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Chapter One

Introductory Chapter
1.1. Introduction:
In today's world including Bangladesh, a problem in the country has become deadly, This is
teenage crime. A significant portion of teenagers are doing such horrific acts, including theft,
murder, suicide, rape, hijacking, pocket masking, drug addiction, eve-teasing etc. and the
combination of such unfortunate activities is unimaginable. The matter is deeply concerned with
social scientists, criminal scientists, law-makers, politicians and civil society. At the beginning of
the twenty-first century, this great disaster in the age of civilization in the age of excellence in
our society will be a big misery and unfortunate. We have to protect our adolescents from this
catastrophic attack.

1.2. Objective of the Research:

From this Research work, we will be able-
 To provide a throughout Conception of Crimes against children in Bangladesh
 To know about the adolescence crime
 To know about teenage causes crimes
 To know about the Child Victimization;
 To know about Typology of Child Victimization
 To Know about Causes and Factors Related to Child Victimization
 To learn about the Why Child Victimization Is Increasing
 To provide the conception of Violence against children in Bangladesh
 To get idea about the Reasons for violence against children
 How to take Steps by the Government to ensure the Safety of Children
 To know about the Violence against Female in Bangladesh
 To know of Child Abuse and the Recent Trends in Bangladesh:
 To know about Child Abuse and The Child Act, 2013, Penalty for Cruelty to Child

Mainly, the aim of this research is to provide throughout Conception of Crimes against children
in Bangladesh and to suggest some recommendations for taking Steps by the Government to
ensure the Safety of Children.

1.3. Review of Literature:
1.“justice for children and the law: the past, present and the future by justice imman Ali
in this aticle, to discussed the general concept of refugee, treatment of children philosophy
behind separate laws for children developed in the mid- nineteenth century. children are
different tmental emotional & psychological development - incomplete normally “the law is
blind” constitution allows for discrimination “nothing in this article shall prevent the state
from making special provision in favour of women or children or for the advancement of any
backward section of citizens.”

2. “As defined by the World Health Organization,

The term 'Child Abuse' may have different connotations in different cultural milieu and
socio-economic situations, such as
a. Physical Abuse: Physical abuse is the inflicting of physical injury upon a child.
This may include burning, hitting, punching, shaking, kicking, beating or
otherwise harming a child. The parent or caretaker may not have intended to hurt
the child. It may, however, be the result of over-discipline or physical punishment
that is inappropriate to the child's age.
b. Sexual Abuse: Sexual abuse is inappropriate sexual behavior with a child. It
includes fondling a child's genitals, making the child fondle the adult's genitals,
intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, exhibitionism and sexual exploitation. To be
considered ‘child abuse’, these acts have to be committed by a person responsible
for the care of a child (for example a baby-sitter, a parent, or a daycare provider),
or related to the child. If a stranger commits these acts, it would be considered
sexual assault and handled solely by the police and criminal courts.
c. Emotional Abuse: Emotional abuse is also known as verbal abuse, mental abuse,
and psychological maltreatment. It includes acts or the failures to act by parents
or caretakers that have caused or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive,
emotional, or mental trauma. This can include parents/caretakers using extreme
and/or bizarre forms of punishment, such as confinement in a closet or dark room

or being tied to a chair for long periods of time or threatening or terrorizing a
child. Less severe acts, but no less damaging, are belittling or rejecting
1.4. Research Methodology:
Methodology is very important for any research. Without adopting proper methods, it is difficult
to conduct the research fruitfully. The optimum outcome of the research depends largely on the
adopting of the proper methods related to the topics. When I prepared this research paper, I
followed some methods firstly; I followed the historical way because in this research I have
mentioned many historic articles & events. For this reason I have to go through many historic
documents. Secondly, I followed the analytical way. In this research paper I made some analysis
of various international instruments relating to protection of refugee rights. Thirdly, I followed
the empirical way.

1.5. Limitation of the Research:

There are some limitations of this research paper-
a. I might have not properly analyzed some areas of research paper due to lack of proper
b. The time we got is really not enough to prepare a research paper. For this reason I might
have not be able to give a proper shape of the research paper.
c. In our country it is too tough to get the books of international writer, so internet is the
only source to get the documents.
1.6. Chapter Outline:
The chapters of the research paper are-
 Chapter One – Introductory chapter gives a shadow of the whole research.
 Chapter Two – This chapter provides the Conception of Crimes against children in
 Chapter Three – In this chapter Child Victimization briefly discussed.
 Chapter Four – This chapter is about the Violence against children in Bangladesh.
 Chapter Five – Violence against female in Bangladesh discussed in this chapter.
 Chapter Six – This chapter is about the Child Abuse and the Recent Trends in
 Chapter seven- Recommendations & Conclusions

Chapter two
Conception of Crimes against children in Bangladesh
In Bangladesh a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to
unacceptable health, nutrition and education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are
exposed to severe forms of physical and mental violence at home, in the work place, in
institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children
irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. On the whole, our children are
not safe despite efforts made by government and non-government organizations in ensuring the
rights of the children. Broadly, violence against children can be defined to include physical,
emotional or psychological violence or threat of violence against children perpetuated by
individuals, as well as by institutions or society at large. Depriving children of basic necessities
of life, health care and education, so much widespread in a developing country like Bangladesh,
are encompassed by this holistic definition. In order to discuss the situation of children in jail in
Bangladesh, it is first necessary to understand the position of children in society and the violence
many faces, both within the home and outside. A lot of this violence and abuse ultimately causes
them to end up in prisons or correction homes. A lot of violence also occurs within these
institutions as well. Children, who by definition require the guardianship and care of adults, are
among the most vulnerable and innocent victims of crimes. Crimes against children include
physical and emotional abuse; neglect; and exploitation, such as through child pornography or
sex trafficking of minors. Child-related crimes often are perpetrated by parents, relatives,
caretakers, and others who are charged with their care and guidance. School officials, physicians,
police officers, and other such authority figures are required to report any signs of abuse or
exploitation against a child. The following articles cover child abuse, statutory rape, child
pornography, sexting, and other crimes against children.

2.1 Definition of Adolescence crimes:

The age of adolescence in human life is passed through many adverse obstacles. 1 The school age
is the age of youthful and unrestrained. Do not interrupt age. He is looking for friends at this age.
Got it Thinking about friends who are not true. Sometimes he is happy with the beauty of the

Muhammad Ali Shuja ,“Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies, University of Karachi,( 23 June 2008) pp,-2-8

honey. Sometimes due to various complex problems, due to depression. In this trumpet, he came
in the midst of his absence, romanticism, advancing’s and heroism. As it is good to have all these
tastes in the same way, the silence of the silent fall is the same. In the short term, if the work
done by the adult is taken into account by the adult, it is considered as an offense if it is done by
unencumbered adult or adolescent girls who violate the current law. In other words, due to
misconduct or crime, the law enforcement agency or teenage juvenile can be considered as a
teenager. Although in many cases it is said that the juvenile accused by the court is a juvenile
criminal. There is a variety of different types of crimes committed in the Kim Court and the laws
of the country and society. So it can be said that a teenager is a criminal - depending on his
parents, neighbors, society, law enforcement, and above all the attitude of the judge in the
court.In the conference of the Second Congress of the United Nations held in London on August
1, 1950, in the judgment of the crime and the perpetrators, it is said that the behavior that is
inconsistent or disobedient by children or unmarried adults, which is not socially sought or
recognized, is all about the juvenile delinquency. On the other hand, the 'American Binder' refers
to the definition of juvenile offense that all acts against juvenile or state laws committed by
juveniles or youths are subject to juvenile offenses. In the upper case, the rights of the members
of the society are hurt, and the danger of adolescents' own and the welfare of society becomes a
voice, and any serious anti-social acts committed by the adolescents are considered as a crime.
According to the criminal scientist Cavan and Ferdinand, the failure of the teenager to show the
behavior desired by society is the crime of teenage crime. PW Tappan mentions four
characteristics of juvenile offender. Such as:
A. Whose occupation, behavior, environment or music are harmful in the way of its own welfare;
B. Whoever is disobedient, or who goes beyond the rules of his parents or guardian;
C. Deliberately breaks the rules of school that escapes or runs there and
D That is, the state law or the municipal act extravagant.
2.2 Crimes of teenage :

