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Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18

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Journal of Cleaner Production


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro

Review

Perspectives for natural product based agents derived from industrial


plants in textile applications e a review
Shahid-ul-Islam, Mohammad Shahid, Faqeer Mohammad*
Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: With the consumer’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, there has been an increasing tendency towards
Received 27 November 2012 the use of sustainable and environmentally friendly materials. In recent years, considerable attention has
Received in revised form been given to the products produced from non-food crops for use in various industries notably in the
29 May 2013
textile industry. Based on biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, in addition to their recently
Accepted 1 June 2013
Available online 15 June 2013
discovered properties such as insect repellent, deodorizing, flame retardant, UV protection, and anti-
microbial activity are gaining popularity all around the world for producing more appealing and highly
functional value-added textiles. This review article highlights the most important textile applications of
Keywords:
Natural products
environmental friendly plant-based products such as fibres, polysaccharides, dyes and pigments, poly-
Crops phenols, oils and other biologically active compounds. This is followed by a focus on plant derived
Dyes bioactive agents with antimicrobial properties and application of these agents to the textiles. Apart from
Printing this, the contribution of plant-based agents to green nanotechnology in recent years for the development
Nanoparticles of bioactive textiles is also outlined.
Textiles Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Deodorizing/aroma (Sricharussin et al., 2009), insect-repellent


(Specos et al., 2010), flame retardant (Huang et al., 2001), protec-
Over the past few years, various industries, and particularly the tion against UV rays (Grifoni et al., 2011; Sun and Tang, 2011), and
textile industry, have come under severe criticism for their role in antimicrobial (Joshi et al., 2009; Shahid et al., 2012) are some of the
polluting the environment. Owing to this, strict ecological and novel prominent properties, which have been obtained on textiles
economic restrictions over the applied chemicals, including bans in recent years.
on certain consumer goods containing synthetic azo dyes (eN]Ne Due to the increasing demand for textile products that offer the
) and toxic finishing agents have been established in recent years protection from the infection of pathogenic microorganisms, anti-
(Ahlstrom et al., 2005). As a result, there has been a great motiva- microbial modification of textiles has become extremely important
tion in the use natural products for various textile modifications. and has attracted the interest of R&D institutions. To provide
Nowadays natural products especially derived from plants; on antimicrobial effect for textiles, there is strong trend in searching
the account of their abundant availability, biocompatibility, low and developing new non-toxic and ecofriendly agents which are
toxicity, green approach and environmental friendly nature are based on natural products because of possible harmful effects of
gaining popularity all around the globe for their use in textiles many synthetic agents.
(Joshi et al., 2009; Samanta and Agarwal, 2009). Besides, there is Admittedly, research has been oriented towards exploring novel
growing demand in the market place for the textiles that offers plant-based bioactive agents with antimicrobial properties to
comfort and other functional properties. Therefore, scientists develop clean, nontoxic, environmentally benign bioactive textile
working in the area of textiles are investigating the possible ap- products for use in a variety of areas, particularly in medical ap-
plications of plant-based bioactive agents for producing more plications. Moreover, the recent amalgamation of nanotechnology
appealing and highly functional value-added textile substrates. with textile sector has further boasted the additional role of plant-
based agents to develop functional textiles on large sale. Based on
these facts, natural products from industrial plants are one of the
proposed platforms for the large scale development of technical
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ91 9350114878.
E-mail addresses: shads.jmi@gmail.com ( Shahid-ul-Islam), mshahid96@gmail.com and novel environment friendly textiles. Owing to this, extensive
(M. Shahid), faqeermohammad@rediffmail.com (F. Mohammad). R&D in this area is underway worldwide. This review article

0959-6526/$ e see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.06.004
S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18 3

presents comprehensive information about the uses of industrial use of pesticides in its cultivation and to increase the production.
plant products in textiles, their extraction methodologies employed Scientists are engaged all around the globe in the process of iden-
as well as recent technological advances for large scale production tifying and isolating useful genes from various sources and evalu-
of textiles. An extensive and systematic review of the extant liter- ating them in the possibility of improving the quality of cotton
ature was performed by analyzing the information available on (Proto et al., 2000). ‘Bt cotton’ is one of the pest-resistant strains,
natural agents derived from industrial plants for their textiles ap- the genes of which have been modified by insertion of the gene of a
plications by using a computerized bibliographic search via major pest toxin Bacillus thuringiensis. Although, genetically modified
scientific databases including SciFinder, Sciencedirect, Medline and cotton do offer an additional environmental benefit but is regarded
Google Scholar. The most relevant articles, 206 papers including as less ‘natural’. Nowadays, textile manufacturers are promoting
some international books published from 1991 to 2013 were organic cotton fabrics (the cotton fibre used to produce a fabric
selected for screening and inclusion in this review. Furthermore, must have been grown from genetically unmodified seed varieties
this research article highlights some key factors and challenges that and without the use of herbicides or pesticides) (Dawson, 2012). To
should be addressed during the production of these sustainable overcome the negative social and environmental aspects of cotton
materials, and thus provides a useful report that can be helpful in cultivation worldwide, Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) association has
the development of green textiles manufacturing (Fig. 1). These been set up to produce cotton in a more sustainable manner.
insights subsequently provide information to aim at expanding the In order to meet the current need of fibres in textiles, besides
cultivation of non food crops for future textile applications. cotton there is an increasing demand for cultivation of new alter-
native fibre yielding crops which require low environment impact
conditions namely, jute, ramie, hemp and flax (Table 1) (Sampaio
2. Plant fibres in textiles e traditions of yesterday and future
et al., 2005). These are classified as bast fibres and are known to
of tomorrow
provide structural support to the plants. Among all, jute is a long,
soft, shiny vegetable fibre predominantly cultivated in Indian sub-
There has been much interest in the development of natural
continent, China and Thailand (Basu et al., 2009). It is a lingo-
fibres for use in textile industry, apparently due to strong consumer
cellulosic fibre that is attracting more and more attention with its
demand for ‘green’ products based on renewables. The cultivation
outstanding properties. It has been widely utilized in the manu-
of crops for fibre production has a long history. Cotton fibre has
facture of flexible packing fabrics, carpet backing and decorative
been an indispensable part of human existence. In the past,
fabrics as well as in geotextiles (Anand, 2008). There is hardly any
particularly during World II, cotton fabrics were used extensively
drawback associated with jute fibres except the stiffness and
for tentage, tarpaulins and truck covers. However, with the dis-
harshness properties, for which chemicals and processes are
covery of microbial resistant synthetic fibres such as nylons,
required to minimize the spinning problems (Liu et al., 2010). In
acrylics and polyesters, the use of cotton fabrics decreased to a large
addition to jute, flax fibres, particularly long-fibre flax is almost
extend (Ramchandran et al., 2004). Recently, the growing envi-
exclusively used for linen production.
ronmental awareness among the government and industrial firms
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) is increasingly being employed to
has dramatically increased the worldwide market for cotton fabrics.
make industrial sewing thread, packing materials, fishing nets, and
The annual worldwide production of cotton is estimated at 50% of
filter cloths. It has also been utilized in fabrics for household fur-
total world fibre production (Sampaio et al., 2005), with China,
nishings (upholstery, canvas) and clothing. To increase its use as a
America and India being the major producers. Cotton fibre is the
general textile fibre, Liu et al. (2008) incorporated chelate mole-
most widely used natural fibre in textile industry today; it is most
cule, ethylenediamine in the structure of raw ramie fibre using a
often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable
crosslinking agent epichlorohydrin. The modified fibre showed
textile.
characters similar to that of wool fibre and a significantly
Nowadays, cotton is the principal raw material for use in textile
improved dye uptake.
industry, but the growing of cotton crops requires very intensive
Among other environment friendly crops, industrial hemp is a
irrigations and employs high levels of pesticides and fertilizers
good source for producing hemp fibre, which is widely used in the
(Chapagain et al., 2006; Wossink and Denaux, 2006). Many coun-
modern production of durable fabrics. Due to the presence of
tries are now growing genetically modified cotton, to reduce the
phytochemical drug component D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC),
its cultivation in most of countries has been prohibited. However, a
low THC form of industrial hemp is now legal to grow in Canada
Agricultural production pipeline
and China. To quantify the major impacts associated with the
production of hemp yarn for textiles, recently life cycle analysis has
Sustainable cultivation of plants
been examined by van der Werf and Turunen (2008). They
Food industry Timber industry Beverage industry
concluded that reduction of environmental impacts associated with
By products
the production of hemp yarn should give priority to reduction of
energy used in the fibre processing and yarn production stages and
Wastes and by products to reduction of eutrophication in the crop production phase.
Additionally, over the past 10 years, the byproducts made from
Fibre production pipeline Natural dye production pipeline commodity crops being abundant, cheap and renewable provide a
readily available alternative source for natural cellulose fibres that
could be easily produced in high yields. The recent concerns about
both, the future price and availability of natural and synthetic fibres
Textile processing pipeline
currently used, has fuelled research to explore the agricultural
byproducts for the production of natural cellulose fibres to meet
the current industrial demand. The literature indicates that
Sales, Distrubtion, Marketing byproducts are composed of considerable amounts (35e40%) of
cellulose that can be extracted in the form of fibres. Byproducts are
Fig. 1. Concept of green and sustainable textile manufacturing using natural products. generated in million tons every year worldwide from the major
4 S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18

Table 1
Merits and Demerits of some commonly used plant fibres.

