section of the conductors, such as protection against electric shocks (see Subsection 5.1);
protection against thermal effects (see Subsection 5.2); protection against overcurrents (see Subsection 5.3); voltage
drops (see Subsection 6.2.7); and the maximum acceptable temperatures for the terminals of the components of the
installation to which the conductors are connected.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


98
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTE: This subsection addresses insulated conductors, single-core cables, and multicore cables whose nominal voltage does
not exceed 0.6/1 kV, with the exclusion of shielded cables. For shielded cables, the current-carrying capacity shall be determined in
the manner indicated in the ABNT NBR 11301 standard.

6.2.5.1.2 The reference methods shall be the installation methods mentioned in the IEC 60364-5-52 standard, for
which the current-carrying capacity was determined through testing or by calculation. They are:
- A1: Insulated conductors in a conduit with a circular cross-section embedded in a thermally insulating wall;
- A2: Multicore cable in a conduit with a circular cross-section embedded in a thermally insulating wall;
- B1: Insulating conductors in a conduit with a circular cross-section located on a wooden wall;
- B2: Multicore cable in a conduit with a circular cross-section located on a wooden wall;
- C: Single-core cables or multicore cable on a wooden wall;
- D: Multicore cable in a conduit buried in the ground;
- E: Open-air multicore cable;
- F: Open-air juxtaposed single-core cables (horizontal, vertical, or in a trefoil arrangement);
- G: Spaced open-air single-core cables.
NOTES:
1. In methods A1 and A2, the wall consists of a leakproof outer surface, thermal insulation, and an inner surface made of wood or
2
a similar material whose thermal conductivity is at least 10 W/m .K. The conduit, which may be made of metal or plastic, is secured
to the inner surface (but is not necessarily in physical contact with it).
2. In methods B1 and B2, the conduit, which may be made of metal or plastic, is mounted on a wooden wall, with the distance
between the conduit and the surface of the wall being less than 0.3 times the diameter of the conduit.
3. In method C, the distance between the multicore cable, or any single-core cable, and the wooden wall is less than 0.3 times
the diameter of the conduit.
4. In method D, the cable is installed in a conduit (which may be made of metal, plastic, or clay) that is buried at a depth of
0.7 meter in soil whose thermal resistivity is 2.5 K.m/W.
5. In methods E, F, and G, the distance between the multicore cable or any single-core cable and any adjacent surface shall be at
least 0.3 times the external diameter of the cable (for the multicore cable), or at least one time the diameter of the cable (for single-
core cables).
6. In method G, the spacing between the single-core cables is at least one time the outside diameter of the cable.
For each installation method listed in Table 33, the table also indicates the corresponding reference method, which should be
employed in order to determine the current-carrying capacity.
6.2.5.2 General considerations
6.2.5.2.1 The current carried by any conductor for prolonged periods during normal operation must be such that
the maximum temperature for continuous service, as indicated in Table 35, is not exceeded. The current-carrying
capacity should be determined in accordance with the contents of Subsection 6.2.5.2.2 or Subsection 6.2.5.2.3.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


9
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 35. — Characteristic temperatures of the conductors.


Maximum Limit overload Limit short-circuit
temperature for temperature temperature
Type of insulation
continuous service (conductor) (in (conductor)
(conductor) (in °C) °C) (in °C)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), up to 300 mm2 70 100 160
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), more than 300 mm2 70 100 140
Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) 90 130 250
Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) 90 130 250

6.2.5.2.2 The requirement set forth in Subsection 6.2.5.2.1 shall be deemed to have been met if the current in the
conductors does not exceed the current-carrying capacities appropriately obtained from tables 36 through 39,
adjusted, if necessary, by the factors indicated in tables 40 through 45.
NOTES:
1. Tables 36 through 39 indicate the current-carrying capacities for reference methods A1, A2, B1, B2, C, D, E, F, and G, as
described in Subsection 6.2.5.1.2, which are applicable to various types of lines, as indicated in Table 33.
2. The current-carrying capacities indicated in tables 36 through 39 refer to continuous operation on an ongoing basis (with a
100% load factor), either DC or AC at a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

6.2.5.2.3 The current-carrying capacity values may also be calculated in the manner indicated in the ABNT
NBR 11301 standard. Depending on the circumstances, it may be necessary to take into consideration the load
characteristics and, for buried cables, the actual thermal resistivity of the soil.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


100
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 36. — Current-carrying capacities, in amperes, for reference methods A1, A2, B1, B2, C, and D.
Conductors: Copper and aluminum
Insulation: PVC
Conductor temperature: 70°C
Ambient reference temperatures: 30°C (air), 20°C (soil)

Nominal Reference methods indicated in Table 33


cross- A1 A2 B1 B2 C D
sections Number of loaded conductors
(in mm2) 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)
Copper
0.5 7 7 7 7 9 8 9 8 10 9 12 10
0.75 9 9 9 9 11 10 11 10 13 11 15 12
1 11 10 11 10 14 12 13 12 15 14 18 15
1.5 14.5 13.5 14 13 17.5 15.5 16.5 15 19.5 17.5 22 18
2.5 19.5 18 18.5 17.5 24 21 23 20 27 24 29 24
4 26 24 25 23 32 28 30 27 36 32 38 31
6 34 31 32 29 41 36 38 34 46 41 47 39
10 46 42 43 39 57 50 52 46 63 57 63 52
16 61 56 57 52 76 68 69 62 85 76 81 67
25 80 73 75 68 101 89 90 80 112 96 104 86
35 99 89 92 83 125 110 111 99 138 119 125 103
50 119 108 110 99 151 134 133 118 168 144 148 122
70 151 136 139 125 192 171 168 149 213 184 183 151
95 182 164 167 150 232 207 201 179 258 223 216 179
120 210 188 192 172 269 239 232 206 299 259 246 203
150 240 216 219 196 309 275 265 236 344 299 278 230
185 273 245 248 223 353 314 300 268 392 341 312 258
240 321 286 291 261 415 370 351 313 461 403 361 297
300 367 328 334 298 477 426 401 358 530 464 408 336
400 438 390 398 355 571 510 477 425 634 557 478 394
500 502 447 456 406 656 587 545 486 729 642 540 445
630 578 514 526 467 758 678 626 559 843 743 614 506
800 669 593 609 540 881 788 723 645 978 865 700 577
1,000 767 679 698 618 1,012 906 827 738 1,125 996 792 652
Aluminum
16 48 43 44 41 60 53 54 48 66 59 62 52
25 63 57 58 53 79 70 71 62 83 73 80 66
35 77 70 71 65 97 86 86 77 103 90 96 80
50 93 84 86 78 118 104 104 92 125 110 113 94
70 118 107 108 98 150 133 131 116 160 140 140 117
95 142 129 130 118 181 161 157 139 195 170 166 138
120 164 149 150 135 210 186 181 160 226 197 189 157
150 189 170 172 155 241 214 206 183 261 227 213 178
185 215 194 195 176 275 245 234 208 298 259 240 200
240 252 227 229 207 324 288 274 243 352 305 277 230
300 289 261 263 237 372 331 313 278 406 351 313 260
400 345 311 314 283 446 397 372 331 488 422 366 305
500 396 356 360 324 512 456 425 378 563 486 414 345
630 456 410 416 373 592 527 488 435 653 562 471 391
800 529 475 482 432 687 612 563 502 761 654 537 446
1,000 607 544 552 495 790 704 643 574 878 753 607 505

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 37. — Current-carrying capacities, in amperes, for reference methods A1, A2, B1, B2, C, and D.
Conductors: Copper and aluminum
Insulation: EPR or XLPE
Conductor temperature: 90°C
Ambient reference temperatures: 30°C (air), 20°C (soil)
Nominal Reference methods indicated in Table 33
cross- A1 A2 B1 B2 C D
sections Number of loaded conductors
(in mm2) 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)

Copper
0.5 10 9 10 9 12 10 11 10 12 11 14 12
0.75 12 11 12 11 15 13 15 13 16 14 18 15
1 15 13 14 13 18 16 17 15 19 17 21 17
1.5 19 17 18.5 16.5 23 20 22 19.5 24 22 26 22
2.5 26 23 25 22 31 28 30 26 33 30 34 29
4 35 31 33 30 42 37 40 35 45 40 44 37
6 45 40 42 38 54 48 51 44 58 52 56 46
10 61 54 57 51 75 66 69 60 80 71 73 61
16 81 73 76 68 100 88 91 80 107 96 95 79
25 106 95 99 89 133 117 119 105 138 119 121 101
35 131 117 121 109 164 144 146 128 171 147 146 122
50 158 141 145 130 198 175 175 154 209 179 173 144
70 200 179 183 164 253 222 221 194 269 229 213 178
95 241 216 220 197 306 269 265 233 328 278 252 211
120 278 249 253 227 354 312 305 268 382 322 287 240
150 318 285 290 259 407 358 349 307 441 371 324 271
185 362 324 329 295 464 408 395 348 506 424 363 304
240 424 380 386 346 546 481 462 407 599 500 419 351
300 486 435 442 396 628 553 529 465 693 576 474 396
400 579 519 527 472 751 661 628 552 835 692 555 464
500 664 595 604 541 864 760 718 631 966 797 627 525
630 765 685 696 623 998 879 825 725 1,122 923 711 596
800 885 792 805 721 1,158 1,020 952 837 1,311 1,074 811 679
1,000 1,014 908 923 826 1,332 1,173 1,088 957 1,515 1,237 916 767
Aluminum
16 64 58 60 55 79 71 72 64 84 76 73 61
25 84 76 78 71 105 93 94 84 101 90 93 78
35 103 94 96 87 130 116 115 103 126 112 112 94
50 125 113 115 104 157 140 138 124 154 136 132 112
70 158 142 145 131 200 179 175 156 198 174 163 138
95 191 171 175 157 242 217 210 188 241 211 193 164
120 220 197 201 180 281 251 242 216 280 245 220 186
150 253 226 230 206 323 289 277 248 324 283 249 210
185 288 256 262 233 368 330 314 281 371 323 279 236
240 338 300 307 273 433 389 368 329 439 382 322 272
300 387 344 352 313 499 447 421 377 508 440 364 308
400 462 409 421 372 597 536 500 448 612 529 426 361
500 530 468 483 426 687 617 573 513 707 610 482 408
630 611 538 556 490 794 714 658 590 821 707 547 464
800 708 622 644 566 922 830 760 682 958 824 624 529
1,000 812 712 739 648 1061 955 870 780 1,108 950 706 598

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


102
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 38. — Current-carrying capacities, in amperes, for reference methods E, F, and G.


Conductors: Copper and aluminum
Insulation: PVC
Conductor temperature: 70°C
Ambient reference temperature: 30°C

Reference methods indicated in Table 33


Multicore cables Single-core cables(1)
Three loaded Three loaded conductors, in the same
Two loaded plane
Nominal Two loaded Three loaded conductors,
conductors,
cross- conductors conductors in a trefoil Spacing
juxtaposed Juxtaposed
sections of arrangement Horizontal Vertical
the Method E Method E Method F Method F Method F Method G Method G
conductors
(in mm2)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)


Copper
0.5 11 9 11 8 9 12 10
0.75 14 12 14 11 11 16 13
1 17 14 17 13 14 19 16
1.5 22 18.5 22 17 18 24 21
2.5 30 25 31 24 25 34 29
4 40 34 41 33 34 45 39
6 51 43 53 43 45 59 51
10 70 60 73 60 63 81 71
16 94 80 99 82 85 110 97
25 119 101 131 110 114 146 130
35 148 126 162 137 143 181 162
50 180 153 196 167 174 219 197
70 232 196 251 216 225 281 254
95 282 238 304 264 275 341 311
120 328 276 352 308 321 396 362
150 379 319 406 356 372 456 419
185 434 364 463 409 427 521 480
240 514 430 546 485 507 615 569
300 593 497 629 561 587 709 659
400 715 597 754 656 689 852 795
500 826 689 868 749 789 982 920
630 958 798 1,005 855 905 1,138 1,070
800 1,118 930 1,169 971 1,119 1,325 1,251
1,000 1,292 1,073 1,346 1,079 1,296 1,528 1,448
Aluminum
16 73 61 73 62 65 84 73
25 89 78 98 84 87 112 99
35 111 96 122 105 109 139 124
50 135 117 149 128 133 169 152
70 173 150 192 166 173 217 196
95 210 183 235 203 212 265 241
120 244 212 273 237 247 308 282
150 282 245 316 274 287 356 327
185 322 280 363 315 330 407 376
240 380 330 430 375 392 482 447

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 38. (conclusion)


Reference methods indicated in Table 33
Multicore cables Single-core cables(1)
Three loaded Three loaded conductors,
Two loaded in the same plane
Two loaded Three loaded conductors,
Nominal conductors,
conductors conductors in a trefoil Juxtaposed Spacing
cross- juxtaposed
arrangement Horizontal Vertical
sections
Method E Method E Method F Method F Method F Method G Method G
of the
conductors
(in mm2)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)


Aluminum
300 439 381 497 434 455 557 519
400 528 458 600 526 552 671 629
500 608 528 694 610 640 775 730
630 705 613 808 711 640 775 730
800 822 714 944 832 875 1,050 1,000
1,000 948 823 1,092 965 1,015 1,213 1,161
(1)
Or, furthermore, insulated conductors, if permitted by the installation method.

Table 39. — Current-carrying capacities, in amperes, for reference methods E, F, and G.


Conductors: Copper and aluminum
Insulation: EPR or XLPE Conductor
temperature: 90°C Ambient reference
temperature: 30°C

Reference methods indicated in Table 33


Multicore cables Single-core cables(1)
Three loaded Three loaded conductors,
Two loaded
Two loaded Three loaded conductors, in the same plane
conductors,
Nominal cross- conductors conductors in a trefoil Spacing
juxtaposed Juxtaposed
sections of the arrangement Horizontal Vertical
conductors Method E Method E Method F Method F Method F Method G Method G
2
(in mm )

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)


Copper
0.5 13 12 13 10 10 15 12
0.75 17 15 17 13 14 19 16
1 21 18 21 16 17 23 19
1.5 26 23 27 21 22 30 25
2.5 36 32 37 29 30 41 35
4 49 42 50 40 42 56 48
6 63 54 65 53 55 73 63
10 86 75 90 74 77 101 88
16 115 100 121 101 105 137 120
25 149 127 161 135 141 182 161

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


104
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 39. (conclusion)


Reference methods indicated in Table 33
Multicore cables Single-core cables(1)
Three loaded Three loaded conductors,
Two loaded in the same plane
Two loaded Three loaded conductors,
conductors,
Nominal cross- conductors conductors in a trefoil Spacing
juxtaposed Juxtaposed
sections of the arrangement Horizontal Vertical
conductors Method E Method E Method F Method F Method F Method G Method G
(in mm2)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)


Copper
35 185 158 200 169 176 226 201
50 225 192 242 207 216 275 246
70 289 246 310 268 279 353 318
95 352 298 377 328 342 430 389
120 410 346 437 383 400 500 454
150 473 399 504 444 464 577 527
185 542 456 575 510 533 661 605
240 641 538 679 607 634 781 719
300 741 621 783 703 736 902 833
400 892 745 940 823 868 1,085 1,008
500 1,030 859 1,083 946 998 1,253 1,169
630 1,196 995 1,254 1,088 1,151 1,454 1,362
800 1,396 1,159 1,460 1,252 1,328 1,696 1,595
1,000 1,613 1,336 1,683 1,420 1,511 1,958 1,849
Aluminum
16 91 77 90 76 79 103 90
25 108 97 121 103 107 138 122
35 135 120 150 129 135 172 153
50 164 146 184 159 165 210 188
70 211 187 237 206 215 271 244
95 257 227 289 253 264 332 300
120 300 263 337 296 308 387 351
150 346 304 389 343 358 448 408
185 397 347 447 395 413 515 470
240 470 409 530 471 492 611 561
300 543 471 613 547 571 708 652
400 654 566 740 663 694 856 792
500 756 652 856 770 806 991 921
630 879 755 996 899 942 1,154 1,077
800 1,026 879 1,164 1,056 1,106 1,351 1,266
1,000 1,186 1,012 1,347 1,226 1,285 1,565 1,472
(1)
Or, furthermore, insulated conductors, if permitted by the installation method.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.5.3 Ambient temperature


6.2.5.3.1 The ambient temperature value to be used is the temperature of the surrounding environment when the
conductor in question is not loaded.
6.2.5.3.2 The current-carrying capacity values provided by tables 36 through 39 are referenced to an ambient
temperature of 30°C for all of the installation methods except for buried lines, whose capacities are referenced to a
soil temperature of 20°C.
6.2.5.3.3 If the conductors are installed in an environment whose temperature differs from the values indicated in
Subsection 6.2.5.3.2, their current-carrying capacity should be determined, using tables 36 through 39, with the
application of the correction factors provided in Table 40.
NOTE: The correction factors listed in Table 40 do not reflect the temperature increase due to sunlight or to other
infrared radiation. If the conductors are exposed to such radiation, the current-carrying capacities should be
calculated according to the methods specified in the ABNT NBR 11301 standard.
Table 40. – Correction factors for ambient temperatures other than 30°C for unburied lines
and 20°C (soil temperature) for underground lines.

Temperature Insulation
(in °C) PVC EPR or XLPE
Ambient temperature
10 1.22 1.15
15 1.17 1.12
20 1.12 1.08
25 1.06 1.04
35 0.94 0.96
40 0.87 0.91
45 0.79 0.87
50 0.71 0.82
55 0.61 0.76
60 0.50 0.71
65 – 0.65
70 – 0.58
75 – 0.50
80 – 0.41
Soil temperature
10 1.10 1.07
15 1.05 1.04
25 0.95 0.96
30 0.89 0.93
35 0.84 0.89
40 0.77 0.85
45 0.71 0.80
50 0.63 0.76
55 0.55 0.71
60 0.45 0.65
65 – 0.60
70 – 0.53
75 – 0.46
80 – 0.38

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


106
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.5.4 Thermal resistivity of the soil


The current-carrying capacities for underground lines, as indicated In tables 36 and 37, shall be valid for a soil
thermal-resistivity value of 2.5 K.m/W. If the thermal resistivity of the soil is greater than 2.5 K.m/W, as is the case
with very dry soils, the values indicated in the tables should be appropriately reduced, unless the soils in the
immediate vicinity of the conductors are replaced by earth or an equivalent material with more favorable thermal
dissipation. Table 41 lists the correction factors for soil thermal-resistivity values other than 2.5 K.m/W.
NOTES:
1. The value of 2.5 K.m/W is the one that is recommended by the IEC when the type of soil and the geographic location are not
specified.
2. The current-carrying capacity values indicated in tables 36 and 37 for underground lines refer only to paths or runs located
inside or around buildings. For other installations, when more accurate soil thermal-resistivity values can be determined, based on
the load, then the current-carrying capacity values can be calculated according to the methods specified in the ABNT NBR 11301
standard.

Table 41. – Correction factors for underground lines in soil


whose thermal resistivity is other than 2.5 K.m/W.

Thermal resistivity (in K.m/W) 1 1.5 2 3


Correction factor 1.18 1.1 1.05 0.96
NOTES:
1. The correction factors indicated here are average values for the nominal cross-sections covered by
tables 36 and 37, with a dispersion factor that is typically less than 5%.
2. The correction factors are applicable to cables in conduits that are buried to a depth of up to
0.8 meter.
3. The correction factors for directly buried cables are higher for thermal-resistivity values that are
below 2.5 K.m/W, and can be calculated according to the methods specified in the ABNT NBR 11301
standard.

6.2.5.5 Circuit grouping


6.2.5.5.1 The current-carrying capacity values shown in tables 36 through 39 are valid for the number of loaded
conductors indicated in each column in those tables. For electrical lines that contain a total number of conductors
that is greater than the quantities indicated in tables 36 through 39, the current-carrying capacity of the conductors in
each circuit should be determined using tables 38 through 39, with the application of the applicable correction factors
provided in tables 42 through 45 (i.e., the grouping factors).
NOTES:
1. For more information about the number of live conductors to be taken into consideration for each circuit, see
Subsection 6.2.5.6.
2. The grouping factors shown in tables 42 through 45 shall be applicable to conductors having the same maximum temperature
for continuous service. For groups containing conductors with different maximum temperatures for continuous service, the
determination of the current-carrying capacity of the conductors, for all of the circuits in the group, must be based not on the
maximum temperature for continuous service of the conductor in question, but rather on the lowest maximum temperature that is
acceptable in continuous service, as found among the conductors in the group, accompanied by the application of the
corresponding grouping factor.

6.2.5.5.2 The conductors for which the intended design current does not exceed 30% of its current-carrying
capacity, as previously determined in consideration of the corresponding grouping factor, may be disregarded for the
purposes of calculation of the correction factor that is applicable to the rest of the group.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.5.5.3 The current-carrying capacities shown in tables 36 and 37 are valid for the installation procedures that
are included under reference methods A1, A2, B1, B2, C, and D, and for:
a) Two loaded conductors (two insulated conductors, two single-core cables, or one two-core cable);
b) Three loaded conductors (three insulated conductors, three single-core cables, or one three-core cable).
For a larger number of grouped conductors, the correction factors specified in tables 42 through 45 should be
applied.
NOTES:
1. The grouping factors were calculated on the assumption that all the live conductors remain continuously loaded at 100% of
their load. If the load is less than 100%, the correction factors may be increased.
2. The correction factors shown in Table 42 are applicable to conductors grouped in a bundle, whether in open or closed lines
(the pertinent factors are the ones shown on Line 1 in Table 42), and to conductors grouped in the same plane and in a single layer
(the other lines in the table). The correction factors shown in Table 43 are also applicable to groups consisting of more than one
layer of conductors. Accordingly, for layered groupings, the applicable correction factors are the one shown in Table 42, for a single
layer, or the ones shown in Table 43, if there is more than one layer.
3. The grouping factors shown in tables 44 and 45 are applicable to underground lines. Specifically, the factors shown in
Table 44 apply to directly buried cables, the factors shown Table 45 apply to lines located in buried conduits.

Table 42. — Correction factors applicable to conductors grouped in a bundle


(whether in open or closed lines) and to conductors grouped in the same plane, in a single layer.
Number of circuits or of multicore cables Tables
Form of the grouping indicating the
Ref. 16 to
of the conductors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 to 11 12 to 15 >20 reference
19
methods
In a bundle: In open air or on the 36 through 39
1 surface; embedded; in a closed 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.45 0.41 0.38 (methods A
conduit through F)
Single layer on a wall or floor, or 36 and 37
2 1.00 0.85 0.79 0.75 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.70
on a non-perforated tray or shelf (method C)
3 Single layer on a ceiling 0.95 0.81 0.72 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61
4 Single layer on a perforated tray 1.00 0.88 0.82 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 38 and 39
5 Single layer on a bed, bracket, 1.00 0.87 0.82 0.80 0.80 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.78 (methods
support, etc. E and F)
NOTES:
1. These factors are applicable to homogeneous and uniformly loaded groups of cables.
2. When the horizontal distance between adjacent cables is greater than twice their outside diameter, no reduction factor need be applied.
3. The number of circuits or of cables regarding which the table should be consulted refers to:
- The number of groups of two or three insulated conductors or single-core cables, with each group consisting of one circuit (assuming only one
conductor per phase, i.e., with no parallel conductors), and/or
- The number of multicore cables constituting the group, regardless of its composition (insulated conductors alone, single-core cables alone,
multicore cables alone, or any combination thereof).

4. If the group simultaneously consists of two-core and three-core cables, then it should be assumed that the total number of cables is the same as the
number of circuits, and, once the resulting grouping factor is known, the determination of the current-carrying capacities, as indicated in tables 36 through 39,
should then be performed:
- Using the column for two loaded conductors, for two-core cables; and
- Using the column for three loaded conductors, for three-core cables.
5. A group with N insulated conductors, or N single-core cables, can be treated as consisting of either N/2 circuits with two loaded conductors, or N/3
circuits with three loaded conductors.
6. The indicated values are averages for the typical range of nominal cross-sections, with a dispersion factor that is usually less than 5%.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


108
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 43. — Correction factors applicable to groups consisting of more than one layer of conductors.
Reference methods C (tables 36 and 37), E, and F (tables 38 and 39).
Number of three-phase circuits or of multicore cables per layer
2 3 4 or 5 6 through 8 9 or more
2 0.68 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56
3 0.62 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.51
Number of layers 4 or 5 0.60 0.55 0.52 0.51 0.49
6 through 8 0.58 0.53 0.51 0.49 0.48
9 or more 0.56 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.46
NOTES:
1. The factors shall be valid independently of the orientation of the layer (i.e., horizontal or vertical).
2. For more information on conductors grouped in a single layer, see Table 42 (lines 2 through 5 of the table).
3. If more specific values are necessary, refer to the ABNT NBR 11301 standard.

Table 44. — Grouping factors for lines with directly buried cables.
Distances between cables(1) (a)
Number of
One cable
circuits None 0.125 meter 0.25 meter 0.5 meter
diameter
2 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.90
3 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85
4 0.60 0.60 0.70 0.75 0.80
5 0.55 0.55 0.65 0.70 0.80
6 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.80
(1)

Multicore cables Single-core cables

NOTE: The indicated values are applicable for a depth of 0.7 meter and for soil thermal resistivity of 2.5 K.m/W. These values are
averages for the cable dimensions covered by tables 36 and 37. The rounded average values may contain errors of up to ±10% in
certain cases. If more specific values are necessary, refer to the ABNT NBR 11301 standard.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 45. — Grouping factors for lines in buried conduits.(1)


Multicore cables in conduits - One cable per conduit
Space between conduits (a)
Number of circuits
None 0.25 meter 0.5 meter 1.0 meter
2 0.85 0.90 0.95 0.95
3 0.75 0.85 0.90 0.95
4 0.70 0.80 0.85 0.90
5 0.65 0.80 0.85 0.90
6 0.60 0.80 0.80 0.80
Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduits(2) - One conductor per conduit
Number of circuits Space between conduits (a)
(groups of two or
None 0.25 meter 0.5 meter 1.0 meter
three conductors)
2 0.80 0.90 0.90 0.95
3 0.70 0.80 0.85 0.90
4 0.65 0.75 0.80 0.90
5 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90
6 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90
(a) Single-core cables
Multicore cables

(1)
The indicated values are applicable for a depth of 0.7 meter and soil thermal resistivity of 2.5 K.m/W. These values are
average values for the conductor cross-sections shown in tables 36 and 37. The rounded average values may contain errors of
up to ±10% in certain cases. If more specific values are necessary, refer to the ABNT NBR 11301 standard.
(2)
Attention should be given to the restrictions and problems affecting the use of insulated conductors or single-core cables in
metal conduits when there is one single conductor per conduit.

6.2.5.5.4 The current-carrying capacities shown in tables 38 and 39 are valid for the installation procedures that are
included under reference methods E, F, and G, and for:
a) Two loaded conductors (two insulated conductors, two single-core cables, or one two-core cable);
b) Three loaded conductors (three insulated conductors, three single-core cables, or one three-core cable).
For a larger number of grouped conductors, the correction factors specified in Table 42 must be applied, when the
conductors are arranged in a bundle or in a single layer on the same plane. Alternatively, the grouping factors
specified in Table 43 must be applied, when the conductors are arranged in more than one layer.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


110
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTES (for both subsections 6.2.5.5.3 and 6.2.5.5.4):


1. The reduction factors for circuit grouping are average values calculated for the dimensions of the conductors, the types of
cables, and the installation conditions in question. Attention should be paid to the notes in each table. In certain cases, a more
precise calculation may be desirable.
2. The correction factors were calculated assuming a group of similar and equally loaded conductors. With the group contains
conductors of different sizes, precautions should be taken regarding the loading of the conductors having the smaller cross-sections
(see Subsection 6.2.5.5.5).

6.2.5.5.5 The grouping factors indicated in tables 42 through 45 are valid for groups of similar and equally loaded
conductors. Conductors shall be considered “similar” when their current-carrying capacities are based on the same
maximum temperature for continuous service, and when their nominal cross-sections lie within the interval containing
three successive standardized cross-sections. If the conductors in the group do not meet this condition, then the
applicable grouping factors should be obtained through recourse to either of the following two alternatives:
a) A case-by-case calculation, using, for example, the ABNT NBR 11301 standard; or
b) If a more specific calculation cannot be performed, then the factor “F” in the following expression should be
adopted:

where:
F is the correction factor; and
n is the number of circuits or of multicore cables.