When a child is born, he is innocent and he have millions of hope. Family society and state
should be responsible for making the child as good. 2The family plays a major role in child
education. We must keep in mind that today's children are wealthy in the coming days. He will

2 Muhammad Ali Shuja Ibid,pp,8-10

have the opportunity to grow as a qualified citizen. There is a wide variety of services for the
welfare and development of children in the developed world. But due to illiteracy and poverty in
our country, most children are not given any suitable care. Every child has the right to live a fair
life in society. Someone does not become criminal, makes him a criminal in a neighborhood
environment. To create an ideal society, people of the society have to be ideal before. Otherwise
it is not possible to form a beautiful and fair society. In order to effectively control and manage
social behavior, community members form social norms. In every society, we see, there are some
people who follow these ideals and values of society and there are some people who violate
them. These people disrupt the peace and unity of the society and they are called criminals.
When young children violate these social norms and behave like criminals, they are judged under
their juvenile court. These children are called teenagers who are abducted. Children aged 7 to 16
years old are called teens. When these teenagers are involved in criminal activities, their teenager
is considered a criminal. When their anti-social activities take a very serious shape from a very
low level, they often lose their popularity. It is judged under. Different sociologists have defined
different types of teenage crimes -3
(1) According to social scientist, 'Teenage crime means impaired family and society on
unemployed elderly people.'
(2) According to Bisler (Irissi), 'Teenage crime is an illegal intervention of unarmed adolescent
teenagers on the current social norms.'
(3) According to the dive (flying), 'Any socially scheduled action taken by children and
adolescents, if brought under the prescribed customs laws, will be considered as a crime.'
(4) According to Burt (INT), 'A child must be considered as a criminal when his crime and
inhuman tendency requires legal action.'
From the aforementioned definition we can assume that anti-social and anti-government
activities and anti-ritualistic activities are the juvenile offenses committed by underage adults.
Symptoms of crime: The criminal children are strayed and they behave chaotic and anti-social.
That is why behavior of these stray children is different from normal children. Because they are
involved in anti-social behavior, they have seen destructive mood and aggressive behavior. Some
of their criminal characteristics are as follows:

3 Accessed on 10 January, 2018)

A) These children can be thought of against anti-social ideas and they are very involved in
destructive action.
B) They are aggressive and rowdy in nature.
C) They are physically strong, and they find strong determination, brave attitude and behavior
among them.
D) They are non-competitive and irrelevant to family and school authorities. There is a tendency
of questioning and opposing authority about new activities in them.
2.3 .Teenage causes crimes:
Many reasons for teenage offense are responsible. Crime is not created for any particular reason.
But crime scientists, social scientists and psychologists have discovered the main reason behind
the crime analysis:4
2.3.1. Biological factors:
According to psychiatrists human physical structure and characteristics are responsible for crime
trends. Defective physical structure, nervous system defects, etc. lead to inferiority and abnormal
behavior among children. As a result, he failed to become a normal utility with the environment
and became a victim of crime.
2.3 2.
Genetic reasons- If any of the offenders are criminals then their generation can be offenders. It
is carried by genes. But there is a nanama against it.
2.3 3.
Psychological reasons: - Psychologist Godreld (orphan) blames mental disability or
malpractices for crime. The crime trend is directly related to mental impairment and illness. The
psychological factors responsible for the crime of children are as follows:
A) Refused children
B) Additional care and affection
C) High regulation
D) Family conjugal conflict
E) Incompatible behavior
F) High expectation of parents
G) Lack of security

4 Accessed On 15 October, 2017)

2.3.4 Environmental and economic factors: Environmental and economic factors can be
divided into the following categories: - A) Poverty b) Distressed household c) External
environment d) Unhealthy school system.5
2.6.5. Social factors:
Child trafficking tendency is very much responsible for social reforms. The criminal offenses
under social causes are as follows:
A) Family breakdown
b) Bride-breaking dispute, separation, divorce separation
c) Lack of socialization
D) lack of recreation;
e) Defective social environment;
f) foreign entertainment and culture effects
The way to overcome our tendency / crime: If crime is a religion of the age, yet no person will be
happy to see this crime

2.3.5 Other reasons:

Social inequality, suffering, lack of supervision, injustice, misery, ill-treatment and lung,
prejudice, pre-sexual experience, uneven puberty, abusive work, extreme care, lack of financial
difficulties or financial abundance, Insomnia, emasculation, lifelong or being a relative of a
relative, living in the home of the parent or father's owner, the owner - the oppressor and the
despair by the son, malnutrition, adulteration, healing These make teenagers mad, stupid, and
criminal who have strong resistance in their lives as their

2.4 Teenage crime is overwhelming:

Teenage crime has become a matter of social and national concern in recent times. 6The
government intelligence agency has found 12 groups of teenage youth in the capital and its
surroundings. Of these, 12 groups of 35 groups have been known. Dhaka's Uttara, Dhanmondi,
Tejgaon, kafrul, Mohammadpur, Turag, New Market, and is Joydebpur group active in the area.
Not only is crime growing, but the nature of the crime is changing. In January, a teenager named
Adnan, who was killed in Uttara from a group like this, There was a similar incident in

5 (Last Accessed On 18 October, 2017)
Editorial, The Daily Ittefaq April 25, 2017 ,p-8

Tejkuniparha. One of the victims of the juvenile offenses is women or adolescents. A few days
ago, a teenage girl was torched, the girl had died last Sunday. The problem of teenage crime has
gradually been going on
Because if they have committed an offense, they are more responsible for this, the social
situation is more responsible for this. That is, in the society, a situation has been created so that
these juveniles are involved in crime. The rule of law in society is not as effective as it is. The
elderly were being able to cross the crime, so the little ones were walking on that road. On the
other hand, the playgrounds are gradually being extinct. Tugbug's accumulated energy is spent in
various disputes, in order to show respect to each other.

In this situation, the responsibility of the family is more. If the teenage child has a natural
relationship with parents and other family members, then there is a need to immediately stop
crime. If there is a friendly relationship with the child instead of more admonition, then the
children of their children live in the daily life. On the other hand, there have been some changes
in our society. Everyone has become more technologically dependent regardless of age. The
enthusiasm of emerging age has created a number of criminal tendencies surrounding this
technology. The hand is now a mobile phone, in that handheld book once. There were libraries in
the mahalla, now they have risen; The rest of the public libraries also fell in the reader. The
textbooks give people the identity of Sukumarvatriya. There are many types of soft-stuff on the
Internet, but there is also a number of different ways to destroy Sukumarbodha. Those
suggestions point to misguided young people. If the family and society do not get rid of this
situation, then the possibility of a teenage offense will soon be reduced.

