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sanfoundry.com

by Manish
4-6 minutes

## This set of DC Machines Multiple Choice Questions &

Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Efficiency of DC Machine- 1”.

## 1. The efficiency of the DC motor at maximum power will be

___________________
a) 100%
b) Around 90%
c) Anywhere between 75% and 90%
d) Less than 50%

Explanation: For getting maximum power, derivative of
power with respect to current is equal to 0. This is
practically impossible to achieve as, current required is
much more than its normal rated value. Large heat will be
produced in a machine and efficiency of motor will be less
than 50 %.

## 2. The hysteresis loss in a DC machine least depends on

_____________

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## a) Frequency of magnetic reversals

b) Maximum value of flux density
c) Volume and grade of iron
d) Rate of flow of ventilating air

Explanation: As iron core of the armature is rotating in
magnetic field, some losses occurs in the core which is
called core losses. These losses are categorized as
Hysteresis loss and Eddy current loss. They depend on all
quantities listed above.

## 3. Which of the following is not the effect of iron loss?

a) Loss of efficiency
b) Excessive heating of core
c) Increase in terminal voltage
d) Rise in temperature of ventilating air

Explanation: Iron loss causes excessive heat production in
the core of a machine, which will rise the temperature of
ventilating air, as it acts as heat exchanger. Thus, terminal
voltage rise is not an effect of any loss.

## 4. Which of the following loss is likely to have highest

proportion at rated load of the DC generator?
a) Hysteresis loss
b) Field copper loss
c) Armature copper loss
d) Eddy current loss

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Explanation: Armature copper loss is directly proportional to
the square of armature current multiplied by the armature
resistance and also the series field resistance if present
any. As, at loaded condition armature current is very high.

## 5. Which of the following loss in a DC generator varies

a) Field copper loss
b) Windage loss
c) Armature copper loss
d) Cannot be determined

Explanation: Armature copper loss is directly proportional to
the square of armature current, as load current varies
armature current varies, which is reflected significantly in
loss as a square of it. Thus, armature copper loss can be
detected.

## 6. Which of the following methods is likely to result in

reduction of hysteresis loss in a DC generator?
a) Providing laminations in armature core
b) Providing laminations in stator
c) Using non-magnetic material for frame
d) Using material of low hysteresis co-efficient for armature
core material

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## Explanation: Providing laminations will work for reducing

eddy current losses, but hysteresis loss is dependent on the
material chosen. Thus, using different material for core of
armature will definitely work.

## 7. Which of the following loss/losses in a DC generator is

dissipated in the form of heat?
a) Mechanical loss
b) Core loss
c) Copper loss
d) Mechanical, Copper and Core

Explanation: All the losses listed above dissipate the heat.
This, dissipated heat due to various losses results in
increasing the temperature of ventilating air. These losses
are dangerous in long running of a machine, can reduce
efficiency also.

## 8. Which of the following losses are significantly reduced by

laminating the core of a DC generator?
a) Hysteresis losses
b) Eddy current losses
c) Copper losses
d) Windage losses

Explanation: Hysteresis losses can be minimized by using
material with lower hysteresis coefficient. Eddy current
losses can be minimized by using laminated sheets of core

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## structed together. To reduce other losses, current should be

minimized, can’t be reduced as it also has lower limit.

## 9. The total losses in a well-designed DC generator of 10

kW will be nearly equal to ________
a) 100 W
b) 500 W
c) 1000 W
d) 1500 W

Explanation: Total losses in a DC machine can be
approximated to 4-5% of its rating from the experimental
observations. Thus, 5% of 10 kW is equal to 500 W. It’s an
approximation formed on various observations.

Machines.

## To practice all areas of DC Machines, here is complete set

of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

5 of 5 3/19/18, 7:31 AM

sanfoundry.com

Entrance Exams
by Manish
4-5 minutes

## This set of DC Machines Questions and Answers for

Entrance exams focuses on “Efficiency of DC Machine – 2”.