NOTES:
1. The calculation of the correction factors for groups containing conductors with differing nominal cross-sections depends on the
total number of conductors and on the combination of cross-sections. Consequently, given the number of variables involved, the
preparation of tables intended for practical use would be virtually impossible.
2. The expression indicated in paragraph (b) favors safety and reduces the overload hazards for the conductors with the smaller
nominal cross-sections. Therefore, it may lead to the overdimensioning of the conductors with larger cross-sections.

6.2.5.6 Number of loaded conductors


6.2.5.6.1 The number of loaded conductors to be taken into consideration shall be the number indicated in
Table 46, in accordance with the diagram of the live conductors in the circuit. In particular, for a three-phase circuit
with neutral, when the current circulation in the neutral is not accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the load
on the phase conductors, neutral must be calculated as a loaded conductor. This is what happens when the current
in the phase conductors contains third-order harmonic components and multiples at a rate in excess of 15%. Under
these conditions, the three-phase circuit with neutral should be treated as consisting of four loaded conductors, and
the determination of the current-carrying capacity of the conductors should take into consideration the so-called
“correction factor due to loading of the neutral conductor.” Thus, this factor, which is usually 0.86, regardless of the
installation method, is applicable to the current-carrying capacities that are valid for three loaded conductors.
NOTES:
1. The current-carrying capacity tables (Tables 36 through 39) contain columns for two and three loaded conductors, but no
column that is specifically valid for four loaded conductors. Therefore, the determination of the current-carrying capacity for four
loaded conductors must be made with the application of the factor of 0.86 to the current-carrying capacities that are valid for three
loaded conductors – without prejudice to the other correction factors that may be applicable, such as the ones regarding ambient
temperature, the thermal resistivity of the soil, and circuit grouping.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

2. Alternatively, the correction factor due to loading of the neutral conductor may be determined on a case-by-case basis, in
accordance with the installation method, assuming that four loaded conductors correspond to two circuits each containing two
loaded conductors. Thus, under these conditions, the correction factor due to loading of the neutral corresponds to the grouping
factor that is valid for two circuits and for the installation method in question. (The grouping factors are shown in tables 42 through
45, in accordance with the installation method.) The correction factor is applicable to the current-carrying capacities that are valid
for two loaded conductors.
3. The correction factor due to loading of the neutral conductor pertains solely to three-phase circuits with neutral.
4. The correction factor due to loading of the neutral may be disregarded in those cases in which the definition of the cross-
section of the conductors entails an overdimensioning of the phase conductors, at the levels mentioned in subsections F.2 and F.3.
5. For more information about the dimensioning of the neutral conductor, see Subsection 6.2.6.2.

Table 46. — Number of loaded conductors to be considered, based on the type of circuit.
Diagram of the live conductors Number of loaded conductors
in the circuit to be adopted
Single-phase with two conductors 2
Single-phase with three conductors 2
Two phases without neutral 2
Two phases with neutral 3
Three-phase without neutral 3
Three-phase with neutral 3 or 4(1)
(1)
See Subsection 6.2.5.6.1.

6.2.5.6.2 Conductors that are used only as protective conductors (PE) shall be disregarded. PEN conductors
shall be treated as neutral conductors.
6.2.5.7 Parallel conductors
6.2.5.7.1 When two or more conductors are connected in parallel in the same phase or polarity, this should not
compromise compliance with the provisions of Subsection 6.2.5.2.1. Therefore:
a) Steps should be taken to ensure equal division of the current between the parallel conductors, in accordance
with the provisions of Subsection 6.2.5.7.2; or
b) A specific study was conducted on the division of current between the parallel conductors, such that compliance
with the provisions of Subsection 6.2.5.2.1 can be apportioned for each individual conductor.
6.2.5.7.2 The requirement described in paragraph (a) of Subsection 6.2.5.7.1 shall be deemed to have been met if
the parallel conductors have the same constitution, the same nominal cross-section, and approximately the same
length, and do not contain shunts along their path – and, moreover, consist of:
a) The cores of multicore cables or of multiplexed cables, regardless of their nominal cross-section, with each table
containing all of the phases or polarities and the respective neutral, if any; or
b) Insulated conductors or single-core cables in a trefoil arrangement, in a plane formation, or in a closed conduit,
with a cross-section less than or equal to 50 mm² (if made of copper) or 70 mm² (if made of aluminum), with
each group or closed conduit containing all of the phases or polarities and the respective neutral, if any; or
c) Single-core cables with a cross-section greater than 50 mm² (if made of copper) or 70 mm² (if made of
aluminum), grouped according to special configurations adapted to each case, with each group containing all of
the phases and the respective neutral, if any, and with the configurations being defined so as to obtain the
greatest possible balance between the impedances of the conductors in each phase.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


112
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.5.8 Variations in installation conditions over a path or run


When different cooling conditions (i.e., heat- conditions) are found to exist over the length of the intended path or run
of an electrical line, the current-carrying capacities of the line's conductors must be determined based on the most
unfavorable conditions that have been encountered.
6.2.6 Phase conductors and the neutral conductor
6.2.6.1 Cross-section of the phase conductors
6.2.6.1.1 The cross-section of the phase conductors in AC circuits, and of the live conductors in DC circuits, must
not be less than the applicable value shown in Table 47.
Table 47. — Minimum cross-section of the conductors(1)
Type of line Utilization of the circuit Minimum cross-section of the
conductor (in mm2); material
1.5 Cu
Lighting circuits
Insulated 16 Al
conductors and 2.5 Cu
Stationary Power circuits(2)
cables 16 Al
installations
Signaling circuits and control circuits 0.5 Cu(3)
in general
(2) 10 Cu
Power circuits
Bare conductors 16 Al
Signaling circuits and control circuits 4 Cu
As specified in the standard
For a specific piece of equipment
for the piece of equipment
Flexible lines
For any other application 0.75 Cu(4)
with insulated cables
Extra-low voltage circuits
0.75 Cu
for special applications
(1)
Minimum cross-sections dictated by mechanical reasons.
(2)
The power-outlet circuits shall be treated as power circuits.
(3) 2
A minimum cross-section of 0.1 mm will be permitted in signaling and control circuits intended for electronic equipment.
(4) 2
A minimum cross-section of 0.1 mm will be permitted for flexible multicore cables containing seven or more cores.

6.2.6.1.2 The cross-section of the conductor shall be determined in such a way that, at a minimum, all of the
following criteria are met:
a) The current-carrying capacity of the conductors must be equal to or greater than the design current of the circuit,
including harmonic components, with the application of the corresponding correction factors (see
Subsection 6.2.5);
b) Protection against overloads, as described in subsections 5.3.4 and 6.3.4.2;
c) Protection against short-circuits and thermal stresses, as described in subsections 5.3.5 and 6.3.4.3;
d) Protection against electric shocks, by means of the automatic cut-off of the power supply in TN and IT systems,
when pertinent (see Subsection 5.1.2.2.4);
e) The voltage-drop limits, as described in Subsection 6.2.7; and
f) The minimum cross-sections indicated in Subsection 6.2.6.1.1.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.6.2 The neutral conductor


6.2.6.2.1 The neutral conductor shall not be common to more than one circuit.
6.2.6.2.2 The neutral conductor of a single-phase circuit must have the same cross-section as the phase
conductor.
6.2.6.2.3 If, in a three-phase circuit with neutral, the percentage of third[-order] harmonics and their multiples is
greater than 15%, the cross-section of the neutral conductor shall not be less than that of the phase conductors;
however, it may be equal to that of the phase conductors if the said percentage does not exceed 33%.
NOTES:
1. Such harmonic current levels are found, for example, in circuits that supply power to lighting fixtures with discharge lamps,
including fluorescent fixtures.
2. The case of percentages greater than 33% is addressed in Subsection 6.2.6.2.5.

6.2.6.2.4 The cross-section of the neutral conductor of the circuit with two phases and neutral must not be less
than the cross-section of the phase conductors. It may be equal to the cross-section of the phase conductors if the
percentage of third[-order] harmonics and their multiples does not exceed 33%.
NOTE: The case of percentages greater than 33% is addressed in Subsection 6.2.6.2.5.
6.2.6.2.5 If, in a three-phase circuit with neutral, or in a circuit with two phases and neutral, the proportion of third[-
order] harmonics and their multiples is greater than 33%, then a neutral conductor whose cross-section is greater
than that of the phase conductors may be necessary.
NOTES:
1. Such harmonic current levels are found, for example, in circuits that supply power primarily to computers or to other
information-technology equipment.
2. In order to reliably determine the cross-section of the neutral conductor, a sound estimate will be required of the percentage of
third[-order] harmonics in the phase currents, and of the behavior imposed on the neutral current by the unbalanced conditions
under which the circuit may be required to operate. Attachment “F” contains useful information for this dimensioning.
6.2.6.2.6 In a three-phase circuit with neutral, in which the cross-section of the phase conductors is greater than
25 mm², the cross-section of the neutral conductor may be less than that of the phase conductors, without being less
than the value shown in Table 48, depending on the cross-section of the phase conductors, if the following three
conditions are simultaneously fulfilled:
a) The circuit is presumably balanced during normal service;
b) The phase current does not contain a percentage of third[-order] harmonics and their multiples that is greater
than 15%;
c) The neutral conductor is protected against over currents, in accordance with the provisions of
Subsection 5.3.2.2.

NOTE: The value shown in Table 48 shall be applicable if the phase conductors in the neutral conductor are made of the same
metal.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


114
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 48. — Reduced cross-section of the neutral conductor(1)


Cross-section of the phase Reduced cross-section
conductors of the neutral conductor
(in mm2) (in mm2)
S ≤ 25 S
35 25
50 25
70 35
95 50
120 70
150 70
185 95
240 120
300 150
400 185
(1)
The conditions for use of this table are described in Subsection 6.2.6.2.6.

6.2.7 Voltage drops


6.2.7.1 At any point of use in the installation, the verified voltage drop must not exceed the following values, as
stated in relation to the value of the nominal voltage of the installation:
a) 7%, calculated at the secondary terminals of the medium-voltage/low voltage (MT/BT) transformer, for a
transformer owned by the consuming unit(s);
b) 7%, calculated at the secondary terminals of the medium-voltage/low voltage (MT/BT) transformer belonging to
the electrical-power distribution company, if the delivery point is located there;
c) 5%, calculated at the delivery point in the other cases, in which the delivery point provides the secondary voltage
distribution; and

d) 7%, calculated starting at the output terminals of the generator, for a proprietary generator set.
NOTES:
1. These voltage-drop limits shall be valid when the nominal voltage of the planned utilization equipment is identical
to the nominal voltage of the installation.
2. See the definition of "delivery point” (in Subsection 3.4.3).
3. In the cases mentioned in paragraphs (a), (b), and (d), when the main lines of the installation are more than
100 meters long, the voltage drops may be increased by 0.005% per meter of line in excess of 100 meters, provided,
however, that this supplement does not exceed 0.5%.
4. For motor circuits, see also subsections 6.5.1.2.1, 6.5.1.3.2, and 6.5.1.3.3.
6.2.7.2 Under no circumstances shall the voltage drop in the terminal circuits exceed 4%.
6.2.7.3 Voltage drops greater than the ones indicated in Subsection 6.2.7.1 shall be permitted for equipment
with a high starting current, during the starting period, provided that such voltage drops are within the limits permitted
by the corresponding applicable standards.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.7.4 The calculation of the voltage drop in a circuit must employ the design current of the circuit.
NOTES:
1. The design current shall include the harmonic components.
2. For motor circuits, see also subsections 6.5.1.2.1, 6.5.1.3.2, and 6.5.1.3.3.

6.2.8 Connections
6.2.8.1 The connections between conductors, and between conductors and other components of the installation,
must ensure durable electrical continuity, adequate mechanical withstandability, and adequate mechanical protection.
6.2.8.2 When connection means are selected, the following factors must be considered:
a) The material of which the conductors are made, including their insulation;
b) The number of wires and the format of the conductors;
c) The cross-section of the conductors; and
d) The number of conductors to be connected together.

NOTE: It is advisable to avoid the use of welded connections in power circuits. If such connections are used, their creep
resistance and their resistance to mechanical stresses must be compatible with the application.

6.2.8.3 The connections must be accessible for inspection, testing, and maintenance, except in the following
cases:
a) Splices in underground cables; and
b) Splices that are embedded in compounds, or sealed.
6.2.8.4 If necessary, precautions should be taken to ensure that the temperature reached in the connections
during normal service does not affect the insulation of the connected conductive parts.
6.2.8.5 The connections must be able to withstand the forces applied by the currents, under both normal
conditions and fault conditions. Furthermore, the connections must not undergo unacceptable changes due to their
heating, due to the aging of the insulators, or due to the vibrations that occur during normal service. In particular,
consideration must be given to the effects of thermal dilatation and of the electrochemical voltages, which vary from
one model to another, as well as the effects of temperature that affect the mechanical strength of the materials.
6.2.8.6 Precautions must be taken to prevent current-carrying parts from energizing either metallic parts that are
normally isolated from live parts or the metal layer of the cables, if present.
6.2.8.7 Except for overhead lines and contact lines supplying power to mobile equipment, the connections
between conductors, and between conductors and equipment, must not be subjected to any tensile stress or torque.
6.2.8.8 For electrical lines consisting of closed conduits, connections shall be permitted only if they are placed
inside appropriate enclosures, such as boxes, frames, etc., that ensure the necessary accessibility and mechanical
protection.
6.2.8.9 The connections must be made in such a way that the contact pressure is independent of the insulating
material.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


116
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.8.10 The application of tin solder to conductor terminations, in order to connect them to the pins or terminals
of electrical devices or equipment, shall be prohibited.
6.2.8.11 The connection means used to connect aluminum conductors directly to the terminals of electrical
devices or pieces of equipment that allow such a connection must comply with the requirements of the standards that
are applicable to connections to aluminum.
NOTE: In the absence of suitable connection means for direct connections with aluminum, the conductor must be spliced to a
copper conductor, by means of a special connector, and then connected to the equipment.

6.2.8.12 The connections to aluminum that are tightened by means of bolts must be executed in such a way as to
ensure suitable pressure on the aluminum conductor. This pressure shall be ensured via control of the torque during
the tightening of the bolt. The proper torque shall be indicated by the manufacturer of the connector or of the
equipment that includes the connectors.
6.2.8.13 Press-fit connections must be made through the use of tools that are appropriate to the type and size of
connector utilized, in accordance with the recommendations of the connector manufacturer.
6.2.8.14 For aluminum conductors, splices shall be permitted only if they employ compression connectors or
appropriate solder material.
6.2.8.15 Connections between copper and aluminum must be made solely by means of connectors that are
appropriate for this purpose.
6.2.9 General installation conditions
6.2.9.1 Protection against external influences
The protection against external influences that is provided by the installation method must be ensured on a continuing
basis.
6.2.9.2 Line ends
The continuity of protection against external influences, as mentioned in Subsection 6.2.9.1, must include the ends of
the electrical lines, and particularly the points at which they enter the equipment, such that leakproofness, when
necessary, is ensured.
NOTE: Leakproofness may be provided, for example, by cable glands.
6.2.9.3 Wall crossings
In wall crossings, the electrical lines must be equipped with additional mechanical protection, unless they are
sufficiently robust to ensure integrity within the crossing segments.
6.2.9.4 Proximity of non-electrical lines
6.2.9.4.1 If the electrical lines are located near non-electrical lines, the distance between the outer surfaces of
both types of lines must ensure that an operation performed on either one of them does not pose a risk of damage to
the other one.
6.2.9.4.2 Electrical lines must not be located near pipes that produce heat, smoke, or fumes whose effects may
be harmful to the installation, unless the lines are protected against these effects – for example, through the
installation of an appropriate shield or screen between the electrical line and the pipes in question.
6.2.9.4.3 Electrical lines shall not be permitted to run inside smoke-exhaust ducts or ventilation ducts.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.9.4.4 When all or part of an electrical line follows the same path as pipes that might generate condensation
(such as water and steam conduits), the electrical line must not be located below such pipes, unless precautions are
taken to protect it from the effects of condensation.
6.2.9.5 Proximity of other electrical lines
Circuits whose voltages lie within Range I and within Range II, as defined in Attachment “A”, must not share the same
electrical line, unless all of the conductors are isolated for the highest voltage that is present, or unless one of the
following conditions is met:
a) Conductors whose isolation is sufficient only for the application for which the conductors are intended are
installed in separate compartments of the conduit to be shared; or
b) Separate electrical conduits are used.
NOTE: These requirements do not reflect the special precautions that must be taken with regard to electromagnetic compatibility.
For more information about protection against electromagnetic disturbances, see subsections 5.4 and 6.4.

6.2.9.6 Fire barriers


6.2.9.6.1 When an electrical line passes through construction elements, such as floors, walls, roofs, ceilings, etc.,
the openings that remain after the passage of the line must be sealed in such a way as to preserve the fire-resistance
property of the element in question.
NOTE: For lines located in vertical wells or shafts, see Subsection 6.2.9.6.8.
6.2.9.6.2 Electrical lines such as the ones consisting of electrical conduits, or equivalent closed conduits and
prefabricated conduits, that enter construction elements whose fire resistance is known and specified, must be sealed
internally, so as to ensure at least the same level of fire resistance as the element in question, and must also be
sealed externally, in the manner described in Subsection 6.2.9.6.1.
6.2.9.6.3 The requirements of subsections 6.2.9.6.1 and 6.2.9.6.2 shall be deemed to have been met if the sealing
means, as provided, are specimens of a model that has undergone type testing.
6.2.9.6.4 The electrical conduits or equivalent closed conduits that are non-flame-propagating, and the area of
their internal cross-section does not exceed 710 mm², do not need to be sealed internally, provided that:
a) The electrical conduits or equivalent conducts have a Class IP33 level of protection; and
b) All of the line ends that terminate in a compartment that is structurally separated from the compartment from
which the line originated meet the requirements for Class IP33 protection.
6.2.9.6.5 Any and all sealing means intended to comply with the provisions of subsections 6.2.9.6.1 and/or
6.2.9.6.2 must meet the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (c), as well as the requirements of Subsection 6.2.9.6.6,
i.e.:
a) They must be compatible with the materials of the electrical line with which they are in contact;
b) They must allow for the expansions and contractions of the electrical line without, in so doing, reducing their
effectiveness as a fire barrier;
c) They must possess appropriate mechanical stability, and must be able to withstand the forces that may be
generated by damage caused by fire, to the means used to secure and support the electrical line.
NOTE: This requirement shall be deemed to have been met:
— If the means used to secure the electrical line are reinforced by clips, clamps, or brackets, installed no more than 750 mm
from the seal, and able to withstand the expected mechanical loads due to the failure of the supports located on the side
of the wall that have already been reached by the fire, doing so in such a way that no forces are transmitted to the seal; or

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


118
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

— If the design of the seal itself ensures appropriate support in the situation in question.

6.2.9.6.6 The seals must be able to withstand the same external influences to which the electrical line is exposed,
and, furthermore:
a) Their resistance to combustion products must be equivalent to that of the construction elements within which
they are implemented;
b) Their level of protection against water penetration must be at least equal to the level required for the construction
elements within which they are implemented; and
c) They must be protected, in the same way as the lines, against dripping water, which, when flowing along the line,
might become concentrated at the sealed point, unless all of the materials that are used are resistant to humidity,
originally and/or after completion of the seal.
6.2.9.6.7 Adequate precautions must be taken in construction spaces and in galleries to prevent the propagation
of a fire.
6.2.9.6.8 For electrical lines located in vertical wells or shafts that pass through different levels, each floor
crossing must be sealed in such a way as to prevent fire propagation. This sealing of the crossings may be omitted
in the following situations:
a) For lines consisting of cables attached to walls or located in ceilings: if the cables are non-flame-propagating,
free from halogen, and their emissions of smoke and toxic gases are low;
b) For lines located in open conduits: if the cables are non-flame-propagating, free from halogen, and their
emissions of smoke and toxic gases are low; and the conduit (if it is not metallic or is not made of another non-
combustible material) is also non-flame-propagating, free from halogen, and its emissions of smoke and toxic
gases are low; and
c) For lines located in closed conduits: if the conduit is metallic or is made of another non-combustible material; or,
if it is not metallic or is not made of another noncombustible material, if the conduit is non-flame-propagating,
free from halogen, and its emissions of smoke and toxic gases are low. In the first case (metal conduits or
conduits made of another incombustible metal), the conductors and cables that are used may be only non-flame-
propagating. In the second case, the cables must be non-flame-propagating and free from halogen, with low
emissions of smoke and toxic gases.
6.2.10 Location of the conductors
6.2.10.1 Multicore cables must contain only the conductors of a single given circuit.
6.2.10.2 Closed conduits may contain conductors of more than one circuit under the following circumstances:
a) If the following four conditions are simultaneously met:
— The circuits belong to the same installation; that is, they originate from the same switchgear and protective
device;
— The nominal cross-sections of the phase conductors lie within a range of three successive standardized
values;
— All of the conductors have the same maximum temperature for continuous service; and
— All of the conductors are insulated for the highest nominal voltage that is present; or

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

b) For power, control, and/or signaling circuits in a single piece of equipment.


6.2.10.3 The conductors in a single given circuit, including the protective conductor, must not be located in
immediate proximity to each other.
6.2.10.4 When parallel conductors are used, they must be combined into as many groups as there are parallel
conductors, with each group containing one conductor of each phase or polarity. The conductors in each group
should be installed in immediate proximity to each other.
NOTE: In particular, for closed metallic conduits, all of the live conductors in a single given circuit must be contained in a single
conduit.

6.2.11 Installation requirements


6.2.11.1 Electrical conduits
6.2.11.1.1 The use of products that are not expressly offered and sold commercially as electrical conduits shall be
prohibited.
NOTE: This prohibition includes, for example, products characterized by their manufacturers as “hoses."
6.2.11.1.2 Only non-flame-propagating electrical conduits shall be permitted in the electrical installations covered
by this standard.
6.2.11.1.3 The only electrical conduits permitted in embedded installations shall be those that can withstand the
characteristic deformation stresses of the construction technique employed.
6.2.11.1.4 Under any circumstances, the electrical conduits must be able to withstand the mechanical, chemical,
electrical, and thermal stresses to which they may be subjected under the conditions to which the installation is
exposed.
6.2.11.1.5 Only insulated conductors, single-core cables, and/or multicore cables shall be installed in the electrical
conduits.
NOTE: This provision does not prohibit the use of electrical conduits for the mechanical protection of, for example, grounding
conductors.

6.2.11.1.6 The internal dimensions of the electrical conduits and of their connections must be such that, after the
line has been installed, the conductors can be easily installed and removed. Therefore:
a) The occupancy level of the electrical conduit [i.e., the conduit fill] (as obtained by dividing the sum of the areas of
the cross-sections of the proposed conductors, as calculated on the basis of their outside diameter, by the useful
area of the cross-section of the electrical conduit) must not exceed:
— 53%, for one conductor;
— 31%, for two conductors;
— 40%, for three or more conductors;

b) Continuous sections of tubing, with no interposition of boxes or equipment, must be no more than 15 meters
long, for lines located inside buildings or structures, or 30 meters long, for lines located in areas outside the
buildings or structures if the sections are rectilinear. If the sections include curves, the above-mentioned
15-meter and 30-meter limits must be reduced by 3 meters for each 90° curve.
NOTE: If a line unavoidably must pass through areas that, for any reason, prevent the installation of an intermediate [junction]
box, then the length of the continuous section may be increased, provided that for every increase by 6 meters, or a fraction thereof,
in the maximum distance, as calculated according to the criteria set forth in paragraph (b), the nominal size of the electrical conduit
that is used must be increased to the immediately next larger size. Thus, for example, an increase of 9 meters would require an
electrical conduit that is two sizes larger than the initially defined size, based on the maximum occupancy level indicated in
paragraph (a).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


120
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.11.1.7 For each section of tubing that is delimited, on both ends, by a [junction] box or line end, regardless of
the combination of these items (box-box, box-end, or end-end), no more than three 90° curves (or their equivalent,
up to a maximum of 270°), shall be installed. Under no circumstances shall any curves with a deflection greater than
90° be installed.
6.2.11.1.8 Any curves that are formed due to the bending of the electrical conduit, without the use of a specific
accessory or fitting, must not reduce the inner dimensions of the electrical conduit.
6.2.11.1.9 [Junction] boxes must be used:
a) At all of the points along the tubing where conductors enter or exit, except at the points of transition from an open
line to a line enclosed in an electrical conduit, which points, under these circumstances, must be sealed with
plugs;
b) At all of the points where conductors are spliced or shunted; and
c) Whenever the tubing must be segmented, for compliance with the provisions of Subsection 6.2.11.1.6(b).
6.2.11.1.10 The location of the [junction] boxes must ensure that the boxes are easily accessible. They must be
equipped with covers; or, if they contain switches, sockets, and/or similar items, they must be closed by the
switchplates that complete the installation of such devices. The output boxes for supplying power to equipment may
be closed with the plates intended for the attachment or securing of the said equipment.
NOTE: The absence of a cover on junction boxes or terminal boxes installed in suspended ceilings or raised floors shall be
accepted only if such boxes are only accessible via the removal of the panels of the suspended ceiling or raised floor, and if the
said boxes are intended exclusively for the splicing and/or joining of conductors, without housing any devices or equipment.

6.2.11.1.11 The conductors must form continuous sections between the boxes. Splices or junctions shall be
permitted only inside the boxes. Spliced conductors, or those whose insulation has been damaged and repaired with
insulating tape or another material, must not be run through electrical conduits.
6.2.11.1.12 During the installation of lines to be embedded in reinforced concrete, the electrical conduits must be
arranged in such a way that they are not deformed during the concrete-pouring operations. The boxes, as well as
the mouths of the electrical conduits, should be closed with appropriate seals that prevent the entry of mortar or of
concrete “cream” during the concrete-pouring operations.
6.2.11.1.13 The junctions of the embedded electrical conduits must be made with the aid of accessories or fittings
that are impervious to the construction materials.
6.2.11.1.14 Electrical conduits must only be cut perpendicular to their axis. Any and all burrs that might damage the
insulation of the conductors must be removed.
6.2.11.1.15 With regard to expansion joints, rigid electrical conduits must be divided into sections, which may
require certain compensatory measures, such as the use of flexible sleeves or rigging intended to ensure the
electrical continuity of a metallic electrical conduit.
6.2.11.1.16 If necessary, insulating rigid electrical conduits must be equipped with expansion joints in order to
compensate for thermal variations.
6.2.11.1.17 The threading [i.e., pulling] of the conductors must not begin until after the assembly of the electrical
conduits has been completed, with no construction services remaining to be performed that might damage them, and
the line has been thoroughly cleaned.
6.2.11.1.18 The following means may be employed to facilitate the threading of the conductors:
a) Pulling guides; and/or
b) Talc, paraffin, or other lubricants that will not harm the insulation of the conductors.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTE: Pulling guides must be used only after completion of the tubing, not during its execution.
6.2.11.2 Molded blocks
6.2.11.2.1 Only insulated conductors or single-core cables shall be installed in molded blocks.
6.2.11.2.2 The dimensions of the grooves of the molded blocks must be such that the conductors can easily be
accommodated.
6.2.11.2.3 Each groove must be occupied by only one single circuit.
6.2.11.2.4 Molded blocks must not be embedded in masonry work or covered by wallpaper, fabric, or any other
material, but instead must remain visible.
6.2.11.3 Trays, beds, shelves, horizontal supports, and the direct attachment of cables to walls or ceilings
6.2.11.3.1 Only single-core cables or multicore cables shall be used for electrical lines in which the conduits consist
of trays, beds, shelves, or horizontal supports, and for lines in which the cables are attached directly to walls or
ceilings.
6.2.11.3.2 Clamps, rings, or other means may be used to attach the cables directly to walls or ceilings.
NOTE: The use of magnetic materials is not recommended if these materials are subject to a significant amount of current
induction.