Family atmosphere will be friendly, freaky and joyous. Schools, mahallas, and so on will be a
safe and secure environment. The rule of law at the state and social level will be established. As
well as from the national level, awareness programs should be taken in this regard. It is only
expected that our boys will walk in the right direction

2.5 Teenage ages:

Age relationship with crime is very important. Because, according to varying age, the difference
between ordinary criminal and teenage offenders is differentiated.7 The period between

7,( Last Accessed On 25 October, 2017)

childhood end and the beginning of youth is called adolescent age. In lexical sense it starts at the
age of 11 and ends at the age of 15 years. The word 'Teens', however, means that the age ranges
from 13 years to 19 years. However, depending on how many years old age offense is considered
to be a juvenile crime, it depends on the criminal law of that country. In some societies it is
eighteen years and in some societies more. But if there is no society in the age of twenty-one, it
is not tolerated at the level of the teenager. In accordance with the principles of 'United Nations
Children's Rights Sanad, 1989', and the meaning of paragraph 1, every human being under 18
years of age is a child. Unless the child is considered as a child before 18 years of age under the
applicable law for the child. Child rights and rights of children in Bangladesh are not unique in a
single statute. These are written in different laws and statutes. Such as:According to the Penal
Code, 1860: Section 83, if a person of 9-12 years of age commits an offense, he can be called
offense only when it is proved that he is behaving like a mature man, that is, he is capable of
judging the nature and consequences of his behavior. According to Section 261 of the Act, if a
child under the age of 16 years of age without a guardian's consent and a child under 14 years of
age, is considered a child offense. As per Section 3 of the Civil Rights Act, 1875, a citizen of
Bangladesh is considered to be a minor until he is 18 years old. However, if the guardian remains
a member of the court 21 years of age. This rule does not apply to divinity. Early Marriage
Prevention Act, 1929: Under the law, 21 years for boys and 18 years for women, anyone below
18 years of age is considered to be a child. Motor Vehicle Act, 1939: Under the law, there is no
motor vehicle under the age of 18 years and no objection is allowed to operate under the age of
20 years. Bengal Vagghore Act, 1943: Under Section 2 (3) of the Act, children are defined as
children under 14 years of age. Muslim Family Law, 1961: According to Section 12 (1) (a) of the
Act, the age of adulthood is fixed at 16 years. Marriage Separation Act, 1969: In the case of
divorce, this law has created a hindrance for a girl under 13 years and a boy under the age of
16.Child Act, 1974: The most important law in Bangladesh (2) (f) of the Act for the protection of
children's rights is said to be defined as a child under 16 (sixteen) years of childhood, and during
the teenage rehabilitation or safe custody, even when the maximum is 16 (sixteen) years old She
is considered as a child during her childhood while being detained. The Bangladesh Shishu
Academy Ordinances, 1976: Although there is no direct reference to the age of the Act, all
activities of the Shishu Academy are limited to the students of the highest 10th grade. Women
and Child Repression Prevention Act, 2000: According to Section 2 (t) of the Act, children's age

is not more than 14 years of age. Bangladesh Labor Act, 2006: According to Section 2 (8) of the
Act, a child who has not completed 18 years of age has fulfilled his 14 years of age. It is found
that the review of the above laws shows that different laws have defined the age of the child and
the child differently. In total, the definition of teenagers in this country is unclear and diffused at
the age boundaries.
2.6 Characteristics of teenage criminals:
Among the juvenile offenders, the following features are noticed.8
A Self-realization: Solid body, solid, muscular.
B. Psychological characteristics: Axis, patience, emotions.
C Workout features: Depth, Depression, Disintegration.
D. Behavioral Characteristics: Enemy, Reckless, Dictator, Suspicious, Stubborn, Right,
Delightful, Daring, Reformed, and Unacceptable
E. Psychological features: Forcible behavior, leadership, accepting wrongdoing for success,
cruelty, mercilessness, selfishness.
2.7 Prevention of teenage crime:
As it has been said before, a very important and sensitive section of human life is the
adolescence. It is such a time that when a child is moving forward from both sides in age and
intelligence, it does not become mature enough to become mature and intelligent. Naturally, this
turn of life is an intuitive and amusement-oriented life. During this time he wants to know, wants
to know. If it is interrupted or frustrated to know and tell, then he becomes dumb and confused,
deliberately makes him a criminal, takes away the cataclysmic cataclysmic destruction On the
other hand, if he is aware, informs, receives answers, receives psychic shelter and adopts,
achieves moral initiation and motivation, then his progress and progress will inevitably be
beautiful, eternal and flabby. It is not saying that no person is born of criminal. Due to negative
impact of emotion and environment, people are involved in crime due to family, social,
economic, political and various reasons. So it is necessary to seek remedial measures for
investigating how juvenile criminals are being involved with professional criminals. For this
reason, the collective effort of the educated gentleman and guardian of the class to maintain good
environment throughout the village or city, neighborhood or mahila. It is also encouraging them

Jones P. R., Harris P. W., Fader J & Grubstein, L. Identifying chronic juvenile offenders. Justice Quarterly (2001)., 18 (3),pp

to study, creativity and religious and social values. The environment of family, society and
school needs to be pleasant and inspiring.
2.7.1. Family responsibility:
Children and adolescents are compared to clay. The artists who want to rubbish the clay can
build up. Situated, children are tender like clay.9 They grew up in the neighborhood of family
and social life. Family organization is the first step of civilization. Families of kindness, love,
love, love for each other, tolerance, truthfulness, etc. are the main reasons for the development of
education. It can be said to the family, the main foundation of human life.
Therefore, there is a consolidated family and family responsibilities in the proper development of
child and adolescent youth and preventing juvenile crime. There is no denying that the
foundation of moral education is written here, which can be sustainable forever.
In this context, some aspects of the following aspects have been discussed:
A Rules: Children and adolescents have to teach such things that they keep their activities
focused in a certain range and 'work outside the boundaries will fall into wrongdoing' - the
feeling is made.
B. Intelligence: Creating a certain moral quality among children and teenagers. He should have
to understand the common distinction of normal, improper, well-meaning.
C Help: Parents should be afraid of every child and adolescent. She has to help the community to
gain the mentality of helping themselves and others.
D. Believing: Who needs to believe and who is not believing it is necessary to inform him.
E. Freedom: If there is a need to give full freedom to the teenager in a certain verdict and it is
inappropriate to stop them from doing any work.
F Love: Teenagers feel that their parents have infinite love and deep respect for them, and this
love is in their parents 'equality policies' to them.
G| Praise: Every beautiful and accomplished job of the teenager will be recognized and
appreciated. They need to be encouraged, only then will they be born in confidence. Mother-
father should say, 'I know that you can do it.' Then it was said, 'I knew you could, etc.' No
success is not small to congratulate. If you are not successful at work, you have to criticize, but
appreciate it. If the boy can not go round to play football, then he should say, 'The way you
dribble, it was wonderful. Practice a little better tomorrow. "If they do not value their minor

9, (Last Accessed On 5 November 2017)

successes in this way, they will surround the conflict in their lives. They can not reach any goal.
The soil of the feet will become shaky.
H Protection work: Teenagers believe that parents are endangered to their danger, and above all
the genuinely safeguards of all time.
Yes Security: Adolescents should realize that their house is the best shelter for them and the most
secure respite for them.
J Regardless of how much time a person should behave, how much work should be done, when
and why a job should be avoided - etc. In each case, he will have to give primary modality and
its general knowledge.
T Training of teachers: Every child and adolescent should respond well. One of the advice of
German educationist Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) is convincing. He says;
"Father of child, do not be harsh to the child. Do not express your uncertainty over its re-
examination. Every harsh hit of his life destroys flower petals. Life destroys branch of destiny. "
Adolescents must be understood in simple and short language. Facts and perceptions over the
words influence them more. They love imitation. Therefore, parents have to present themselves
as a simulacular illustration of refrain from behaving in a lie, hypocrisy or morality. Parents will
be a prolific person in front of the community. L To discover: Once, after a dense rain, ran to a
teenager's father - 'Look, father, what a beautiful stone', Dad did not give any scope, but instead
he became angry, 'What mud all the time!' The face of the teenager was dry.Dad would
congratulate the boy's attempt and say, 'Oh, what a beautiful! Where did you get it? To get
better,'etc. The boy would be more encouraged. Pleased to do something new, it would have
been possible to move in greater areas of life.
Dr. Knowing the Shapes of Sameer: Parents have found that their teenager wants to be a player.
Or a girl who wants to be a girl pilot who does not like the parents In this case, it is necessary to
know the whole thing well before blaming them. So they will have to look for their favorite
career, know the future of them. If the parents dislike, they will have to judge the whole matter
thoroughly with their preferences. It is not said here that all the wishes of the teenager should be
accepted without verifiable judgment. Verification - must be done. But their emotions-in-depth-
tactics etc. are also needed to be analyzed with sympathy.