## 1. The condition for maximum efficiency for a DC generator

is __________
a) Eddy current losses = stray losses
b) Hysteresis losses = eddy current losses
c) Copper losses = 0
d) Variable losses = constant losses

Explanation: All losses in a given DC machine can be
categorized into variable losses and constant losses.
Variable losses are proportional to the square of armature
current while constant losses are almost constant for a
given DC machine throughout its application.

## 2. DC generators are normally designed for maximum

efficiency at or near ____________

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c) Rated voltage

Explanation: The efficiency of a machine is different at
different values of power output. All electrical machines are
generally designed to give maximum efficiency at or near
the rated output of the machine. Thus, maximum efficiency
occurs at rated voltage.

## 3. In a DC generator, the iron losses mainly take place in

____________
a) Yoke
b) Commutator
c) Armature conductors
d) Armature rotor

Explanation: Iron losses take place in the form of hysteresis
loss and eddy current loss. These losses are maximum,
where field is maximum. Thus, when armature is rotated in
presence of flux we get maximum iron loss.

## 4. If DC generators are located near load centres, which

losses can be minimised?
a) Iron losses
b) Eddy current losses
c) Line losses
d) Corona losses

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Explanation: Line losses occur in long transmission lines
occurring due transmission line can be eliminated.

## 5. Nature of efficiency curve of DC machine is

_________________
a) First decreases then increases
b) First constant then decreases
c) First constant then increases
d) First increases then decreases

Explanation: The efficiency of a DC machine is different at
different values of power output. As the output increases,
the efficiency increases till it reaches to a maximum value.
As the output is further increased, the efficiency starts
decreasing slowly.

## 6. Why retardation test is carried on DC machine?

a) To find stray losses
b) To find eddy current losses
c) To find field copper losses
d) To find windage losses

Explanation: This test is generally employed to shunt
generators and shunt motors. From this method we can get

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## stray losses of a machine. Thus, if armature and shunt

copper losses at any given load current are known then
efficiency of a DC machine can be easily estimated.

## 7. In the DC motor the iron losses occur in __________

a) Field
b) Rotor
c) Brushes
d) Commutator

Explanation: Armature winding in a DC machine is located
on rotor. Iron losses occur in an armature, hence in rotor.
Iron losses are hysteresis loss and eddy current loss, which
are seen prominently in armature rotor.

## 8. Which of the following losses is not under constant

losses?
a) Friction and windage losses
c) Shunt field losses
d) Hysteresis losses

Explanation: All the losses that is friction and windage
losses, no load core losses, shunt field core losses in shunt
field and compound motors come under the category of
constant losses, while iron losses come under category of
variable losses.

## 9. Variable losses are proportional to ________

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a) Armature current
b) Square of armature current
c) Inverse of armature current
d) Inverse of square of armature current

Explanation: Variable losses include losses in armature
resistance and losses in series resistance, which are
directly proportional to the square of armature current. It
also includes stray load loss (iron plus copper) which is
proportional to square of armature current.

Machines.

## To practice all areas of DC Machines for Entrance exams,

here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions

5 of 5 3/19/18, 7:31 AM

sanfoundry.com

by Manish
6-7 minutes

## This set of DC Machines Multiple Choice Questions &

Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Swinburne’s Test”.

## 1.Swinburne’s test can be carried out on all DC motors.

a) True
b) False

Explanation: Swinburne’s test is a no-load test; thus, it is
performed only on shunt and compound motors. DC series
motor is not advisable to start at no-load so, this test can’t
be performed on series motor.

## 2. Which of the following test will be suitable for testing two

similar DC series motors of large capacity?
a) Swinburne’s test
b) Hopkinson’s test
c) Field test
d) Brake test

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Explanation: As Swinburne’s test and Hopkinson’s test are
no-load test, one can’t perform these tests on DC series
motor. For DC series motor with large capacities, we
conduct field test to find various losses occurring in a
machine.