6.2.11.3.3 The attachment means, and the trays, beds, shelves, or supports, must be selected and positioned so
as not to damage the cables or compromise their performance. They must possess properties that allow them to
withstand, without damage, the external influences to which they are exposed.
6.2.11.3.4 For vertical paths or runs, it must be ensured that the tensile stress applied by the weight of the cables
does not cause the deformation or rupture of the conductors. Furthermore, this tensile stress must not affect the
connections.
6.2.11.3.5 The cable should preferably be arranged in a single layer in the trays or beds and on the shelves.
However, a multi-layer arrangement shall be permitted, provided that the volume of combustible material represented
by the cables (i.e., the insulation, layers, and covers) does not exceed:
a) 3.5 dm3 per linear meter, for cables in category BF in the ABNT NBR 6812 standard; or
b) 7 dm3 per linear meter, for cables in category AF or AF/R in the ABNT NBR 6812 standard.
NOTE: The limitation on the volume of combustible material is intended to minimize any contribution by the cables to the
propagation of fire, or even to eliminate the said contribution.

6.2.11.4 Channels, profiles, and other shaped sections


6.2.11.4.1 Insulated conductors, single-core cables, and multicore cables may be installed in channels that are
installed on walls, in standard or suspended ceilings, in profiles, or in other shaped sections. Insulated conductors
shall be used only in channels, profiles, or other shaped sections with non-perforated walls and with covers that can
only be removed with the aid of a tool.
NOTE: Isolated conductors may be used in channels, profiles, or other shaped sections without a cover, or with a cover that can
be removed without the aid of a tool, or in channels, profiles, or other shaped sections with perforated walls, with or without a cover,
provided that such conduits:

a) Are installed in areas that are accessible only to aware persons (BA4) or qualified persons (BA5), as defined in Table 18;
or

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


122
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

b) Are installed at a minimum height of 2.50 meters above the floor.

6.2.11.4.2 Channels that are installed on walls, in standard or suspended ceilings, in profiles, or in other shaped
sections must be selected and positioned in such a way that they do not damage the cables or compromise their
performance. They must possess properties that allow them to withstand, without damage, the external influences to
which they are exposed.
6.2.11.4.3 Single-core cables or multicore cables may be used in channels that are installed in the ground.
6.2.11.4.4 In terms of external influences in class AD (the presence of water, as defined in Table 4), the channels
installed in the ground shall be classified as AD4.
6.2.11.4.5 Insulated conductors, single-core cables, or multicore cables may be used in channels that are
embedded in the floor. Insulated conductors shall be used only if they are housed in electrical conduits.
6.2.11.5 Construction spaces
Insulated conductors, single-core cables, or multicore cables may be used in construction spaces, in accordance with
installation methods 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 in Table 33, provided that the conductors or cables can be installed or
withdrawn without performing any operations on the construction elements of the premises.
6.2.11.6 Underground lines
6.2.11.6.1 Only single-core cables or multicore cables shall be permitted for underground lines (i.e., cables buried
directly or housed in electrical conduits). Furthermore, only shielded cables shall be permitted for lines with cables
that are buried directly and that have no additional mechanical protection.
NOTE: The use of insulated conductors in underground electrical conduits shall be permitted if the underground section has no
buried terminal boxes and/or junction boxes, and if the leakproofness of the electrical conduit is guaranteed.

6.2.11.6.2 The cables must be protected from damage due to earth movements, contact with rigid bodies, and tool
impacts in the event of excavation work, and must also be protected against humidity and the chemical effects of
elements present in the soil.
6.2.11.6.3 As a preventive measure against the effects of earth movements, in normal soil the cables must be
installed at least 0.70 meter below ground level. This depth must be increased by 1 meter at the crossings of streets
or roads that are accessible to vehicles, including an additional strip 0.50 meter wide on each side of such streets or
roads. These depths may be reduced in rocky terrain or if the cables are protected – for example, by electrical
conduits that can withstand, undamaged, the external influences that are present.
6.2.11.6.4 Minimum clearance of 0.20 meter must be maintained between any two underground electrical lines that
cross each other.
6.2.11.6.5 Minimum clearance of 0.20 meter must be maintained between an underground electrical line and any
non-electrical line whose path approaches or intersects that of the electrical line. This clearance, as measured
between the two closest points of the two lines, may be reduced in the electrical lines and the non-electrical lines are
separated by means that provide equivalent safety.
6.2.11.6.6 The presence of underground electrical lines must be marked, throughout the entire length of the line,
by a warning element (such as colored tape) that is not subject to damage and that is located at least 0.10 meter
above the line.
6.2.11.7 Lines on insulators
6.2.11.7.1 Bare conductors, insulated conductors, bundled insulated conductors, single-core cables, multicore
cables, and bars may be used on lines with conductors that are affixed to insulators.
NOTE: The use of bars should be limited to electrical-service sites.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.2.11.7.2 This type of installation is not permitted on residential premises.


6.2.11.7.3 Lines on insulators must comply with the requirements of Subsection 5.1.5.4.
6.2.11.7.4 In commercial buildings or similar structures, lines with bare conductors may be used as contact lines
supplying power to lamps or to mobile equipment, provided that they are supplied with SELV power.
6.2.11.7.5 The use of bare conductors on insulators in industrial establishments or similar facilities should be
limited to the electrical-service sites or to specific uses (such as supplying power to rolling cranes).
6.2.11.7.6 When bare conductors or bars are installed on insulators, the following factors should be considered:
a) The forces to which they may be subjected during normal service;
b) The electrodynamic forces to which they may be subjected under short-circuit conditions; and
c) The expansion, due to changes in temperature, that may lead to the buckling of the conductors or to the
destruction of the insulators, such that expansion joints may need to be provided. Precautions should also be
taken against excessive vibration of the conductors, through the use of supports located nearby.
6.2.11.8 External overhead lines
6.2.11.8.1 Bare conductors, conductors equipped with weather-resistant covers, insulated conductors with weather-
resistant insulation, or weather-resistant multicore cables mounted on posts or structures may be used on overhead
lines.
6.2.11.8.2 If an overhead line supplies power to sites that pose risks of explosion (Class BE3 in Table 22), the line
must be converted to an underground line at least 20 meters from the location of the risk.
6.2.11.8.3 Bare conductors must be installed in such a way that their lowest point complies with the following
minimum heights above ground level:
a) 5.50 meters, where heavy-vehicle traffic is present;
b) 4.50 meters, where light-vehicle traffic is present; and
c) 3.50 meters, where only pedestrian traffic is present.
6.2.11.8.4 Bare conductors must be kept away from windows, balconies, staircases, fire escapes, terraces, and
similar structures. In order for this requirement to be met, the conductors must satisfy one of the following conditions:
a) They must be located at a horizontal distance of at least 1.20 meters;
b) They must be above the upper level of the windows;
c) They must be located at a vertical distance of at least 3.50 meters above the floor of balconies, terraces, or
verandas; or
d) They must be located at a vertical distance of at least 0.50 meter below the floor of balconies, terraces, or
verandas.
6.2.11.9 Prefabricated lines
The wrappings or coverings of prefabricated lines must ensure protection against accidental contacts with live parts.
Their level of protection must be at least Class IP2X, and they must meet the requirements of Subsection B.2.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


124
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3 Protection, cut-off, and control devices


6.3.1 General considerations
The requirements in this subsection address selection and installation of devices intended to provide the protection,
cut-off, and control functions required and specified in Section 5. These requirements must be met with regard to
those measures as well as with regard to the general provisions relating to the selection and installation of the
components of an electrical installation, as described in Subsection 6.1.
6.3.2 Common requirements
6.3.2.1 The movable contacts of all of the poles of multiple devices must be mechanically coupled, so that they
open or close essentially simultaneously. However, the contacts intended for neutral may close before the other
contacts and open after them.
6.3.2.2 In multiphase circuits, no single-pole devices should be inserted into the neutral conductor, except as
specified in Subsection 6.3.7.2.7. In single-phase circuits, no single-pole devices should be inserted into the neutral
conductor, unless a differential-residual current device that complies with the rules set forth in Subsection 5.1.2.2 is
present upstream.
6.3.2.3 Devices intended to fulfill more than one function must satisfy all of the requirements of this subsection
that are applicable to each of their functions.
6.3.3 Devices intended to ensure the automatic cut-off of the power supply for protection against electric
shocks
6.3.3.1 Overcurrent protection devices
6.3.3.1.1 The TN system
In the TN system, the overcurrent devices must be selected and installed in accordance with the requirements of
subsections 5.1.2.2.4.2(d), 5.3.2, 5.3.5.2, and 6.3.4.3.
6.3.3.1.2 The TT system
The use of overcurrent devices in automatic cut-offs for protection against electric shocks shall not be permitted in the
TT system (see Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.3(a)).
6.3.3.1.3 The IT system
In the IT system, the overcurrent devices intended to provide protection in the event of a second fault must be
selected in accordance with the requirements of subsections 5.1.2.2.4.4(e) and 6.3.3.1.1.
6.3.3.2 Differential-residual current-protection devices (DR devices)
NOTE: The use of DR devices does not, under any circumstances, constitute an exemption from the use of the protective
conductor. As specified in Subsection 5.1.2.2.3.6, all of the circuits must have a protective conductor over their entire length (see
also Subsection 6.4.3.1.5).

6.3.3.2.1 Only DR devices that are capable of detecting direct differential-residual currents shall be used in DC
circuits. They must also be capable of interrupting the currents of the circuit under normal conditions as well as
under fault conditions.
NOTE: Type “B” DR devices, in compliance with the IEC 61008-2-1 and IEC 61009-2-1 standards, are examples of DR devices
that can detect direct, smooth, and pulsed fault currents, as well as sinusoidal fault currents.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.3.2.2 In AC circuits in which the fault current may contain a DC component, the only DR devices that should
be used are those that can also detect differential-residual currents with these characteristics.
NOTE: Type “A” DR devices, in compliance with the IEC 61008-2-1 and IEC 61009-2-1 standards, are examples of DR devices
that can detect AC fault currents with a DC component, as well as sinusoidal fault currents.

6.3.3.2.3 In AC circuits in which non-sinusoidal fault currents are not expected to occur, DR devices may be used
that can detect only sinusoidal differential-residual currents. Such devices may also be used to protect circuits that
include, downstream, DR devices that can detect the non-sinusoidal fault currents that the circuits protected by those
devices may display.
NOTE: Type “AC” DR devices, in compliance with the IEC 61008-2-1 and IEC 61009-2-1 standards, are examples of DR devices
that can detect only sinusoidal differential-residual currents.

6.3.3.2.4 The DR devices must ensure the cut-off of all of the live conductors of the protected circuit. In the TN-S
system, the neutral conductor may not be cut off if the power-supply conditions allow it to be treated as safely
displaying the same potential as ground.
6.3.3.2.5 The magnetic circuit of the DR devices must include all of the live conductors of the circuit, including
neutral, but no protective conductors. All of the protective conductors must run outside the magnetic circuit.
6.3.3.2.6 The DR devices must be selected, and the electric circuits must be divided, in such a way that the
leakage currents to ground that may circulate during normal operation of the supplied loads cannot cause the
untimely actuation of the device.
NOTE: The standards (such as the IEC 61008-2-1 and IEC 61009-2-1 standards) governing DR devices specify that a DR device
must safely act at any current equal to or greater than its nominal trigger current; that it must not be actuated for currents less than
50% of the nominal trigger current; and that it may be actuated with currents between 50% and 100% of the nominal trigger current.
Thus, with a view toward continuity of service, the structure of the circuits and the definition of the number and characteristics of the
DR devices must be such as to ensure that no circuit displays total leakage current, under normal conditions, that is greater than
50% of the trigger current of the DR device intended to protect the circuit.

6.3.3.2.7 The use of DR devices with an auxiliary source that are not actuated automatically in the event of a fault
in the auxiliary source shall be permitted, if the installation in which the device is used is operated, monitored, and
maintained under the responsibility of aware persons (BA4) or qualified persons (BA5), as described in Table 18.
NOTE: The auxiliary source may be the main power-supply network.
6.3.3.2.8 In the TN-S system and in the TN-S section of the TN-C-S system, the DR device may be used routinely
for protection against electric shocks via the automatic cut-off of the power supply, along with the overcurrent device,
and thus may constitute an alternative to the difficulties in complying with the requirements of
Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.2(d) through the use of the overcurrent device alone. Thus, pieces of equipment or parts of the
installation in which such a difficulty exists may be protected by a DR device. If the ground connections of the circuit
protected in this way cannot be connected to the protective conductor upstream of the DR device, they may be
connected collectively to any grounding electrode whose grounding resistance is compatible with the actuation
current of the DR device. However, the circuit in question is converted to the TT system and should be considered
as such, being subject to the requirements of Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.3, as well as to compliance with the applicable
provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.2.3, including, in particular, the requirements of subsections 5.1.2.2.3.3, 5.1.2.2.3.4,
and 5.1.2.2.3.5.
6.3.3.2.9 In the IT system, when the automatic cut-off function for protection against electric shocks is provided by
the DR device, and the cut-off in the event of an initial fault is not desired, [then] the differential-residual current for
non-actuation of the device must be greater than, or, at a minimum, equal to the current of the initial fault, so as to
permit a direct fault to ground involving any of the phase conductors.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


126
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.3.3 Isolation monitoring devices (IMDs)


The IMD specified in Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.4(d) must indicate any significant reduction in the level of isolation of the
installation, so that the cause of this reduction can be found before the occurrence of the second fault, thereby
avoiding the disconnection of the power supply. Any change in the adjustment of the IMD, [that is] presumably less
than the value indicated in Table 60, should be possible only by releasing the locking mechanism and only for an
authorized person.
6.3.4 Devices for protection against overcurrents
6.3.4.1 General provisions
6.3.4.1.1 In fusible devices in which the fuse holder is of the threaded type, the base connections must be such
that the central contact is located on the “source” side.
6.3.4.1.2 The bases of the fusible devices in which the fuse holder is of the pluggable type must be arranged so
as to prevent the handling of the fuse holder to cause accidental contact between the conductive parts of contiguous
bases.
6.3.4.1.3 Fusible devices intended for use by persons who are neither aware nor qualified (see Table 18), for
operations including the replacement or removal of the fuses, must have construction characteristics that meet the
safety requirements of the ABNT NBR IEC 60269-3 standard. Fusible devices or combined devices that are suitable
for use by aware or qualified persons (see Table 18) shall be permitted, even in situations in which the replacement
or removal of the fuses can only be performed by such persons, if the devices are installed in such a way as to
ensure that the fuse can be removed or installed with no risk of accidental contact with live parts.
6.3.4.1.4 Breakers that are subject to actions or operations by persons who are neither aware nor qualified (see
Table 18) must be constructed or installed in such a way that their overcurrent triggers cannot be altered or adjusted
other than through voluntary action that requires the use of a key or tool, and that produces a visual indication of the
alteration or adjustment.
NOTE: Breaking of the seal is one example of a “visual indication” of such alterations.
6.3.4.2 Selection of overload protection devices
The normal or adjustment current of the protective device must be selected in the manner indicated in
Subsection 5.3.4.1. For cyclic loads, the values of /n and of l2 must be selected on the basis of the values of lB and of
lz for constant loads that are thermally equivalent to the cyclic loads.
NOTE: In certain cases, in order to avoid undesired actuation, consideration should be given to the peak value of the load
currents.

6.3.4.3 Selection of short-circuit protection devices


6.3.4.3.1 Fusible devices
In order to apply the requirements of Subsection 5.3.5 to short circuits lasting no more than 5 seconds, the fusible
devices must satisfy the following condition:
Ia ≤ Ikmin
where:
Ia is the current corresponding to the intersection of curves C and F in Figure 10, and
lkmin is the presumed minimum short-circuit current.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Legend:
C = the thermal withstandability curve of the conductor; and
F = the melting curve of the fuse (upper limit of the actuation range).

Figure 10. — Intersection of the thermal withstandability curve of the conductor


and the melting curve of the fuse.
6.3.4.3.2 Breakers
In order to apply the requirements of Subsection 5.3.5 to short circuits lasting no more than 5 seconds, the breakers
must satisfy the following two conditions:
a) Ia ≤ Ikmin; and

b) Ib ≥ Ik

where:
Ia is the current corresponding to the intersection of curves C and D1 in Figure 11;
Ikmin is the presumed minimum short-circuit current;
Ib is the current corresponding to the intersection of curves C′ and D2 in Figure 12; and
Ik is the presumed maximum short-circuit current at the breaker installation point.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


128
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Legend:
C = the thermal withstandability curve of the conductor; and
D1 = the breaker actuation curve.

Figure 11. — Intersection of the thermal withstandability curve of the conductor


and the breaker actuation curve.

Legend:
2
C′ = the acceptable l t curve of the conductor (section of the curve); and
2
D2 = the typical l t curve of the breaker (section of the curve).

Figure 12. — Intersection of the curve of the Joule integral (I2t) that can be withstood by the conductor
and the curve of the Joule integral (I2t) that the breaker allows to pass.
NOTES (for both subsections 6.3.4.3.1 and 6.3.4.3.2):
1. For short-circuit currents whose duration is greater than certain periods, the Joule integral I2t of the protective
device can be calculated by multiplying the square of the effective value of the actuation current I(t) of the protective
device by the actuation time t. For short-circuit currents with a briefer duration, the I2t characteristic supplied by the
manufacturer should be consulted.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

2. For the purposes of confirmation of the conditions specified in subsections 6.3.4.3.1 and 6.3.4.3.2, the presumed
minimum short-circuit current shall be considered to be the current that corresponds to a short circuit with negligible
impedance that occurs at the most distant point on the protective line.
6.3.5 Surge-protection devices (SPDs)
6.3.5.1 General considerations
This subsection addresses the selection and installation of devices intended to provide protection against transient
overvoltages in installations located inside buildings and other structures, covering both power lines and signaling
lines.
6.3.5.2 Protection for power lines
6.3.5.2.1 Use and positioning of the SPDs
In cases in which the use of an SPD is necessary, as described in Subsection 5.4.2.1.1, and in cases in which such
use is specified, independently of the considerations mentioned in Subsection 5.4.2.1.1, the positioning of the SPDs
must meet the following criteria:
a) If the goal is to provide protection against overvoltages of atmospheric origin transmitted by the external power
line, as well as protection against switching overvoltages, the SPDs must be installed at the point where the line
enters the building or in the main distribution panel, located as close as possible to the entry point; or
b) If the goal is to provide protection against overvoltages caused by direct atmospheric discharges (lightning)
striking the building or its close surroundings, the SPDs should be installed at the line’s point of entry into the
building.
NOTES:
1. See the definition of “point of entry (into a building)” (Subsection 3.4.4).
2. On an exceptional basis, for existing installations that include consumer units located in buildings intended for individual use
and served by the public low-voltage distribution network, SPDs may be located next to the meter box, provided that the PE bar that
is used there to connect the SPDs is interconnected to the main equipotentialization bus bar (BEP) of the building, as required in
Subsection 6.4.2.1, and provided that the meter box is located no more than 10 meters from the point of entry into the building.
3 Additional SPDs may be necessary for the protection of sensitive equipment. These SPDs should be coordinated with the
upstream and downstream SPDs (see Subsection 6.3.5.2.4(f)).
4 If the SPDs are part of the stationary installation, but are not housed in distribution panels (for example, if they are incorporated
into power sockets or outlets), then their presence must be indicated by a label, or any similar type of identifier, placed at the origin
or as close as possible to the origin of the circuit into which the device is incorporated.

6.3.5.2.2 Installation of SPDs at the point of entry or in the main distribution panel
If the SPDs are installed, as indicated in Subsection 6.3.5.2.1, near the electrical line's point of entry into the building
or in the main distribution panel, as close as possible to the point of entry, they should be arranged, at a minimum, as
shown in Figure 13.
NOTES:
1 The arrangement of the SPDs, as shown in Figure 13, covers essentially the common-mode protection, and therefore does not
exclude supplemental differential-mode protection (via the connection of an SPD between live conductors).

2 If the building contains more than one external power line, SPDs should be provided, at a minimum, at each line’s point of entry
or exit.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


130
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Does the electrical-power YES


line that comes to the
building include neutral?

NO
Is neutral grounded at the
main equipotentialization NO
bus bar of the building?
(BEP; see Subsection
6.4.2.1)

Two connection arrange-


YES
ments are possibled)

CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT 1 CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT 2 CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT 3

The SPDs should be connected: The SPDs should be connected: The SPDs should be connected:

– To each phase conductor, on one side, – To each phase conductor, on one side, and – To each phase conductor, on one side,
and – To the BEP or to the PE bar of the panel, on and
– To the BEP or to the PE bar of the the other side (see Note “b") – To the neutral conductor, on the other
panel, on the other side (see Note “a") side;
and also:
and also:
– To the neutral conductor, on one side;
– To the neutral conductor, on one side, and and
– To the BEP or to the PE bar of the panel, on – To the BEP or to the PE bar of the
the other side (see Note “a") panel, on the other side (see Note “a")

BEP or
PE bar

BEP or
PE bar
BEP or
PE bar

PE bar

BEP or
PE bar

*PE - the protective conductor


*PEN - neutral and protective conductor

NOTES:
a) The connection to the BEP or to the PE bar depends on where exactly the SPDs are installed and on how the BEP is
implemented in practice. Accordingly, the connection will be made to the BEP when:

– The BEP is located upstream of the main distribution panel (with the BEP located, as it should be, in immediate proximity to the
line's point of entry into the building), and the SPDs are installed adjacent to the BEP, instead of in the panel; or
– The SPDs are installed in the main distribution panel of the building, and the PE bar of the panel fulfills the function of the BEP.
Consequently, the connection will be made to the PE bar per se when the SPDs are installed in the distribution panel and the PE
bar of the panel does not fulfill the function of the BEP.
b) The hypothesis envisions an arrangement that starts [as] TN-C and that continues its installation within the TN-C system, or
that enters [as] TN-C and then shifts to TN-S (as required, incidentally, by the general rule of Subsection 5.4.3.6). The incoming
neutral, which is necessarily the PEN, must be grounded at the BEP, either directly or indirectly (see Figure G.2). The shift from the
TN-C system to the TN-S system, with the division of the incoming PEN conductor into the neutral conductor and to the PE
conductor, will be done in the main distribution panel (overall, the system is a TN-C-S system).
c) The hypothesis envisions three possibilities for the grounding system: TT (with neutral), IT with neutral, and a line that is
already part of the TN-S system when it enters the building.
d) There are situations in which one of the two arrangements is mandatory, such as the case described in paragraph (b) of
Subsection 6.3.5.2.6.

Figure 13. — SPD connection arrangements at the power line’s point of entry
or in the building’s main distribution panel.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.5.2.3 Connection of the SPDs at points along the installation


If, in addition to the SPDs specified in Subsection 6.3.5.2.2, additional SPDs are necessary, as indicated in Note 3 in
Subsection 6.3.5.2.1, the latter SPDs must be connected in accordance with the same orientation shown in
Figure 13. Thus, the SPDs should be connected:
a) under the TN-S system, the TT system with neutral, and the IT system with neutral:
— between each phase and PE, and between neutral and PE (Connection Arrangement 2); or
— between each phase and neutral, and between neutral and PE (Connection Arrangement 3);
b) in circuits without neutral, regardless of the grounding system:
— between each phase and PE (Connection Arrangement 1);
c) under the TN-C system:
Between each phase and PE (PEN) (Connection Arrangement 1).

NOTES:
1. This arrangement of the SPDs is also considered to be minimal, because it does not exclude supplemental protection in
differential mode (i.e., connection of an SPD between live conductors).
2. Any and all SPDs placed along the length of the installation must be coordinated with the upstream and downstream devices
(see Subsection 6.3.5.2.4(f)).

6.3.5.2.4 Selection of the SPDs


The SPDs must comply with the provisions of the IEC 61643-1 standard, and must be selected on the basis, at least,
of the following characteristics: the protection level, the maximum continuous operating voltage, the ability to
withstand temporary overvoltages, the nominal discharge voltage and/or impulse current, and the ability to withstand
short-circuit currents. Furthermore, when they are used at more than one point in an installation (i.e., in cascade
mode), the SPDs must be selected with attention to their coordination. The conditions to be met for selection of an
SPD are described in paragraphs (a) through (f) below.
a) level of protection (U p ): The level of protection provided by the SPD must be compatible with Category II
impulse withstandability, as shown in Table 31. For connections under Arrangement 3 (see Figure 13), the
required level of protection refers to the overall level, i.e., between phase and the PE. If the required level of
protection, regardless of the connection arrangement, cannot be achieved with a single set of SPDs,
supplemental SPDs must be provided. These supplemental SPDs must be properly coordinated, so that the
required level of protection is provided.
NOTES:
1. The requirement that the level of protection be compatible with Category II impulse withstandability means that in
an installation whose nominal voltage is, for example, 220/380 V, the level of protection (U p ) of the SPD must not
exceed 2.5 kV. The requirement refers to common-mode protection and is valid, in particular, when a single SPD is
located at the point of entry or in the main distribution panel. The additional SPDs and, in particular, the ones
intended to protect pieces of equipment that are supplied with power between phase and neutral (i.e., differential
protection) must have a lower level of protection.
2. The effectiveness of the protection provided by an SPD depends on the care with which it is installed, and,
therefore, on compliance with the pertinent instructions contained in this standard. This aspect is even more critical
for SPDs that are connected between phase and neutral.
b) Maximum continuous operating voltage (Uc): The maximum continuous operating voltage (Uc) of the SPD must
be equal to or greater than the values shown in Table 49.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


132
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 49. — Minimum value of Uc required for an SPD, based on the grounding system.
SPD connected between: The grounding system
IT with IT without
Phase Neutral PE PEN TT TN-C TN-S distributed distributed
neutral neutral
X X 1.1 Uo 1.1 Uo 1.1 Uo
X X 1.1 Uo 1.1 Uo √3 Uo U
X X 1.1 Uo
X X (in Uo) (in Uo)
NOTES:
1 The absence of an indication means that the connection in question does not apply to the grounding system.
2 Uo is the phase-neutral voltage.
3 U is the inter-phase voltage.
4 The appropriate values of UC may be significantly greater than the minimum values shown in the table.

c) Temporary overvoltages: The SPD must pass the pertinent tests specified in the IEC 61643-1 standard.
NOTE: The IEC 61643-1 standard specifies that the SPD must withstand the temporary overvoltages resulting from faults in the
low-voltage installation, and that when the SPDs that can be connected to the PE are so connected, they do not pose any safety
risk in the event of destruction caused by temporary overvoltages due to medium-voltage faults or to loss of the neutral.

d) The nominal discharge current (In) and the impulse current (limp): When the nominal discharge current and/or the
impulse current of the SPD is selected, three situations may apply:
— If the SPD is intended to protect against overvoltages of atmospheric origin transmitted by an external
power-supply line and against switching overvoltages, then its nominal discharge current In must be at least
5 kA (8/20 μs) for each protection mode. However, In must not be less than 20 kA (8/20 μs) in three-phase
networks, or less than 10 kA (8/20 μs) in single-phase networks, when the SPD is used between neutral and
the PE, in connection Arrangement 3 as shown in Figure 13;
— If the SPD is intended to protect against overvoltages caused by direct atmospheric discharges (lightning)
striking the building or its close surroundings, then the impulse current limp of the SPD must be determined in
accordance with the provisions of the IEC 61312-1 standard. If the current value cannot be determined,
then limp must not be less than 12.5 kA for each protection mode. For SPDs used between neutral and the
PE, in connection diagram 3 (see Figure 13), limp must also be determined in accordance with the provisions
of the IEC 61312-1 standard. Alternatively, if the current value cannot be determined, then limp must not be
less than 50 kA for a three-phase network, or less than 25 kA for a single-phase network;
NOTE: The test to determine the impulse current (Iimp) of an SPD is based on the peak current value, indicated in kA, and on the
load value, indicated in coulombs (A.s). No particular waveform has been established for the performance of this test, such that this
waveform may be 10/350 μs, 10/700 μs, 10/1000 μs, or even 8/20 μs. Waveforms other than these have not been ruled out. Nor
have any restrictions been established regarding the type of SPD (short-circuiting, non-short-circuiting, or combined) that can be
subjected to this test.