2.7.2 School role:
The school has a significant time in the school. School customs, rituals, use of teacher-teachers,
visions, syllabus-cariculam etc. have a profound effect on the formation of the minds of
teenagers. If the rules and regulations of a well-behaved society, including civilization, behavior,
disciplinedness, equality etc., in the customs of a school-style chain, the adolescent girls are
positively influenced. The role of teachers and teachers is very important in this case. Empath
students became impatient by their character-in-depth, chimata-consciousness, rituals, rachchi-
lehaj, visions etc. So if the teacher is not characteristic, he is not possessive, does not qualify as
the quality of equality and equality; At the end, if the student can not establish a clean seat, then
the students will get an inspiration to form life outside the mere textbook. Can not
So, firstly, the need for teacher training and formation of ideal and charitable teacher
employment policies. Besides, the syllabus / curriculum of the school / madrasa syllabus will be
implemented in such a way that it is helpful to create a moral code of values between children
and adolescents irrespective of religion and caste, or life-oriented.10
Our education is in the business of discrimination inequality. The basic purpose of education is
to awaken humanism and man's ambition with humans. Kim is walking our way through our
education business. Most renovations needed in this place. Different types of education business
exist in Bangladesh. According to experts, in the primary education sector, there are a total of 13
types of education arrangements in the form of general schools, English medium schools, cadet
colleges, madrasa etc. Undoubtedly, so many divisions in education business are creating huge
discrimination among our students. Different types of textbooks, curriculum, education, culture
and culture are different. As a result, they can not mix with each other freely, they can not speak
openly. Sadly, though, a group of guardians also encourage them. Thus, a Truman student starts
thinking of Superior or Inferior. Creation is very childish, discrimination mentality. This
mentality is an aid to the inferiority of the child or adolescent, rather than equality, unity,
brotherhood etc. Therefore, in order to play a positive role in this case, there is a one-way
integrated education business at the secondary level.

10 Muhammad Ali Shuja ibid, pp. 12-16

2.7.3 Role in Prevention of Teenage Suicide
Most people in the society are not very aware of adolescents' radical changes that change.
Children of this age group create a world of their imagination. Think of yourself as a great
thinker, give you different opinions, make decisions. It is seen that their parents usually do not
give a special significance to their opinions, nor to relatives, they are neither big nor small. At
that time, those who are very stressed, they have more pressure on their mind. Because they can
not tolerate life on their own imaginary life. As a result, the sudden disappointment of the sudden
failure of the failure can not be seen in their mind. Burning of acute psyche leads to burns. Do
not find the meaning of survival and commit suicide. It happens to every child. Someone can
overcome this with the help of friends, no one can Those who can not get emotional exhaustion
Whose utterance is expressed in self-defense.According to the World Health Organization, only
4 million teenagers in the world try to commit suicide (Attempt Suicide). The rate of suicides in
the country is different in this age group. Studies have shown that there are many factors
involved in teenage suicides.Such as genetic, hormonal, emotional, and environmental factors.
Some of the causes of suicide are the reason - sadness; Physical, emotional and sexual abuse;
Rampant and chaotic life.It should be noted that there is a similarity between the feelings of
suicide and the symptoms of depression. Parents should keep an eye on the following symptoms
of adolescents:A. Sleep and eating habits change. .

2.7.4 Providing primary sex education:

Adolescence develops in the body of secondary sex ~ ~ Fancy This time of development is very
important. It has been said before that, at this time, adolescents are more influenced by their
friends and they are attracted towards opposite sex.For the sake of the psychological
development of adolescents, parents and other parents need to come forward with the help of the
teenager. At this time teenagers ask for a lot of things. They are not encouraged by just
changing their body, they become curious about the change in the opposite sex. Experts have
found that while teenagers are talking to friends, they are also talking about sex. Just do not talk.
In this way many times they grow in the wrong way to develop emotions and sexuality.So, on
the eve of childhood, the parents should be given a simple idea about sex. In particular, the
general body language changes in adolescence, natural reactions of body changes, reproduction,

11 (Last Accessed On 10 November 2017)

etc, need to provide a clear but concise concept on a range of scientific perspectives.In this way,
if given the 'Primary Sex Education', both children and boys will be able to save themselves from
unnecessary physical or mental wrong or loss.

2.7.2 Children Act, 1974:

It is necessary to mention some important sections of the Children Act, 1974, made in the
amendment of criminal offenders. It is said in the law12
Article-6- The juvenile offender will not be gathered together with adult criminals
1. No juvenile offender can be judged together with any adult criminal, even if he is not covered
under Article 239 of the Criminal Procedure or any other law existing in force.
2. If a child is a criminal under section 233 of the Criminal Procedure Code or in any other law
existing in force then the Court will take orders to separate the trial of children and adult rights
separately. Section 49 - If you are not granted bail, you should do so1. Where apparently the
child under the age of 16 years is not granted bail under section 48, then the acting officer will
keep the head of the child in safe custody before the court or Chief Judicial Magistrate.2. The
court will order the remand home or safe custody if the court does not grant bail to the higher

M. Imman Ali, “Justice for Children in Bangladesh and the Children Act 2013 ,SC Publications (06 September,2014)pp,12-

Chapter 3
Child Victimization
Victimization is the process, action and fact of being victimized or becoming a victim. Child
experiencing mental and physical harm in the process of victimization is defined child
victimization. The World Health Organization refers Child victimization, referred to as child
abuse and neglect, includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse,
neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child’s health,
development or dignity. Within this broad definition, five subtypes can be distinguished –
physical abuse; sexual abuse; neglect and negligent treatment; emotional abuse; and exploitation.
Children become victims when they experience involuntary physical, sexual, or emotional
injuries, loss, or death at the hands of another human being, or when they are threatened by such
actions against themselves. Children may be victimized by adults and other children, by family
members (parents, siblings, other relatives), by friends and acquaintances, and by strangers.13

3.1 Types of Child Victimization:

Violence against children and youths has always occurred, but it has recently been subject to
increased public attention. This heightened attention is spawned by high-profile cases of stranger
abductions, sexual assault, child abuse, child trafficking and child homicide, and by statistics
suggesting an increase in the number of cases of child victimization. Child Victimization is
mainly two types-fatal abuse and non fatal abuse. Child victimization includes physical abuse,
emotional abuse, sexual abuse, molestation, neglecting, pinching etc. Physical abuse of a child is
defined as those acts of commission by a caregiver that cause actual physical harm or have the
potential for harm. Physical abuse means intentional use of physical force against the child that
results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in harm for the child’s health, survival,
development or dignity. Emotional abuse includes the failure of a caregiver to provide an
appropriate and supportive environment, and includes acts that have an adverse effect on the
emotional health and development of a child. Sexual abuse is defined as those acts where a
caregiver uses a child for sexual gratification. Neglect refers to the failure of a parent to provide
for the development of the child – where the parent is in a position to do so – in one or more of

13, (Last
Accessed On 20 November2017 )

the following areas: health, education, emotional development, nutrition, shelter and safe living
3.2 Typology of Child Victimization:
Kidnapped Child: The number of child kidnapping is increasing frighteningly day by day in
Bangladesh. Every day we see many incident of child kidnapping in newspaper.14
Trafficked Child: Child trafficking is the process which results exploitation of child. The
children trafficking mainly for the purpose of forced labour, Commercial Sexual Abuse (CSE),
Illegal adoption racket, armed conflict, organ trade and medical testing and other crimes.
Missing Child: A missing child means disappeared child whose status as alive or dead cannot be
confirmed as his or her location and fate are unknown.
Street Child: Street children are deprived from their rights such as, right to education and other
facilities. Often they involve in local street crime like hijacking, pick pocketing, drug trafficking
and help criminals by giving particular information. Homeless children are more victimized than
average children.
Beggar Child: We often see that, children aged below five are used for begging, the number of
which is also increasing.
Neglected Child: Neglected children are also victim. Child neglect is the failure of a parent or
other person with responsibility for the child to provide needed food, clothing, shelter, medical
care, or supervision to the degree that the child’s health, safety, and well-being are threatened
with harm.
Abused Child: Abused child is a victim of physical abuse, emotional abuse or sexual abuse.
Physical abuse includes hitting, beating, kicking, shaking, biting, strangling, scalding, burning,
poisoning and suffocating. Much physical violence against children in the home is inflicted with
the object of punishing.
Addicted Child: Addicted children are also victim. Addicted children frequently involve in
various criminal activities and criminal association to manage drugs. Sometimes they commit
fatal offenses when they are in addicted situation. For example, Oishi was addicted child. She
killed her parents because her father opposed her to take drug.
Child of Broken Family: Child learns by observation and by imitation. Every broken family has
many family crises. Violence and abusive behavior are main elements of family crisis. Parents