Fibre Source Merits Demerits

Cotton Genus Gossypium  Abundant availability  Large consumption of


 Environmentally friendly pesticides and herbicides
 Breathable and soft  High water requirement
 Cost-effective
 Renewable nature
 Agro based
Jute Genus Corchorus  Agro based  Spinning problems
 Annually renewable
 Biodegradable
 Low cost
 No residues of pesticides and heavy metals
Flax Linum usitatissimum L.  Low dose of chemical requirement  Quality and consistency
 Environmentally safe problems
Hemp Cannabis sativa L.  No requirement of pesticides  Cultivation restriction
 High tensile strength
 Hemp textiles feel softer
 Environmentally friendly crop
 Requires low quantity of water
 No waste production
Ramie Boehmeria nivea  Wrinkle resistance  Requires chemical processes
 High strength to degum the fibre
 Stain resisting ability  Brittle and stiff
 Resistant to bacteria, mould and insect attack  High cost

agricultural crops. Several byproducts from commodity crops such reactions may occur between the dyes and thickening agents
as corn stalks (Reddy and Yang, 2005a), corn husks, rice and wheat resulting in unacceptable fibre handling. In view of price, Sostar
straw, sorghum stalk and leaves, banana leaves, pineapple leaves Turk and Schneider (1999) suggested partly substituted guar gum
(Reddy and Yang, 2005b), sugar cane stalks (Collier et al., 1992), hop as an acceptable alternative which do not causes fibre stiffness for
stems (Reddy and Yang, 2009a), soybean straw (Reddy and Yang, printing with monofunctional reactive dyes. It has also been re-
2009b), lotus petioles (Pan et al., 2011), Cordia dichotoma ported by the same authors (Sostar-Turk and Schneider, 2000) that
branches (Jayaramudu et al., 2011) and sugar cane straw (Costa highly substituted guar gum can be used in the printing of cotton
et al., 2013) have been studied to develop novel cellulose fibres with bifunctional reactive dyes with satisfactory results.
with mechanical properties similar to that of common textile fibres. Recently, Teli et al. (2009a) studied the textile printing ability of
Therefore, such a novel approach is a worthwhile route for the germinated maize starch which is generally discarded as a waste
production of natural fibres that will help the fibre industry to be product, and compared it with the starch from non-germinated
sustainable and also add value and increase the income from the maize. They analyzed the prints in terms of colour value (K/S and L*,
agricultural crops. Besides, it will provide a platform for the re- a*, b* value), bending length and fastness to washing and crocking.
searchers working in the field of textile science for the production According to their results, germinated maize starch which is ob-
of safe and novel textiles in the near future. tained from non-edible maize, can act as a full or partial substitute
for non-germinated or sound maize starch. Likewise, it has been
3. Plant polysaccharides as thickeners for textile printing observed that Amaranthus (Rajgeera) starch can be used as a
thickener to substitute wheat (Teli et al., 2009b) and maize (Teli
Thickening agents forms an essential part for applying colour to et al., 1996) starch in textile printings. Wheat and maize being
fabrics in definite patterns or designs. Generally, textile thickening staple foods are widely consumed all around the globe; therefore
agents are high molecular weight compounds; their function is to starch extraction from Amaranthus will decrease the load on con-
carry dyestuffs, chemicals and other printing assistants to textile sumption of wheat and maize starch as thickeners for textile
substrates during printing process. In other words, these agents printings.
impart adhesivity and plasticity to the printing paste that has to be To modify the native starch functional properties for better
applied onto the fabric. To carry this function, alginates, guar gum textile printing, the hydroxyl groups present in starch can be
and its derivatives, methyl and carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan substituted by negatively charged carboxymethyl groups in an
gum and some exudate gums are excellent candidates, since they esterification reaction. Tatongjai and Lumdubwong (2010) studied
can impart high viscosities at low concentrations and posses the the physiochemical properties and textile utilization of low- and
advocate rheological behaviour (Fijan et al., 2007). Beside Chemical moderate-substituted carboxymethyl rice starches containing
structures of some of these plant polysaccharides are presented in different amylose content. They reported that degree of substitu-
Fig. 2. The use of biodegradable thickeners is preferred because it tion had a greater effect than amylose content in the determination
has been established from the analysis of wastewaters that the use of physiochemical and functional properties of carboxymethyl rice
of guar thickeners is less harmful to the environment (Sostar and starches. Likewise, Meshram et al. (2009) investigated the chemical
Schneider, 1998). In addition to good quality prints, Schneider modification of starch via grafting using styrene and methyl
and Sostar-Turk (2003) also reported that the use of biodegrad- methacrylate/butyl acrylate as monomers to overcome or minimize
able additives and guar gum on cellulosic textiles results in the limitations of starch during sizing of cotton textiles. Further-
reduction of wastewater pollution. All polysaccharides, with the more, to reduce the solid wastes and wastewater pollution in the
exception of alginates containing reactive hydroxyl groups of textile printing industry, polysaccharide thickeners such as
higher reactivity must be substituted for their use in reactive alginate, carboxymethylated guar gum and carboxymethylated
printings. This is due to the fact that in some cases chemical cellulose have been recycled from printing paste residues and
S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18 5

- + - +
O O Na O O Na
OH
O OH
O O
HO O
OH O HO
O O
OH
O - +
OH O O Na
O

OH - +
O O Na

(a) Sodium alginate


OH OH COONa

O
OH O

HO O

HO
OH
O OH
OH
O O
OH
OH O
HO OH
O HO O HO
O HO O
O
O
OH
OH
OH n O n

(b) Guar gum COONa

(c) Carboxymethylated guar gum

OMe OMe OMe


O O O
O O O
O
OMe OMe OMe
OMe OMe OMe
n

(d) Methyl cellulose


OH OH

O
O O
OH HO
HO HO OH
OH O
O OH
O OH O O
HO HO
O O
OH OH
O HO OH OH
O HO
OH O OH O
O O
HO HO

OH OH
O O
Amylose Amylopectin
(e) Constituents of starch
OH OH

OH O OH
O
O OH
HO HO
HO O O O
HO
O O
OH OH

OH OH
n
O
O O
O
HO O OH
OH HO
O OH
O
H3C OH
O HO HO O CH3
O

(f) Xanthan gum


Fig. 2. Natural polysaccharides of plant origin used as thickeners in textile printing.
6 S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18