— If the SPD is intended simultaneously to protect against all of the overvoltages described in the two
foregoing situations, then the values of In and of limp for the SPD must be determined individually, as
specified hereinabove.
e) Ability to withstand short-circuit current: Bearing in mind the possibility of the failure of the SPD, its ability to
withstand short-circuit currents (taking into account the action of the protective device against overcurrents, as
included or as specified by the manufacturer) must be equal to or greater than the presumed short-circuit current
at the point where it will be installed. Furthermore, if the SPD includes one or more spark gaps, then the
resulting current-interruption capability, as stated by the manufacturer, must be equal to or greater than the
presumed short-circuit current at the point where the device will be installed. For SPDs that are to be connected
between neutral and the PE, the resulting current-interruption capability must be at least 100 A, under the TN or
TT system, and must be the same as that of the SPDs connected between phase and neutral, under the IT
system.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

f) Coordination of the SPDs: The SPD manufacturers must provide, in the documentation, clear and sufficient
instructions on how to coordinate the SPDs located along the length of the installation.
6.3.5.2.5 SPD failure and protection against overcurrents
The possibility of an internal failure, causing an SPD to be short-circuited, entails the need for a device that provides
protection against overcurrents, in order to eliminate this short circuit. Paragraphs (a) and (c) below describe the
precautions to be observed with regard to the risk of failure of an SPD, as well as the alternative arrangements that,
in the event of a failure of an SPD, make it possible to prioritize the continuity of the service or the continuity of the
protection.
NOTE: For greater clarity and simplicity, in this subsection the abbreviation “DP" has been adopted to designate the device that
provides protection against overcurrents.

a) Positioning of the DP: The device that provides protection against overcurrents and that is intended to eliminate
a short circuit that occurs due to the failure of an SPD may be positioned:
— At the SPD connection itself, represented by “DP” in Figure 14-a. This DP may also be the internal
disconnector that may be a part of the SPD;
— In the circuit to which the SPD is connected, represented by "DP" in Figure 14-b, which usually corresponds
to the device that provides protection against circuit overcurrents.
Assuming, as required by this standard, that all of the devices that provide protection against installation overcurrents
are properly coordinated (i.e., selective), the first option for the positioning of the DP (as shown in Figure 14-a)
ensures continuity of service, but also entails a lack of protection against any new overvoltage that may occur.
Meanwhile, in the second option (as shown in Figure 14-b), the continuity of service may be affected, because the
actuation of the DP, due to the failure of the SPD, interrupts the supply of power to the circuit, and this situation may
persist until the SPD has been replaced.
The third option, which offers a greater likelihood of obtaining both continuity of service and continuity of protection, is
the one described in Figure 14-c. In this case, two identical SPDs (SPD1 and SPD2) are used, each of which is
protected by a specific DP placed in the connection of the respective SPD, with the two DPs likewise being identical.
Thus, the greater reliability of this arrangement is due to the redundancy that has been implemented.
b) Selection of the DP: Regardless of whether the DP intended to eliminate a short circuit that occurs due to the
failure of an SPD is a device that was specifically provided for this purpose (such as the DP shown in
Figure 14-a) or the existing DP present in the circuit to which the SPD is connected (such as the DP device
shown in Figure 14-b), its nominal current must be less than, or at most equal to, the current indicated by the
manufacturer of the SPD.
c) Connection conductors: The dimensioning of the nominal cross-section of the conductors intended to connect a
DP that was specifically provided in order to eliminate a short circuit that occurred due to the failure of an SPD
(such as the DP shown in Figure 14-a) to the phase conductors of the circuit must take into consideration the
maximum short-circuit current that is likely to circulate through the connection.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


134
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

SPD SPD
SPD1 SPD2

DP: Device that provides protection against overcurrents


SPD: Surge-protection device
E/l: The equipment and/or installation to be protected against overvoltages

Figure 14. — Options for the positioning of the device that provides protection against over currents.

6.3.5.2.6 Protection against electric shocks, and compatibility between SPDs and DR devices
The requirements set forth in paragraphs (a) and (b) below must be met:

a) No failure of an SPD, including any occasional or fortuitous failures, should compromise the effectiveness of the
protection against shocks provided to a circuit or to an installation; and
b) When the SPDs are installed, as indicated in Subsection 6.3.5.2.1, adjacent to the point where the electrical
power line enters the building or in the main distribution panel, as close as possible to the point of entry, and if
the installation is equipped with one or more DR devices in the same area, then the SPDs may be positioned
either upstream or downstream of the DR device(s), in compliance with the following conditions:
— If the installation took place under the TT system and if the SPDs are positioned upstream of the DR
device(s), then the SPDs must be connected in accordance with Arrangement 3 (see Figure 13);
— If the SPDs are positioned downstream of the DR device(s), then these DR devices, regardless of whether
they are instantaneous or timed, must possess immunity to surge currents of at least 3 kA (8/20 μs).
NOTE: Type “S” devices, in accordance with the IEC 61008-2-1 and 61009-2-1 standards, are an example of a DR device
that meets this immunity requirement.

6.3.5.2.7 Measurement of insulation resistance


The SPDs may be disconnected so that the measurement of the insulation resistance, as described in
Subsection 7.3.3, can be performed, in the event that the SPDs are incompatible with the test voltage that has been
adopted. This provision does not apply to SPDs that are incorporated into power sockets or outlets and connected to
the PE, which must withstand this test.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.5.2.8 Indication of the status of the SPD


If, due to a fault or defect, an SPD ceases to fulfill its function of providing protection against overvoltages, this
condition must be disclosed:
— By a status indicator; or
— By a separate protective device, as described in Subsection 6.3.5.2.5.

6.3.5.2.9 SPD connection conductors


The conductors intended to connect the SPD (phase-SPD, neutral-SPD, SPD-PE, and/or SPD-neutral connections,
depending on the connection arrangement, see Figure 13) must be as short as possible, with no curves or loops.
Preferably, the overall length, as shown in Figure 15-a, should not exceed 0.5 meter. If the distance (a + b) shown in
Figure 15-a cannot be less than 0.5 meter, then the arrangement shown in Figure 15-b may be adopted.
In terms of the nominal cross-section, the conductor for the SPD-PE connections (for SPDs that are installed at the
point where the electrical line enters the building, or in proximity to it) must have a cross-section of at least 4 mm², in
copper or an equivalent. If these SPDs are intended to provide protection against overvoltages caused by direct
atmospheric discharges (lightning) striking the building or its close surroundings, then the nominal cross-section of
the conductor for the SPD-PE connections must be at least 16 mm², in copper or an equivalent.

SPD SPD

BEP or
PE bar
BEP or
PE bar

Figure 15. — Maximum total length of the SPD connection conductors.


6.3.5.3 Protection for signaling lines

6.3.5.3.1 Positioning of the SPDs


The SPDs intended to provide the protection required pursuant to the provisions of Subsection 5.4.2.2.1 must be
positioned in the following way:
a) For a line originating in the public [switched] telephone network, the SPD should be located in the general
distributor ["distribuidor geral”] (DG) for the building, located near the BEP (see the note in Subsection 6.4.2.1.2);
b) For an external line originating in a public network other than the telephone network, the SPD should be located
near the BEP; and
c) For a line that leads to another building or to associated structures, and also for a line associated with an
external antenna or to structures located on top of the building, the SPD should be located in proximity to the
nearest BEL (and, optionally, in proximity to the BEP, if the point of entry or exit of this line coincidentally
happens to be located near the BEP).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


136
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.5.3.2 Connection of the SPDs


The SPDs required in Subsection 5.4.2.2.1 and the ones mentioned in Subsection 5.4.2.2.2 must be connected
between the signaling line and the nearest equipotentialization reference point.
NOTE: Depending on the location of the SPD, the nearest equipotentialization reference point may be the BEP, the ground bus of
the DG, the BEL, the PE bar, or even, if the SPD is installed near any particular piece of equipment, the terminal of that piece of
equipment that is bonded to ground.

6.3.5.3.3 Selection of the SPD


Paragraphs (a) through (f) below specify the demandable characteristics of the SPDs that are intended to protect
twisted-pair telephone lines, assuming that the SPD will be installed in the building's DG, as required by
Subsection 6.3.5.3.1. Last, paragraph (g) establishes the demandable characteristics of the SPD as indicated in
subsections 5.4.3.2 and 5.4.3.3, with regard to the bonding of the shielding or metallic layer of the signaling cable to
the equipotentialization points or to the ground connection of a piece of equipment.
NOTE: The criteria for the selection of an SPD intended to provide protection for other types of signaling lines are currently under
study.

a) Type of SPD: The SPD should be of the short-circuiting type, either single or combined (i.e., including an
overvoltage limiter in parallel).
b) DC trigger voltage: The value of the DC trigger voltage should be a maximum of 500 V and a minimum of 200 V,
when the telephone line is balanced to ground, or 300 V, when the telephone line is subject to fluctuations.
c) Pulse trigger voltage: The value of the pulse trigger voltage of the SPD must be no more than 1 kV.
d) Pulse discharge current: The pulse discharge current of the SPD must be at least 5 kA, if the shielding of the
telephone line is grounded, and at least 10 kA if the shielding is not grounded. Higher values are recommended
in regions that are critical in terms of the intensity of the rays.
e) AC discharge current: The value of the AC discharge current of the SPD must be at least 10 A. Higher values
are recommended in regions that are critical in terms of the intensity of the rays.
f) Overcurrent protector: If the telephone line is balanced to ground, then the SPD must incorporate an overcurrent
protector whose nominal current is between 150 mA and 250 mA. If the telephone line is subject to fluctuations,
the SPD may or may not incorporate an overcurrent protector. However, if the SPD does incorporate such a
protector, then the nominal current of the protector must be between 150 mA and 250 mA.
g) SPD for shielding and metallic layers: If the shielding or the metallic layer of a signaling line is connected to
equipotentialization points or is bonded to the ground connector of a piece of equipment with the interposition of
an SPD, as specified in subsections 5.4.3.2 and 5.4.3.3, then the SPD to be employed must be of the short-
circuiting type with disruptive DC voltage between 200 V and 300 V; pulse discharge current of at least 10 kA
(8/20 μs); and AC discharge current of at least 10 A (60 Hz/1 sec).
6.3.5.3.4 Failure of the SPD

The SPD must be of the fail-safe type, with the incorporation of protection against overheating.
NOTE: The protection against overheating of an SPD for a signaling line shall act by short-circuiting the line to ground.
6.3.5.3.5 SPD connection conductors
The SPD connections must be as short and as rectilinear as possible.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.6 Coordination between different protective devices


6.3.6.1 Selectivity among overcurrent protection devices
If reasons dictated by safety and/or by the use of the electrical installation require that the continuity of service be
affected only minimally by the occurrence of a fault, then the actuation characteristics of the devices arranged in
series must be selected so as to ensure that the only device that is actuated is the one that is responsible for
protecting the circuit in which the fault occurred (selectivity).
6.3.6.2 Association between differential-residual current-protection devices (DR device) and overcurrent
protection devices
6.3.6.2.1 If a DR device is incorporated into, or associated with, an overcurrent protection device, then the
characteristics of the set of devices (e.g., the interruption capacity and the actuation characteristics as a function of
the nominal current) must meet the requirements of subsections 5.3, 6.3.4.2, and 6.3.4.3.
6.3.6.2.2 If a DR device is not incorporated into, or associated with, an overcurrent protection device:
a) The protection against overcurrent must be ensured by devices that are suitable for this function, as described
in Subsection 5.3;
b) The DR device must be able to withstand, with no damage, the thermal and dynamic stresses to which it is
subjected in the event of a short circuit downstream of its installation point; and
c) The DR device must not be damaged in short-circuit situations, even if it is opened as the result of a current
imbalance or of the circulation of current to ground.
NOTE: The above-mentioned stresses depend on the presumed short-circuit current value at the point where the DR is installed,
and on the actuation characteristics of the device that provides protection against short circuits.

6.3.6.3 Selectivity among DR devices


6.3.6.3.1 Selectivity among DR devices in series may be required for service-related reasons, particularly when
safety is involved, in order to maintain the supply of power to parts of the installation that are not directly affected by
the occurrence of a fault.
6.3.6.3.2 To ensure selectivity between two DR devices in series, these devices must simultaneously satisfy the
following conditions:
a) The time-current characteristic of non-actuation of the upstream DR device must be located above the time-
current characteristic of actuation of the downstream DR device; and
b) The nominal differential-residual current for actuation of the upstream DR device must be greater than that of
the downstream DR device. For DR devices that comply with the requirements of the IEC 61008-2-1 and IEC
61009-2-1 standards, the nominal differential-residual current for actuation of the upstream DR device must be
at least three times the value of the nominal differential-residual current for actuation of the downstream DR
device.
NOTE: For DR devices that comply with the requirements of the IEC 61008-2-1 and IEC 61009-2-1 standards, condition (a) may
be met through the use of a general-purpose downstream device and a Type “S” upstream device.

6.3.7 Cut-off and control devices


6.3.7.1 General considerations
All cut-off or control devices must meet the requirements regarding the purpose for which they are intended, as
described in Subsection 5.6. If the device is used for more than one purpose, then it must meet the requirements for
each of its purposes.
NOTE: In certain cases, supplemental requirements may be necessary for combined purposes.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


138
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.7.2 Cut-off devices


6.3.7.2.1 The cut-off device must effectively cut off all of the live conductors from the power supply of the
respective circuit, in compliance with the provisions of Subsection 5.6.2.2.
6.3.7.2.2 The cut-off devices and interrupters/cut-off devices must meet the requirements of subsections 6.3.7.2.3
through 6.3.7.2.8, as well as the following two conditions:
a) In new, clean, dry condition, and in the open position, they must withstand, between the terminals of each pole,
the impulse voltage indicated in Table 50, in accordance with the nominal installation voltage;
NOTE: Opening distances greater than the ones required in the withstandable impulse-voltage test may be necessary in order to
address aspects other than the cut-off function.

b) Their leakage current between open poles must be no more than:


— 0.5 mA per pole, in new, clean, and dry condition; and
— 6 mA at the end of the useful lifetime of the device, as determined in accordance with the applicable
standard;
when tested, between the terminals of each pole, at a voltage equal to 110% of the value of the voltage between
phase and neutral, referenced to the nominal voltage of the installation. For a DC test, the voltage value must be
equivalent to the effective value of the AC test voltage.
Table 50. — Withstandable impulse voltage as a function of nominal voltage.

Withstandable impulse voltage


Nominal voltage of the installation for cut-off devices and for
switches/cut-off devices
Single-phase systems Overvoltage Overvoltage
Three-phase systems
with neutral category III category IV
(V)
(V) (kV) (kV)
- 120–240 3 5
220/380, 230/400, 277/480 – 5 8
400/690, 577/1000 8 10
NOTES:
1. With regard to atmospheric overvoltages, no distinction is made between grounded systems and
ungrounded systems.
2. The withstandable impulse voltages refer to an elevation of 2,000 meters.
3. The overvoltage categories, which are also mentioned in Table 31, are explained in Attachment “E”. The
withstandability values shown in Table 31 are minimum values and are of a general nature, whereas the value
shown in this table refers specifically to cut-off devices and to switches/cut-off devices.

6.3.7.2.3 The width of the opening between the contacts of the device should be visible, or should be clearly and
reliably indicated by the labels “Disconnected” or “Open”. This indication must appear only when the width of the
opening has been reached at all of the poles of the device.
NOTE: This labeling may be achieved through the use of the symbols “O” and “I”, indicating the open and closed positions,
respectively.

6.3.7.2.4 Semiconductor devices must not be used as cut-off devices.


6.3.7.2.5 The cut-off devices must be designed and/or installed in such a way as to prevent any inadvertent
closure.
NOTE: An inadvertent closure may be caused, for example, by mechanical shocks or by vibrations.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.7.2.6 Precautions must be taken to prevent cut-off devices that can operate without a load from being
actuated inadvertently or without authorization.
NOTE: This requirement can be met by installing the device in an area or in an enclosure that is locked with a key, or by locking it
with a padlock. An alternative would be to interlock the cut-off device with another device that is intended to operate under a load.

6.3.7.2.7 The cut-off action must be implemented by a multipole device that cuts off all of the poles from the
corresponding power supply. However, except for the applications specified in Subsection 6.3.7.3 (cut-offs for
mechanical maintenance) and in Subsection 6.3.7.4 (emergency cut-offs and emergency shutdowns), the use of
juxtaposed single-pole devices shall also be permitted, provided that all of the poles of the respective power source
are cut off.
NOTE: The cut-off operation may be accomplished, for example, by means of:
a) Cut-off devices and switches/cut-off devices, which may be multipole or single-pole devices;
b) Plugs and sockets;
c) Fuses (via their removal); and
d) Special terminals that enable the disconnection of the conductors.
6.3.7.2.8 The cut-off devices must be clearly identified, and the circuits that are cut off by them must be indicated.
6.3.7.3 Cut-off devices for mechanical maintenance
6.3.7.3.1 The cut-off devices intended for mechanical maintenance purposes should preferably be located in the
main power-supply circuit. If switches are used for this purpose, they must be able to interrupt the full-load current of
the corresponding part of the installation. The devices must cut off all of the live conductors, in compliance with the
provisions of Subsection 5.6.2.2.
The interruption of the control circuit of a motor as a cut-off method for mechanical maintenance shall be permitted
only in cases in which:
— Supplemental safety measures, such as a mechanical interlock, or
— The Brazilian or IEC standards for the control devices that are utilized to ensure a condition equivalent to that of
the direct cut-off of the main power supply.

NOTE: The cut-off operation for mechanical maintenance may be accomplished, for example, by means of:

a) Multipole cut-off devices;


b) Multipole switches/cut-off devices;
c) Multipole breakers;
d) Control devices that work on contactors; and
e) Plugs and sockets.

6.3.7.3.2 The cut-off devices for mechanical maintenance, or the corresponding control devices, must be
manually operated.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


140
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

The width of the opening between the contacts of the device should be visible, or should be clearly and reliably
indicated by the labels “Disconnected” or “Open”. This indication should be displayed only when the “Disconnected”
or “Open” position is reached by all of the poles of the device.
NOTE: This labeling may be achieved through the use of the symbols “O” and “I”, indicating the open and closed positions,
respectively.

6.3.7.3.3 The cut-off devices for mechanical maintenance must be able to be locked in the open position, and
should be installed in such a way as to prevent any inadvertent closure.
NOTE: The inadvertent closure may be caused, for example, by mechanical shocks or by vibrations.
6.3.7.3.4 The cut-off devices for mechanical maintenance should be located, positioned, and identified in such a
way that the location and positioning are the most convenient ones possible for the purpose for which they are
intended, and in such a way that these devices can be promptly and easily recognized.
6.3.7.4 Emergency cut-off and emergency shutdown devices
6.3.7.4.1 Emergency cut-off devices must be able to interrupt the full-load current in the corresponding part of the
installation, taking into account, if necessary, any locked-rotor currents.
6.3.7.4.2 The emergency cut-off means may consist of:
a) A cut-off device that can directly interrupt the pertinent power supply; or
b) A combination of devices, provided that they are actuated through a single operation, that interrupts the pertinent
power supply.
For emergency shutdowns, it may be necessary to maintain the supply of power, for example, in order to brake any
moving parts.

NOTE: The emergency cut-off may be implemented, for example, by means of:
— Multipole switches;
— Multipole breakers; and
— Control devices that work on contactors.
6.3.7.4.3 For the direct cut-off of the main circuit, preference should be given to devices that are manually
actuated. Breakers, contactors, and other devices that are actuated by remote control must open when the power
supply to the respective coils or triggers is interrupted. Alternatively, other techniques that offer equivalent safety
may be employed.
6.3.7.4.4 The control elements (handles, push-buttons, etc.) of the emergency cut-off devices must be clearly
identified, preferably by the color red, with a contrasting background.
6.3.7.4.5 The control elements must be easily accessible from the areas where a hazard may occur, and also, if
applicable, from any other area from which a hazard may be eliminated remotely.
6.3.7.4.6 The control elements of an emergency cut-off device must be able to be locked in the open position of
the device, unless these elements and the elements for the re-energization of the circuit are both under the control of
the same person.
The release of an emergency cut-off situation must not restore power to the corresponding part of the installation.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.3.7.4.7 The emergency cut-off devices, including the emergency shutdown devices, should be located,
positioned, and identified in such a way that the location and positioning are the most convenient ones possible for
the purpose for which they are intended, and in such a way that these devices can be promptly and easily
recognized.
6.3.7.5 Functional control devices
6.3.7.5.1 The characteristics of the functional control devices must be compatible with the most severe conditions
under which these devices are able to function.
6.3.7.5.2 The functional control devices may interrupt the current without necessarily opening the respective
poles.
NOTES:
1. Semiconductor control devices are examples of devices that can interrupt the current of a circuit without opening the respective
poles.
2. Functional control may be achieved, for example, by means of:
— Switches;

— Semiconductor devices;

— Breakers;

— Contactors;

— Remote-control switches; and/or

— Plugs and sockets with a maximum nominal current of 20 A.

6.3.7.5.3 Cut-off devices, fusible devices, and bars (links) must not be used for functional control purposes.

6.4 Grounding and equipotentialization


6.4.1 Grounding
6.4.1.1 Grounding electrodes
6.4.1.1.1 All buildings must have a grounding infrastructure, known as the "grounding electrode.” The following
options are acceptable:
a) Preferably, use of the armature [i.e., the reinforcing bars (rebar) and structural steel] of the foundation concrete
(see Subsection 6.4.1.1.9); or
b) Use of specially provided metallic tape, bars, or cables embedded in the foundation concrete (see
Subsection 6.4.1.1.10); or
c) Use of buried metallic meshes, at the foundation level, covering the area of the building and supplemented, if
necessary, by vertical rods and/or radially arranged (“crow’s-foot” style) cables; or
d) At a minimum, use of a buried metallic ring, surrounding the perimeter of the building and supplemented, if
necessary, by vertical rods and/or radially arranged (“crow’s-foot” style) cables.
NOTE: Other grounding solutions shall be accepted in temporary facilities; in facilities located in exposed areas, such as patios
and gardens; at campsites, marinas, and similar facilities; and in the renovation of installations in existing buildings, when the
adoption of any of the options described in Subsection 6.4.1.1.1 is not feasible.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


142
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.4.1.1.2 The grounding infrastructure described in Subsection 6.4.1.1.1 shall be designed in such a way that:
a) It is reliable and meets the safety requirements for human beings;
b) It can carry fault currents to ground with no risk of thermal, thermomechanical, and/or electromechanical
damage, or of electric shocks caused by such currents; and
c) When applicable, it also meets the functional requirements of the installation.
6.4.1.1.3 Because the grounding-electrode options indicated in Subsection 6.4.1.1.1 are also recognized by the
ABNT NBR 5419 standard, they can and should be used jointly by the building's atmospheric-discharge (lightning)
protection system [“sistema de proteção contra descargas atmosféricas”] (SPDA), under the conditions specified in
the said standard.
NOTE: Antenna masts must be incorporated into the SPDA, as specified in the ABNT NBR 5419 standard.
6.4.1.1.4 The use of metal water pipes or pipes of other utilities as grounding electrodes shall not be permitted.
However, this provision does not exclude the equipotentialization measures specified in Subsection 6.4.2.
6.4.1.1.5 The grounding infrastructure required in Subsection 6.4.1.1.1 must be accessible, at a minimum, at each
point of entry of the conductors and of the utilities, and at other points that are necessary for the equipotentialization
described in Subsection 6.4.2.
NOTES:
1. See the definition of “point of entry” (Subsection 3.4.4).
2. For electrodes embedded in the foundation concrete, an example of the procedure for rendering it accessible is described in
Subsection 6.4.1.2.3.

6.4.1.1.6 The materials of the grounding electrodes and the dimensions of these materials must be selected in
such a way as to resist corrosion and to display appropriate mechanical strength. With these requirements in mind,
Table 51 indicates the minimum commonly usable materials and dimensions.
Table 51. – Commonly usable materials in grounding electrodes. Minimum dimensions from the
viewpoint of corrosion and mechanical strength, when the electrodes are directly buried.

Minimum dimensions
Mean
Material Surface Form Cross- Thickness of
Diameter section the material thickness of
(mm) the coating
(mm2) (mm)
(μm)
Tape(2) 100 3 70
Profile or shaped section 120 3 70
Rod with a circular
Hot-galvanized(1) (3) 15 70
cross-section
or stainless(1)
Cable with a circular
95 50
Steel cross-section
Tube 25 2 55
Rod with a circular
Copper cladding (3) 15 2,000
cross-section
Electrodeposited Rod with a circular
15 254
copper coating cross-section(3

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 51. (conclusion)


Minimum dimensions
Mean
Material Surface Form Cross- Thickness of
Diameter section the material thickness of
(mm) the coating
(mm2) (mm)
(μm)
Tape 50 2
Cable with a circular
50
cross-section
Bare(1)
1.8 (each
Copper Wire rope 50
strand)
Tube 20 2
Galvanized (2)
Tape 50 2 40
(zinc-plated)
(1)
May be used [on elements] to be embedded in concrete.
(2)
Tape with rounded corners.
(3)
For depth electrodes.
6.4.1.1.7 Care should be taken to ensure that changes in soil conditions (such as drying) and the potential effects
of corrosion do not increase the grounding resistance to values that are incompatible with the protection against
electric shocks (as is the case with TT systems and IT systems comparable to the TT system in a double-fault
situation).
6.4.1.1.8 If different metals are used in the grounding infrastructure, precautions must be taken against the effects
of electrolytic corrosion.
6.4.1.1.9 In those cases in which the grounding infrastructure of the building consists of the armature [i.e., rebar
and structural steel] embedded in the foundation concrete (e.g., the steel reinforcements of the posts or piles and of
the foundation blocks, and the foundation beams), it may be assumed that the naturally existing interconnections
between these elements are sufficient to produce a grounding electrode with appropriate electrical characteristics,
such that any supplementary measures are unnecessary.
6.4.1.1.10 For masonry foundations, the grounding infrastructure may consist of a galvanized steel tape, bar, or
cable embedded in the foundation concrete, forming a ring around the entire perimeter of the building. The tape, bar,
or cable must be surrounded by a layer of concrete at least 5 cm thick, at a depth of at least 0.5 meter. The minimum
cross-sections of the tape, bar, or cable must be the ones shown in Table 51.
NOTE: If steel tape is used, it must be embedded in the concrete in vertical position.

6.4.1.2 Grounding conductors

6.4.1.2.1 Cross-section of the grounding conductors must be dimensioned in accordance with the provisions of
Subsection 6.4.3.1. The cross-sections of conductors buried underground must not be less than the ones shown in
Table 52.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


144
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 52. — Minimum cross-sections of grounding conductors buried underground.


Protected against Not protected against
mechanical damage mechanical damage
Copper: 2.5 mm2 Copper: 16 mm2
Protected against corrosion
Steel: 10 mm 2
Steel: 16 mm2
2
Copper: 50 mm (acid or alkaline soils)
Not protected against corrosion
Steel: 80 mm2

6.4.1.2.2 The connection of a grounding conductor to the grounding electrode must ensure the [preservation of
the] required electrical and mechanical characteristics.
NOTES:
1. The number of connections to the grounding electrode, via grounding conductors, should be as high as necessary for the
equipotentialization mentioned in Subsection 6.4.2. Depending on the circumstances, they may be reduced to a single connection
between the main equipotentialization bar, as mentioned in Subsection 6.4.2.1.3, and the grounding electrode, via the so-called
“main grounding conductor,” because they may also include other [connections], intended, for example, for connecting the ground
connections of the external lines, the conductive elements of internal utilities, and the conductive elements of the building directly to
the grounding electrode, as explained in Note 1 in Subsection 6.4.2.1.3.
2. For more information about the connection of the grounding conductor to the grounding electrode embedded in the foundation
concrete, see Subsection 6.4.1.2.3.
6.4.1.2.3 The connection of the grounding conductor to the grounding electrode embedded in the foundation
concrete (to the concrete armature or else to the tape, bar, or cable embedded in the concrete, as described in
subsections 6.4.1.1.9 and 6.4.1.1.10), must be made in a way that simultaneously ensures electrical continuity, the
current-carrying capacity, protection against corrosion (including electrolytic corrosion), and a suitable mechanical
attachment. This connection may be made, for example, through the use of two intermediate elements, as described
below:
a) The first element, which creates the branch of the electrode that leads to the outside of the concrete, must
consist of a galvanized (zinc-plated) steel bar at least 10 mm in diameter, or a strip of galvanized steel tape
measuring 25 mm x 4 mm and joined to the electrode by electric welding. The bar or tape must be protected
against corrosion;
b) The second element, intended to serve as a connection point for the grounding conductor, must consist of a
copper bar or conductor that is connected to the first element by means of exothermic welding (or an equivalent
process from an electrical viewpoint and with regard to corrosion).
NOTES:
1. If the electrode consists of the concrete armature, this armature must have, at the connection point, a cross-section of at least
50 mm² and a diameter that is preferably no less than 8 mm.
2. As an alternative to electric and exothermic welding, appropriate connectors may be used that are installed in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions, and in such a way as to ensure an equivalent connection, without damaging either the electrode or
the grounding conductor.
3. Connections made with tin solder do not provide appropriate mechanical strength.