Jones P. R Ibid,P 17-18

who model abusive behavior at home, that creates a cycle of violence and teaches children to
grow up to be abusive adults.
Juvenile Offender: Juvenile offender is also victim. Children often engage in delinquency for
various reasons. Juvenile offenders become isolated in the society within very short time. They
don’t get space from the society for a new start and giving up their unqualified behaviour. If we
look at their past experiences, it would be discoverer that they are suffering from traumatic
injury, distress, anxiety, lack of parental or family care and addiction.
Girl Child: Girl child is often victim from her birth for gender crisis. Beside this, girl becomes
victim for sexual abuse, molestation by family members, cousins, family friends, teacher and
friends. Girls are at higher risk than boys for infanticide, sexual abuse, educational and
nutritional neglect, and forced prostitution.
Abandoned Child: Abandoned child are also victim as they are deprived from their parental
care and family. Often child are abandoned after being born. They don’t know their parents
name. They suffer for identification crisis.
Transgender Child: Transgender child is also victim of gender crisis from their birth. Often
transgender children are abandoned by their parents. They grow up without family care, in a
homeless situation. Our society system does not provide enough room for growing up a
transgender child in common way. Transgender child has to hear pinching from other cohabitants
of the society.
Worker Child: Worker child is frequently victim of physical and mental torture in the
workplace. Sometimes, worker children suffer sexual abuse when engaged in house hold service.

3.3 Scope of Child Victimization:

By Peer Group: Children are often victimized by various peer groups. These are: victimization
in workplace, school violence, bullying and pinching by companions and gang violence.
By Seniors: Senior groups often oppresses juniors in various situation by bullying and pinching,
such as in residential school system, which produces scope of child victimization.
By Parents: Now a day, children are victimized by the parents. Even mother kills her children.
Moreover, parents neglect and abandoned their children.
By Family Setting: Family setting is also responsible for child victimization. Children are
frequently victim of physical and emotional abuse by family members. Girl child is repeatedly

sexually abused by the family friend i.e. friend of a family member. Family setting includes
parents, family members, and family friends.
By School Setting: Children suffer physical pain, emotional and sexual abuse in the school
setting. They become victim of psychological harassment by their both school mates and
teachers. School setting includes teaching stuffs, other stuffs, class mates, school mates,
atmosphere of school and teaching methods.
By Neighborhood Setting: Neighborhood setting is a potential scope of victimization. At
present, neighbors are involving in child victimization such as, child kidnap. A neighbor is in
better position to know the life style of child that helps him / her to victimize the child easily e.g.
in Sylhet a child name “Rajon” was tortured and killed by the neighbors.
By Addicted Persons: Addicted persons are also targeting children for various reasons,
kidnapping is one of them.
By Relatives: Relatives of the child’s family can target the child for taking revenge on that
By Employer: Many Employers torture child worker in workplace. Recently, in Khulna district
an employer has killed a child worker by torturing, pumping the child from backside, that caused
death of that child.
By Powerful Persons: It is a common factor of our society that, powerful persons abuse their
power and sometimes children become victim for their misuse of power. e.g. recently a child had
been shot twice on his leg by the local Member of Parliament.
By Negligence: By negligent activities of local people and authority children are victimized.
Such as, it is often seen that manhole is coverless in a densely populated area for day after day
and no local authority looks after it. Child can be victim for such negligence. For example, a
child name Ziyad had fallen in to a pipe, when the child was rescued it was found dead.

3.4 Causes and Factors Related to Child Victimization
Poverty: Poverty is a big cause of child victimization. Because of poverty child has to go to
work for earning money. And in work place child get victimized by the employer and other
Family Climate: Family climate situation is a considerable factor for child victimization. Family
characteristics affect on child’s mind, which causes child suffering distress, traumatic injury,
psychological imbalance, drug addiction, involved in delinquency and crimes.
Extra Marital Relationship: Increasing rate of extramarital relationship causes child
victimization. Child becomes victim for the parents’ extra marital affair. Even in some cases
mother helped to kill her child to hide her extra marital affair with other guy.
Revenge: Revenge is another cause of child victimization. Sometimes, relatives or neighbors
targets child for revenge and when they are not able to take revenge on the main person then
target child as child is the weak person of family. In Narayon Ganj, Takki, a child, whose father
claimed that Takki was murdered to get revenge from him.
Residence: Residence is a vital factor in case of child victimization. Maximum child
victimization incidents happen in densely populated area.
Life Style: Where the child lives, when goes to outside, in which school child studies, where the
school is situated, all are the part of life style of a child. Life style of child is also considerable
factor of being victimization. Such as, a girl child who goes outside or work place at night is in
more vulnerable danger situation of victimization than a girl child goes outside at day time.
Association: Association of the child is an important factor. Association affects most on the
child behavior. Association can involve child in drug addiction, juvenile delinquency and other
crime. Very recently, “Ami Zunyed Bolchi” named YouTube uploaded video has made stir that
how child can be victimized by his/ her association.
Lack Social Security: The Most important thing is social security. Lack of social security is one
of the main reasons of child victimization.
Child victimization causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term
consequences. Child Victimization causes stress that is associated with disruption in early brain
development. Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems.

15, (Last Accessed On 02 December, 2017)

Consequently, as adults, maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural, physical and
mental health problems such as: perpetrating or being a victim of violence, depression, smoking,
obesity, high-risk sexual behaviours, unintended pregnancy, and alcohol and drug misuse.
Passing through these behavioural and mental health consequences, maltreatment can contribute
to heart disease, cancer, suicide and sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the health and
social consequences of child maltreatment, there is an economic impact, including costs of
hospitalization, mental health treatment, child welfare, and longer-term health costs.

3.5 Increasing of Child Victimization:

Various immoral conducts of our society are exposed through the number of Child victimization
even Child Homicide is day by day. There are mainly two points of view responsible for the
increasing number of child victimization. They are external point of view and another is internal
point of view.
External Point of View
Lack of implementing Laws in the Society: Lack of implementing laws is society causes the
increase of child victimization. Every day, a lot of child victimization incidents are found in
newspaper and television but we don’t find that offenders are punished or even charged in all
those cases of child victimization.
Shocking Reasons of Child Homicide
Child is being victimized due to lack of moral education. Addicted persons kidnap child to
collect money for buying drugs. To hide extramarital affair parents abuse their children. Even
recently the lover of a parent has killed a child to continue their relationship. Relatives and
Neighbors have killed children for revenge and property related interests.16
Internal Point of View
Lack of Social Security: Lack of social security increases all types of crimes and victimizations.
In our country social security is not up to the mark. Because of lack of social security the number
of child victimization rate is increasing.
Breakdown of Social Control: Social legislation establishes a good social control. When social
legislation loses its effectiveness that resulted from loss of social values, then social control is

16, (Last Accessed On 10 December 2017)

broken down. Social control includes social value, family setting, neighbor setting, school
setting, religious setting etc. Breakdown of social control is a principle cause of child
victimization. Values of our society are lost at present. In past record, it was very rare that child
is victimized by neighbors, relatives, family friends. But now child are mostly victimized by own
family members, neighbors, relatives and even by parents.
Justice less Society: Human desire to establish a just and fair society. But our present society
has become justice less society. Huge white collar crimes are committed by one groups of the
society, but those criminals are remaining far away from charges and trial. This trend impacts on
the other group cohabitants of the society to give up the social values. That extends to produce
various types crimes, new crimes, increase rates of crime including child related crimes that
increases child victimization. In a justice less society it is not possible to control any type of

Chapter 4
Violence against children in Bangladesh

The violence against children can be defined to include physical, emotional or psychological
violence or threat of violence against children perpetuated by individuals, as well as by
institutions or society at large. Depriving children of basic necessities of life, health care and
education, so much widespread in a developing country like Bangladesh, are encompassed by
this holistic definition.