wastewater concentrates for the preparation of printing pastes for woad (Isatis tinctoria), Chinese woad (Isatis indigotica), and polyg-
monoreactive dyes (Fijan et al., 2009a, 2009b). Such a novel onum (Polygonum tinctorium) (John and Angelini, 2009). Growing
approach is of growing interest due to increasing attention to as- the indigo crops, harvesting them, ensuring seed supplies,
pects of environmental pollution, besides it will help to keep the improving yields, providing machinery to extract the indigo on
production costs for plant polysaccharides competitive. farm, purifying the product, and testing it for dye quality has been
The use of various gums has extensively been studied for their investigated in the project in order to assess its suitability in natural
printing properties. Recently, investigations have been conducted textiles production. Mirjalili et al. (2011) extracted and isolated
to improve the thickening properties of gums via adduct formation colour components from weld and used it for dyeing of wool fibres.
with suitable vinyl monomers by using free radical polymerization. Their results revealed that weld as a natural dye can be used as a
Polyacrylic acid/British gum (Abbas, 2004), polyacrylamide/guar viable alternative to synthetic acid dyes. Plant colorants offer a safer
gum (Ibrahim et al., 2003), polyacrylic acid/gum Arabic or dextrin dyeing alternative, so there has been much interest in the extrac-
(Abo-Shosha et al., 2006; Ibrahim et al., 2006), polyacrylic acid/ tion and isolation of new plant pigments for textile applications.
karaya gum and polyacrylic acid/tamarind seed gum (Abo-Shosha Guesmi et al. (2012) has reported indicaxanthin, a natural dye
et al., 2008) are some adducts which have shown excellent thick- extracted from fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica for wool dyeing. Like-
ening properties for their use in textile printings. wise, a chalcone compound isosalipurposide for wool dyeing was
isolated from Acacia cyanophylla yellow flowers (Ghouila et al.,
4. Newly discovered pigment crops 2012). The flavonoids luteolin-4-O-glucoside and 3-methyl-
quercetin have been isolated for the first time in Serratula tinctoria
Nature has always fascinated the mankind with brilliant and leaves by Guinot et al. (2009). They suggested that optimum har-
soothing colours. Human being has always been interested in col- vesting period of leaves for the flavonoid extraction should be at the
ours, in primitive times, seeds, flowers, stems, barks, berries, leaves end of plant growing cycle, when the flavonoids are particularly
from various plant species have been exploited for the extraction of concentrated. Vankar et al. (2008a) identified barberine, an iso-
natural colours; mainly for coloration of textiles and decoration of quinoline alkaloid from Mahonia napaulenensis, for wool, cotton
human caves and dwellings (Sinha et al., 2013). Till the late nine- and silk dyeing. Many industrial crops such as Reseda luteola L.
teenth century, all colours came from the natural products, as there (Angelini et al., 2003) and Rubia tinctorum (Angelini et al., 1997)
was no other means by which colour could have been derived. have shown good agronomic characteristics as dye crops in Medi-
However, the accidental discovery of synthetic dyes in 1856 by W.H. terranean area. Furthermore, the pigments, luteolin and alizarin
Perkin, and their immediate acceptability throughout the world, from the respective plants have resulted in good dye properties
the use of natural colours in textile industries almost vanished after application on silk, cotton and wool yarns. Siva et al. (2012)
(Holme, 2006). has examined anthraquinone dye production from in vitro-estab-
In recent years, the world has become increasingly aware of the lished root cultures of Oldenlandia umbellata L. They suggested that
environmental issues. Synthetic dyestuff, in particular, has come through in vitro culture anthraquinone dye production can be
under severe criticism for their high environmental pollution at the maintained throughout the year.
stage of manufacturing as well as application (Oh et al., 1997; Recent research in natural colorants and pigments suggests the
Guesmi et al., 2013a). On the other hand, dyes derived from natu- following advantages (Sinha et al., 2012a; Leitner et al., 2012).
ral sources, especially from plants are considered to be biode-
gradable, non-allergic and less toxic than synthetic counterparts.  There is no chemical processing required in their preparation.
Although, toxicity studies on natural dyes for textile applications  No health hazards and sometimes may act as health cure.
have been very limited, however many researchers have reported  Being biodegradable, exhibit higher compatibility with the
that there is negligible evidence about the possibility of their environment.
adverse reactions to humans (Sewekov, 1988; Wanyama et al.,  They are harmonized with nature.
2012). Owing to these facts, there is an increasing recognition  May show insect repellent, UV blocking, deodorising and
that a shift towards natural pigments could contribute greatly to- antimicrobial properties.
wards sustainability of the textile industry. Consequently, consid-
erable research work on the use of natural dyes for textile Considering special advantages and high perspectives of the
coloration has already been done and is currently underway all application of plant-derived pigments in textiles, a vast number of
around the globe (Ali et al., 2009; Komboonchoo and Bechtold, industrial plants are being scrutinized for the identification of color
2009). At present, new alternative pigment crops are being compounds. The color components obtained from many plant parts
sought in order to meet the growing demand for natural pigments. such as, leaves, fruits, seeds, flowers, barks, and roots from diverse
In the year 2000 (Bhuyan and Saikia, 2005), a study was initiated at plant species are summarized in Table 2.
the RRL (CSIR), Johrat to extract dyes from parts of five different Nowadays scientific efforts are being made for the production of
plants such as Morinda angustifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Tectona grandis, natural dyes with lower specific costs and new strategies for textile
Mimusops elengi, and Terminalia arjuna indigenous to northeastern dyeing are being established for the industrial acceptance of natural
India. It was observed that colour components isolated from these pigments. An alternative cost competitive route for the production
plant species mainly contain anthraquinone and flavonoids moi- of natural colorants is through the use of by-products and wastes
eties. The colorimetric results obtained, after application of these from food, timber and agricultural industries (Bechtold et al., 2006).
aforementioned pigments on natural silk and cotton fabrics Table 3 summarizes some of the plant pigments that have been
demonstrated that these plants may be alternative source to syn- recently extracted from several industrial wastes and used in textile
thetic dyes for textile dyeing. Recently, a research project entitled dyeing.
“Sustainable Production of Plant-derived Indigo Research & The availability of natural colours from colored plant wastes
Development” commonly known by Spindigo supported by the released from the food and beverage industry for textile dyeing are
European Community has been scheduled (2001e2004) to evaluate considered to be an important economical and sustainable source
the techno-economic feasibility of indigo-yielding crops with the for natural textile-dyeing operations (Bechtold et al., 2006). Shams-
aim to re-introduce it into European agriculture (John, 2009; John Nateri (2011) has reported the reuse of the waste water of madder
et al., 2005). The indigo comes from crops of Indigofera tinctoria, as a natural dye for wool dyeing. He observed that the color
S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18 7

Table 2
Some important natural colorants from industrial plants.

Plant Family Parts used Pigment Class Colours Reference


obtained

Acacia Arabica Fabaceae Bark Catecin, Epicatecin Tannin Yellow Samanta et al., 2008
Acacia cyanophylla Fabaceae Flower Isosalipurposide Chalcone Yellow Ghouila et al., 2012
Albizia lebbeck Fabaceae Bark Quercetin Flavonoid Brick red Baliarsingh et al., 2012
Allium cepa Liliaceae Dried skin Quercetol Flavonoid Orange Lokhande and Dorugade, 1999
Alkanna tinctoria Boraginaceae Root Alkannin Napthoquinone Red Rekaby et al., 2009
Acacia catechu Mimosaceae Wood Catechin Anthocyanin Brown Khan et al., 2011a
Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Wood Morol Flavonoid Yellow Prusty et al., 2010
Adhatoda vasica Acantaceae Leaves Vasicine Alkaloid Yellow Gokhale et al., 2004
Berberis aristata Berberidaceae Bark Berberine Alkaloid Yellow Pruthi et al., 2008
Berberis vulgaris Berberidaceae Root/Bark Berberine Alkaloid Yellowish Aminoddin, 2010
Butea monosperma Fabaceae Flower Butryin, Isobutyrin Flavonoid Yellow, orange Sinha et al., 2012a
Bixa orellana Bixaceae Seeds Bixin Carotenoid Yellow Sinha et al., 2013
Caesalpinia sappan Caesalpiniaceae Wood Braziline Dihydropyran Red Samanta et al., 2008
Carthamus tinctorius Asteraceae Flower Carthamin Benzoquinone Yellow, red Gokhale et al., 2004
Chlorophora tinctoria Moraceae Wood Morin, Maclurin Benzoquinone Yellow Kumar and Sinha, 2010
Coffea Arabica Rubiaceae Beans Caffeine Alkaloid Brown Lee, 2007
Crocus sativus Iridaceae Flower Crocetin Carotenoid Yellow, orange Liakopoulou-Kyriakides
et al., 1998
Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae Rhizome Curcumin Carotenoid Yellow Sachan and Kapoor, 2007
Datisca cannabina Datiscaceace Leaves Datiscetin Flavonoid Yellow Deveoglu et al., 2012
Eclipta alba Asteraceae Leaves Wedelolactone Coumarin Brown Vankar et al., 2007a
Eucalyptus Myrtaceae Leaves Galllic acid, Quercetin Tannin/Flavonoid Yellow Mongkholrattanasit
et al., 2010
Fraxinus excelsior Oleaceae Bark Rutin, Quercitrin Flavonoid Yellow Bechtold et al., 2007a
Garcinia mangostana Guttiferae Fruit Cyanidin-3-sophoroside Cyanidin Orange/brown Chairat et al., 2007
Haematoxylan Leguminosae Heartwood Haematoxylin Dihydropyran Red Pawlak et al., 2006
compechianum
Isatis tinctoria Brassicaeae Leaves Indigo Indigoid Blue Barani et al., 2012
Indigofera tinctoria Fabaceace Leaves Indirubin,Indican Indigoid Blue Wu et al., 1999
Juglans regia Juglandaceae Bark Juglone Napthoquinone Brown Jangwan et al., 2007
Lawsonia inermis Lytheraceae Leaves Lawsone Napthoquinone Orange Yusuf et al., 2012
Lithospermum Boraginaceae Roots Shikonin Napthoquinone Red Feng et al., 2007
erythrorhizon
Mahonia napaulensis Berberidaceae Bark Berberine Alkaloid Greenish yellow Vankar et al., 2008a
Mallotus philippinensis Euphorbiaceae Fruit Rottlerin Chalcone Red/yellow Khan et al., 2011b
Melastoma malabathricum Melastomataceae Fruit Casuraricitin, Anthocyanin Black Vankar et al., 2009
Mimosa tenuiflora Fabaceae Bark Condensed tannins Tannins Purple Erkan et al., 2011
Mimusops elengi Sapotaceae Bark Quercetin, Myricetin Flavonoid Brown Bhuyan and Saikia, 2005
Morinda angustifolia Rubiaceae Roots Morindone Anthraquinone Brown Bhuyan et al., 2002
Morinda citrifolia Rubiaceae Root Morindone Anthraquinone Red Morton, 1992
Myrica esculenta Myricaceae Bark Myricetol Flavonoid Yellow Akhtar et al., 2012
Nyctanthes arbortristis Oleaceae Flower Nyctanthin Caroteniod Bright orange Kumar and Sinha, 2010
Opuntia ficus-indica Cactaceae Fruit Indicaxanthin Betalain Yellow, orange Guesmi et al., 2013a
Opuntia lasiacantha Cactaceae Fruit e Betalain Yellow, orange Ali and El-Mohamedy, 2011
Pterocarpus santalinus Fabaceae Wood Santalin Flavonoid Red Samanta et al., 2008
Punica granatum Lythraceae Fruit Punicalgin Tannin Yellow Sinha et al., 2012b
Polygonum tinctorium Polygonaceae Leaves Indican Indigoid Blue Campeol et al., 2006
Quercus infectoria Lythraceae Rind Gallic acid, Ellagic acid Tannin Yellowish Shahid et al., 2012
Reseda luteola Resedaceae Leaves/Seeds Luteolin Flanonoid Yellow Angelini et al., 2003
Rheum emodi Polygonaceae Root Rhein, Emodin Anthraquinone Yellow Khan et al., 2012
Rhizoma coptidis Ranumculaceae Root Berberine Isoquinoline Yellow Ke et al., 2006
Rubia cordifolia Rubiaceae Root Pupurin, Rubiacordone Anthaquinone Red Bhuyan and Saikia, 2005
Rubia tinctorum Rubiaceae Root Alizarin Anthraquinone Red Santis and Moresi, 2007
Saraca asoca Caesalpinaceae Bark (þ)-Catechin Tannin Brick red Baliarsingh et al., 2012
Serratula tinctoria Asteraceae Leaves Luteolin Flavonoid Yellow Guinot et al., 2009
Solidago Canadensis Asteraceae Plant Quercetin, Quercitirin Flavonoid Golden yellow Leitner et al., 2012
Sophora japonica Leguminosae Seedpod/Flower Rutin Flavonoid Yellow Chen et al., 2010
Tabebuia avellanedae Bignoniaceae Heartwood Lapachol Napthoquinone Yellow Hussain et al., 2007
Tagetes erecta Asteraceae Flower Lutein Carotenoid Yellow Montazer and Parvinzadeh, 2007
Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae Bark Baicalein, Ellagic acid Tannin Light brown Bhuyan and Saikia, 2005
Terminalia chebula Combretaceae Bark-Fruit Chebulinic acid Tannin Pink, yellow Kumar and Sinha, 2010
Tectona grandis Verbenaceae Leaves Tectoquinone, Anthaquinone Yellow Bhuyan and Saikia, 2005
Tectoleafquinone