6.4.2 Equipotentialization
6.4.2.1 Primary equipotentialization points
6.4.2.1.1 Each building must contain a primary equipotentialization point, consisting of the following elements:
a) The reinforced-concrete armatures and other metallic structures of the building;

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

b) The metal pipes for carrying water or combustible gases; metal drainpipes; metal air-conditioning ducts; and
metal conduits for industrial gases, compressed air, steam, etc., as well as the metallic structural elements
associated with them;
c) The metal conduits for power lines and signaling lines entering and/or exiting the building;
d) The metal shielding, casings, coverings, and layers of cables for the power lines and signaling lines entering
and/or exiting the building;
e) The protective conductors for the power and signaling lines entering and/or exiting the building;
f) The interconnection conductors coming from other grounding electrodes that may be present or planned in the
vicinity of the building;
g) The interconnection conductors coming from grounding electrodes of nearby buildings, in cases in which such an
interconnection is necessary or advisable;
h) The neutral conductor of the electrical power supply, unless one does not exist or if, for any reason, the building
needs to be supplied with power under the TT or IT system; or
i) The conductor(s) of the primary protection device(s) of the (internal) electrical installation within the building.
NOTES:
1. The property must have as many primary equipotentialization points as there are buildings on the property. Cottages or
outbuildings located within 10 meters of the main building shall be deemed to be electrically part of the main building, if the electrical
power lines and signaling lines, as well as the utility lines intended for them, originate at the Main building and if the grounding
infrastructure of the site is not limited to the main building, but also extends to the adjoining construction areas; or, if the grounding
electrode of the main building and the grounding electrode or electrodes of the outbuildings are interconnected. Otherwise, all of the
secondary structures separate from the main building must also be individually equipped with a primary equipotentialization point.
2. For metal gas pipes, when the addition of an insulating sleeve is required, the sleeve must be equipped with a spark gap, as
specified in the ABNT NBR 5419 standard. The insulating sleeve may be necessary in order to prevent corrosion problems or, in
any event, may be specified by the gas distributor (see Attachment “G”).

6.4.2.1.2 All of the elements mentioned in Subsection 6.4.2.1.1 that are associated with external lines must be
connected to the primary equipotentialization point, as close as possible to the point where the said lines enter and/or
exit the building.
NOTE: Is recommended that the entries and exits of external lines into and from the building be concentrated, whenever possible,
at a single point.

6.4.2.1.3 A bar known as the “main equipotentialization bar” (BEP) [“barramento de eqúipotencialização principal"]
must be provided at or near the point of entry of the electrical power supply. All of the elements listed in
Subsection 6.4.2.1.1 may be connected, either directly or indirectly, to this bar.
NOTES:
1. If the building's other external lines converge at this same point, as recommended in the note in Subsection 6.4.2.1.2, and if the
conductive elements of the internal utilities are accessible there, then the primary equipotentialization point may be implemented, for
example, in the manner shown in Figure G.1, in which the conductive elements of the internal utilities and the external lines are
connected directly to the BEP, via equipotentialization conductors, and the BEP is connected to the building's grounding electrode,
via the main grounding conductor. If the entries of the different external lines are not convergent, and if they are also separated
from the internal utilities, then the layout of the primary equipotentialization point may be similar, for example, to the one shown in
Figure G.3, in which certain elements are connected directly to the building's grounding electrode, via grounding conductors, while
others are connected directly to the BEP, via equipotentialization conductors, and the BEP, as in all the cases, is connected to the
building's grounding electrode, via the main grounding conductor.
2. It is acceptable for the PE bar of the main distribution panel to fulfill the function of the BEP. For this purpose, this panel should
be located as close as possible to the point where the electrical power line enters the building.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


146
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

3. See the definition of “point of entry (into a building)” (Subsection 3.4.4).

6.4.2.1.4 The BEP must provide a reliable mechanical and electrical connection. All of the conductors connected
to the BEP must be individually disconnectable, but solely through the use of a tool.
6.4.2.1.5 At the points where the equipotentialization conductors are connected to the elements mentioned in
paragraphs (a) and (b) of Subsection 6.4.2.1.1, a label or placard must be provided that contains the following
statement: “Safety connection – Do not remove.” When they are directly accessible, the BEP and the points of
connection with the electrodes mentioned in paragraphs (f) and (g) of Subsection 6.4.2.1.1 must also include the
same warning. The label or placard must not be easily removable.
6.4.2.2 Supplementary (local) equipotentialization points
The implementation of supplementary equipotentialization points (i.e., local equipotentialization points) may be
necessary for reasons associated with protection against shocks, as specified in Subsection 5.1.2.2, or for functional
reasons, including the prevention of electromagnetic disturbances, as specified in Subsection 5.4.3.5.
6.4.2.2.1 Supplementary equipotentialization for protection against electric shocks
The cases in which the implementation of local equipotentialization points is required or recommended for protection
against shocks are discussed in Subsection 5.1.3.1 and in Section 9.
NOTE: For information about equipotentialization for functional reasons, see Subsection 6.4.5.
6.4.2.3 Requirements for the conductors of primary and supplementary equipotentialization points
The grounding conductors and the equipotentialization conductors must comply with the requirements of subsections
6.4.1.2 and 6.4.4, respectively. The conductors that interconnect the grounding electrodes shall be treated as
equipotentialization conductors.
6.4.3 Protective conductor (PE)
NOTES:

1 For information about grounding conductors, see Subsection 6.4.1.2.


2 For information about equipotentialization conductors, see Subsection 6.4.4.

6.4.3.1 Minimum cross-sections


6.4.3.1.1 The cross-section of any protective conductor must satisfy the conditions set forth in Subsection 5.1.2.2,
and must be able to withstand the presumed fault current.
The cross-section of the protective conductors must be calculated in the manner shown in Subsection 6.4.3.1.2, or
else must be selected in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 6.4.3.1.3. In both instances, the requirements
of Subsection 6.4.3.1.4 must be taken into consideration.
NOTE: The terminals intended for the protective conductors must be compatible with the cross-sections that are dimensioned in
accordance with the criteria set forth herein.
6.4.3.1.2 The cross-section of the protective conductors must not be less than the value determined in
accordance with the following expression, which is applicable only for cut-off times that do not exceed 5 seconds:

where:
S is the cross-section of the conductor, in square millimeters

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

I is the effective value (in amperes) of the presumed fault current, with the fault being treated as a direct one;
t is the actuation time (in seconds) of the protective device that is responsible for the automatic cut-off; and
k is a factor that depends on the material of which the protective conductor is made, on its insulation and other
parts, and on the initial and final temperatures of the conductor. Tables 53 through 57 indicate the values of k
for different types of protective conductors.
If the application of the expression results in non-standard cross-sections, then conductors with the immediately next
larger standard cross-section should be used.
NOTES:
1. The calculation of the cross-section must take into consideration the current-limiting effect of the impedances of the circuit
and the limiting capacity of the protective device.
2. For information about temperature limitations in explosive atmospheres, see the IEC 60079-0 standard.
3. The temperature limits for the various types of insulation are shown in Table 35 (see also the IEC 60724 standard).

Table 53. — The k factor for an insulated protective conductor that is not part of a multicore cable
and that is not bundled with other cables.
Insulation
Conductor material
PVC(*) EPR or XLPE
Copper 143 / 133 176
Aluminum 95 / 88 116
Steel 52 / 49 64
2
(*) The lower value applies to conductors whose cross-section is larger than 300 mm .

NOTES:

1. The initial temperature taken into consideration is 30°C.

2. The final temperature taken into consideration is

– PVC up to 300 mm2: 160°C


2
– PVC larger than 300 mm : 140°C

– EPR and XLPE: 250°C

Table 54. — The k factor for a bare protective conductor that is in contact with the cable covering,
but that is not bundled with other cables.
Cable covering
Conductor material
PVC Polyethylene
Copper 159 138
Aluminum 105 91
Steel 58 50
NOTES:

1. The initial temperature taken into consideration is 30°C.

2. The final temperature taken into consideration is 200°C for PVC and 150°C for polyethylene.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


148
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 55. — The k factor for a protective conductor that consists of a core of a multicore cable
or that is bundled with other cables or insulated conductors.
Insulation
Conductor material
PVC(*) EPR or XLPE
Copper 115 / 103 143
Aluminum 76 / 68 94
Steel 42 / 37 52
2
(*) The lower value applies to conductors whose cross-section is larger than 300 mm .

NOTES:

1. The initial temperature taken into consideration is 70°C for PVC and 90°C for EPR and for XLPE.

2. The final temperature taken into consideration is:


– PVC up to 300 mm2: 160°C
2
– PVC larger than 300 mm : 140°C
– EPR and XLPE: 250°C

Table 56. — The k factor for a protective conductor that consists of the shielding,
metal layer, or concentric conductor of a cable.
Insulation
Conductor material
PVC EPR or XLPE
Copper 141 128
Aluminum 93 85
Lead 26 23
Steel 51 46
NOTES:

1. The initial temperature taken into consideration is 60°C for PVC and 80°C for EPR and for XLPE.

2. The final temperature taken into consideration is 200°C for PVC, EPR, and XLPE.

Table 57. — The k factor for a bare protective conductor in which there is no risk
that the indicated temperatures might damage any adjacent material.
Conductor material
Copper Aluminum Steel
Initial Maximum Maximum Maximum
Factor Factor Factor
Conditions temperature temperature temperature temperature
k k k
(in °C) (in °C) (in °C) (in °C)
Visible and in
30 228 500 125 300 82 500
restricted areas
Normal conditions 30 159 200 105 200 58 200
Fire risk 30 138 150 91 150 50 150

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.4.3.1.3 As an alternative to the calculation method shown in Subsection 6.4.3.1.2, the cross-section of the
protective conductor may be determined through reference to Table 58. If use of the table results in non-standard
cross-sections, then conductors with the nearest standard cross-section should be chosen. Table 58 is valid only if
the protective conductor consists of the same metal as the phase conductors. If this is not the case, refer to the
IEC 60364-5-54 standard.

Table 58. — Minimum cross-section of the protective conductor.


Minimum cross-section of the
Cross-section (S) of the phase
2 corresponding protective conductor
conductors (in mm )
(in mm2)
S < 16 S
16< S ≤ 35 16
S > 35 S/2

6.4.3.1.4 The cross-section of any protective conductor that is not part of the same cable, or that is not located in
the same closed conduit as the phase conductors, must not be less than:
a) 2.5 mm2 in copper / 16 mm2 in aluminum, if protection is provided against mechanical damage;
2 2
b) 4 mm in copper / 16 mm in aluminum, if protection is not provided against mechanical damage.
6.4.3.1.5 A protective conductor may be common to two or more circuits, provided that it is installed in the same
conduit as the respective phase conductors, and provided that its cross-section is dimensioned in accordance with
the following options:
a) Either it is calculated in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 6.4.3.1.2, for the most severe presumed
fault currents and the longest time for actuation of the automatic cut-off device, as confirmed for these circuits; or
b) It is selected in accordance1` with Table 58, on the basis of the largest cross-section of the phase conductor for
these circuits.
6.4.3.2 Types of protective conductors
6.4.3.2.1 The following items may be used as protective conductors:
a) The cores of multicore cables;
b) Insulated conductors, single-core cables, or bare conductors in a conduit shared with live conductors;
c) Cable casings, metallic covers, or shielding;
d) Metallic electrical conduits and other metallic conduits, provided that they comply with conditions (a) and (b) in
Subsection 6.4.3.2.2.

6.4.3.2.2 If the installation contains prefabricated lines (shielded bars) with metallic wrappings, these wrappings
may be used as protective conductors, provided that they simultaneously satisfy the following three requirements:
a) Their electrical continuity must be ensured by structural devices or appropriate connections that provide
protection against mechanical, chemical, or electrochemical damage;
b) Their conductance is equal to at least the results of the application of the provisions of Subsection 6.4.3.1; and
c) They allow other protective conductors to be connected at all of the predetermined junction points.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


150
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.4.3.2.3 The following metallic elements shall not be authorized for use as protective conductors:
a) Water pipes;
b) Conduits that carry combustible or inflammable gases or liquids;
c) Structural elements that are subject to mechanical forces during normal service;
d) Flexible electrical conduits, unless they are designed for this purpose;
e) Flexible metallic parts;
f) The armature of the concrete (see the note below); or
g) metallic structures and elements of the building (see the note below).
NOTE: No bonding for the purpose of equipotentialization or grounding, including the connections to the armatures of the
[reinforced] concrete, shall be used as an alternative to the protective conductors of the circuits. As specified in
Subsection 5.1.2.2.3.6, all of the circuits must have a protective conductor over their entire length (see also Subsection 6.4.3.1.5).

6.4.3.3 Electrical continuity of the protective conductors


6.4.3.3.1 The protective conductors must be properly protected against mechanical damage and against chemical
or electrochemical deterioration, as well as against electrodynamic and thermodynamic forces.
6.4.3.3.2 The connections must be accessible for inspections and testing, except for the ones that are contained
in molded or encapsulated splices.
6.4.3.3.3 The insertion of switching or control devices into the protective conductors is prohibited. For testing
purposes, the only types of junctions that shall be authorized are those that can be disconnected with the use of a
tool.
6.4.3.3.4 If grounding-continuity monitoring is employed, then the associated coils or sensors must not be
inserted into the protective conductor.
6.4.3.3.5 The use of the ground connection of a piece of equipment as a protective conductor, or as part of a
protective conductor for another piece of equipment, shall not be permitted, except under the circumstances
described in Subsection 6.4.3.2.2.
6.4.3.4 PEN conductors
6.4.3.4.1 The use of a PEN conductor shall be permitted only in stationary installations, on the condition that its
2 2
cross-section is not less than 10 mm (in copper) or 16 mm (in aluminum), and on the condition that the
requirements of Subsection 5.4.3.6 are met.
NOTE: The minimum cross-section is dictated by mechanical reasons.
6.4.3.4.2 The insulation of a PEN conductor must be compatible with the highest voltage to which this conductor
may be exposed.
6.4.3.4.3 If, at any point in the installation, the functions of neutral and of the protective conductor are separated,
with the conversion of the PEN conductor into two separate conductors (one intended to serve as neutral and the
other intended to serve as the protective conductor), then, starting at the separation point, the neutral conductor shall
not be permitted to be connected to any grounded point of the installation. For this reason, the neutral conductor
must not be re-connected to the PE conductor resulting from the separation of the original PEN conductor.
NOTE: The PEN conductor of the power line that comes to a building must be included in the primary equipotentialization, in
accordance with the requirements of Subsection 6.4.2.1.1, and therefore must be connected, either directly or indirectly, to the BEP.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.4.3.4.4 The separation point mentioned in Subsection 6.4.3.4.3 must be equipped with separate terminals or
bars for the protective conductor and the neutral conductor, and the PEN conductor must be connected to the
terminal or bar intended for the protective conductor. One or more protective conductors, as well as one or more
neutral conductors, may be derived from a PEN conductor.
6.4.3.4.5 The use of conductive elements as PEN conductors shall not be permitted.
6.4.3.5 Layout of the protective conductors
If overcurrent devices are used to provide protection against electric shocks through equipotentialization and
automatic cut-offs, then the PE conductor of any circuits that is protected in this way must be Incorporated into the
same electrical line that contains the live conductors, or must be located in the immediate vicinity of that line, without
the interposition of any ferromagnetic elements.
6.4.4 Equipotentialization conductors
6.4.4.1 Minimum cross-sections
6.4.4.1.1 Primary equipotentialization conductors
The cross-section of the primary equipotentialization conductors specified in Subsection 6.4.2.1 must not be less than
one-half the cross-section of the protective conductor with the largest cross-section in the installation, with a minimum
of 6 mm² in copper, 16 mm² aluminum, or 50 mm² in steel. However, the cross-section may be limited to 25 mm², if
the conductor is made of copper, or limited to the equipment cross-section, if it is made of another metal.
6.4.4.1.2 Supplemental equipotentialization conductors
In the supplemental equipotentialization points, the minimum cross-section of the conductor used for this purpose
must satisfy the following conditions:
a) The conductance of the conductor intended for the equipotentialization of two ground connections in the
electrical installation must be equal to or greater than the conductance of the PE conductor with the smallest
cross-section connected to those ground connections;
b) The conductance of the conductor intended for the equipotentialization of one ground connection in the electrical
installation and one conductive element that does not belong to the electrical installation must be equal to or
greater than one-half of the conductance of the protective conductor connected to the said ground connection;
and
c) In either case (a) or case (b) above, the conductor must meet the requirements of Subsection 6.4.3.1.4.
6.4.4.2 Types of equipotentialization conductors
The following metallic elements shall not be authorized for use as equipotentialization conductors:
a) Water pipes;
b) Conduits that carry combustible or inflammable gases or liquids;
c) Structural elements that are subject to mechanical forces during normal service;
d) Flexible electrical conduits, unless they are designed for this purpose; or
e) Flexible metallic parts.
6.4.5 Functional equipotentialization
NOTE: The term "functional" is used here in the sense of characterizing the grounding and the equipotentialization intended to
ensure the proper operation of the signaling circuits and [their] electromagnetic compatibility.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


152
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.4.5.1 The main equipotentialization bar (BEP) of the building may be used for functional grounding purposes,
and therefore it may be extended by means of a low-impedance conductor. For buildings that make extensive use of
information-technology equipment [“equipamentos de tecnologia da informação”] (ETI), this functional
equipotentialization bar should preferably consist of a closed ring located inside the building’s perimeter.
NOTE: More specifically, this requirement relates to the possibility of the direct use of the BEP for functional grounding purposes.
Therefore, in absolute terms, it does not mean that separate and/or independent functional grounding will be permitted. Any
element that may serve as a common pathway for functional grounding or equipotentialization must be interconnected, either
directly or indirectly, to the BEP.

6.4.5.2 The following elements may be connected to the functional equipotentialization bar:
a) Any of the elements that must be connected to the building's BEP (see Subsection 6.4.2.1);
b) The grounding conductors of the overvoltage protection devices;
c) The grounding conductors of radiocommunications antennas;
d) The grounding conductor of the grounded pole of DC power sources for the ETI;
e) Functional grounding conductors; and
f) Supplemental equipotentialization conductors.
NOTE: It is advisable to include the armatures of the building's concrete in the functional equipotentialization, through electric
welding or appropriate pressure connectors.

6.4.5.3 The functional equipotentialization bar, which is preferably made of copper, may be bare or insulated,
and must be accessible throughout its entire length (for example, on surfaces or in electrical ducts, raceways, or
channels). Bare conductors must be insulated at their support points and wall crossings, so as to avoid corrosion.
6.4.5.4 The cross-section of the functional equipotentialization bar must be dimensioned in the same way as a
primary equipotentialization bar, as described in Subsection 6.4.4.1.1.
6.4.5.5 The functional equipotentialization conductors must comply with the provisions of Subsection 6.4.4.1.2.
6.4.6 Grounding for functional reasons
6.4.6.1 The PELV circuits and the ground connections of Class II and Class III equipment that is grounded for
functional reasons must be bonded (interlinked) to the BEP of the installation.
6.4.6.2 If functional grounding conductors carry DC current, precautions must be taken to prevent electrolytic
corrosion of the conductors and of nearby metal parts (see also Subsection 6.4.7.3).
6.4.6.3 The dimensioning of the cross-section of the functional grounding conductors must take into
consideration possible fault currents. If the functional grounding conductor is also used as a return conductor, the
normal operating current and the voltage drop must also be taken into consideration. If the pertinent information is
not available, the equipment manufacturer should be consulted.
6.4.7 Combined grounding (functional and protective)
6.4.7.1 Conductors intended to serve simultaneously as protective conductors and as functional grounding
conductors must satisfy, at a minimum, requirements for the protective conductor over its entire length (see
Subsection 6.4.3), as well as the requirements of Subsection 6.4.6.3.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.4.7.2 The return conductor of the DC power supply of a piece of ETI may be used as a protective conductor
and as a functional grounding conductor provided that, in the event of the opening of the circuit in question, the
voltage between two simultaneously accessible conductive parts does not exceed the value of the limit contact
voltage (see Attachment “C”).
6.4.7.3 If the DC power-supply currents and the signaling currents produce, in the protective and functional-
grounding conductor, a voltage drop that may cause a permanent difference in potential within the installation, then
the cross-section of the conductor must be such that the voltage drop is limited to 1 V.
NOTES:
1. The primary goal of this requirement is to limit corrosion.
2. The calculation of the voltage drop should ignore the effect of parallel paths or runs.

6.4.7.4 The types of conductors that may be used as protective conductors and as functional grounding
conductors are the ones mentioned in Subsection 6.4.3.2.
6.4.7.5 Structural conductive parts of ETI may be used as protective conductors and as functional grounding
conductors, provided that the following conditions are simultaneously met:
a) The electrical continuity of the path or run is insured by the type of construction or through the use of connection
techniques that prevent the degradation caused by mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical effects. These
techniques include, for example, welding, compression, riveting, and fastening by means of self-locking screws
or bolts;
b) The conductivity must meet the requirements of Subsection 6.4.3.1;
c) If part of the equipment can be removed, the equipotentialization between the remaining parts of the equipment
must not be interrupted, unless the supply of electrical power to these parts was previously cut off;
d) For a panel or set of panels 10 meters in length or longer, then the conductive and functional-grounding
conductors must be connected, at both ends, to the equipotentialization mesh or bar.
6.5 Other components
6.5.1 Electric motors
6.5.1.1 General considerations

The requirements of this Subsection specifically address circuits that provide power to motors in industrial
applications and their customary counterparts. Industrial applications and their customary counterparts shall be
deemed to consist of applications that involve induction motors with a cage rotor, whose nominal unit power does not
exceed 150 kW and that are operated under the S1 regime, with the exclusion of applications involving motors whose
power does not exceed 1.5 kW and that drive household appliances and professional electronic devices. It shall be
assumed that the characteristics of the motors, as well as those of the S1 regime, are the ones defined in the ABNT
NBR 7094 standard.

6.5.1.2 Limitation of disturbances due to motor starts


6.5.1.2.1 To avoid disturbances that compromise the distribution network, the installation, and/or the operation of
the various loads to which the installation supplies power, the following restrictions and limits must be observed:
a) The restrictions imposed on motor starts by the electrical-energy distribution company;
NOTE: For the direct start of motors whose power is more than 3.7 kW (5 CV), in installations powered directly by the low-voltage
public-distribution network, the local distribution company should be consulted.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


154
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

b) The voltage-drop limits at the other points of use during the motor start, as established in Subsection 6.2.7.1.
To satisfy the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b), the use of devices that limit the starting current of the motor
may be necessary.
6.5.1.2.2 in installations that contain a variety of motors, consideration should be given to the possibility of
simultaneous starts of two or more motors.
6.5.1.3 Dimensioning of the motor circuits
6.5.1.3.1 Current-carrying capacity
The dimensioning of the conductors of the terminal circuits that supplies power exclusively to a motor must take into
consideration a design current lB that is at least equal to the nominal current of the motor under utilization conditions.
NOTES:
1. If the motor has a service factor, as stated by the manufacturer, and if use of the motor is intended with the exploitation of this
factor, then the design current must be assumed to be at least equal to the nominal current of the motor, under utilization
conditions, multiplied by the service factor. The service factor must always be more than 1.
2. For motors with more than one nominal potential and/or velocity, the nominal current of the motor to be considered is the one
that corresponds to the highest potential and/or velocity.

6.5.1.3.2 Voltage drop in the steady-state regime


The dimensioning of the conductors that supply power to motors must be such that, in the steady-state regime, the
voltage drops at the motor terminals and other points of use of the installation do not exceed the limits established in
Subsection 6.2.7.1.
6.5.1.3.3 Voltage drop during motor start
The dimensioning of the conductors that supply power to motors must be such that, during motor start, the voltage
drop at the terminals of the starting device does not exceed 10% of the respective nominal voltage, in compliance
with the limits specified in Subsection 6.2.7.1 for the other points of use of the installation.
NOTES:
1. In certain applications, the voltage drop at the terminals of the motor starting device may be greater than 10% of the respective
nominal voltage, so as not to prolong the motor acceleration time.
2. For the calculation of the voltage drop, the power factor of the motor, with the rotor locked, may be considered to be equal to
0.3.
3. For information about protection against voltage drops or faults, see Subsection 5.5.

6.5.1.4 Protection against overload currents


Protection against overload currents in the circuits that supply power to motors may be provided by one of the
following methods:
a) Protective devices that form an integral part of the motor and that are sensitive to the temperature of the
windings;
b) Protective devices that are located outside the motor and that are sensitive to the current of the corresponding
circuit.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.5.1.5 Protection against short-circuit currents


If the conductors of the circuits that supply power to motors are protected against overload currents by devices (such
as thermal relays) that are limited to this form of protection, then the protection against short-circuit currents, as
described in Subsection 5.3.5, may be insured by a device that exclusively provides protection against short circuits,
in compliance with the provisions of Subsection 6.3.4.3.
NOTE: Devices that exclusively provide protection against short circuits may consist of breakers that are equipped
only with instantaneous overcurrent triggers, or fusible devices with gM or aM characteristics.
6.5.1.6 Motor control circuits
6.5.1.6.1 Motor control circuits must be designed in such a way as to prevent the automatic re-connection of the
motor after a shutdown due to a voltage drop or due to an absence of voltage, if such a re-connection might cause a
hazard of any kind.
6.5.1.6.2 If a motor is equipped with counter-current braking, precautions must be taken to avoid the reversal of
the direction of rotation of the motor upon the conclusion of the braking, if such a reversal might cause a hazard of
any kind.
6.5.1.6.3 In cases in which safety depends on the direction of rotation of the motor, measures must be adopted to
prevent the reversal of the direction of rotation, as caused, for example, by a phase inversion.
NOTES:
1. Consideration must also be given to the risks that may arise from a phase failure.
2. For information about emergency cut-offs and emergency shutdowns, see subsections 5.6.5 and 6.3.7.4.

6.5.2 Storage batteries


6.5.2.1 Portable or movable batteries
Portable or movable batteries must be charged in areas in which electrolyte spills and contact with the associated
fumes are not harmful. Sufficient ventilation must be ensured, along with the absence of any nearby open flames.
6.5.2.2 Stationary batteries
6.5.2.2.1 Stationary batteries must be installed in electrical service areas or in closed cubicles, access to which is
authorized only for operations and maintenance personnel.
6.5.2.2.2 If the nominal voltage of the storage batteries is greater than 150 V, a non-slip or non-skid service floor
must be provided that is isolated from the ground and designed in such a way that it is not possible to touch
simultaneously the ground (or a conductive element linked to the ground) and one of the elements of the battery.
6.5.2.2.3 The insulators used in immediate proximity to the batteries must be non-hydrophilic, either by nature or
by treatment.
6.5.3 Power outlets, sockets, and extensions
6.5.3.1 All of the stationary power outlets and sockets of the installations must be of the type with a grounding
contact (PE). Outlets and sockets intended for residential use and analogous uses must comply with the provisions
of the ABNT NBR 6147 and ABNT NBR 14136 standards. Outlets and sockets intended for industrial use must
comply with the provisions of the IEC 60309-1 standard.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


156
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.5.3.2 Care must be taken to prevent improper connections between plugs and outlets or sockets that are not
compatible. In particular, for outlet or socket currents with different voltages, the stationary outlets or sockets of the
circuits with the highest voltage must, at a minimum, be clearly marked with the voltage supplied to them. This
marking may take the form of a placard or an adhesive sign, secured to the plate of the outlet or socket. This
marking must not be easily removable. SELV systems must comply with the requirements of Subsection 5.1.2.5.4.4.
6.5.4 Protection, switching, and control equipment
NOTE: Distribution panels shall be treated as protection, switching, and control equipment.
6.5.4.1 Equipment assembled at the factory must comply with the provisions of the ABNT NBR IEC 60439-1
standard.
NOTE: This category includes equipment supplied in the form of kits the comply with, or that are derived from, prototypes that
comply with the provisions of the ABNT NBR IEC 60439-1 standard and that have successfully undergone the pertinent type-
testing.