In order to discuss the situation of children in jail in Bangladesh, it is first necessary to

understand the position of children in society and the violence many faces, both within the home
and outside. A lot of this violence and abuse ultimately causes them to end up in prisons or
correction homes. A lot of violence also occurs within these institutions as well.

4.1 Acts of Violence against Children in Recent Year 2012-2018:

According to a statistics of Bangladesh Shishu Adhikar Forum (BSAF) The percentage of

children being killed in the country had increased by 61 percent in 2014 than that of the previous
year.It‟s not considering good at all for this year. The BSAF reports at least 191 children were
killed till this July, 350 in 2014, 218 in 2013 and 209 in 2012. At least 968 children were killed
after brutal torture from 2012 to July 2015. (the daily star, 2015)The BSAF also noted in this
year, occurrences of murder, kidnap, human trafficking, rape, sexual harassment and violence
against children are also on the rise. (the daily star, 2015)Following the recent shocking murders
of three children, NGOs, law enforcers, rights organizations and international organizations have
expressed serious concern over child abuse in Bangladesh. 17
Thirteen-year-old Samiul Alam Rajon was beaten to death in Sylhet on July 8; twelve-year-old
Rakib was tortured to death in Khulna on August 3, as two men inserted a high-pressure air
pump nozzle into his rectum; and 10-year-old Rabiul was beaten to death for “stealing fish” in
Barguna. (News, 2015)Besides, the body of a minor boy, aged around eight to nine years, was
found in an abandoned travel bag in front of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The boy was
beaten to death, said sources at the DMC morgue after an autopsy. (thedailystar, 2015) In
addition, as a nation our shame is increased by the event of Shahadat Hossain, a cricketer of
Bangladesh national team, and his wife alleged for abuse of their 11 year old domestic helper.

17,( Last Accessed on 15December 2017)

4.2 Using children for trafficking arms and drugs:

The members of political parties and other vested interest groups have been using a large number
of children (mostly street children) for different violent activities that include throwing bombs /
bricks at police and cars and on the processions of opposition parties. Using children as carriers
of arms/ ammunitions, narcotics are also common practice in recent times. In 2001, Bangladesh
Shishu Adhikar Forum (BSAF) and Aparajeo Bangladesh jointly carried out a study on ‘Using
Children in Carrying Arms and other Illegal Activities’. A total of 16 children were interviewed
who had been engaged in such activities. The findings of the study showed that people like local
political leaders, student leaders, leaders of the transport workers unions, members of the local
clubs and musclemen usually use children for illegal activities. The activities include attacks on
political opponents, occupying slums/illegal lands, trafficking drugs, collecting tolls from
contractors, snatching, pick-pocketing etc. The amount of payment varies from case to case
(ranging from 50 taka – 1000 taka) depending on the importance of the incidents. Besides, these
children feel proud becoming a part of terrorist groups, which gives them additional ‘honor’ in
the locality they live in and a sense of security. Children are more aware than the adults about the
risk of getting involved in such activities, however, they usually do not care about the risks.
According to the children, some of the main risks they face include the chance of being beaten
by the police, ending up in jail, severe injury, receiving abuse and/or physical torture in case of
failing the mission etc. Many children have already experienced some of these risks. Usually
children are not aware about the long- term negative impact on their lives due to their
involvement in such illegal activities.

Early marriage Early marriage is a violation of child rights. This is an extremely traumatic form
of physical and mental abuse against children. Hundreds of children, mostly girls, in the rural
areas are exposed to child marriage, although there is a law to prevent it. Most of the parents are
not aware about the negative impact of early marriage on both boys and girls in their mental and
physical development. Therefore, parents do not hesitate to arrange early marriage, for their
'daughters' in the name of securing their lives. One of the obvious consequences of the early
marriage of girls is violence against young women at family level. Studies show that in 2001, 70
percent of the women who were killed by their husbands were aged between 13 and 18 years.

Jones P. ibid, pp. 18-24

4.3 Reasons for violence against children:

The main reason for violence against children could be the conflict of interest and power
between adults and children. Adults in Bangladesh usually tend to impose their choices on
children without taking into consideration children’s expectations or opinions. If children do not
want to follow adult’s decision they are likely to suffer abusive behavior, physical punishment
and other forms of cruelty from adults. Most adults do not recognise the ability of children to
express their opinions and have a role in household decision making. Lack of awareness about
child rights among most of the adults could also be considered as one of the contributing factors
towards the incidents of violence against children. Some specific reasons are discussed below.19

1. Lack of awareness about child rights among adults and children Although children are very
welcome in our personal and family life, most adults do not have adequate knowledge about the
rights of the children. As a result, in most cases, adults’ behavior towards children is not always
supportive of the welfare and overall development of the children. Children are also unable to
protest against the violation of their rights as they are not fully empowered to do the same.

2. Adults’ negative attitude towards children Adults do not usually see children as responsible
opinionated human beings. Rather they consider children as fully dependent on others. It is easy
for adults to forget the potential that children have and their special needs as children.

3. Lack of opportunity for children to express opinions The right to express opinions is one of
the fundamental rights of children recogniosed by national and international provisions.
However, in reality, children usually do not get the opportunity to share their own feelings on
matters that have a direct or indirect effect on their lives. Adults have a general feeling that
children are not capable to form their opinions regarding good and bad things and thus impose
decisions on children, which sometimes turn to an act of violence against children.

4. Lack of proper implementation of the laws relating to children The children of Bangladesh
seem to be lucky in the sense that a special law for them, the Children Act, was enacted in 1974
which was quite early in comparison with the emergence of the UNCRC in 1990. The Children
Act 1974 provides almost all necessary rules and regulations in order to protect the rights of the
children of Bangladesh. However, it is really unfortunate that all those things are yet to be fully

Hasnat, "International Trade and Child Labour:Dhaka 1996 pp,12-13

materialised. There is a strong link between violence against children and proper implementation
of the laws that are supposed to protect their of the children. It has been observed that in most
cases, the perpetrators easily escape the judicial procedure. As most of the child victims belong
to the poor section of the society, they cannot afford the cost (in terms of time and money) of the
long process of justice.

5. Non-availability of children’s own organisations There is no strong and effective children’s

organisation, especially in the rural areas, through which children could mobilise themselves in
order to protest against violent activities. There is also a lack of coordination among the existing
children’s organisations.

6. Poverty Due to the poor economic condition at family level, many children suffer abusive
behavior and physical torture by their parents. In some cases, failing to provide basic necessities
parents force their children into income earning activities at a very early age, which in turn
exposed children to various violent situations.