parameters and fastness properties of dyed wool samples in rosemary, rose, lavender, mate tea extracts left after oil extraction
reconstructed dye bath are the same as that of initial wool dyeing. from many factories in Turkey create serious environmental
The economic analysis of the study also showed that the reusing pollution, however these have been efficiently utilized for the
wastewater can cause 19.91% cost saving in wool dyeing with extraction of natural dyes and used to obtain ecological dyeing on
madder. In addition to textile coloration such promising approach cationized cotton fabric and woolen yarn with satisfactory results
may result in the useful utilization of wastewaters, thus provides an (Bulut and Akar, 2012). Meksi et al. (2012) also studied olive mill
efficient way of waste minimization. Some plant wastes such as wastewater (OMW), which is a by-product of the olive oil
8 S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18

Table 3 plant species which can be used in textile industry, therefore


Wastes and by-products from different industries as sustainable sources of natural research trials are being conducted on industrial plants in order to
dyes.
screen and select species that are fit for modern sustainable culti-
Plant/crop Type of product Wastes as natural Reference vation techniques (Ganglberger, 2009). It is to be noted that con-
dye source
ventional farming methods for the cultivation of industrial plant
Grape Wine Pomace Bechtold et al., 2007b species use energy, water and synthetic agrochemicals as the main
Onion Food Peel Bechtold et al., 2006 inputs. For plants to be utilized in natural textile industry, a com-
Red beet Food Peel
mon requirement is organic certification. This means that the in-
Black tea Food Extracted residue
Raspberries Juice Pomace dustrial plant species are cultivated under the conditions
Black elder Juice Pomace prescribed by organic farming. The Oeko-Tex Association, Inter-
Sour cherries Liquor Distilled residue nationaler Verband der Naturtextilwirtschaft (IVN), Organic Trade
Cherries Strong liquor Distilled residue
Association (USA), Soil Association (UK), and Organic and Crop
Blackcurrant Juice Pomace
Elder Strong liquor Distilled residue
Improvement Association (OCIA) are some of the national and in-
Pomegranate Food Peel Sinha et al., 2012b ternational organizations dealing with the organic certification of
Olive tree Food Waste water extract Meksi et al., 2012 products (Dawson, 2012). The development of organically pro-
Rosemary Oil Extracted residue Bulut and Akar, 2012 duced fibres and dyes from abundantly available plants constitute
Rose Oil Extracted residue
an attractive choice for the modern green textile industry. Vogl and
Lavender Oil Extracted residue
Mate tea Oil Extracted residue Hartl (2003) in their review article overviewed the production and
Saffron Spice Petal Raja et al., 2012 processing of organically grown fibre nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and its
Ash-tree Timber Bark Bechtold et al., 2007a potential use in the natural textile industry. In the year 2003, at the
Teak Timber Leaves Prusty et al., 2010
Thüringer Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft (Germany), 108 dye
Orange Food Peel Hou et al., 2013
plant species have been assessed on the basis of their suitability for
modern cultivations systems, on yields, and on dyeing quality
(Hartl and Vogl, 2003). Likewise in Austria some of industrial plants
such as Madder (R. tinctorum), Weld (R. luteola), Canadian Golden
extraction process as a potential source of natural dye for textile
Rod (Solidago canadensis), Dyer’s Chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria),
dyeing. Their study indicated that olive mill wastewater as a natural
and Dyer’s Knotweed (P. tinctorium) have achieved the agricultural
dye contributes to resolve the environmental problem of olive mill
criteria for sustainable cultivation. Besides, these plants have fitted
wastewater. They also suggested that such a natural dye being
the requirements stated by the modern dyehouses and textile in-
renewable, available with large quantities in Tunisia and in all olive
dustry (Ganglberger, 2009). The promising results obtained by us-
oil producing countries with free costs can be recommended for
ing these plant species in textile industries create an opportunity
industrial application if it is used in conjunction with ecofriendly
for farmers to produce more such crops in the near future.
metal mordants.
In order to meet the future demand of natural colorants in
6. Techniques for extraction of pigments from industrial
textile dyeing, in addition to cost competitive approaches many
plants
researchers have focused on the use of novel technologies as pre-
treatment methods such as UV radiation (Iqbal et al., 2008),
Due to the growing awareness about the cleaner surroundings,
gamma radiation (Bhatti et al., 2010; Rehman et al., 2012), plasma
not only the use of natural products the techniques employed in
treatment (Ghoranneviss et al., 2011), enzyme treatment (Vankar
their extraction are constantly revived. Currently, there are a
et al., 2007b), chitosan treatment (Dev et al., 2009) and post-
number of methods used to extract the natural agents from plants.
treatment methods such as ammonia treatment (Montazer and
Table 4 highlights the merits and demerits of some selective
Parvinzadeh, 2004, 2007) to overcome the limitations with natu-
techniques used for natural pigments extraction.
ral dyeing, particularly fastness and to impart other value added
functional properties to naturally dyed textiles. The effect of such
6.1. Soxhlet extraction
treatments on fabrics dyed with plant derived colorants have
significantly improved the color strength, enhanced the rating of
Soxhlet extraction is one of the traditional methods used to
fastness properties, resulted in the development of beautiful shades
extract natural agents from plant sources. The main disadvantages
on various textile substrates and other functional properties in an
which have hampered its use at present are several hours of
environmental friendly manner. On the account of these facts, the
extraction time, chances of damage to thermolabile compounds
textile companies all over the world are showing growing interest
present in the extract and consumption of large amount of solvent
to re-establish the technology in their production line. An addi-
and energy. Recently, the advancement in technology has brought
tional aspect which is interesting and very attractive is the use of
into focus the new fast and efficient unconventional methods for
natural dye waste produced after extraction of colorants as a readily
the extraction of natural products; these new methods have
available and excellent material for heavy metal adsorption from
delivered better results and are discussed below.
waste waters (Vankar et al., 2011). These additional benefits seem
to work as a catalyst or deriving force to attract R&D attention for
6.2. Ultrasonic extraction
their large-scale implementation in future textile industry.
Ultrasound is classified according to frequency range as power
5. Selection of suitable industrial plants e a real concern for ultrasound (20e100 kHz) and diagnostic ultrasound (1e10 MHz).
modern dye house and textile industry It is known to produce cavitations in the sample to be investi-
gated, and the collapse of these cavitation bubbles induces a
Over the past few years, the demand for sustainable materials, mechanical stress on the cells. This results in cell disruption and
products and services is increasing due to the growing environ- penetration of the solvent into the cells. In this way, it increases
mental, health-related and social awareness of consumers (Islam the solubilization of the compound and finally the extraction yield
et al., 2013; Shahid et al., 2013). As there are about thousands of (Leonelli and Mason, 2010). The use of ultrasound technique has
S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18 9

Table 4
Some methods used to extract pigments from plant materials for textile applications.