6.5.4.2 Equipment other than the equipment specified in Subsection 6.5.4.1 must produce levels of performance
and safety that are equivalent to the ones defined in the ABNT NBR IEC 60439-1 standard. The following minimum
distances must be maintained:
a) Between bare live parts with different polarities: 10 mm; and
b) Between bare live parts and other conductive parts (e.g., ground connections and enclosures): 20 mm.
NOTE: The distance specified in paragraph (b) must be increased by 100 mm if the enclosures contain openings whose smallest
dimension is between 12 mm and 50 mm.

6.5.4.3 The equipment must be specified, assembled, and installed in compliance with the safety requirements
of the standard, including, in particular, the ones stated in subsections 5.1, 5.3, and 6.4.
6.5.4.4 The level of protection provided by the equipment must be compatible with the expected external
influences.
6.5.4.5 The protective, switching, and control devices must be installed and connected in accordance with the
instructions supplied by the manufacturer, in compliance with the requirements stated in subsections 6.1.4, 6.1.5,
6.1.6, and 6.3.
6.5.4.6 The power-supply conductors of components and instruments located on doors or covers must be
positioned in such a way that the movements of the doors or covers cannot cause damage to those conductors.
6.5.4.7 The distribution panels must include reserve space for future expansions, based on the number of
circuits with which the panel is actually equipped, as indicated in Table 59.

Table 59. — Distribution panels and reserve space.

Number of circuits Minimum space allocated


actually available to the reserve (in terms of
(N) the number of circuits)
Up to 6 2
7 to 12 3
13 to 30 4
N > 30 0.15 N

NOTE: The reserve capacity must be taken into consideration in the


calculations for the power supply for the corresponding distribution panel.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.5.4.8 The sets of equipment, including, in particular, the distribution panels, must be installed in an area that is
easily accessible, and must be provided with external identification that is legible and that cannot easily be removed.
6.5.4.9 All of the components of a set of equipment must be identified, in such a way that the correspondence
between the component and the corresponding circuit can be readily understood. This identification must be legible,
indelible, and positioned in such a way as to avoid any risk of confusion. It must also correspond to the notation
adopted for the project (e.g., in the diagrams and other documents).
6.5.4.10 Distribution panels intended for residential and similar installations must be delivered with the following
warning:

WARNING
1. When a breaker or fuse is actuated, disconnecting any circuit or the entire installation, the cause
may be an overload or a short circuit. Frequent disconnections are a sign of an overload.
Therefore, NEVER replace your breakers or fuses by others that can simply carry more current
(i.e., with a higher amperage). As a general rule, the replacement of a breaker or fuse by another
that can carry more current requires replacement, beforehand, of the wires and electrical cables
by others with a larger cross-section (i.e., gauge).

2. Similarly, NEVER deactivate or remove the automatic switch that provides protection against
electric shocks (i.e., the DR device), even in the event of disconnections with no apparent cause.
If the disconnections are frequent, and, in particular, if the attempts to re-connect the switch are
unsuccessful, this probably means that the electrical installation has internal anomalies that can
be identified and corrected only by qualified professionals. DEACTIVATION OR REMOVAL OF
THE SWITCH CONSTITUTES THE ELIMINATION OF THE MEANS THAT PROVIDE
PROTECTION AGAINST ELECTRIC SHOCKS, AND POSES A LIFE-THREATENING RISK FOR
THE USERS OF THE INSTALLATION.

6.5.4.11 The warning mentioned in Subsection 6.5.4.10 may come from the factory or may be provided at the
site, before the installation is delivered to the user, and must not be easily removable.
6.5.5 Utilization equipment
6.5.5.1 Connection of the equipment to the installations
The connection of the equipment to the installation may be either:
a) directly, to a stationary line (see Subsection 6.5.5.1.1); or
b) by means of a movable line (see Subsection 6.5.5.1.2).
6.5.5.1.1 Direct connection of the equipment to a stationary line
The connections between the piece of equipment and the conductors of the stationary line must not be subjected to
any tensile stress or torque. When the equipment is connected to the stationary line, the requirements of subsections
6.2.7 and 6.2.8 must be met.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


158
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.5.5.1.2 Connection of the equipment by means of a movable line


NOTE: Examples of movable lines include extension cords and assemblies that fulfill a similar function. The
connection of equipment by means of a movable line must comply with the following requirements:

a) Movable lines must have the necessary number of conductors, appropriately grouped, including the protective
conductor;
NOTE: Movable lines without a protective conductor shall be accepted only if they are intended exclusively to provide power to
Class II or Class III equipment. (For more information about the classification of the components of the installation in terms of
protection against electric shocks, see the IEC 61140 standard.)

b) The movable lines must meet the pertinent requirements of Subsection 6.2; and
c) The protective conductor of a movable line must be identified by dual green-yellow color-coding or by the color
green. If the circuit includes neutral, the corresponding conductor must be identified by the color light-blue. In
those cases in which the circuit does not include neutral, the light-blue conductor of a movable line may be used
as a phase conductor, but under no circumstances as a protective conductor.

6.5.5.2 Lighting equipment


6.5.5.2.1 Lighting equipment intended for waste or humid areas must be specially designed for such use, and
must prevent water from accumulating in the conductors, bulb sockets, or other electrical parts.
6.5.5.2.2 Lighting equipment must be firmly secured. In particular, the installation of suspended lighting fixtures
must be such that:
a) repeated rotations in the same direction cannot cause damage to the means of support; and
b) the means of support do not rely on the power-supply conductors.
6.5.5.2.3 When bulb sockets are selected, both the current and the power absorbed by the intended bulbs must
be taken into consideration.
6.5.5.2.4 The lateral contact element of the threaded bulb sockets must be connected to the neutral conductor, if
one is present.
6.5.5.2.5 The only bulb sockets that should be used in residential and similar installations are those that are
properly protected against the risk of accidental contact with live parts, and the only lighting fixtures that should be
used in such locations are those that provide equivalent protection for the bulb sockets when the construction of the
bulb sockets does not provide such protections. The same requirement applies to any other type of installation in
which the placement, removal, and/or replacement of bulbs may be done by persons who are neither aware (BA4)
nor qualified (BA5), as indicated in Table 18.

6.5.5.3 Electrical water-heating devices


The installation of electrical water-heating devices in bathrooms must comply with the requirements of
Subsection 9.1.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.5.5.4 Industrial heating equipment


6.5.5.4.1 Heating equipment in general
The following requirements shall apply:
a) Stationary heating equipment must be installed in such a way as to ensure that the heat flow provided by them is
delivered in the manner specified in the project;
b) Heating equipment that includes open or exposed incandescent elements must not be installed in areas that
pose risks of explosion (BE3, in Table 22). The use of such equipment shall be permitted only if every
precaution is taken to prevent inflammable substances, including fumes and gases, to come into contact with the
incandescent elements;
c) Heating equipment (such as ovens and dryers) that, by its nature, processes combustible materials (BE2, in
Table 22), must be equipped with a temperature limiter that interrupts or reduces the heating before a hazardous
temperature is reached. Alternatively, such equipment must be constructed in such a way as not to pose a
hazard to persons, or to cause damage to nearby objects, in the event of overheating of the combustible
materials contained within the equipment;
d) In forced-air heating installations (i.e., hot-air generators), the heating elements must be energized only after the
specified air flow has been established and the heating elements must be turned off automatically if the air flow
is interrupted. The installation must also include two independent temperature limiters that prevent the
temperature in the air ducts from exceeding the acceptable limits.
6.5.5.4.2 Equipment used to heat liquids
The following requirements shall apply:
a) Equipment that is used to heat combustible liquids must be equipped with a temperature limiter that interrupts or
reduces the heating before a hazardous temperature is reached. Alternatively, such equipment must be
constructed in such a way as not to pose a hazard to persons, or to cause damage to nearby objects, in the
event of overheating;
b) Equipment that contains non-insulated electrodes or resistors immersed in a conductive liquid shall not be
permitted under the TT or IT system.
6.6 Safety services
6.6.1 This subsection discusses safety services, covering the requirements relating to safety sources and to the
circuits and components of the safety services. It does not include any specific requirements for reserve supplies that
are intended for services other than safety services. Unless otherwise specified, the other pertinent requirements of
this standard shall remain valid and applicable.
NOTE: As applicable, the safety installations must also comply with the provisions of legislation regarding buildings, the fire-
fighting and panic safety codes, and other safety codes governing the building and/or the activities carried out within it.

6.6.2 The power supply may be classified in accordance with the provisions of subsections 6.6.2.1 and 6.6.2.2.
6.6.2.1 The power supply for safety services may be either:
a) Non-automatic, if its placement in service depends on an action by an operator; or
b) Automatic, if its placement in service does not depend on an action by an operator.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


160
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.6.2.2 An automatic power supply is classified in the following way, depending on the switching time:
a) Uninterrupted: And automatic power supply that can ensure a continuous supply of energy, with the supply
being governed by specified conditions during the switching period (for example, in accordance with a given
voltage and/or frequency change);

b) With a very brief interruption: Automatic supply available within no more than 0.15 second;

c) With a brief interruption: Automatic supply available within no more than 0.5 second;

d) With a moderate interruption: Automatic supply available within no more than 15 seconds;

e) With a long interruption: Automatic supply available within more than 15 seconds.

6.6.3 The following requirements must be met by safety services that are intended to operate under fire conditions:
a) A safety source must be selected that can maintain the supply for the appropriate period of time (see
Subsection 6.6.6); and
b) All of the components must be appropriately resistant to flame, either because of their construction or by means
of equivalent arrangements at the time of their installation.
6.6.4 Regarding protection against electric shocks, the portion of the installation represented by the safety services
(sources, lines, and equipment to which power is supplied) should preferably be the subject of a measure that does
not entail the automatic cut-off of the power supply in the event of a failure. If the safety services were designed
electrically in accordance with a TT system, then the set or assembly must be provided with an isolation monitoring
device (IMD), as required in Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.4(d).
6.6.5 The components must be arranged in such a way as to facilitate periodic inspection, testing, and
maintenance.
6.6.6 Safety sources
6.6.6.1 The following pieces of equipment may be used as safety sources:
a) Storage batteries;
b) Generators that are independent of the customary source; or
c) Power obtained from the public distribution network, effectively independent of the customary source.
NOTE: The independent power mentioned in paragraph (c) may be an input that is effectively separated, or a branch of a single
given input. Inasmuch as the normal power usually comes from the public distribution network, the required independence
assumes that the simultaneous failure or unavailability of both sources (i.e., the normal source and the safety source) would be a
highly unlikely occurrence.

6.6.6.2 The safety sources must be installed in the same way as pieces of stationary equipment, and in such a
way that they cannot be affected by a failure of the normal source.
6.6.6.3 The safety sources must only be accessible to aware or qualified persons (BA4 or BA5), as indicated in
Table 18.
6.6.6.4 During installation of the safety sources, appropriate exhaust and ventilation means must be ensured, so
as to prevent any gases or smoke emitted by the sources from entering areas occupied by persons.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.6.6.5 A safety source shall be used by services other than the safety services only if such use does not
compromise the availability of the safety source to the safety services. In addition to the requirements set forth in
Subsection 6.6.8.2, any fault or disturbance that may occur in a circuit that is not intended to supply power to safety
services must not cause the opening of any circuit that does supply power to safety services.
NOTE: In emergency situations, and when required by the safety service involved, the automatic disconnection of loads not
associated with the safety services may be necessary.

6.6.6.6 The requirements set forth in subsections 6.6.6.2 through 6.6.6.5 shall not apply to equipment that is
supplied with power individually by independent batteries.
NOTE: The term "independent battery" shall be understood as referring to the set consisting of a maintenance-free battery, a
charger, and a test device.

6.6.6.7 Specific requirements for safety services in which the sources cannot operate in parallel:
6.6.6.7.1 Every precaution must be taken to avoid parallelism of the sources (for example, through the use of
mechanical interlocks).
6.6.6.7.2 Protection against short circuits and protection against electric shocks must be guaranteed regardless of
the source that is in operation.
6.6.6.8 Specific requirements for safety services in which the sources can operate in parallel:
NOTE: The parallel operation of independent sources generally requires cooperation by the electrical-energy distribution
company, which may require special devices, for example, in order to avoid power inversion.
6.6.6.8.1 Protection against short circuits and protection against electric shocks must be guaranteed in all possible
situations, e.g., operation of only one of the sources, regardless of which one, or operation of the sources in parallel.
NOTE: Precautions may be necessary in order to limit the circulation of current between the neutral points of the sources. These
precautions take into consideration, in particular, the third[-order] harmonic effects.

6.6.7 Safety circuits


6.6.7.1 The circuits of the safety services must be independent from other circuits.
NOTES:
1. This means that no fault, intervention, or modification of the circuit that does not belong to the safety services should affect the
operation of the circuit or circuits that do belong to the safety services. Therefore, it may be necessary to separate the circuits of the
safety services from the other circuits, by means of materials that are resistant to flame and/or by means of different conduits and/or
paths or runs.
2. For equipment that is supplied with power individually by independent batteries, the power supply employed to charge the
independent battery does not need to be separate from the power supply for other circuits. The term "independent battery" shall be
understood as referring to the set consisting of a maintenance-free battery, a charger, and a test device.

6.6.7.2 The electrical lines containing circuits of safety services must not pass through areas that entail a risk of
fire (BE2, in Table 22), unless the said electrical lines are resistant to fire. Under no circumstances should the lines
pass through areas that entail a risk of explosion (BE3, in Table 22).
NOTE: Whenever possible, lines containing safety circuits should be prevented from passing through areas in which there is any
risk of fire, even if the said lines are resistant to fire.

6.6.7.3 Overload protection may be omitted, if the loss of the power supply represents a major hazard. If this
protection is omitted, the occurrence of overloads must be monitored.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


162
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

6.6.7.4 The overcurrent protection devices must be selected and installed in such a way as to prevent an
overcurrent in a circuit from interfering with the proper operation of the other circuits of the safety services.
6.6.7.5 The protection, switching, and control devices, including the safety-lighting controls, must be clearly
identified and accessible only to aware or qualified persons (BA4 or BA5), as defined in Table 18.
6.6.8 Utilization equipment
6.6.8.1 The type of bulb used in the lighting systems must be compatible with the switching time of the source,
so that the specified lighting can be maintained.
NOTE: For more information about safety-lighting fixtures, see the IEC 60598-2-22 standard.
6.6.8.2 For equipment that is supplied with power by two different circuits, a fault in one of the circuits must not
interfere with the protection against electric shocks, or with the proper operation of the other circuit. The equipment
must be connected to the protective conductors of both of the circuits, unless the protection against electric shocks
with which the equipment is provided does not involve the use of a protective conductor.

7. Final inspection
7.1 General requirements
7.1.1 Any and all new installations, or expansions or reworking of the existing installation, must be inspected and
tested during execution and/or upon completion, before being placed in service by the user, so as to confirm
compliance with the requirements of this standard.
7.1.2 The installation documentation required in Subsection 6.1.8 must be supplied to the individuals responsible
for the inspection activities. As specified in Subsection 6.1.8.2, this documentation must reflect the installation “as
built.”
7.1.3 During the inspection and testing, precautions must be taken that will ensure the safety of the individuals and
avoid damage to property and to the installed equipment.
7.1.4 In the event of an expansion or reworking, it must also be confirmed that these activities do not compromise
the safety of the existing installation.
7.1.5 The inspections must be performed by qualified professionals, with experience and competence in this area.
The inspections and their outcomes must be documented in a report.
7.2 Visual inspection
7.2.1 The visual inspection should precede the tests, and should normally be performed with the installation
powered down.
7.2.2 The visual inspection is intended to determine whether the components that constitute the permanent
stationary installation:

a) Comply with the applicable standards;

NOTE: This can be confirmed through a compliance note, a certification, or information stated by the supplier.

b) Were properly selected and installed in accordance with the standards; and
c) Do not display obvious damage that might compromise their proper operation and/or safety.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

7.2.3 The visual inspection must include at least a check of the following points:
a) The means of protection against electric shocks, as described in Subsection 5.1;
b) The means of protection against thermal effects, as described in Subsection 5.2;
c) The selection and installation of the electrical lines, as described in Subsection 6.2;
d) The selection, adjustment, and positioning of the protective devices, as described in Subsection 6.3;
e) The presence of the cut-off and control devices, as well as their adjustment and location, as described in
subsections 5.6 and 6.3;
f) The adaptation of the components and of the protective measures to the existing conditions of external influence,
as described in subsections 5.2.2, 6.1.3.2, and 6.2.4, as well as in Section 9 and Attachment “C”;
g) The identification of the components, as described in Subsection 6.1.5;
h) The presence of the required instructions, signage, and warnings;
i) The execution of the connections, as described in Subsection 6.2.8; and
j) Accessibility, as described in subsections 4.1.10 and 6.1.4.

7.3 Tests
7.3.1 General requirements
7.3.1.1 When relevant, the following tests should be performed, preferably in the sequence shown below:
a) Continuity of the protective conductors and of the primary and supplemental equipotentialization points
(Subsection 7.3.2);
b) Isolation resistance of the electrical installation (Subsection 7.3.3);
c) Isolation resistance of the parts of the installation that are the subject of an SELV or PELV system, or electrical
separation (Subsection 7.3.4);
d) Automatic cut-off of the power supply (Subsection 7.3.5);
e) Applied voltage test (Subsection 7.3.6); and
f) Functional tests (Subsection 7.3.7).

7.3.1.2 In the event of non-compliance, the test must be repeated after the correction of the problem, along with
all of the preceding tests that may have been influenced.
7.3.1.3 The test methods described here must be treated as reference methods. This means that other
methods may be used, provided that they produce results that are demonstrably no less reliable.
7.3.2 Continuity of the protective conductors, including the primary and supplemental equipotentialization
points
A continuity test must be performed. It is recommended that the test be performed with a voltage source whose
voltage without a load ranges from 4 V to 24 V, either DC or AC, with a test current of at least 0.2 A.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


164
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

7.3.3 Isolation resistance of the installation


7.3.3.1 The isolation resistance must be measured:
a) Between the live conductors, taken two by two; and
b) Between each live conductor and ground.

NOTES:
1. In practice, the measurement mentioned in paragraph (a) is possible only before the utilization equipment is connected.
2. Under the TN-C systems, the PEN conductor is considered to be part of ground.
3. During the measurement mentioned in paragraph (b), the phase conductors and the neutral conductor may be interconnected.

7.3.3.2 The isolation resistance, as measured with the pertinent test voltage indicated in Table 60, shall be
considered satisfactory if the mean value on the circuit under test, with the utilization equipment is connected, is
equal to or greater than the minimum value specified in this table.
Table 60. — Minimum values for isolation resistance.
Nominal circuit voltage Isolation resistance
Test voltage (VDC)
(V) (MΩ)
SELV and extra-low functional voltage, when the circuit is supplied
with power by a safety transformer (see Subsection 5.1.2.5.3.2) 250 ≥ 0.25
and complies with the requirements of Subsection 5.1.2.5.4
Up to 500 V, inclusive, with the exception of the preceding case 500 ≥ 0.5
More than 500 V 1,000 ≥ 1.0

7.3.3.3 The measurements must be taken under direct current (DC). The test equipment must be capable of
providing the test voltage specified in Table 60 with a current of 1 mA.
7.3.3.4 If the circuit includes electronic devices, the test must be limited solely to the measurement between
ground, on the one hand, and all of the other interconnected conductors, on the other hand.
NOTE: This precaution is necessary in order to prevent damage to the electronic devices.
7.3.4 Isolation resistance applicable to SELV and PELV systems, and to electrical separation
The basic isolation and the separation of protection implicit in the use of SELV or PELV systems (in compliance with
the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.5), and in the use of individual electrical separation (in compliance with the
provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.4), must be verified through measurements of the isolation resistance. The isolation
resistance values that are obtained must be equal to or greater than the minimum value specified in Table 60.
NOTE: Whenever possible, the measurement should be made with the utilization equipment connected.
7.3.5 Verification of the protection conditions provided by equipotentialization and automatic cut-offs of
the power supply
NOTE: For the purposes of the steps specified herein, it shall be assumed that the continuity of the protective conductors has
already been confirmed, as described in Subsection 7.3.2.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

7.3.5.1 TN systems
Compliance with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.2(d) should be checked through:

a) Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current (see Subsection 7.3.5.5); and
b) Verification of the characteristics of the associated protective device (visual inspection and, for DR devices,
testing).

NOTES:
1. The measurement indicated in paragraph (a) may be replaced by measurement of the resistance of the protective conductors
(see Attachment “L”). However, both the measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current and the measurement of
the resistance of the protective conductors may be omitted if the calculations of the impedance of the path of the fault current or of
the resistance of the protective conductors are available, and the layout of the installation is such as to allow the verification of the
length and cross-section of the conductors.
2. See Attachment “H” for examples of tests performed on DR devices.

7.3.5.2 TT systems
Compliance with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.3(b) should be checked through:

a) Measurement of the grounding resistance of the ground connections of the installation (see Subsection 7.3.5.4);
and
b) Visual inspection and testing of the DR devices.

NOTE: See Attachment “H” for examples of tests performed on DR devices.

7.3.5.3 IT systems
In IT systems, verification of the protection provided by equipotentialization and automatic cut-offs of the power
supply must include:
a) The primary fault current, as described in Subsection 7.3.5.3.1; and
b) Compliance with requirements relating to the double-fault situation, as described in Subsection 7.3.5.3.2.

7.3.5.3.1 The primary fault current must be checked by calculation or by measurement.

NOTES:

1. This verification shall not be necessary if all of the ground connections of the installation are connected to the grounding
electrode of the power supply (which presupposes that the power supply is grounded through impedance).
2. In particular, the measurement is necessary only if the calculation is not possible, due to unavailability of the parameters
involved. When the measurement is made, precautions must be taken to prevent the hazards arising from a double fault.
7.3.5.3.2 Verification of the protective conditions in the event of a double fault entails two possibilities:
a) If the grounding situation of the ground connections is such that the occurrence of a second fault produces a
situation analogous to that of the TN system, the verifications to be performed shall be the ones described in
paragraphs (a) and (b) of Subsection 7.3.5.1, and the result must comply with the provisions of
Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.4(e); and
b) If the grounding situation of the ground connections is such that the occurrence of a second fault produces a
situation analogous to that of the TT system, the verifications to be performed shall be the ones described in
Subsection 7.3.5.2.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


166
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTES:
1 The ground conditions of the ground connections in a TT system that, depending on circumstances, render it analogous to a
TN system or to a TT system in a double-fault situation, are described in Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.4(e).
2 Measurement of the impedance of the fault current path, the IT system requires the temporary short-circuiting of the neutral
point of the power supply with the protective conductor.

7.3.5.4 Measurement of grounding resistance


When prescribed, the measurement of the grounding resistance should be performed with alternating current,
through the use of one of the two methods described in Attachment “J”.
NOTE: When measurement of the grounding resistance is unfeasible through the use of methods such as the ones described in
Attachment “J”, due to practical difficulties in the creation of the auxiliary electrodes (as is the case, for example, with urban
centers), then the verification of this point, under TT systems, may be replaced by measurement of the impedance (or resistance) of
the path of the fault current, which, in this case, represents a more conservative alternative.

7.3.5.5 Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current


7.3.5.5.1 The measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current should be performed at the nominal
frequency of the circuit.
NOTE: Attachment “K” describes a method for measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current.
7.3.5.5.2 The measured impedance must comply with:

a) The provisions of paragraph (d) of Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.2, for TN systems; or


b) The provisions of the second paragraph of Subsection 5.1.2.2.4.4(e), for IT systems.

NOTE: If the impedance of the path of the fault current might be significantly influenced by the value of the fault current itself, then
the available data on this point, as derived from measurements made by manufacturers or laboratories, must be taken into
consideration. This provision shall apply, in particular, to prefabricated lines, metallic electrical conduits, and cables with metallic
coverings.

7.3.5.6 Verification of the effectiveness of supplemental equipotentialization points


If the results of the verification activities required in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 7.3.5.1, 7.3.5.2, or
7.3.5.3, depending on the grounding system, are unsatisfactory or doubtful, and if supplemental equipotentialization
is provided as a compensatory measure, then the effectiveness of the said equipotentialization must be checked and
confirmed, as specified in Subsection 5.1.3.1.3.
7.3.6 The applied voltage test
7.3.6.1 This test should be performed on assemblies or sets that were created or modified at the installation
site.
NOTE: Attachment “M” describes an applied-voltage test method.
7.3.6.2 The applied voltage test should be conducted in all of the cases specified in this standard, using the
test-voltage value indicated in the standards applicable to the set or assembly, as though it were a product that had
just come from the factory. In the absence of Brazilian standards and IEC standards, the test voltages should be the
ones indicated in Table 61 for the primary circuit and for the control and auxiliary circuits. Unless otherwise specified
in this standard, the test voltage should be applied for a period of 1 minute. No arcs or disruptions should occur
during the test.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Table 61. — Applied voltage test. Test-voltage values, in volts (V).


(1)
U Supplemental Reinforced
Basic insulation
(effective V) insulation insulation
50 500 500 750
133 1,000 1,000 1,750
230 1,500 1,500 2,750
400 2,000 2,000 3,750
690 2,750 2,750 4,500
1,000 3,500 3,500 5,500
(1)
Voltage between phase and neutral in the TN and TT systems; voltage between phases in the IT system.

7.3.7 Functional tests


7.3.7.1 Assemblies such as electrical panels, actuators, controls, interlocks, command devices, etc. must
undergo functional testing in order to determine whether the set has been properly assembled, adjusted, and
installed, in compliance with the provisions of this standard.
7.3.7.2 The protective devices must undergo functional testing, if necessary, in order to confirm that they have
been properly installed and adjusted.
NOTE: See Attachment “H” for examples of tests performed on DR devices.

8. Maintenance
8.1 Interval
The maintenance interval should be adapted for each type of installation. For example, it should be smaller [i.e.,
maintenance should be performed more often] as the complexity of the installation increases (in terms of the quantity
and diversity of the equipment), along with the installation’s importance in terms of the activities performed at the site
and the severity of the external influences to which the installation is exposed.
8.2 Qualification of maintenance personnel
Checks and interventions involving the electrical installations should be performed only by aware (BA4) or qualified
(BA5) persons, as indicated in Table 18.
8.3 Routine inspections and preventive maintenance
Whenever possible, the inspections should be performed with the installation powered down.
Enclosures, covers, and other means intended to ensure protection against contacts with live parts may be removed
for inspection or maintenance purposes. However, they must be fully and promptly returned at the conclusion of
these procedures.
8.3.1 Conductors
The isolation status of the conductors and of their connection, attachment, and supporting elements should be
inspected, with a view toward detecting signs of excessive heating, cracks, and dryness. It should also be confirmed
that the attachments, identification, and cleanliness are in good condition.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


168
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

8.3.2 Distribution panels and boards


8.3.2.1 Structure
The structure of the panels and board should be checked, and their overall condition should be examined and noted,
in terms of their attachments, mechanical integrity, paint, corrosion, locks, and hinges. The overall condition of the
conductors and of the grounding wires should be checked.
8.3.2.2 Components
For components with moving parts, such as contactors, relays, cut-off switches, breakers, etc., the status of the
contacts and of the arc chambers, signs of heating, and the cleanliness, attachments, adjustments, and calibrations
should be inspected, whenever such inspections are permitted by the component. If possible, the component should
be actuated several times, in order to check its operating conditions.
For components with no moving parts, such as fuses, conductors, bars, troughs or rails, channels, connectors,
terminals, and transformers, etc., their overall condition should be inspected, and they should be checked for the
presence of signs of heating and dryness, along with the status of their attachments, identification, and cleanliness.
For signaling devices the integrity of the bases, their attachments, and their internal and external cleanliness should
be checked.
NOTE: The connections should be tightened no more than 90 days after the entry into operation of the electrical installation, and
the tightening should be repeated at regular intervals.