## 3. Which losses can be identified from Swinburne’s test?

b) Windage and friction loss
c) No-load and windage and friction loss

Explanation: We get total rotational losses occurring in a
machine, which are equal to no-load core losses (iron +
copper) and windage and friction losses. We also get shunt
field losses and variable loss occurring in armature
resistance.

## 4. While carrying out Swinburne’s test at rated armature

voltage motor will run at ____________
a) Speed equal to rated speed
b) Speed greater than rated speed
c) Speed less than rated speed
d) Can run anywhere

Explanation: The motor is set to run on a rated speed while
conducting Swinburne’s test by adjusting field current to

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## rated value. When rated armature voltage is applied, motor

runs with slightly greater speed than the rated one as some
o the losses are not taken into account.

## 5. In order to run motor on rated speed while carrying out

a) Resistance in parallel with armature
b) Resistance in series with armature
c) Inductor in series with armature
d) Capacitor in parallel with armature

Explanation: The machine would run at higher than rated
speed with a rated armature voltage. Therefore, a series in
the armature circuit is employed to reduce voltage applied
to the motor armature such that it runs at rated speed.

## 6. What is the purpose of performing retardation test after

Swinburne’s test?
a) To find stray load loss
b) To find variable losses
c) To separate out windage and friction losses
d) To find shunt field losses

Explanation: While performing Swinburne’s test we get
addition of all losses. So, if we want to treat each loss
individually, one needs to separate them. Retardation test is
thus used by disconnecting both armature and field of the
running motor.

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## 7. Efficiency calculated by Swinburne’s test is

_____________
a) Exactly equal
b) Over-estimated
c) Under-estimated
d) Depends on the manual errors

Explanation: The stray-load loss cannot be determined by
this test and hence efficiency is over-estimated. Correction
can be applied after assuming the stray-load loss to be half
the no-load loss, which is done generally. Also, temperature
may effect on resistance value which is not considered in
this test.

## 8. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of a

Swinburne’s test?
a) The stray-load losses can’t be determined by this test
b) Steady temperature rise can’t be determined
c) Does not give results about satisfactory commutation
d) Machine gets damaged

Explanation: For increasing life and durability of a machine
temperature rise is not determined by this method. Also,
results about satisfactory commutation are not given by this
method.

## 9. While carrying out retardation test, if t is equal to time

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## constant then _____________

a) Speed increases to 36.8% of its initial value
b) Speed reduces to 36.8% of its initial value
c) Speed reduces to 26.8% of its initial value
d) Speed reduces to 46.8% of its initial value

Explanation: While carrying out retardation test, speed of
the motor decreases. At time t equal to time constant then
speed reduced is given by 36.8% of its initial value.
Retardation test result is used to determine initial slope of
ω(t).

## 10. In retardation test _____________

are taken
b) At rated speed various speed readings are taken out at
different times
c) Motor switch is made OFF at rated speed and various
d) Some readings are taken while speed is building up and
some readings while speed is lowering down

Explanation: The motor is run to rated speed (or any high
speed) and the supply is switched-off. As the motor
decelerates (retards), several speed-time readings are
taken, by a speedometer and watch with seconds hand.
Initial readings are taken at small time intervals and the time

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## 11. Retardation curve is ______________

a) Starting from origin
b) Starts from some positive value and increasing
c) Starts from some positive curve and stays constant
d) Starts from some positive value and decreases

Explanation: Retardation curve is a plot of speed vs. time at
various retarding speeds. Thus, curve starts at some
positive value and shows exponentially decaying nature
with time. From various values of speed we calculate
windage and friction loss at each point.

Machines.

## To practice all areas of DC Machines, here is complete set

of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

6 of 6 3/19/18, 7:32 AM

sanfoundry.com

by Manish
6-7 minutes

## This set of DC Machines Multiple Choice Questions &

Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Hopkinson’s Test”.

## 1. Hopkinson’s test of D.C. machines is conducted at

_______________

Explanation: Unlike Swinburne’s test Hopkinson’s test is
also, while finding out the efficiency. Hence, efficiency is not
over-estimated like Swinburne’s test.