Method Advantages Disadvantages

Conventional maceration  Simple  Low extraction yield


 Can be used for both initial and bulk extractions  Time consuming
 Does not leads to thermal degradation  Requires large quantity of solvents
Soxhlet extraction  Simple process  Possibility of thermal degradation
 Recycling of solvent  Large volume of solvent required
 No filtration of extract required  Long time process
 Maintains high extraction temperature  May produce toxicity due to solvents
Ultrasound assisted extraction  Faster process  Limited extraction efficiency
 High efficiency  May result in wastage of ultrasonic
 Use of low temperatures energy by using ultrasonic bath
 Reduces energy costs
 Increases extraction yield
 High concentration and purity
Microwave extraction  Simple method  May require filtration after extraction
 Reduces the extraction time  Instrument cost
 Reduces solvent use
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  High yield  Use of co-solvents
 Environment friendly process  Extraction depends on flow rate
 Elimination of solvent residues  High cost of equipment
 Improved functionality  Elevated pressure requirement
 No product degradation
 Low cost of CO2
 Faster process

proven to be a better method in comparison with the conven- energy input are reduced, less solvent consumption and protection
tional heating. Recently, natural colorants from green wattle bark, to thermolabile compounds.
marigold flowers, pomegranate rinds, 4 o clock plant flowers and
cocks comb flowers (Sivakumar et al., 2011) and tannins from 6.4. Carbon dioxide extraction
myrobalan nuts (Sivakumar et al., 2007) showed that ultrasound
improves their extraction efficiency in a faster and effective Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is one of the environ-
manner. In addition to extraction, ultrasound being a clean tech- mental friendly extraction methods. In this type of extraction, the
nology has other potential uses in the textile industry like desiz- pressurized CO2 is pumped into the chamber filled with the plant
ing (Wang et al., 2012), scouring (Bahtiyari and Duran, 2013), material. The pressurized CO2 posses liquid like properties, while
dyeing (Vankar et al., 2007b) and so on. It has been used to being in gases state. By this technique a number of natural agents
overcome the limitations of traditional or conventional methods with potent antimicrobial properties have been extracted. The main
commonly available for dyeing, a transfer to sonication method advantages offered by this technique are the ease of recovery of the
which uses ultrasound being highly efficient, energy saving, solute and the recycling of the solvent by the simple manipulation
economical and low waste generation technique can produce of the temperature or pressure (Lang and Wai, 2001). Supercritical
quality dyed fabrics (Guesmi et al., 2013a, 2013b). Power ultra- carbon dioxide can also be used as medium for dye application
sound has also taken a significant place in chemical and physical without generating aqueous effluents; this new method has many
activities of the process industries, particularly in leather sector advantages, such as no waste water, no auxiliaries, high dyeing rate
(Sivakumar et al., 2008, 2009). In general, ultrasonic has lowered and good levelling results (Hou et al., 2010; Long et al., 2013).
the hurdles associated with the extraction and application of
natural pigments from plants for their high value utilization in 7. Some prominent functions imparted to the textiles
textile industry.
In present scenario, the lifestyle of people has greatly improved in
6.3. Microwave extraction comparison with past decades. Consequently, there is a greater de-
mand in the market place for functional finishes on textiles. Con-
Microwaves are electromagnetic radiations, the use of micro- sumers have become extremely concerned about health and hygiene,
waves as a heating source for the extraction of natural products is provoking researchers to explore new natural agents which are safer
extensively reported in the literature (Abramovitech, 1991; than synthetic counterparts for functional finishing of textiles. Some
Majetich and Hicks, 1995). Basically, microwaves are associated of the prominent properties which have been obtained on textiles in
with electric and magnetic fields, which are oscillating at perpen- recent years using plant products are discussed below.
dicular directions with respect to each other. The electric field
component is responsible for its heating effects. Microwave 7.1. Insect repellent property
extraction has been shown to depend upon many factors, such as
the nature of solvent and volume, extraction temperature, time, Insect repellent textiles are a part of protective textiles which
microwave power and characteristics of the product under help in protection from the insects that are prone to cause damage
consideration. Owing to this, several approaches for optimization in some or the other manner. These textiles act as a barrier and
and process modelling are under investigation. Currently, response protect the human beings from the bites of mosquitoes and other
surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) are insects, thereby promising safety from the diseases like malaria,
the common modeling methodologies used in the extraction of dengue fever (DF), Nile fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF),
pigments from plants materials for their better industrial applica- chicken gunia and filariasis (Sumithra and Raja, 2012). In addition
tions (Sinha et al., 2012b, 2013). In general, the extraction with to health concerns, insect repellents may also prevent valuable loss
microwaves offers many advantages such as the reaction time and of textile products, including carpets, garments, upholstered
10 S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18

furniture, blankets, and priceless heirlooms by impeding the insect and other commercial activities. In fact, deodorizing has become an
attacks on these textiles. To impart insect-repellent functionality to entrenched social need .On the account of this fact, textile sub-
textile substrates, the use of insect repellents that are safe, pleasant strates particularly cotton, silk and wool have been incorporated
to use and environment friendly are nowadays gaining popularity with various natural agents from different plant extracts such as
among the consumers. For the very purpose, interest in natural Gardenia, coffee sludge, coffee pod and pomegranate. The resultant
products, particularly on plant-based agents is growing rapidly. fabrics showed quite high deodorizing properties .It has been re-
Generally, as natural products plants-based repellents are ported to be about 99% in case of pomegranate treated fabrics
perceived as safer in comparison to the long-established synthetic (Hwang et al., 2008). Lee et al. (2008) reported high deodorizing
counter materials. However, this assertion cannot be made with properties of cotton fabrics after treatment with Amur cork tree,
100% certainty as toxicological studies on these agents have been Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Chrysanthemum boreale and Artemisia
very limited; these have been used for centuries in the form of extracts. More recently, different biopolymers such as Aloe vera, tea
crude fumigants where plants were burnt to drive away nuisance tree oil, neem oil have been investigated for their odor-absorbing
mosquitoes and later as oil formulations applied to the skin or properties, for their application in wound dressings (Lee et al.,
clothes (Maia and Moore, 2011). 2009). More recently, cyclodextrin is being studied for the
Recently, it has been suggested that pyrethrum may be a po- removal of odor compounds present in human sweet by
tential alternative candidate for the impregnation of mosquito nets complexation reaction (Buschmann et al., 2001). The cross-linking
and textiles in areas where resistance to pyrethroids has become of cotton fabric with rosemary, jasmine, lavender and vanillin
problematic (Duchon et al., 2009). Pyrethrum is derived from the perfumes by polycarboxylic acids such as citric acid were retained
dried flowers of Chrysanthemum Cinerariaefolium, it shows insec- by such fabrics for longer durations.
ticidal activity by causing prolonged depolarization of the insects’ To improve the effectiveness and the durability of the fragrances
presynaptic-nerve sodium channels. Likewise, in recent years, on the textiles, microencapsulation technology has delivered
various essential oils from aromatic crops have been reported as promising results. Using this technology, many companies have
novel mosquito repellents (Maia and Moore, 2011). The main manufactured new fabrics with natural aroma of herbal products
disadvantage with plant based repellents is that some of their retained upto many wash cycles (Nelson, 2002).
active ingredients tend to be volatile, so although they are effective
repellents for a short period after application, they rapidly evapo- 7.3. UV-protection property
rate leaving the user unprotected. To overcome this limitation,
microencapsulation technology has been introduced to the textile Ultraviolet protection offered by the textiles is another prop-
industry. In a recent study, Specos et al. (2010) has prepared mi- erty that has been the subject of considerable research in recent
crocapsules containing citronella essential oil for application to years. Lifestyle changes, such as over exposure to solar UV radi-
cotton textiles. They reported that such fabrics had a higher and ations have been identified as the cause of an increase in the
longer lasting protection from insects (higher than 90% for three incidence of skin problems such as sunburns, premature ageing,
weeks) compared to fabrics which were sprayed with an ethanol allergies and skin cancers (Fig. 3). This has necessitated the
solution of the essential oil. development of UV protective clothing. The blocking properties of
The technological advancements in the field have also lead to textiles have been shown to depend upon many factors such as
the use of cyclodextrins and their derivatives because of their in- fibre type, fabric construction and nature of finishing chemicals. In
clusion forming ability with variety of insecticides (Abdel-Mohdy this regard, many diverse naturally occurring products have been
et al., 2008). Complex forming ability of cyclodextrin with natu- utilized for the application onto the textile surfaces. Sun and Tang
rally occurring insecticides produced from plants is a new concept (2011) has reported first application of extract of honeysuckle in
to develop insect-repellent textiles. Hebeish et al. (2008) has textile industry. Honeysuckle is actually dried flower bud of
investigated the complex formation between b-cyclodextrin and Lonicera japonica, rich in chlorogenic acid. It was applied to the
limonene, a naturally occurring insecticide present in citrus and wool fabrics in order to study its UV protection property. The
other fruits for the development of durable insect repellent cotton results demonstrated that the extract of honeysuckle can provide
fabrics. A high insect-repellent activity was retained by the limo- very high UV blocking properties when applied on the textiles.
nene treated cotton fabrics. Likewise, other natural products of plant origin are considered as
Moreover, naturally occurring quinone, flavonoid and indigoid a primary tool in shielding UV rays, being environment friendly
rich compounds from different plant extracts such as madder, are increasingly finding their way into the textile industry (Feng
walnut, chestnut, logwood and indigoid have shown promising et al., 2007). Wang et al. (2009) has studied the UV protection
results to obstruct the growth of many insects that cause serious of silk fabrics using vegetable dye extracted from Flos sophorae.
destruction of wool made textiles (Park et al., 2005). Kato et al. The extract showed quite high UV blocking activity after appli-
(2004) has also studied damage to wool fabrics dyed with cation on the fabric. Recently, in a study, Grifoni et al. (2009)
different natural and chemical dyestuffs by the larvae of varied investigated the UV protection properties of flax and hemp fab-
carpet beetle, Anthrenus verbasci. They observed that most of the rics after treatment with some natural dyes. The natural dyes
natural dyestuffs used in their study posses insect repellent activity. proved quite effective in order to confer UV protection properties.
In future, there is need of more research particularly on the iden- Kim (2006) and Mongkholrattanasit et al. (2011) are among the
tification and toxicological studies of active ingredients from plants researcher who have investigated the UV blocking property of
before these can be recommended for development of eco-friendly cotton and silk fabrics after application of green tea and euca-
insect repellent textiles. If imperative toxicological testing of plant lyptus leaf extracts respectively. In this context, both the authors
derived repellents is carried out, these could provide a viable observed quite high UV protection properties imparted by the
alternative to toxic synthetic agents. extracts. Furthermore, they suggested that these natural products
have the potential to be used in high value textile applications.
7.2. Deodorizing and aroma property Nowadays, more diverse natural products such as cyclodextrins
are increasingly being researched to impart enhanced UV
In recent years, many products from plants are becoming pop- protection and other novel functions to the textiles (Ibrahim
ular for discharging of foul smells, which are generated by factories et al., 2010).
S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18 11