4.5 Steps by the Government to ensure the Safety of Children:

The most important step made by the Bangladesh government towards national law and policy
with regards to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, has been the
formulation of a National Policy on Children in December 1994. The principle objectives of the
policy are to formally harmonize all child development activities in the country with the
provisions of UNCRC. It declares six general commitments.
• Safe birth and survival;
• Proper educational and psychological development;
• Ensuring family environment for development ;
• Providing assistance to children in difficult circumstances;
• Ensuring the best interests of the child; and
• Protecting children’s legal rights and thus protect them from discrimination.
It was followed by National Plan of Action for Children 1997-2002 which was adopted in
November 1998, designed especially to continue the implementation of the UNCRC in

Chapter 5
Violence against Female in Bangladesh
5.1 Violence against Female in the Family
5.1 Wife Battering:
Girls, when married before the age of 18, are at greater risk of physical and psychological violence
perpetrated by their husbands or other members of their extended families. It should be noted that wife
battering at home constitutes by far the most common form of violence against women and girls and is
a significant cause of injury. Wife battering remains hidden, it is not the type of act that dominates
headlines as it happens behind closed doors and victims fear speaking out. It is not often recognized as
a crime and remains one of the biggest threats to women’s security. In 1998, murders of wives by their
husbands accounted for over 70 percent of reported domestic violence cases involving girls 13 – 18 years
old.6 Woman battering includes various methods of torturous physical violence. Women victims
who survived woman battering report violence such as slapping, punching, kicking, beating with fists
or objects, biting, strangling, burning, raping with body parts or objects, stabbing and shooting. In the
most extreme cases, woman victims die as a result of their injuries.The law called ‘Woman & Child
Repression Prevention Act – 2000’ (Bangla name – Nari O Shishu 20Nirjatan Damon Ain – 2000) deals
specifically with women and children and includes measuresagainst domestic violence against women
and children. However, the Penal Code does not deal specifically with domestic violence.Despite the
Woman & Child Repression Prevention Act – 2000, domestic violence continues to go unpunished.
Women are often reluctant to report the crime out of shame, and when the crime isreported, the
investigation and prosecuting officers can be insensitive to the difficulties faced by victims of domestic
violence. There is an apparent lack of due diligence in the investigation,prosecution and punishing of
domestic violence. Although some shelters exist in the capital city of Bangladesh, the rural areas do not
have many shelters.6 Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Government of Bangladesh
5.1.2 Marital Rape:
In Bangladesh, marital rape is excluded from the Penal Code and it is never treated as rape. Cultural
and legal attitudes consider that wives should be always ready to meet the sexual “needs” of their
husbands. In the Bangladesh Penal Code 1860, section 37521, the definition of rape is provided and the
exception of marital rape is clearly stated: “Sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife
not being under 14 years of age is not rape.”

20 Section 2(G) of the Nari O Shishu Nirjaton Daman Ain, 2000,

Section 375 of Bangladesh penal code pp,553-556

5.1.3 Early and Forced Marriage:
Early marriages, especially without the consent of the girl, are very common in Bangladesh. Early
marriage is intended for several reasons, such as to guarantee financially well-established husbands,
relieve her family of the burden of a mouth to feed and at the same time ensure a long cycle of fertility
to produce a number of sons. In Bangladesh, under the Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, a girl cannot
be married until the age of 18 and boys not before 21. The differing legal ages of marriage for girls and
boys is facially discriminatory. Additionally, it appears that even this discriminatory law has had little
impact on the prevalence of early marriage in Bangladesh as it is estimated that half of women there are
younger than 18 when they marry. The lack of birth registration and lack of awareness of the parents
about the bad effects of early marriage makes enforcement of this law difficult. The survey entitled, a
Baseline on Grassroots Distress Women conducted by Naogaon Human Rights Development Association
in 2000, shows that more than 50% of women do not know the minimum age of marriage. Additionally,
although it is legally required to register marriages, 65.88% of marriages are not registered, which leaves
many women unable to avail themselves of the rights associated with a legally recognized marriage, such
as post-divorce payments. Moreover, about 54% of the respondents did not know how the legal system
could help them and about 91% of respondentswere unaware of the legal aid given by the government.7
Additionally, early marriage can lead to early childhood/teenage pregnancy. Childbearing during early
or middle adolescence, before girls are biologically and psychologically mature, is associated with22
adverse health outcomes for the both mother and child. A study analyzing the causes of maternal
mortality in Matlab in Bangladesh during the period of 1976 – 1985 found a much higher maternal
mortality rate among females age 15 – 19 years compared to those in the low-risk age group of 20 – 34
5.2 Dowry-related Violence:
Dowry-related violence is particularly problematic in Bangladesh. A survey conducted by
NaogaonHuman Rights Development Associations (NHRDA) revealed that 84% percent of the
cases itreceived in 2000 were dowry related wife battering cases. In 2001, 173 girls and women
were killeddue to dowry demand with 79 of these victims below the age of 18.9The term
‘dowry’ has been defined by the ‘Joutuk Nirodh Ain 1980’ or the Dowry Prohibition Act –1980,
as “property or valuable security given or agreed to be given as consideration for the marriageof
the parties” and it is generally offered by the wife’s family to the husband before the marriage.
TheDowry Prohibition Act of Bangladesh provides that payment or demand for payment of
dowry by anyone is punishable with imprisonment for up to five years or a fine or with both. The

Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 (as Amendment in 1984)

law was amendedin 1983, 1995 and 2000 to provide for a sentence of death or life imprisonment
and financial penalty to a husband or any of his relatives who causes or attempts to cause death
or grievous injury to a wife on account of dowry.10 OMCT stresses that in addition to being
opposed to the death penalty as an extreme form of cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment
and a violation of the right to life, as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
and other international human rights instruments, it fears that the death penalty would rather
function as a deterrent for prosecution andpunishment of the crime. Despite the legal prohibition,
the practice of paying a dowry has not stopped or diminished in Bangladesh, neither in rural nor
in urban areas. Repression of women for their inability to bring adequate or repeated installments
of dowry from their poor parents and resultant deaths or grievous injuries is rather disquietingly
frequent. The negative aspects of dowry i.e. the bitter negotiations, threats, extortion, and
repercussions for unmet dowry demands are not generally manifest in middle and upper class
families. It is the poor who really suffer economically and socially as a result of the practice of
dowry. The economic consequences are that, the money of dowry is often raised by the sale or
mortgaging of land at low prices. It also includes livestock, trees, household goods and family
jewelry and as well as loans from NGOs and moneylenders at high rates of interest. Despite
these economic consequences, payment of dowry is prevalent as shown by the abovementioned
survey, which found that 77% respondents gave dowry during their marriage and only 23% of
marriages were held without dowry.11There are many severe consequences resulting from the
payment of dowries. First, failure to meet the dowry demands or the new demands often results in
verbal and physical abuse of the wife. Physical abuse includes beating, burning with cigarettes,
withholding foods, sleep deprivation and denial of medical treatment. The abuse may be meted out by the
husband or members of his family, especially his mother. Verbal abuse may include starting rumors about
the character or behavior of the wife and often the girls feel unable to disclose the situation to her parents.
If the physical abuse continues and worsens, this may lead to the wife committing suicide. Additionally, a
common result of unmet dowry is sending the girl or woman back to her parent’s house. When this
happens everyone considers that it must be the fault of the girl or woman saying such things as: “She
could not adapt to her husband” or “She cannot look after her husband properly”. So, once again both
the girl and her parents suffer from rumours and criticism. This also affects the reputation of the younger
sisters. Apart from the social stigma attached to the girls being returned to live with her parents there are
other problems. Her brothers and their wives may resent her presence, particularly if she has brought
children with her. She is seen as a drain on the household resources and may be verbally, and even

physically, abused by her own family.

5.3 Honour Crimes - Acid Throwing:

OMCT is gravely concerned over the increase in the number of reports regarding acid attacks against
women in Bangladesh. The victims of acid throwing are usually young girls between 10 and 18 and the
perpetrators are usually jealous boyfriends, spurned suitors, neighbor hood stalkers, and sometimes, angry
husbands in search of more dowry or permission to enter into a polygamous marriage. The crime of acid
throwing is particularly prevalent in rural areas and smaller towns, although there are some incidents in
large cities among factory/garment workers and the slum dwelling population. Most victims of acid
throwing are seriously burned on their faces and even after extensive treatment, the scars usually remain,
making reintegration into society difficult.23 Acid throwing is a type of “honour crime” which is
perpetrated when a woman allegedly steps out of her socially prescribed role, especially, but not only,
with regard to her sexuality or her relationship .towards men. For example, in Bangladesh the reasons for
the acid throwing attacks include the refusal of an offer of affair or marriage or illegal physical relations,
dowry disputes, domestic fights and arguments over property. In 2002, 362 people were burnt through
acid violence, among that number, 138 were girls and 188 were women, and with respect to these
incidents, only 172 cases were filed.13 The Women and Children Repression Prevention Act 2000
provides for the death penalty for whoever causes the death of any women or child by any poisonous,
combustible or corrosive substance. Offence of grievous hurt that is caused by using the above substances
resulting in permanent deprivation of the sight, disfiguration of head or face, deprivation of hearing,
permanent destruction of any member or joint of the body of a women or child has been made punishable
with death, imprisonment for life, or imprisonment up to 14 years with a minimum of 7 years
imprisonment.14 There are problems with the implementation of this law, caused by under-reporting of
the crime out of shame on the part of the victim, and a lack of willingness on the part of the police to take
this crime seriously when it is reported. In some instances, police reportedly attempted to convince the
victims to withdraw their complaints. OMCT stresses again that in addition to being strongly opposed to
the death penalty as an extreme form of cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment and a violation of the
right to life, it fears that the death penalty would rather function as a deterrent for prosecution and
punishment of the crime.