8.3.3 Movable equipment


The flexible lines that supply power to movable equipment should be checked in the manner described in
Subsection 8.3.1. This inspection should also cover their proper joints and links.
8.3.4 Tests
The tests described in subsections 7.3.2 through 7.3.5, as well as in Subsection 7.3.7, should be performed, taking
into consideration the requirements described in subsections 7.3.1.1 and 7.3.1.2.
8.3.5 The general test
At the conclusion of the inspections and verification checks, a general functional test should be performed, simulating
at least the situations that could result in a major hazard.
It should be confirmed that the operating-voltage levels are appropriate.

8.4 Corrective maintenance


Any and all installations or parts that, as a result of the inspection and verification activities described in
Subsection 8.3, are considered unsafe, must be immediately powered down (either the installation as a whole or just
the affected part), and should not be returned to service until after the correction of the problems that were detected.
Any and all failures or abnormalities detected in the operation of the installation or in any of its components,
particularly with regard to the actuation of the protective devices for no known reason, must be communicated to an
aware (BA4) or qualified (BA5) person, so that the problem can be corrected.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9. Additional requirements for specific installations or sites


The requirements in this section supplement, modify, or replace the general requirements contained in the earlier
sections of this standard. For all issues, unless otherwise specified, the pertinent general requirements shall remain
valid and applicable.
9.1 Sites containing a bathtub or shower
9.1.1 Scope of applicability
This subsection contains additional requirements applicable to sites containing bathtubs, floor-boxes, boxes, and
other bathroom enclosures. The risk of shock is higher in such areas, due to the reduced resistance of the human
body and due to contact with the ground potential. Except as mentioned in Subsection 9.1.4.3.3, these requirements
do not apply to prefabricated bathroom cabins that are covered by specific standards.
NOTE: Special requirements may be necessary for balneotherapy rooms.

9.1.2 Determination of general characteristics


9.1.2.1 Volume classification

For the purposes of the application of the requirements of this subsection, the areas containing bathtubs or showers
shall be divided into four volumes (see figures 16 through 18):

a) Volume 0 is the interior volume of the bathtub, of the floor-box, or of the box recess (areas where water can
collect during normal use);
b) Volume 1 is limited:
— By Volume 0;
— By the vertical surface surrounding the bathtub, the floor-box, the box recess, or, in the absence of a clear
delimitation of the box, by a vertical surface located 0.6 meter around the shower area;
— By the floor; and
— By the horizontal plane located 2.25 meters above the bottom of the bathtub, above the box floor, or,
generally speaking, above the surface where persons may place themselves for a bath;
c) Volume 2 is limited:
— By Volume 1;
— By a parallel vertical surface located 0.60 meter around the external vertical surface in Volume 1;
— By the floor; and
— By the horizontal plane located 3 meters above the floor;
d) Volume 3 is limited:
— By the external vertical surface in Volume 2;
— By a parallel vertical surface located 2.40 meters around the external vertical surface in Volume 2;
— By the floor; and
— By the horizontal plane located 2.25 meters above the floor.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


170
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTES:
1. As shown in figures 16 through 18, walls and permanent partitions are taken into consideration when the dimensions of the
volumes are measured.
2. The space located below the bathtub is treated as Volume 1, if it is open, and as Volume 3, if it is closed and only accessible
through a cover that can only be removed with the use of a tool. The same rule applies to the space below the floor-box.

With a permanent partition wall

(*) See Note 2 in Subsection 9.1.2.1.

Figure 16. — Dimensions of bathtub volumes.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

With a permanent partition wall

(*) See Note 2 in Subsection 9.1.2.1.

Figure 17. — Dimensions of shower-area volumes, with a floor-box.

With a permanent partition wall

Figure 18. — Dimensions of shower-area volumes, without a floor-box or recess.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


172
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9.1.3 Protection to ensure safety


9.1.3.1 Protection against electrical shocks
9.1.3.1.1 In Volume 0, only the use of an SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5) whose nominal voltage does
not exceed 12 V shall be permitted, provided that:
a) The live parts of the SELV system, regardless of their nominal voltage, must be equipped with:
— Insulation that can withstand an applied test voltage of 500 V for 1 minute; or

— Barriers or enclosures whose level of protection is at least IP2X or IPXXB; and

b) The safety source must be installed outside of Volume 0.

9.1.3.1.2 Supplemental equipotentialization must be provided, combining all of the conductive elements of
volumes 0, 1, 2, and 3, and the protective conductors of all of the ground connections located within these volumes.
NOTES:
1. As specified in Subsection 5.1.2.5.4.6, the ground connections of the SELV systems must not be intentionally connected to
ground, to protective conductors, or to the ground connections of other circuits and/or to conductive elements.
2. See also Subsection 5.1.3.1.

9.1.4 Selection and installation of the components


9.1.4.1 Common requirements
The components of the electrical installation must possess at least the following levels of protection:
a) In Volume 0: IPX7;

b) In Volume 1: IPX4;

c) In Volume 2: IPX3 – IPX5 (in public bathrooms);

d) In Volume 3: IPX1 – IPX5 (in public bathrooms).

9.1.4.2 Electrical lines


9.1.4.2.1 In volumes 0, 1, and 2, the lines must be limited to the ones that are necessary to supply power to
equipment located within these volumes.
9.1.4.2.2 In volumes 0, 1, and 2, exposed lines or lines embedded up to a depth of 5 cm must comply with the
provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.3.4.
9.1.4.2.3 In Volume 3, the following types of lines may be used:
a) exposed or embedded lines, in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.3.4; or
b) lines consisting of insulated conductors or single-core cables located in embedded metallic electrical conduits,
provided that these electrical conduits are included in the supplemental equipotentialization prescribed in
Subsection 9.1.3.1.2, and provided that the circuits contained within them are protected by a nominal differential-
residual current that does not exceed 30 mA.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9.1.4.2.4 In volumes 0, 1, and 2, the only junction boxes that will be permitted are the ones intended for the
connections of the equipment contained within these volumes.

9.1.4.3 Protection, cut-off, and control devices (including sockets and outlets)
9.1.4.3.1 No protection, cut-off or control devices shall be installed in volumes 0, 1, or 2.
NOTE: The insulating cords of cord-actuated switches shall be permitted in volumes 1 and 2, provided that they meet the
requirements of the IEC 60669-1 specification, along with control elements (auxiliary circuits) supplied with power under the SELV
system or operating via radio-frequency energy, infrared radiation, or other means that offer an equivalent level of safety.

9.1.4.3.2 Power sockets and outlets shall be permitted in Volume 3, provided that they are:
a) Powered individually by a separation transformer, in accordance with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.4; or
b) Powered under the SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5); or
c) Protected by a DR device whose nominal differential-residual current does not exceed 30 mA.

9.1.4.3.3 Switches, power sockets, or outlets must not be installed within 0.60 meter of the open door of a
prefabricated bath cabin (see Figure 19).

Prefabricated
bath cabin

Figure 19. – Prefabricated bath cabin.

9.1.4.4 Other stationary components


These requirements do not apply to equipment powered under the SELV system according to the conditions
described in subsections 5.1.2.5 and 9.1.3.1.1.
9.1.4.4.1 In Volume 0, only equipment specifically intended for use in bathrooms shall be permitted.
9.1.4.4.2 In Volume 1, only Class I or Class II electric water-heaters shall be installed.
9.1.4.4.3 In Volume 2, only Class II lighting fixtures and Class I or Class II electric water-heaters shall be installed.
NOTE (common to the requirements of subsections 9.1.4.4.2 and 9.1.4.4.3): For more information about the classification
of installation components based on protection against electric shocks (classes I, II, and III), see the IEC 61140 standard.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


174
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9.2 Swimming pools and other pools


9.2.1 Scope of applicability
The supplemental requirements described in this Subsection shall be applicable to the water reservoirs of swimming
pools and other pools, including footbaths, and to the areas adjacent to the pools. The risk of shock is higher in such
areas, due to the reduced electrical resistance of the human body and due to contact with the ground potential.
NOTES:
1 The requirements described in this Subsection shall also be valid for fountains that persons can enter.
2 Specific requirements may be necessary for pools intended for medical use.

9.2.2 Determination of general characteristics


9.2.2.1 Volume classification

For the purposes of the application of the requirements described in this subsection, the pools and the adjacent area
shall be divided into three volumes (see figures 20 and 21).

a) Volume 0 shall be the internal volume of the reservoir (of the pool and of the footbath);
b) Volume 1 is limited:
— By Volume 0;
— By the vertical surface located 2 meters from the edges of the reservoir;
— By the floor or by the surface on which persons may place themselves; and
— By the horizontal plane located 2.5 meters above the floor or surface on which persons may place
themselves.
NOTE: If the pool includes diving platforms, trampoline-type diving boards, starting blocks, slides, or other elements upon which
persons may place themselves, then Volume 1 must include the volume limited by the vertical surface located 1.50 meters around
the platform, board, starting blocks, slide, and/or other elements on which persons may place themselves, and by the horizontal
plane located 2.5 meters above the highest surface on which persons may place themselves.

c) Volume 2 is limited:
— On the one hand, by the outer vertical surface of Volume 1, and by a parallel surface located 1.50 meters
from the latter surface; and
— On the other hand, by the floor or surface on which persons may place themselves and the horizontal plane
located 2.50 meters above the latter surface.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTE: The dimensions may be measured by taking into consideration the walls and permanent partitions.

Figure 20. — Dimensions of the volumes for pool and footbath reservoirs.

NOTE: The dimensions may be measured by taking into consideration the walls and permanent partitions.

Figure 21. — Dimensions of the volumes for above-ground reservoirs.


9.2.3 Protection to ensure safety
9.2.3.1 Protection against electrical shocks

9.2.3.1.1 In volumes 0 and 1, only the use of an SELV system whose nominal voltage does not exceed 12 VAC or
30 VDC shall be permitted, on the following conditions:
a) The live parts of the SELV system, regardless of their nominal voltage, must be equipped with:
— Insulation that can withstand an applied test voltage of 500 V for 1 minute; or

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


176
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

— Barriers or enclosures whose level of protection is at least IP2X or IPXXB; and

b) The safety source must be installed outside of volumes 0, 1, and 2.

NOTE: See also Subsection 5.1.2.5.

9.2.3.1.2 In Volume 2, only one or more of the following means of protection shall be permitted:

a) SELV (see Subsection 5.1.2.5), with the safety source installed outside of volumes 0, 1, and 2;
b) Equipotentialization and automatic cut-offs of the power supply (see Subsection 5.1.2.1), with the automatic
cut-off provided by a DR device whose nominal differential-residual current does not exceed 30 mA;
c) Individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4), with the separation source installed outside of
volumes 0, 1, and 2.

9.2.3.1.3 Protective equipment that complies with the provisions of Subsection 9.2.3.1.2 may be used in
Volume 1, for services in which this is necessary, but only during the provision of the service and provided that the
pool is not being used by any persons. Such pieces of equipment, along with the power sockets or outlets to which
they may be connected, and the external control devices that may control their operation, must be equipped with
warnings that alert the user to the fact that the equipment must only be used when there are no persons in the pool.
9.2.3.1.4 Supplemental equipotentialization (i.e., local equipotentialization) must be provided, combining all of the
conductive elements of volumes 0, 1, and 2, and the protective conductors of all of the ground connections located
within these volumes.
NOTES:
1. In this equipotentialization system, the BEL function may be fulfilled by the PE bar of the nearest terminal distribution panel, by
any specially provided accessories, or even by the terminal of any piece of equipment, if the said terminal includes the
corresponding interconnections.
2. As specified in Subsection 5.1.2.5.4.6, the ground connections of the SELV systems must not be intentionally connected to
ground, to protective conductors, or to the ground connections of other circuits and/or to conductive elements.
3. See also Subsection 5.1.3.1.

9.2.4 Selection and installation of the components


9.2.4.1 External influences
The components of the electrical installation must possess at least the following levels of protection:
a) In Volume 0: IPX8;
b) In Volume 1: IPX5 (IPX4 for small covered pools that are not normally subjected to washing with streams of
pressurized water);
c) In Volume 2: IPX2 for covered pools, IPX4 for outdoor pools, and IPX5 if the volume is subject to washing with
streams of pressurized water.
9.2.4.2 Electrical lines
NOTE: The requirements of subsections 9.2.4.2.1 through 9.2.4.2.3 shall be applicable to exposed lines and lines embedded up
to a depth of 5 cm.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9.2.4.2.1 In volumes 0 and 1, the lines must be limited to the ones that are necessary to supply power to
equipment located within these volumes.
9.2.4.2.2 In volumes 0, 1, and 2, the lines must not include any accessible metallic coatings. The non-accessible
metallic coatings must be included in the supplemental equipotentialization required by Subsection 9.2.3.1.4.
NOTE: The lines should preferably comply with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.3.4.
9.2.4.2.3 In volumes 0 and 1, junction boxes shall not be permitted, except for the ones located within Volume 1
and intended specifically for use in SELV circuits.

9.2.4.3 Protection, cut-off, and control devices (including sockets and outlets)
9.2.4.3.1 In volumes 0 and 1, no protection, cut-off, or control devices shall be permitted, including power sockets
and outlets, with the exception of the case described in Subsection 9.2.4.3.2.
9.2.4.3.2 In small pools in which the installation of power sockets or outlets outside of Volume 1 is not possible,
their installation within Volume 1 shall be permitted, provided that the sockets or outlets do not have a metallic body
and/or cover, and are positioned out of arm's reach (a distance of at least 1.25 meters), starting from the boundary of
Volume 0, and at least 0.3 meter above the floor. Furthermore, the sockets or outlets must:
a) Be supplied with power under the SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5), at a nominal voltage not exceeding
25 VAC or 60 VDC, and with the safety source installed outside of volumes 0 and 1; or
b) Be protected by a DR device whose nominal differential-residual current does not exceed 30 mA; or
c) Be protected by individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4), with the separation sources (in a
number equal to the number of sockets or outlets) installed outside of volumes 0 and 1.
9.2.4.3.3 In Volume 2, power sockets, outlets, and switches shall be permitted, provided that:
a) The corresponding circuits are supplied with power under the SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5), with the
safety source installed outside of volumes 0, 1, and 2; or
b) The corresponding circuits are protected by a DR device whose nominal differential-residual current does not
exceed 30 mA; or
c) Each socket or outlet is protected by individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4), with the separation
source installed outside of volumes 0, 1, and 2.
9.2.4.4 Other components
9.2.4.4.1 Underwater lighting fixtures, or other lighting fixtures that are subject to contact with water, must comply
with the provisions of the IEC 60598-2-18 standard. Underwater lighting fixtures that are installed in niches, behind
watertight portholes, and that are supplied with power from behind, must comply with the pertinent requirements of
the IEC 60598-2-18 standard, and must be installed in such a way that there is no risk of contact between the ground
connections of the fixture or of its installation accessories and the conductive parts of the portholes.
9.2.4.4.2 In Volume 1, permanent equipment that is intended expressly for use in pools (such as filter groups and
water-massage units) and that is supplied with non-SELV voltage limited to 12 VAC or 30 VDC, shall be permitted if
conditions (a) and (d) below are simultaneously satisfied:
a) Either as part of its construction or during its installation, the equipment must be provided with an enclosure
whose insulation is equivalent to supplemental insulation and ensures Class AG2 mechanical protection;

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


178
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

NOTE: This requirement is applicable regardless of whether the equipment is in Class II or Class I, such that there
is no exception regarding the bonding of the ground connection of the equipment to the protective conductor if the
equipment is in Class I. (For more information about the classification of the components of the installation in terms
of their protection against electric shocks, see the IEC 61140 standard.)
b) Access to the equipment must be possible only through a cover or door that cannot be opened without a key or
tool, and that, upon being opened, causes the cut-off of all of the live conductors. The device that is responsible
for the cut-off and the power-supply line must be in Class II or else must be equipped with equivalent protection,
either as part of its construction or during its installation;
c) Once the cover or door has been opened, the level of protection displayed by the equipment must be at least
Class IPXXB;
d) The power supplied to the equipment must be:
— Part of the SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5), at a voltage not exceeding 25 VAC or 60 VDC, with the
safety source installed outside of volumes 0, 1, and 2; or
— Protected by a DR device whose nominal differential-residual current does not exceed 30 mA; or
— Protected by individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4), with the separation source installed
outside of volumes 0, 1, and 2.
9.2.4.4.3 In small pools where the installation of lighting fixtures outside of Volume 1 is not possible, they may be
installed within Volume 1, provided that they remain outside arm's reach (1.25 meter) from Volume 0 and have an
enclosure that ensures Class II insulation (or an equivalent) and Class AG2 mechanical protection. Accordingly, the
lighting fixtures must be:
a) Powered under the SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5); or
b) Protected by a DR device whose nominal differential-residual current does not exceed 30 mA; or
c) Protected by individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4), with the separation sources (in a number
equal to the number of lighting fixtures) installed outside of volumes 0 and 1.
9.3 Conductive compartments
9.3.1 Scope of applicability
This subsection contains supplemental requirements that are applicable to installations inside conductive
compartments, and to the supply of power to the equipment located inside those compartments.
NOTE: A conductive compartment is a location whose walls consist essentially of metallic or conductive parts and whose interior
space is usually limited, such that the probability that a person will come into contact with the surrounding conductive parts is high,
involves a substantial portion of the body, and, moreover, takes place under circumstances in which the possibility of interrupting
this contact is limited.

9.3.2 Supply of power to portable tools and to portable measurement devices


In conductive compartments, the supply of power to portable tools and to portable measurement devices must be
provided with the use of:
a) An SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5), in compliance with the restrictions set forth in Subsection 9.3.5; or
b) Individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4), in compliance with the provisions of Subsection 9.3.6.
Preference should be given to the use of Class II equipment. However, if a piece of Class I equipment is used, it
must, at a minimum, have handles made of an insulating material or handles with an insulating coating.
NOTE: For more information about the classification of installation components based on protection against electric shocks
(classes I, II, and III), see the IEC 61140 standard.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9.3.3 Supply of power to portable lamps


In conductive compartments, the supply of power to portable lamps must be provided through the use of:
a) An SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5), in compliance with the restrictions set forth in Subsection 9.3.5. A
fluorescent lighting fixture shall be permitted, with an integrated two-winding transformer supplied with power
under the SELV system; or
b) Individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4), in compliance with the provisions of Subsection 9.3.6.
The lighting fixture must be a Class II device.
9.3.4 Supply of power to stationary equipment
In conductive compartments, the stationary equipment may be supplied with power:
a) By circuits that are protected by equipotentialization and an automatic cut-off of the power supply (see
Subsection 5.1.2.2), supplemented by the implementation of supplemental equipotentialization, joining the
ground connections of the stationary equipment and the conductive parts of the compartment; or
b) Under an SELV system (see Subsection 5.1.2.5), in compliance with the restrictions set forth in
Subsection 9.3.5; or else
c) Through the use of individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4), in compliance with the provisions of
Subsection 9.3.6.
9.3.5 SELV
In conductive compartments, the use of an SELV system, in accordance with the provisions Subsection 5.1.2.5, must
comply with the following two conditions:
a) The live parts of the SELV system, regardless of their nominal voltage, must be equipped with:
— Insulation that can withstand an applied test voltage of 500 V for 1 minute; or

— Barriers or enclosures whose level of protection is at least IP2X or IPXXB; and

b) The safety source must be installed outside of the conductive compartment.

NOTE: If certain stationary equipment, such as measurement and control devices, require functional grounding, thereby entailing
the use of a PELV system, an equipotentialization must be implemented that involves all of the ground connections, all of the
conductive elements inside the compartment, and the functional grounding.

9.3.6 Individual electrical separation


In conductive compartments, when individual electrical separation is used, in accordance with the provisions of
Subsection 5.1.2.4, the separation sources (one for each piece of equipment being supplied with power) must be
installed outside of the conductive compartment.
9.4 Sites containing sauna heaters
9.4.1 Scope of applicability
This subsection discusses specific aspects of the electrical installation on premises or in areas to be used as a
sauna, and in which, therefore, the installation of a heater for this purpose is planned.
9.4.2 Volume classification
For the purposes of the application of the requirements of this subsection, the areas intended for use as a sauna shall
be divided into four volumes, as shown in Figure 22.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


180
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9.4.3 Protection to ensure safety


9.4.3.1 Protection against electrical shocks
In areas intended for use as a sauna, if an SELV or PELV system is used, in accordance with the provisions of
Subsection 5.1.2.5, then the live parts of the SELV or PELV system, regardless of their nominal voltage, must be
equipped with:
a) Insulation that can withstand an applied test voltage of 500 V for 1 minute; or
b) Barriers or enclosures whose level of protection is at least IP2X or IPXXB.

9.4.4 Selection and installation of the components


9.4.4.1 Common requirements

9.4.4.1.1 The components of the electrical installation must have a level of protection of at least Class IP24.
9.4.4.1.2 In Volume 1, which is assumed to be the area intended to house the heater (see Figure 22), only the
installation of the heater itself and any accessories shall be permitted.
9.4.4.1.3 The components of the installation located in Volume 2 (see Figure 22) shall not be subject to any
special requirements regarding thermal withstandability.
9.4.4.1.4 In Volume 3 (see Figure 22), the components must be capable of withstanding, during continuous
service, a temperature of at least 125°C. The conductors and cables, in particular, must possess installation that is
capable of withstanding, during continuous service, a temperature of at least 170°C.
9.4.4.1.5 In Volume 4 (see Figure 22), only the heater control devices (i.e., thermostats and thermal protectors)
and the corresponding lines shall be permitted. The same thermal supportability requirements specified in
Subsection 9.4.4.1.4 shall be applicable here.
9.4.4.2 Electrical lines
The electrical lines must comply with the provisions of Subsection 5.1.2.3.4.
9.4.4.3 Protection, cut-off, command, and switching devices (including sockets and outlets)
9.4.4.3.1 Protection, control, or switching devices that are not integral parts of the sauna heater must be installed
outside of the sauna site.
9.4.4.3.2 No power sockets or outlets, in any number, shall be permitted inside the sauna site.
9.4.4.3.3 A device must be installed that is capable of automatically disconnecting the heater's power supply if the
temperature, as measured in Volume 4, exceeds 140°C.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Thermal insulation b = junction box


Figure 22 — Volumes of a sauna.
9.5 Residential premises
9.5.1 Scope of applicability
This subsection contains specific requirements that are applicable to premises utilized as permanent or temporary
residences, including the residential units as a whole, and, for hotels, motels, flats, apartment-hotels, restaurants,
condominiums, lodgings, and similar premises, the rooms intended for the guests and residents, and those intended
to serve as quarters for the establishment’s workers.

9.5.2 Load projection


9.5.2.1 Lighting

9.5.2.1.1 Each room or annex must be equipped with at least one light source installed in the ceiling and controlled
by a switch.

NOTES:
1. In the rooms of hotels, motels, and similar establishments, the light source installed in the ceiling may be replaced by a power
socket or outlet, with power of at least 100 VAC, controlled by a wall switch.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


182
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

2. The light sources installed in the ceilings may be replaced by light sources located on the wall in spaces under stairways, in
storage areas, in pantries, in lavatories, and on porches, provided that their dimensions are small and they are located on premises
on which the installation of the light source in the ceiling would be difficult or inconvenient to perform.

3. For information about switches intended for domestic and similar use, see the ABNT NBR 6527 standard.
9.5.2.1.2 In the determination of the lighting loads, as an alternative to the application of the ABNT NBR 5413
standard, as specified in paragraph (a) of Subsection 4.2.1.2.2, the following criterion may be adopted:
a) In rooms or annexes whose area is equal to or less than 6 square meters (6 m2), a minimum load of 100 VAC
should be planned; and
b) In rooms or annexes whose area is greater than 6 m2, a minimum load of 100 VAC should be planned for the
first 6 m2, with an increase of 60 VAC for each increase of 4 full square meters (4 m2).
NOTE: The values as determined correspond to the power allocated to lighting for purposes of the dimensioning of the circuits,
and not necessarily to the nominal power of the light bulbs.

9.5.2.2 Access points


9.5.2.2.1 Number of access points
The number of access points must be determined in accordance with the purpose of the premises and the electrical
equipment that may be used there, in compliance with at least the following criteria:
a) In bathrooms, at least one access point must be provided, near the lavatory, in compliance with the restrictions
set forth in Subsection 9.1;
b) In kitchens, pantries, pantry-kitchens, service areas, kitchen service areas, laundry rooms, and similar areas, at
least one access point must be provided for every 3.5 meters, or fraction thereof, of the perimeter, with the
proviso that at least two access points (installed at the same location or at different locations) must be provided
above the level of the countertop;
c) At least one access point must be provided on each porch;
NOTE: The access point need not be installed on the porch per se, but may be located near the porch entrance, if
2
the porch, for construction reasons, does not have an access point; if its area is less than 2 m , or, furthermore, if its
depth is less than 0.80 meter.
d) In living-rooms and bedrooms, at least one access point must be provided for every 5 meters, or fraction thereof,
of the perimeter, and these points should be spaced as uniformly as possible;
NOTE: Especially for living-rooms, attention should be paid to the possibility that an access point may be used to supply power to
more than one piece of equipment, such that it is advisable for living-rooms to be equipped with the number of access points that is
deemed to be appropriate.

e) Each of the other residential rooms and annexes must have at least:
— One access point, if the area of the room or annex is less than or equal to 2.25 m2. This point may be
located outside the room or annex, up to a maximum distance of 0.80 meter from its access door;
— One access point, if the area of the room or annex is greater than 2.25 m2 and less than or equal to 6 m2;
and
— One access point or every 5 meters, or fraction thereof, of the perimeter, if the area of the room or annex is
greater than 6 m2, with these points being spaced as uniformly as possible.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

9.5.2.2.2 Power to be allocated to the access points


The power to be allocated to each access point shall be a function of the equipment to which the access point may
supply power, and must not be less than the following minimum values:
a) In bathrooms, kitchens, pantries, pantry-kitchens, service areas, laundry rooms, and similar areas, at least
600 VAC per access point, up to three points, and 100 VAC per point for the remaining points, with each of these
environments being considered separately. If the total number of access points in these environments is greater
than six, the power-allocation criterion shall be at least 600 VAC per access point, up to two points, and 100 VAC
per point for the remaining points, with each of these environments still being considered separately;
b) For the other rooms or annexes, at least 100 VAC per access point.

9.5.2.3 Electric water-heating

The connection of the electric water heater to the point of use must be direct, without the use of a power socket or
outlet.

9.5.3 Division of the installation


9.5.3.1 Every point of use that is intended to supply power, exclusively or in an essentially dedicated manner, to
equipment whose nominal current is greater than 10 A, must constitute an independent circuit.
9.5.3.2 The access points in kitchens, pantries, pantry-kitchens, service areas, laundry rooms, and similar areas
must be served by circuits that are dedicated exclusively to supplying power to the sockets and outlets in these
areas.
9.5.3.3 In residential areas, as an exception to the general rule stated in Subsection 4.2.5.5, access points,
except for the ones mentioned in Subsection 9.5.3.2, and light sources, may be supplied with power by a common
shared circuit, provided that the following conditions are simultaneously met:
a) The design current (IB) of the common shared circuit (lighting plus sockets and outlets) must not exceed 16 A;
b) The light sources must not all be supplied with power by one single circuit, if the said single circuit is a common
or shared one (lighting plus sockets and outlets); and
c) The light sources, with the exclusion of the ones mentioned in Subsection 9.5.3.2, must not all be supplied with
power by one single circuit, if the said single circuit is a common or shared one (lighting plus sockets and
outlets).
9.5.4 Protection against overcurrents
All terminal circuits must be protected against overcurrents by a device that ensures the simultaneous cut-off of all of
the phase conductors.
NOTE: This means that the protective device must be multipolar, if the circuit consists of more than one phase. Single-pole
devices mounted side by side, with only their operating levers coupled, shall not be treated as multipole devices.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


184
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “A”
(Standard)

Voltage ranges

Table A.1. – Voltage ranges

(unit: volts (V)).