Fig. 3. Schematic representation of UV protection offered by natural agents derived from plants.

7.4. Flame retardant property these natural products. Owing to this fact, a great deal of scientific
effort has been focused on discovering antimicrobial properties of
Flame retardants are emerging as novel agents, are used to some plant products for their application onto the textile sub-
prevent the property and personal loses caused by fire. These strates. Globally, considerable research work is currently under-
agents are found in textiles of various uses. Currently, flame retar- way on textile coloration with natural dyes for development of
dant textiles are increasingly researched all around the globe. This antimicrobial textiles (Gupta et al., 2004). Recently, Singh et al.
fact is evident by a number of review articles which have been (2005) studied the antimicrobial activity of four natural color-
published by several researchers (Horrocks et al., 2005; Zhang and ants against common infection causing pathogens such as
Horrocks, 2003). In present scenario, natural product particularly Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vul-
cyclodextrin have been widely used in flame retardant textiles garis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They observed that antimicro-
(Huang et al., 2001). These natural polymers act as a physical bar- bial activity of the natural dye varies when the dye is present in
rier to limit the heat, fuel and oxygen transfer between the flame solution phase and when adhered to the textile substrate. The
and the textile substrate in an ecofriendly manner. mechanism proposed was based on the modification of functional
groups responsible for the activity in the dye molecules by inter-
7.5. Antibacterial and antifungal property action with the fibres. Calis et al. (2009) also studied antimicrobial
effect of R. tinctorum, Allium cepa, Punica granatum L and Mentha
Besides the above mentioned beneficial aspects, extensive sp. extracts on a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. They found
research has been carried out to exploit biologically active com- that only P. granatum extract was effective against most of the
pounds from plants for antimicrobial activities. The most bacteria. All of these natural agents showed high inhibition to-
commonly occurring compounds from plants with antimicrobial wards the gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria.
properties, include phenolics and polyphenols (simple phenols, Furthermore, Han and Yang (2005) determined the relationship
phenolic acids, quinones, flavonoids, tannins and coumarins), ter- between bactericidal inhibition rate and curcumin concentration
penoids, essential oils, alkaloids, lectins, polypeptides and poly- on wool fibres as substrates. The antimicrobial activity of the dyed
acetylenes (Simoncic and Tomsic, 2010). wool fabric against both gram-negative bacteria; E. coli as well as
gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus was found to be
7.6. Industrial plants as sustainable source of biologically active dependent on curcumin concentration only up to 0.2% (w/v). The
agents for textiles reason for this could be due to the lack of proper diffusion as the
finishing agent becomes sticky and gummy at higher concentra-
Textiles are the potential vectors for pathogenic microorgan- tions (Prusty et al., 2010). Son et al. (2007) reported the application
isms. Prolonged contact with the textile substrates has continu- of natural cationic colorant barberine on nylon 66 fibres. The
ously increased microbial infections. Owing to this, there has been resulted nylon fibres showed almost 99.9% bacterial reduction
enormous use of oxidizing agents, halogens, metal based com- against S. aureus (ATCC 6538) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC
plexes, phenolic compounds and quaternary ammonium salts to 4352) strains. Berberine has been shown to possess a quaternary
prevent microbial growth on textiles (Gao and Cranston, 2008). Due ammonium salt like structure, with a positive charge on nitrogen
to non-biodegradability, synthetic agents have lethal effects on all atom that might be responsible for its antimicrobial activity (Kim
forms of life. To minimize the environmental risks associated with and Son, 2005).
the application of synthetic antimicrobial agents, there has been a
great demand towards natural bioactive agents in recent years for 8. Natural products reducing the use of toxic metal salts in
the development of ecofriendly, antimicrobial textiles (Joshi et al., textile applications
2009).
Over the last half-century, industrial plants, particularly dye Metallic salt mordants are commonly known to be responsible
yielding have increasingly demonstrated the potential in the pre- for the formation of co-ordinate bonds with the functional groups
vention of microbial infections (Das et al., 2011). This idea has lead of dye molecules and the textile substrate (Khan et al., 2012). It has
to the fact that antimicrobial clothing might be developed from been observed that mordants may increase dye exhaustion, shade
12 S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18