## 2. Hopkinson’s test requires ____________

a) One DC machine on which test is carried out
b) Two different DC machines
c) Two identical DC machines

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## d) Can be worked with one or two machines

Explanation: This is a regenerative test in which two
identical dc shunt machines are coupled mechanically and
tested simultaneously. One of the machines is used as a
motor driving while the other one acts as a generator which
supplies electric power to motor.

## 3. In Hopkinson’s test, two machines are connected in

______________
a) Series
b) Parallel
c) Can be connected in parallel or series
d) Two machines are not required

Explanation: The two machines are made parallel by means
of switch S after checking that similar polarities of the
machine are connected across the switch. Here, one
machine is driving another machine.

## 4. What will happen if field current of generator in

Hopkinson’s test is increased?
a) Current through motor armature will increase
b) Current through motor armature will decrease
c) Current through motor armature will remain constant
d) Motor armature current cannot be determined

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## Explanation: If field current through generator is increased,

back emf of generator will increase thus it’ll become greater
than back emf of a motor, so to compensate this effect
armature current in generator will increase thus, motor
armature current will also increase.

## 5. What will happen if field current of motor in Hopkinson’s

test is decreased?
a) Current through motor armature will increase
b) Current through motor armature will decrease
c) Current through motor armature will remain constant
d) Motor armature current can’t be determined

Explanation: If field current through motor is decreased,
speed of the motor will increase due to inverse
proportionality, back emf of generator will increase thus it’ll
become greater than back emf of a motor, so to
compensate this effect armature current in generator will
increase thus, motor armature current will also increase.

## 6. Hopkinson’s test is a regenerative test.

a) True
b) False

Explanation: Hopkinson’s test is a regenerative test,
because the power drawn from the mains is only that
needed to supply losses. The test is, therefore, economical
for long duration test like a “heat run”.

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## 7. For carrying out load test on Hopkinson’s test setup

_________________
b) By changing field currents in two machines load can be
changed
c) Can’t carry out
d) By changing the armature current test is carried out

Explanation: There is no need to arrange for actual load
consumed, would be prohibitive in size for large-size
machines. By merely adjusting the field currents of the two
conducted over the complete load range in a short time.

## 8. Hopkinson’s test gives _______________

a) Combined iron losses of two machines which can be
separated
b) Combined iron losses of two machines which can’t be
separated
c) Doesn’t include iron losses
d) Depends on actual setup

Explanation: From Hopkinson’s test both machines are not
loaded equally and this crucial in small machines. Thus, it is
important to know the separate iron losses for given
machines. But, test gives combined losses which are

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## 9. Hopkinson’s test is suitable for ______________

a) Small machines only
b) Small and medium machines
c) All machines
d) Only large machines

Explanation: A large variation of field currents is required for
small machines, the full-load set speed is usually higher
than the rated speed and the speed varies with load. The
full load in small machines cannot obtained by cutting out all
the external resistances present in the generator field.
Sufficient reduction in the motor field current is necessary to
achieve full-load conditions resulting in speeds greater than
the rated value.

## 10. Why field test is conducted even if Hopkinson’s test is

present?
a) Instability of an operation
b) Possibility of run-away speed
c) Both instability and possibility of run-away speed
d) Field test is not conducted

Explanation: Regenerative test on two identical series
motors is not feasible because of instability of such an
operation and the possibility of run-away speed. Therefore,

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## 11. In field’s test generator field and motor field are

connected in ______________
a) Series
b) Parallel
c) Alternatively, series and parallel
d) Not connected

Explanation: The generator field is connected in series with
motor field circuit. The generator is thus separately excited
and its excitation is identical to that of motor at all loads.
This ensures that the iron-loss of both the machines are
always equal.

Machines.

## To practice all areas of DC Machines, here is complete set

of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

6 of 6 3/19/18, 7:32 AM