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Case 8 Accounting for Managers

Introduction
This case is concerned with the topic Key factor. It is that factor which limits the volume of
output in the activities of an undertaking, at a particular point of time or over a period. The extent
of the influence must be assessed first so as to maximize the profits. Generally on the basis of
contribution, the decision regarding product mix is taken. It is not the maximizing of total
contribution that matter, but the contribution in terms of the key factor that is to be compared for
relative profitability. Thus it is the limiting factor or the governing factor or principal budget
factor.
Example: - If machine capacity is a limitation, contribution per machine hour is to be
considered for appropriate decision making. Thus profitability can be measured as:
Contribution
Key Factor
The case talks about the rural upliftment program where government has put under cultivation a
farm of 96 hectares to grow tomatoes of four varieties: Royal Red, Golden Yellow, Juicy
Crimson and Sunny Scarlet. In this case there are two limiting factor one is as per the market
requirement the four varieties of tomatoes must be produced with a minimum of 1000 boxes of
each variety. And second one is not more than 22750 boxes of any one variety should be
produced. Based on the limiting factor we have to measure the profitability of the program.

Solution
a.

Royal Golden Juicy Sunny


Particulars Red Yellow Crimson Scarlet
Annual Yield(Boxes per hectare) 350 100 70 180
Variable Cost
Material per hectare 476 216 196 312
Growing per hectare 896 608 371 528
Harvesting & Packaging per hectare 1260 328 308 936
Transport per hectare 1820 520 280 1728
Total Variable Cost per hectare 4452 1672 1155 3504
Market price per hectare 5393 1587 1286 4008
Contribution per hectare 941 -85 131 504

Here transport cost and harvesting cost per hectare is found out by multiplying with the
Annual Yield because the value is given per box. Similar is the case with the market
price.
Analysis: - Here as per the findings of contribution, rank allocation is as follows:-

Rank 1 Royal Red


Rank 2 Sunny Scarlet
Rank 3 Juicy Crimson
Rank 4 Golden Yellow

Minimum land allocation to each four varieties: -

MINIMUM LAND ALLOCATION


Royal Red Golden Yellow Juicy Crimson Sunny Scarlet
62 10 18 6
Working Note:-
Within the given constraints i.e. minimum 1000 boxes must be produced, we have to first
allocate to Golden Yellow because it contributes to the minimum. Thereafter remaining three
varieties. So value of Golden Yellow come out to be as follows:-

Minimum boxes to be produced/ Annual Yield (Boxes per hectare) = 1000/100 =10
Now it is given in the case that out of total 96 hectares 68 hectares are allocated to all the four
varieties and remaining 28 is allocated to the Golden Yellow and Juicy Crimson. So remaining
value of Juicy Crimson out of 28 comes as 18. Similarly we calculate for the other two varieties.
But before allocating these values we have to crosscheck whether minimum 1000 boxes are
produced or not and accordingly we have to do our calculation.

b. Amount of profit in rupees is as follows: -

Based on the minimum allocation we have to calculate the total contribution:-

Varieties Contribution Mini. Land Allocation Total Contribution


Royal Red 931 62 57722
Golden Yellow -85 10 -850
Juicy Crimson 131 18 2358
Sunny Scarlet 504 6 3024
TOTAL 62254

It is given in the case fixed overheads per annum.

Fixed Overheads Per Annum Rs.


Growing 11200
Harvesting 7400
General Administration 10200
Transport 7200
Total Fixed Cost 36000
Therefore Profit (in Rs) = Contribution – Fixed Cost
PROFIT 26254

c. Now with the improvement in program i.e. bank has provided a loan of Rs 25000 with a
nominal interest of Rs 1500 per annum to Golden Yellow and Juicy Crimson. Therefore
new fixed cost is

Fixed Overheads Per Annum Rs.


Growing 11200
Harvesting 7400
General Administration 10200
Transport 7200
Interest 1500
Total Fixed Cost 37500

With this improvement, it is also given that there will be a saving of Rs.1.25 per box in
the harvesting cost of Golden Yellow and the 28 hectares will become suitable for growing
Royal Red in addition to the existing Golden Yellow and Juicy Crimson varieties. So by
changing only one value of Golden Yellow we get the contribution as:-

Royal Golden Juicy Sunny


Particulars Red Yellow Crimson Scarlet
Annual Yield(Boxes per hectare) 350 100 70 180

Material per hectare 476 216 196 312


Growing per hectare 896 608 371 528
Harvesting & Packaging per
hectare 1260 203 308 936
Transport per hectare 1820 520 280 1728
Total Variable Cost per hectare 4452 1547 1155 3504
Market price per hectare 5393 1587 1286 4008
Contribution per hectare 941 40 131 504

In the above table there is only one change i.e. saving in the harvesting cost of Golden Yellow
which is calculated as 100*(3.28-1.25) = 203. Rest remains the same.

Minimum land allocation to each of the four varieties:-


MINIMUM LAND ALLOCATION
Royal Golden Juicy Sunny
Red Yellow Crimson Scarlet
65 10 15 6
Above table calculation remains the same as done earlier.
Now on the basis of land allocation new contribution is:-

Items Contribution Mini. Land Allocation Total Contribution


Royal Red 931 65 60515
Golden Yellow 40 10 400
Juicy Crimson 131 15 1965
Sunny Scarlet 504 6 3024
TOTAL 65904

Therefore maximum total profit that would be achieved when the improvement program is
carried out: -
Profit (in Rs) = Contribution – Fixed Cost
PROFIT 28404

Profit
29000
28000
27000
26000
25000
Before Improvement in After Improvement in
program program

Thus it is clearly seen from the graph that as profit is higher we must carry out the improvement
program.