variation, fastness and other fibre properties (Bhuyan and Saikia, antimicrobial and aroma finished cotton clothing. The resultant
2005; Samanta and Agarwal, 2009). cotton fabric showed high antimicrobial efficacy against gram
The use of metallic mordants introduces an additional role in the positive S. aureus than gram negative E. coli bacteria.
functional treatment of textile materials. On the other hand, it Sathianarayanan et al. (2011) reported antibacterial finish for cot-
might have some toxic effects (Burkinshaw and Kumar, 2009). In ton using methanolic extract of Thymus serphyllum seeds. Likewise,
this context, natural mordants are receiving renewed attention as Fadhel et al. (2012) studied antibacterial effects of two Tunisian
pre-treatment methods in textile applications for improving dye Eucalyptus leaf extracts, namely Eucalyptus odorata and Eucalyptus
exhaustion and fixation as well as the colorimetric, fastness and cinerea on wool and cotton fabrics. It was observed that among the
antimicrobial properties. Recently many environmental friendly two extracts only E. odorata extract displays antibacterial activity
mordants from industrial plants, namely Eurya acuminate DC var after treatment on the fabrics. The other bioactive agents that have
euprista Karth (Vankar et al., 2008b), Catechu an extract from the portrayed promising results include Aloe vera (Jothi, 2009), aza-
heart wood of Acacia catechu (Mansour and Heffernan, 2011), dirachtin (neem leaf extract) (Vaideki et al., 2008), Ocimum sanctum
lemon juice (Singh and Purohit, 2012), Tamarindus indica L. seed leaves extract (Rajendran et al., 2013), prickly chaff flower
coat tannin (Prabhu and Teli, 2011), Emblica officinalis G. dried fruit (Achyranthus aspera), tulsi leaves (Ocimum basilicum) and pome-
tannin (Prabhu et al., 2011), Terminalia chebula powder (Samanta granate rind (P. granatum) extracts (Thilagavathi et al., 2005;
et al., 2011), Rumex hymenosepolus root (Aminoddin, 2010) and Sathianarayanan et al., 2010). In addition, many herbal oils
tannic acid (Burkinshaw and Kumar, 2009) have reduced the risk of including neem oil (Ibrahim et al., 2011), clove, tulsi and karanga
environmental pollution from toxic metal salts mordants, besides (Joshi et al., 2009) and more recently thyme essential oils
some of these have also imparted antimicrobial property to the (Walentowska and Foksowicz-Flaczyk, 2013) are reported in the
fabrics. More recently, Guesmi et al. (2013b) has reported the first literature to impart antibacterial properties on natural textiles.
application of chlorophyll-a as an ecofriendly bio-mordant for wool Furthermore to overcome the limitation of wash durability of
fabrics. Results from the study indicate that there is an increase in finishes on the textile fibres, a variety of novel approaches are being
the color strength values with the increase in the concentration of employed, including crosslinking of agent with resin, embedding
bio-mordant. Therefore it can be predicted that plant-derived liquid bioactive components such as essential oils into a solegel
mordants may be a viable alternative to toxic metal salts used in matrix, and microencapsulation using phase separation/coacerva-
textiles in the near future. tion followed by the application of microencapsules using a pade
dryecure method (Simoncic and Tomsic, 2010). To move forward,
9. Application of natural polyphenols from plants there is a need to keep on studying and testing more and more
advanced technologies in the future for the extraction and appli-
Natural polyphenols also called tannins are obtained from cation of bioactive agents on the textiles.
various parts of the plants such as bark, wood, fruit, fruit rind,
leaves, roots and plant galls (Surveswaran et al., 2007). They play 11. Recent advancements e new insight into green
very important role in textile finishing, preservation of leather and nanotechnology
are widely reported for antimicrobial property (Burkinshaw and
Kumar, 2009; Prabhu and Teli, 2011). Tannins are strong antioxi- Biological or natural product based agents exploited today for
dants protecting against oxidative tissue damage (Shi et al., 2003), textile applications may have problem of poor adhesion, complex
protect animal cells against UV radiation induced damage (Carini nature and durability on textiles. To overcome these limitations, the
et al., 2000) and have also been found effective in urinary tract incorporation of nanotechnology into textile industry is a new
infections (Foo et al., 2000). Recently, many tannin based natural concept, which has been introduced in recent years. Numerous
dyes have demonstrated excellent antimicrobial properties in so- studies have been conducted on distinct varieties of nanoparticles
lution form and after application on textile fibres (Gupta et al., for their use in various textile modifications (Dastjerdi and
2004; Gupta and Laha, 2007). Montazer, 2010; Montazer and Pakdel, 2011). As a consequence,
Interestingly, the mechanism of antimicrobial activity has not new products have been introduced to consumers, employing the
been clearly elucidated yet. How the environment around the novel features of nanoparticles.
active site of polyphenolic compounds might affect their antimi- Chemical approaches are the most popular methods for the
crobial activity has been described in a review (Schofield et al., production of nanoparticles. However, some chemical methods
2001), where it has been shown that their biological activity de- cannot avoid the use of toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocol.
pends upon the molar content and spatial configuration of o- These are quite expensive and potentially dangerous to the envi-
phenolic hydroxylic groups. Further information about the poly- ronment. Therefore, biological methods using natural products
phenol/fibre interaction mechanism may anticipate their role in such as yeast, fungi, bacteria and plant extracts have been sug-
development of bioactive textiles in the near future. Currently, the gested as possible ecofriendly alternatives for the control synthesis
main drawback that complicates tannin applications in textiles fi- of biocompatible nanoparticles. In fact, nanoparticles synthesized
bres is their complexity and diversity of structures, presence of through greener routes are considered as much safer for human
mixtures of phenolic compounds and lack of in-depth toxicological use. Moreover, these have emerged up as novel antimicrobial
studies. This is the real challenge for the development of novel agents for their versatile application onto the textile substrates.
bioactive textiles. Some of the tannins with potent biological ac- Hence, these are probably more likely to be realizable in the short
tivity are shown in Fig. 4. term to develop functional textiles commercially on a large scale.

10. Application of herbal extracts and oils 11.1. Application of nanoparticles in textiles

Considering the growing role of natural products in textiles, In recent years, plant products have been exploited as an ideal
many studies have been conducted on the application of diverse sustainable source for green synthesis of nanoparticles with
plant extracts and other herbal oils as well. In a very recent study potent antimicrobial properties. Several studies have widely
Thilagavathi and Kannaian (2010) applied Geranium (Pelargonium reported different parts of plants to be responsible for nano-
graveolens L.) leaves extract on cotton fabrics to develop particles synthesis such as bark (Sathishkumar et al., 2009), tuber
S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18 13

OH OH
OH
HO OH OH
HO O
OH
O O O
HO O
O OH
O O
HO O HO O O
O OH

Gallic acid OH
HO
OH
HO OH
OH
O
HO O
Hydrolysable tannin

HO OH

O OH
O

Ellagic acid

OH OH
OH
OH
HO O
HO O
OH
OH OH
OH OH

OH HO O

OH
Epicatechin HO
n
OH
OH OH

OH HO O

HO O OH
OH

OH

OH

Condensed tannin
Catechin
Fig. 4. Some representative structures of plant tannins with potential antimicrobial activity.

(Sathishkumar et al., 2010), leaf extract (Song et al., 2009), peels concentration (MBC) against E. coli BL 21strain (50 mg/L). Vankar
(Bankar et al., 2010), and callus (Nabikhan et al., 2010). Iravani and Shukla (2012) prepared silver nanoparticles by using aqueous
(2011) has studied the plant and plant-derived materials for extract of lemon leaves (Citrus limon) as reducing agents, and
biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles. He observed that metal treated the synthesized nanoparticles on cotton and silk fabrics for
nanoparticles produced by plants are more stable in comparison antifungal activity. Assessment of antifungal activity was done by
with those produced by other organisms. The mechanism proposed Agar diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria
for biosynthesis of nanoparticles was based on the fact that bio- brassicicola. The cotton and silk fabrics showed high durable anti-
molecules in plants such as proteins/enzymes, amino acids, poly- fungal activity. Likewise, Ravindra et al. (2010) developed silver
saccharides, alkaloids, alcoholic compounds, and vitamins could be nanoparticles (AgNPs) using natural extracts, of Eucalyptus cit-
involved in bioreduction, formation and stabilization of metal riodora and Ficus bengalensis and studied antimicrobial efficiency of
nanoparticles. Such type of nanoparticles has increased the interest cotton fibres loaded with these nanoparticles. The loaded cotton
of researchers working in the field of polymers and textiles in fibres displayed excellent antibacterial activity against gram-
the discovery of novel textiles. Recently, Sathishkumar et al. negative E. coli. Shastri et al. (2012) examined nanosilver-coated
(2010) immobilized silver nanoparticles synthesized by using Cur- socks fabrics for foot pathogens by using neem (Azadirachta ind-
cuma longa tubular extract and powder on cotton fabrics to develop ica) leaves. Recently natural extracts of E. citriodora and F. benga-
antibacterial cotton cloth with minimum bactericidal lensis has been studied for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles
14 S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18

followed by their application onto the cotton fabrics. The antibac- Therefore, such a novel approach being cost effective, environ-
terial activity of cotton fibres loaded with silver nanoparticles was mental friendly and highly toxic against different multi drug
evaluated against gram-negative E. coli bacteria. The results suggest resistant microbial pathogens found on textiles can be used for
excellent antibacterial activity by the incorporation of 2% leaf ex- large scale development of value-added functional textiles in the
tracts onto the cotton fibres. These fibres have retained the anti- near future.
bacterial activity even after several washings indicating their usage
in medical and infection prevention applications (Ravindra et al., 12. Market opportunities for plant-derived natural products
2010).
A large number of carbohydrate polymers also posses reducing The potential of plant-derived agents in textile applications is
and stabilizing properties for the green synthesis of metal nano- huge, compared to synthetic counterparts, in terms of significant
particles (Abdel-Mohsen et al., 2012; Hebeish et al., 2011). Nano- cost reduction and environmental friendliness. Surveys show con-
ZnO composites have been synthesized by reacting zinc nitrate sumer demand is driving research into ways to replace synthetic
with sodium hydroxide in the presence of soluble starch as a sta- products with agents based on renewable raw materials, particu-
bilizer. It was observed that Zinc oxide-soluble starch nano- larly in the field of textiles (Dawson, 2012). Over the recent years,
composites (nano-ZnO) impregnated onto cotton fabrics displays with the increasing consciousness of environmental protection
antibacterial activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae bacterial around the globe, no supplier can now ignore the apparent needs of
strains and UV-protection functions (Vigneshwaran et al., 2006). A a relatively new, but rapidly expanding, market segment of ‘natural
novel copolymer precursor b-cyclodextrin grafted with polyacrylic and ethical consumers’ (Dawson, 2008). Today, in the 21st century,
acid has been reported to act as reductant and stabilizer in the the use of plant-derived materials in textile applications needs to
preparation of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticle fulfil the technical, economic, ecological and requirements for their
colloidal solution was applied to cotton fabric. The resultant fabric practical implementation in industry. Producing natural products
showed excellent and high wash durable antibacterial properties from plants may connect the existing production pipelines for
(Hebeish et al., 2011). agriculture sector and the textile production, marketing, and