Directly grounded systems Non-directly grounded systems


Alternating Direct current
Alternating current (AC) Direct current (DC)
Range current (AC) (DC)
Between phase Between Between pole Between
Between poles Between poles
and ground phases and ground phases
I U ≤ 50 U ≤ 50 U ≤ 120 U ≤ 120 U ≤ 50 U ≤ 120
II 50 < U ≤ 600 50 < U ≤ 1,000 120 < U ≤ 900 120 < U ≤ 1,500 50 < U ≤ 1,000 120 < U ≤ 1,500
NOTES:

1. In systems that are not directly grounded, if the neutral (or compensator) is distributed, the equipment supplied with power
between phase and neutral (or between pole or compensator) must be chosen in such a way that their insulation corresponds to the
voltage between phases (or between poles).

2. This classification of voltage ranges does not exclude the possibility of the introduction of intermediate limits for certain
requirements regarding the installation.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “B”
(Standard)

Basic means of protection (against electric shocks)

B.1 (Basic) insulation of the live parts


B.1.1 The (basic) insulation of the live parts, as a basic means of protection, is intended to prevent any contact
with live parts.
NOTE: The (basic) insulation, which is not the insulation expressly intended to prevent contact with live parts, may
also be an indispensable provision in terms of implementing the safety conditions within the context of certain
measures of protection against electric shocks. This is the case for the requirement for basic insulation, between
separated circuits and ground, as specified with regard to individual electrical separation (see Subsection 5.1.2.4)
and the SELV and PELV systems (see Subsection 5.1.2.5).
B.1.2 The live parts must be fully covered by insulation that can only be removed through its destruction. In this
regard, a distinction must be made between components that are assembled at the factory and components or parts
whose insulation must be provided, completed, or restored during the implementation of the electrical installation:
a) For components assembled at the factory, the installation must comply with the requirements pertaining to these
components; and
b) For the other components, the insulation must be capable of withstanding the mechanical, chemical, electrical,
and thermal stresses to which they may be exposed. Paints, varnishes, lacquers, and analogous products shall
not generally be viewed as providing sufficient insulation to guarantee basic protection.
NOTES:
1 Although the content of this requirement may suggest the idea of insulation, particularly insulation that is applied
during installation, in the form of resins and other solid insulation materials, including wrapping tapes, the meaning of
“insulation” should always be interpreted comprehensively. There are several ways of providing (basic) insulation for
a live part, inasmuch as insulation may be solid, liquid, gaseous (such as air), or any combination thereof. One of
these methods consists of placing a live part in an enclosure (see Subsection B.2). Accordingly, it is not unusual that
the two means of protection, i.e., the (basic) insulation of the live parts (see Subsection B1) and the use of barriers or
enclosures (see Subsection B.2) are often confused.
2 If the installation is provided during the implementation of the installation, this insulation must be checked and
confirmed through tests analogous to the ones whose purpose is to check and confirm the quality of the installation of
similar industrial components.

B.2 Use of barriers or enclosures


B.2.1 The use of barriers or enclosures as a means of basic protection is intended to prevent any contact with live
parts.
B.2.2 Live parts should be confined inside enclosures or behind barriers that guarantee a level of protection of at
least Class IPXXB or IP2X. Larger openings may occur, during the replacement of parts (as in the exchange of light
bulbs or fuses), or may be necessary for the proper functioning of the piece of equipment or component, in
accordance with the specifications applicable to them, if [sic] the following measures are adopted:
a) Precautions must be taken to prevent persons or animals from accidentally touching the live parts;

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


186
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

b) To the extent possible, it should be ensured that persons be warned that the parts that are accessible through
the opening are live and must not be touched intentionally; and
c) The opening should, at a minimum, be compatible with the need to replace the consumable part or the need for
the proper operation of the component or equipment.
B.2.3 If the enclosure or barrier includes upper horizontal surfaces that are directly accessible, the said surfaces
must guarantee a level of protection of at least Class IPXXD or IP4X.
B.2.4 The barriers and enclosures must be firmly secured and must display sufficient robustness and durability to
preserve the required levels of protection and the appropriate separation of the live parts, under the expected normal
service conditions, taking into consideration the conditions of pertinent external influences.
B.2.5 When it is necessary to remove the barriers, open the enclosures, or remove parts of the enclosures, such
an action must be possible only:
a) With the aid of a key or tool; or
b) After powering down the live parts protected by the barriers or enclosures in question, with the further
requirement that the voltage can be re-established only after the reinstallation of the barriers or enclosures; or
c) If a second barrier is present or is interposed between the barrier or the part to be removed and the live part, with
the further requirement that the said second barrier provide a level of protection of at least Class IPXXB or IP2X,
prevents any contact with the live parts, and can only be removed through the use of a key or tool.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “C”
(standard)

External influences and protection against electric shocks

C.1 Determinant external influences


Within the context of protection against electric shocks, the following conditions of external influence shall be
determinant:
BA = Competence of persons (Table 18);

BB = Electrical resistance of the human body (Table 19);

BC = Contact between persons and the potential of the earth (Table 20).
NOTE: The other conditions of external influence have essentially no effect on the nature of the protection against
electric shocks; however, particular consideration should be given to them in connection with the selection of
components.

C.2 Situations 1, 2 and 3


The situations identified as 1, 2 and 3 in Table C.1 have been defined in accordance with external influences BB
(Table 19) and BC (Table 20). For a combination (BB and BC) of external influences, the situation to be taken into
consideration shall be the most severe one dictated by either of the external influences (BB or BC) individually.

Table C.1. – Situations 1, 2, and 3.

Condition of external influence Situation


BB1, BB2 Situation 1
BC1, BC2, BC3 Situation 1
BB3 Situation 2
BC4 Situation 2
BB4 Situation 3
NOTES:
1. Examples of Situation 2:
- External areas (gardens, exhibitions, etc.);
- Work sites;
- Agricultural and livestock-raising establishments;
- Camp sites and parking areas for special vehicles and trailers;
- Volume 1 of bathrooms and (swimming) pools (see subsections 9.1 and 9.2);
- Conductive compartments:
- Interior spaces that are wet or damp during normal use.
2 An example of Situation 3, which corresponds to cases of immersed bodies, is the situation consisting of Volume 0 for
bathrooms and (swimming) pools. (see subsections 9.1 and 92)

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


188
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

C.3 Limit contact voltage


The limit contact voltage values (UL) in situations 1, 2 and 3 are shown in Table C.2. The indicated limits shall be
subject to the tolerances defined by the IEC 60038 standard.

Table C.2. — Limit contact voltage (UL) values, in volts (V).

Type of current Situation 1 Situation 2 Situation 3


Alternating, 15 Hz – 1,000 Hz 50 25 12
Direct, with no ripples(1) 120 60 30
(1
) DC voltage “without ripples” is traditionally defined as voltage whose ripple rate does not exceed 10%
in terms of effective value. The maximum peak value should not exceed 140 V for a DC system without
ripples and a nominal rating of 120 V, or 70 V for a DC system without ripples and a nominal rating of
60 V.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “D”
(informative)

Protection of conductors in parallel against overcurrents

D.1 Introduction
For protection against overcurrents of conductors in parallel, all of the conductors must be suitably protected. For
two conductors with the same nominal cross-section, the same length, the same installation method, and
approximately equal current paths, the requirements for this protection are simple. More complex arrangement
demand further consideration, which includes the case of unequal division of current among the conductors and the
case of a flow of fault current through multiple paths. This attachment offers assistance in this regard.

D.2 Protection against overload of conductors in parallel


If an overload occurs in a circuit with conductors in parallel, the current in each conductor increases in direct
proportion to the overload. If the total current is divided equally among the conductors in parallel, then a single
device can be used to protect all of the conductors. In this case, the total current-carrying capacity (/z) of all of the
conductors in parallel is the sum of their individual current-carrying capacities, duly adjusted through the application
of the pertinent factors (e.g., the grouping-correction factor and other applicable factors).
The division of the current among conductors in parallel is a function of the impedance of the current. For single-core
cables with a large cross-section, the reactive component of the impedance is greater than the resistive component,
and will have a significant effect on the current division. The reactive component depends on the relative physical
position of each cable. For example, in a circuit consisting of two cables with a large cross-section per phase (and
with the same length, construction, and nominal cross-section), the current division may be 70%–30%, instead of
50%–50%, if the layout or arrangement of the cables is unfavorable (such as grouped cables of the same phase).
When the current division between conductors in parallel is unequal (for example, when the difference between them
is more than 10%), then the design current and the requirements for protection against overloads must be analyzed
individually for each conductor.
The design current of each conductor can be calculated on the basis of the total load and the impedance of each
conductor.
For a total of m conductors in parallel, the design current IBk of a conductor k is given by the following equation:

where:
IB is the design current of the circuit;
IBk is the current in the conductor k;
Zk is the impedance of the conductor k; and

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


190
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Z1 and Zm are the impedances of the conductors 1 and m, respectively.

For single-core cables, the impedance depends on the relative positions of the cables, as well as on the design of the
cable (for example, with or without a casing). Standardized methods for calculating this impedance are not yet
available, which is one more reason for recommending that the current division between parallel cables be checked
and confirmed by measurement.
Thus, in the equation for calculation of the protection against overloads for conductors in parallel, condition (a) in
Subsection 5.3.4.1 can be rewritten in two ways, depending on how these conductors are protected (i.e., by an
individual protective device for each conductor, or by a single protective device [for all of them]):
i) By an individual protective device for each conductor (see Figure D.1):

ii) By a single protective device for all of the conductors in parallel (see Figure D.2):

where:

/nk is the nominal current of the protective device for the conductor k;
/zk is the current-carrying capacity of the conductor k;
/n is the nominal current of the protective device (i.e., of the single protective device); and
Σ /zk is the sum of the current-carrying capacities of the m conductors in parallel.
NOTE: For bar systems, the parameters should be obtained from the manufacturer or from the IEC 60439-2 standard.

Consequently, the value of /z to be used under condition (b) in Subsection 5.3.4.1 becomes /zk, in the case shown in
paragraph (i) above, or else Σ /zk, in the case shown in paragraph (ii) above.

“Source” side

“Load” side
Figure D.1. – Circuit with individual devices for protection against overloads,
for each of the m conductors in parallel.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

“Source” side

“Load” side

Figure D.2. – Circuit with a single device for protection against overloads,
for [all] of the m conductors in parallel.

D.3 Protection against short-circuits of conductors in parallel


If conductors are connected in parallel, consideration must be given to the possibility of short circuits between these
conductors.
For two conductors in parallel, and if the effective actuation of a single protective device cannot be ensured, then
each conductor must be protected individually.
If three or more conductors are connected in parallel, multiple fault-current paths may occur. In this case, it may be
necessary to provide protection against short circuits at each end of each conductor in parallel, as shown in figures
D.3 and D.4.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


192
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

“Source” side

“Load” side
Figure D.3. — Current flow at the start of the fault.
“Source” side

“Load” side
Figure D.4. — Current flow after the actuation of the protective device cs.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Figure D.3 shows how if a fault occurs on conductor c at point “X”, then the fault current flows through all three of the
conductors (a, b, and c). The portion of the fault current that flows through each of the protective devices for
conductor c (i.e., devices cs and cl) depends on the location of the fault along conductor c. This example assumes
that the majority of the fault current flows through device cs, causing it to be actuated before device cl is actuated.
However, as shown in Figure D.4, the actuation of device cs is not sufficient to eliminate the fault, because the fault
continues to be supplied with power via conductors a and b, through the “load” end of conductor c. Because of the
parallelism of conductors a and b, the current that flows through devices as and bs may not be sufficient to cause
them to be actuated within the proper time. Hence the need for device cl. This same reasoning is valid if the fault on
conductor c occurred closer to device cl, causing this device to be actuated before device cs is actuated.
Analogously, the situation would be the same if the fault occurred on conductor a or on conductor b, thereby
demonstrating the need for protective devices al and bl.
One alternative for the six protective devices would be a single interlocked protective device, installed at the point of
origin of the circuit, so as to simultaneously interrupt the power supply to all of the conductors. The use of such a
device has two advantages over the arrangement with individual protection at the ends of each conductor in parallel.
The first is that, in the case of individual devices, if a fault at point “X” is eliminated through the actuation of devices cs
and cl, the circuit would continue to operate, with the current being carried by conductors a and b. Because the
circuit continues to operate, the fault and the resulting overload condition (on conductors a and b) might go unnoticed.
Second, in the event of the actuation of device cs alone, the fault at point “X" would cause severe overheating of the
open circuit on the cl side, leaving one side of the fault live and undetected. The fault would continue to be supplied
with power via device cl, thereby subjecting conductors a, b, and c (on the cl side) to an undetected overcurrent.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


194
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “E”
(informative)

Transient impulse withstandability categories (overvoltage categories, or


levels of surge protection)

E.1 Introduction
Table 31, taken from the IEC 60664-1 standard, specifies values that, in order to constitute a standard reference, can
be identified from three angles.
The first is the one formally adopted in the table. Specifically, the values refer to the withstandable impulse voltage
(i.e., the minimum value) that an installation material or a piece of utilization equipment might display/exhibit –
indicating, in other words, the impulse withstandability category of the product in question.
The second angle conceptually precedes the first one. Specifically, the values refer to the overvoltage categories –
that is, to the transient overvoltage levels that can be expected in an electrical installation of the building, supplied
with power by an external network, in a statistically arbitrary situation. This is the case at various different points
along the length of the installation. That is why this angle precedes the first one described above. Specifically,
because the overvoltage in question is a foreseeable one, the components of the installation should be able to
withstand it.
The third angle closes the loop. The values indicated in the table individually reflect the level of protection that, at a
minimum, a surge-protection device (SPD) should be able to handle in order for this protection to be compatible with
the withstandability characteristics of the protected piece(s) of equipment. That is, the residual voltage that the
properly installed SPD allows to pass should be no more than the residual voltage that the withstandability of the
protected piece(s) of equipment can handle.

E.2 Categories
The four categories shown in Table 31 (I, II, III, and IV), as listed, represent increasing levels of withstandability.
Products with Category II impulse withstandability are intended to be connected to the stationary electrical installation
of the building. In essence, they constitute a piece of utilization equipment, such as household appliances,
professional electrical devices, portable tools, and [other pieces of equipment with] analogous loads.
Products with Category I impulse withstandability are also intended to be connected to a stationary installation of a
building. However, they are equipped with certain specific protective means, which are assumed to be external to the
equipment and that, therefore, are located at a certain point in the stationary installation, or between the stationary
installation and the product, such that any transient overvoltages are limited to a specified level.
Products with Category III impulse withstandability are components of the stationary installation per se and other
products for which a higher level of reliability is required. The examples that can be mentioned here include
distribution panels breakers, electrical lines (a term that includes conductors, bars, junction boxes, switches, sockets,
and outlets) and other elements of the stationary installation, as well as products intended for industrial use and
equipment (such as electric motors) that are joined to the stationary installation by means of a permanent connection.
Lastly, products with Category IV [impulse] withstandability are those that are utilized at or near the point of entry to
the installation, upstream of the main distribution panel. Examples of such products include energy meters, general
cut-off devices and protective devices, and other items that are typically used in the interface between the electrical
installation and the public distribution network.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “F”
(informative)

Cross-section of the neutral conductor when the third-order harmonic


content of the phase currents is greater than 33%

F.1 Determination of the neutral current


If, in a three-phase circuit with neutral, or in a circuit with two phases and neutral, the percentage of third-order
harmonics and their multiples is greater than 33%, then the current circulating through the neutral conductor during
normal service is greater than the phase current. The cross-section of the neutral conductor can be determined by
calculating the current carried by the neutral conductor, in the following way:

IN = fh IB
where:

/B is the design current of the circuit whose total effective value:

where:
l1 is the effective value of the fundamental component (e.g., the 60 Hz component);
li, lj, … ln are the effective values of the i, j, and n-order harmonic components that are present in the phase
current; and

fh is the pertinent factor shown in Table F.1, based on the percentage of third-order harmonics and on the
type of circuit (three-phase with neutral, or a circuit with two phases and neutral). In the absence of a more
precise estimate of the expected proportion of third-order harmonics, it is recommended that a value of 1.73
be adopted for the fh variable for a three-phase circuit with neutral, and that a value of 1.41 be adopted for a
circuit with two phases and neutral.

Table F.1. — The fh factor for determination of the current carried by the neutral.

Proportion of third-
order harmonics fh
Three-phase circuit Circuit with two phases
with neutral and neutral
33% through 35% 1.15 1.15
36% through 40% 1.19 1.19
41% through 45% 1.24 1.23
46% through 50% 1.35 1.27
51% through 55% 1.45 1.30
56% through 60% 1.55 1.34
61% through 65% 1.64 1.38
≥ 66% 1.73 1.41

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


196
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

F.2 Insulated conductors or single-core cables


If a circuit consists of insulated conductors or single-core cables, then, in many cases, the determination of the
neutral current, as indicated in Subsection F.1, may indicate that the neutral cross-section is larger than the cross-
section of the phases. The cross-sections of neutral and of the phases will occasionally be equal if, in the
determination of the current-carrying capacity, the smaller cross-section of the conductor that handles the phase
current also handles the neutral current; or, moreover, if, for any reason, the cross-section of the phase conductors is
to be matched to the cross-section of neutral, which is the usual situation. In the latter case (i.e., overdimensioning of
the phase conductors), the application of the correction factor due to the loading of neutral (see Subsection 6.2.5.6.1)
in a three-phase circuit with neutral, can be omitted if the calculation reflected a percentage of third-order harmonics
greater than 45%.

F.3 Four-core and five-core cables


If a three-phase circuit with neutral consists of a multi-core cable all of whose conductors, for construction-related
reasons, typically have the same nominal cross-section, then the neutral current discussed in Subsection F.1 may, in
many cases, be a determining factor in the definition of the cross-section of the conductors and, for the same reason,
of the cross-section of the four-core or five-core cable itself. If the definition of the multicore cable, with all of the
conductors having the same cross-section, was based on a percentage of third-order harmonics greater than 45%,
then the application of the correction factor (due to the loading of the neutral), as specified in Subsection 6.2.5.6.1,
can be omitted.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “G”
(informative)

Primary equipotentialization
Figures G.1 and G.2 are intended solely to illustrate the requirements relating to grounding and equipotentialization,
and, as such, should be interpreted generically.

Detail “A” (**)

Legend:
BEP = Main equipotentialization bus bar [“barramento de equipotencialização principal”]
EC = Equipotentialization conductors
1 = Grounding electrode (embedded in the foundation structures)
2 = The reinforced-concrete armatures and other metallic structures of the building
3 = The metallic utility pipes and ducts, along with the metallic structural elements associated with them.
For example:
3.a = Water
3.b = Gas
(*) = Insulating sleeve (see Note 2 in Subsection 6.4.2.1.1)
3.c = Drain
3.d = Air-conditioning
4 = Metallic conduits, shielding, casings, coverings, and metallic layers of cables
4.a = Electrical power line
4.b = Electrical signaling line
5 = Main grounding conductor
(**) See Figure G.2.

Figure G.1. — Primary equipotentialization in a hypothetical situation in which all of the constituent elements
are concentrated at approximately the same point. The external lines converge at this point and the other
elements of the building are also accessible there.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


198
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Main Main
distribution distribution
panel panel

PE bar PE bar

Detail “A” Detail “A”

The TN system The TT system

NOTES:
1. The figure is essentially illustrative. If the main distribution panel is located at, or very close to, the point of entry of the line into
the building, then, in the absence of any other restrictions, its PE bar may also serve as the BEP.
2. The details pertaining to the TN-C-S system illustrate the situation described in Subsection 5.4.3.6.

Figure G.2. — Connections between the electrical power supply and the primary
equipotentialization points, in accordance with the grounding system.

Detail “A”

(**) See Figure G.2.

Figure G.3. — Example of primary equipotentialization in which the constituent elements are not
concentrated, or are not accessible at the same point in the building.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


1
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “H”
(Standard)

Verification of the actuation of differential-residual current-protection


devices (DR devices)
H.1 The methods described in subsections H.1.1 through H.1.3 may be used in the verification of the actuation
of DR devices.

H.1.1 Method 1 (see Figure H.1)


H.1.1.1 A variable resistor RP must be connected downstream of the DR device, between a live conductor and
ground.

H.1.1.2 The differential-residual current l∆ is increased when the value of RP is reduced.


H.1.1.3 The DR device should be triggered for a current l∆ that is lower than the nominal differential-residual
actuation current l∆n.

NOTE: This method can be used for TN-S, TT and IT systems. In IT systems, during testing it may be necessary to connect one
power-supply point directly to ground, in order for the DR device to be actuated.

Figure H.1

H.1.2 Method 2 (see Figure H.2)


H.1.2.1 The variable resistor is connected between a live conductor upstream of the DR device and another
conductor downstream of the DR device. The current is increased when [the value of] RP is reduced.
H.1.2.2 The DR device should be triggered for a current l∆ that is lower than the nominal differential-residual
actuation current /∆n. The load must be disconnected during the test.
NOTE: This method can be used for all of the [grounding] systems (TN-S, TT, and IT).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


200
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Disconnected
load

Figure H.2

H.1.3 Method 3
H.1.3.1 Figure H.3 illustrates the method that uses an auxiliary electrode. The current is increased when [the value
of] RP is reduced.
H.1.3.2 The voltage (U) between ground and the independent auxiliary electrode must be measured. The current /∆
(which must be lower than /∆n), at which the DR device will be triggered, must also be measured.
H.1.3.3 The following condition must be met:

where: UL is the limit contact voltage.

Figure H.3

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “J”
(Standard)

Measurement of ground resistance

J.1 The methods described in subsections J.1.1 and J.1.2 may be used when ground resistance must be
measured.

J.1.1 Method 1 (see Figure J.1)


J.1.1.1 A constant-value AC current circulates between the grounding electrode being tested (T) and the auxiliary
electrode (T1). The location of T1 must be such that there is no mutual influence between T and T1.
J.1.1.2 A second auxiliary electrode (T2), which may consist of a small metallic rod driven into the ground, is
inserted halfway between T and T1. The voltage drop between T and T2 is measured.
J.1.1.3 The grounding resistance of the electrode T is equal to the voltage between T and T2 divided by the current
circulating between T and T1, assuming that there is no mutual influence between the electrodes.
J.1.1.4 To determine whether the resistance value is correct, two new measurements must be performed: first by
shifting T2 approximately 6 meters toward T, and then 6 meters toward T1. If the three results are essentially similar,
the average of the three readings should be taken as the ground resistance of the electrode T. Otherwise, the test
must be repeated, with greater spacing between T and T1.

source
current adjustment

with no mutual influence


between the electrodes
where:
T is the grounding electrode to be measured, after being disconnected from all of the other voltage sources;
T1 is the auxiliary electrode; and
T2 is the second auxiliary electrode.

Figure J.1. — Measurement of ground resistance (Method 1).

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


202
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

J.1.2 Method 2
J.1.2.1 This method also uses two auxiliary electrodes, but with no need for alignment. The injected current must
be compatible with a maximum test voltage of 50 V.
J.1.2.2 Current is injected between the two auxiliary electrodes (T1 and T2). The injected current and the applied
voltage are measured and then the sum of the resistances of T1 and T2 are calculated, by dividing the applied tension
by the injected current:

J.1.2.3 Next, current is injected between the electrode being tested (T0) and the auxiliary electrode T1. Using the
other auxiliary electrode (T2) as a reference, the voltages between T 0 and T2, and between T1 and T2, are then
measured. The measured values of the current and of the voltages are then used to calculate the ground resistances
of T0 and of T1:

and

J.1.2.4 Now using T1 as a reference, current is injected between T0 and T2, and the voltages between T0 and T1,
and between T2 and T1, are measured. The measured current and voltages are then used to calculate the ground
resistances of T0 and T2:

and

J.1.2.5 The two resistance values obtained for the electrode being tested (T 0) (that is, R0 and R′0), as well as the
sum of the resistances of T1 and of T2 as initially obtained (R1 + R2), are compared against the sum of the resistances
that were calculated individually for T1 and T2 (that is, R′1 and R′2). If this comparison reveals a similarity between the
values, then the value shall be deemed to be valid. Otherwise, new measurements must be taken, with greater
spacing between the electrodes.
J.2 If the test is performed at an industrial frequency, then the source utilized for the test must be isolated from
the distribution system (for example, through the use of a transformer with separate windings), and the internal
impedance of the voltmeter that is used must be at least 200 Ω / V.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “K”
(standard)

Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current


The methods described in subsections K.1 and K.2 may be adopted for measurement of the impedance of the path of
the fault current.
NOTES:
1. The proposed methods provide only approximate values, because they do not take into consideration the vector
nature of the voltage, or, in other words, the existing conditions at the moment when the ground fault occurs.
Nevertheless, the degree of approximation is acceptable, inasmuch as the reactance of the circuit in question
can be disregarded.
2. It is recommended that a continuity test be performed between neutral and the ground connections prior to
measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current (under TN systems).

K.1 Method 1: Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current by means of the
voltage drop (see Figure K.1)
The voltage of the circuit to be checked should be measured with and without the connection of a variable resistive
load, whose current should also be measured. The value of the impedance is calculated according to the following
equation:

where:
Z is the impedance of the path of the fault current;

U1 is the voltage as measured with no load;

U2 is the voltage as measured with a load; and

/R is the load current.

NOTE: Attention should be paid to the fact that this method entails certain application difficulties, and to the fact that a significant
difference between U1 and U2 is necessary.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


204
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Figure K.1. – Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current by means of the voltage drop.

K.2 Method 2: Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current by means of a
separate source (see Figure K.2)
The test should be conducted with the normal power supply disconnected and with the transformer primary short-
circuited. A separate source is used to supply power to the measurement circuit. The impedance is calculated
according to the following equation:

where:
Z is the impedance of the path of the fault current;
U is the measured voltage; and
/ is the measured current.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Figure K.2. – Measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current
by means of a separate source.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


206
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “L”
(standard)

Measurement of the resistance of the protective conductors


L.1 The measurement of the resistance of the protective conductors may be employed, as an alternative to
measurement of the impedance of the path of the fault current, to determine whether the protection provided through
the automatic cut-off of the power supplied to a circuit fulfills the pertinent conditions specified in Subsection 5.1.2.2.
The method, which consists of measuring the resistance R between any given ground connection and the nearest
general equipotentialization point in the upstream direction, shall be valid under the following conditions:
a) The protective conductor is incorporated into the same line that contains the phase conductors, with no
interposition of ferromagnetic elements (which allows the reactance to be ignored), or else it consists of the
metallic conduit that houses the conductors; and
b) The cross-section of the PE conductors does not exceed 95 mm2 (in copper).
L.2 It is recommended that the measurements be taken with a source whose voltage without a load is between
4 V and 24 V, either DC or AC, which source provides a test current of at least 0.2 A.
L.3 The measured resistance R must satisfy the following conditions:

Under the TN system

Under the IT without distributed neutral

Under the IT system with distributed neutral

where:
U0 is the nominal voltage (in volts) between phase and neutral;
U is the nominal voltage (in volts) between phases;
la is the current that ensures the actuation of the protective device:

— At the maximum acceptable cut-off time indicated in Table 25, for TN systems; or
— At the maximum acceptable cut-off time indicated in Table 26, for IT systems; or
— At the maximum [elapsed time] of 5 seconds, under the conditions defined in Subsection
5.1.2.2.4.1(c);
m is the ratio of R to Rφ, namely:

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

where:

Rφ is the resistance of the phase conductor; and


R is the resistance of the protective conductor between any given ground connection and the nearest general
equipotentialization point in the upstream direction.
NOTE: The factor of 0.8 is a conventional value used to reflect the relationship between the impedance of the protected circuit
and the total impedance of the path of the fault current. Experience has indicated that the factor of 0.8 is valid in most cases. If the
source impedance can be disregarded, the factor will be equal to 1. And, in the other cases, if the actual value of the relationship
between the impedance of the protected circuit and the total impedance of the path of the fault current is known, then the factor of
0.8 should be replaced by the actual known value.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


208
ABNT NBR 5410:2004

Attachment “M”
(standard)

The applied voltage test


The procedure described in this attachment is recommended for the performance of the applied voltage test specified
in Subsection 7.3.6.
M.1 At the moment when the test voltage is applied between the live conductors and ground, this voltage should
not exceed 50% of the test voltage indicated in Table 61. This voltage should be increased gradually so that 100% is
reached after 10 seconds, and then should be maintained for 1 minute. The source should be capable of maintaining
the test voltage.
M.2 The test voltage should be substantially sinusoidal, and the frequency should be the same as the operational
frequency of the system.

© ABNT 2004. All rights reserved.


2