CULTIVATION BYPRODUCTS
COTTON CORN STALKS

JUTE WHEAT STRAW

BANANA LEAVES
HEMP FIBRE
RAMIE SUGARCANE STRAW

FLAX HOP STEM

THREAD

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
e.g., tannins, alkaloids, quinones FABRIC
PLANT DERIVED THICKENERS
UV PROTECTIVE AGENTS
e.g., Guar gum, Starch, Xanthan gum
e.g., Honeysuckle, Flose sophorae

INSECT REPELLANTS BIOMORDANTS


e.g., Pyrethrum, Citronella essential oil FINISHING e.g., Acacia catechu, Eurya acuminata

FLAME RETARDANTS NATURAL DYES


e.g., Cyclodextrins BY CULTIVATION FROM BYPRODUCTS

DEODORIZING AND AROMA e.g., Indigo, e.g., grape pomace,


FINISHING AGENTS Madder, Weld teak leaves, onion
peels, pressed berries
e.g., Aloe vera, Lavender, Jasmine

FINISHED FABRIC

CLOTHINGS HOME TEXTILES TECHNICAL TEXTILES

DISTRIBUTION TEXTILE
AND RETAIL SERVICES

PRIVATE
COMMERCIAL USE
CONSUMPTION

Fig. 5. Use of natural agents derived from industrial plants in textile supply chain.
S. Islam et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 57 (2013) 2e18 15

distribution pipeline (Fig. 5). The introduction of organic cotton by Ahlstrom, L., Eskilsson, C.S., Bjorklund, E., 2005. Determination of banned azo dyes
in consumer goods. Trend. Anal. Chem. 24, 49e56.
mainstream fashion designers and clothing companies for use into
Akhtar, R., Negi, J.S., Naithani, 2012. Determination of dyeing property of some
jeans and sportswear, and global retail sales of organic cotton medicinally important plant species of Uttarakhand Himalayas. Indian J. Trad.
clothing and home textiles has increased rapidly over the last two Knowl. 11, 528e531.
or three decades, and is expected to expand even more (www. Ali, N.F., El-Mohamedy, R.S.R., 2011. Eco-friendly and protective natural dye from red
prickly pear (Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiffer) plant. J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 15, 257e261.
naturalfibres2009.org/en/index.html, last accessed, 14 March Ali, S., Hussain, T., Nawaz, R., 2009. Optimization of alkaline extraction of natural
2013). Attempts are also being made to use plant derived dyes and dye from henna leaves and its dyeing on cotton by exhaust method. J. Clean.
pigments which can offer not only a rich and varied source of Prod. 17, 61e66.
Aminoddin, H., 2010. Functional dyeing of wool with natural dye extracted from
dyestuff, but also the possibility of an income generation to the berberis vulgaris wood and Rumex hymenosepolus root as biomordant. Iran. J.
millions of small-scale farmers and low-wage workers through Chem. Chem. Eng. 29, 55e60.
their sustainable harvesting and sale. They could similarly be ob- Anand, S., 2008. Designer natural fibre geotextiles e a new concept. Indian J. Fibre
Text. Res. 33, 339e344.
tained from by-products and wastes from food and other industries Angelini, L.G., Bertoli, A., Rolandelli, S., Pistelli, L., 2003. Agronomic potential of
as previously discussed in this review. More detailed studies and Reseda luteola L. as new crop for natural dyes in textiles production. Ind. Crop
scientific investigations, particularly the use modern techniques Prod. 17, 199e207.
Angelini, L.G., Pistelli, L., Belloni, P., Bertoli, A., Panconesi, S., 1997. Rubia tinctorum a
should allow them to compete well with the synthetic and other source of natural dyes: agronomic evaluation, quantitative analysis of alizarin
commercially available products in textile industry. and industrial assays. Ind. Crop Prod. 6, 303e311.
Baliarsingh, S., Panda, A.K., Jena, J., Das, T., Das, N.B., 2012. Exploring sustainable
technique on natural dye extraction from native plants for textile: identification
13. Concluding remarks and future prospect of colourants, colourimetric analysis of dyed yarns and their antimicrobial
evaluation. J. Clean. Prod. 37, 257e264.
Bankar, A., Joshi, B., Kumar, A.R., Zinjarde, S., 2010. Banana peel extract mediated novel
Undoubtedly, the exploration of natural products on textiles is a route for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Colloid Surface. A 368, 58e63.
very promising prospect for future textile industry. The use of Barani, H., Broumand, M.N., Haji, A., Kazemipur, M., 2012. Optimization of dyeing
plant-based natural products have resulted in textiles which con- wool fibers procedure with Isatis tinctoria by response surface methodology.
J. Nat. Fiber. 9, 73e86.
sumers desire without compromising the issues related to safety, Basu, G., De, S.S., Samanta, A.K., 2009. Effect of bio-friendly conditioning agents on
human health and environment. These agents have imparted jute fibre spinning. Ind. Crop Prod. 29, 281e288.
interesting novel properties to textiles. The discovery of novel Bahtiyari, M.I., Duran, K., 2013. A study on the usability of ultrasound in scouring of
raw wool. J. Clean. Prod. 41, 283e290.
techniques such microencapsulation and sol gel methods have Bechtold, T., Mahmud-Ali, A., Mussak, R.A.M., 2007a. Reuse of ash-tree (Fraxinus
lowered the hurdles associated with their application onto the excelsior L.) bark as natural dyes for textile dyeing: process conditions and
textiles. In addition, the feasibility of plant derived agents to syn- process stability. Color. Technol. 123, 271e279.
Bechtold, T., Mahmud-Ali, A., Mussak, R., 2007b. Anthocyanin dyes extracted from
thesize nanoparticles for textiles applications have opened new
grape pomace for the purpose of textile dyeing. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87, 2589e
windows for scientists to develop more efficient and highly value- 2595.
added textiles. However, a number of technological concerns exist Bechtold, T., Mussak, R., Mahmud-Ali, A., Ganglberger, E., Geissler, S., 2006.
Extraction of natural dyes for textile dyeing from coloured plant wastes
that require further research before application of these products
released from the food and beverage industry. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86, 233e242.
can reach full-scale implementation. Specifically, future research Bhatti, I.A., Adeel, S., Jamal, A., Safdar, M., Abbas, M., 2010. Influence of gamma
efforts should focus on advanced technologies to increase their radiation on the colour strength and fastness properties of fabric using turmeric
yields, lower production costs and improve the durability of (Curcuma longa L.) as natural dye. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 79, 622e625.
Bhuyan, R., Saikia, C.N., 2005. Isolation of colour components from native dye-
claimed functionalities. Moreover, there is need for systematic in- bearing plants in northeastern India. Bioresour. Technol. 96, 363e372.
depth studies related to toxicological scrutiny in order to better Bhuyan, R., Saikia, D.C., Saikia, C.N., 2002. Isolation of colour component from the
evaluate plant derived compounds and develop new products that roots of Morinda angustifolia Roxb. and evaluation of its dyeing characteristics.
Indian J. Fibre Text. Res. 27, 429e433.
will offer good consumer safety. By achieving this goal, plant-based Bulut, M.O., Akar, E., 2012. Ecological dyeing with some plant pulps on woolen yarn
natural agents suggest a promising future for this field of study. and cationized cotton fabric. J. Clean. Prod. 32, 1e9.
Burkinshaw, S.M., Kumar, N., 2009. The mordant dyeing of wool using tannic acid
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Acknowledgement Buschmann, H.J., Knittel, D., Schollmeyer, E., 2001. New textile applications of cy-
clodextrins. J. Incl. Phenom. Macrocycl. Chem. 40, 169e172.
Calis, A., Celik, G.Y., Katircioglu, H., 2009. Antimicrobial effect of natural dyes on
Financial support provided by University Grants Commission, some pathogenic bacteria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 8, 291e293.
Govt. of India; through Central University Ph.D. Students Fellow- Campeol, E., Angelini, L.G., Tozzi, S., Bertolacci, M., 2006. Seasonal variation of in-
ship (Shahid-ul-Islam) and BSR Research Fellowship in Sciences for digo precursors in Isatis tinctoria L. and Polygonum tinctorium Ait. as affected by
water deficit. Environ. Exp. Bot. 58, 223e233.
Meritorious Students (Mohammad Shahid) is highly acknowledged. Carini, M., Aldini, G., Bombardelli, E., Morazzoni, P., Facino, R.M., 2000. UVB-induced
hemolysis of rat erythrocytes: protective effect of procyanidins from grape
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