23 ]
Acid Crime Control Act, 2002

5.4 Violence against Female in the Community
5.4.1 Rape and other forms of Sexual Violence:
“Popular perception about rape does not reflect the reality. It is commonly assumed that usually rape is
committed in lone places, outside the protective enclosure of the home, in dark streets or desolate
fields, where the victim’s screams will go unheard. But facts reveal that rape is committed in the
home, in the fields, in public and even in government institutions.”24
In the last few years, incidents of rape and other sexual offences has increased alarmingly. According
to the Human Rights Situation Report by Bangladesh Institute of Human Rights (BIHR) in 2000 and
2001, the rape victims were accordingly 749 and 586 and most of the victims were minor and
adolescent girl. The State Minister of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh informed the Parliament that in
2002, 4106 rapes occurred all over the country and in January 2003, 232 incidents of rape occurred.16
The daily newspaper ‘Daily Janakantha’ published two rape-incidents on April 30, 2003. One of these
was in Manikgonj, 70 kilometers from the capital, where the perpetrators tied up the parents of the
victim, a teenage girl of a minority (Hindu) family, and then raped her in front of her parents. Another
was in Thakurgaonl, about 500 kilometers from the capital, where a teenage girl was gang raped. A
representative of the local neighborhood arranged a mediation concerning the incident of rape, but
when the victim went to the mediation, she was then raped by the representative.
Earlier, two terrible rape incidents occurred in the capital city: one was rape and murder of 14/15 years
girl Shazneen in the her bedroom at Gulshan and another rape case was that of Tania, a six year old
child, who was raped in the police control room within the courthouse premises.
Many rape cases go unpunished for various reasons, including lack of cogent evidence, improper and
poor forensic examination of the victim, corruption by police and some judicial officials, witnesses’
fear reprisal by the accused, and legal complexity.17
The Sexual Offence Act 1976 defines rape as “unlawful sexual intercourse with a woman who at the
time of the intercourse does not consent to it.” According to the Bangladesh Penal Code 1860, section
375 “if a man has sexual intercourse with a woman or a minor girl against her consent or with her
consent obtained by threat of death, hurt or fraudulence, he is said to commit rape. Sexual intercourse
falling under any of the five following descriptions would be treated as rape: (1) against the woman’s
will, (2) without her consent, (3) with her consent when her consent has been obtained by putting her
in fear of death or of hurt, (4) with her consent when the man knows that he is not her husband and
that her consent is given because she believes herself to be lawfully married, and (5) with or without

Section 6 of the Cruelty to Women (Deterrent Punishment) Ordinance, 1983.

her consent when she is under 14 years old. Penetration is sufficient to constitute the sexual
intercourse necessary to the offence of rape. Sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife
not being under 14 years of age is not rape.”
The narrow definition of rape provided by the laws of Bangladesh is problematic. Firstly, it appears
that rape only encompasses penetration by a man of a woman. Furthermore, the burden of proof to
show lack of consent is on the victim, making it even more intimidating for victims of rape to reporhe
crime. It is often extremely difficult when the woman herself has to prove that she has been raped, rather
than the culprit to prove the contrary. To prove a rape case, a victim has to produce medical evidence in
court. The victim has to be examined by a doctor of her local government hospital as soon as possible
after being raped and a doctor will in general be supportive for the victim if he or she notes that the
clothes of the victim are stained with semen and blood. But in reality, it is found that, women who are
raped in rural areas are not willing to come to the hospital. In most cases, rape victims feel ashamed of
being violated and do not want to be checked by a male doctor and female doctors are often not
available in the health complexes. In many cases, rape victims wash themselves and their clothes after
the incident thereby doing away with vital evidence. Women are often unaware that a medical report is
the concrete proof of rape. When a case is reported at the police station, the police show negligence
and fail to get a medical examination for the victim in adequate time. As a result the case again
becomes weak. The law also demands the evidence of an eyewitness. While it is possible that a third
party is present during the commission of rape, in general rapes are not witnessed by a third party and if
they are, the third party usually becomes a party to the crime. Where a rape is witnessed by a third party,
witness is often reluctant to testify against the accused out of fear or insecurity.18
When a rape victim comes to a police station to file a case, generally the male police officers
interrogate her, as a result she feels ashamed and the First Information Report (FIR) will be very weak.
The police often do not pay proper attention to allegations of rape and generally only intervene in such
cases where the rape is followed by murder. Rape of any woman or child has been made punishable with
imprisonment for life with financial penalty. If any woman or child dies as a result of raping, the offender
would be punished with death or imprisonment for life with financial penalty of 100,000 taka. .
5.4.2 Prostitution and Trafficking in female:
Bangladesh is considered a zone where many children and women are trafficked and there is little
government control. Due to their low socio-economic status women and children are particularly
vulnerable to trafficking and sexual exploitation. Religious and cultural taboos are also creating25

25 Trafficking of children for prostitution is not included in section 5 or 6. Is it deemed to be included in 'immoral and illegal acts'

victims of exploitation. Lured by promises of good jobs or marriage, trafficked victims are mainly
forced into prostitution. Traffickers arrive in a village and convince a child’s family to let the child
leave with the trafficker. There have been several research studies undertaken in recent years on the issue
of trafficking in women and children. Some were national surveys, while others were studies done in
pocket areas orbased on media coverage of incidents being reported to the police or found during
investigative report writing. According to an Indian Researcher Dr. K.K Mukherjee, 20 percent of sex
slaves in Indian brothels were trafficked from Bangladesh and Nepal. A review of UNICEF indicated that
2 lakh (i.e. 200,000) women and children were trafficked to Pakistan from Bangladesh. The report further
said that the figure might be below the real number, as all trafficking cases were not duly reported.19
According to Center for Women and Children Studies (CWCS) about 100 children and 50 women are
being trafficked to foreign countries every month from Bangladesh. Since independence at least 10 lakh
(i.e.1,000,000) women and children were trafficked from Bangladesh and of them about 4 lakh (i.e.
400,000) were young women forced into the sex business in India. According to the Consultation Meeting
on Trafficking And Prostitution in 1997 organized by Center for Women and Children Studies (CWCS),
there are a variety of reasons leading to the trafficking of children, including the break up of traditional
joint family system and the emerging nuclear families, child marriage or marriage problems, dowry
demand, acute poverty forcing parents to sell their children, unequal power relations and discriminations
in the family by gender and age.19 Anti-trafficking Programs and Promoting Human Rights – A Grassroots
Initiative by Rights Jessore 2002 Traffickers are able to lure parents into selling their children by promising
employment and greater earning power for the children, who would send money back to the parents.
Another scheme is to arrange fake marriages in order to gain control over children and women. In these
arrangements, the women or girls are married and then sold into trafficking. Once children are trafficked,
they are often forced into prostitution or domestic service. The grievance nature and the magnitude of
trafficking in women and children have led the policy makers to incorporate the issue in the various acts
and laws over time. The Penal Code 1860, modified in 1991, contains provisions of kidnapping,
abduction, slavery and forced labor.
Section 360 of the Penal Code states, “Whoever conveys any person beyond the limits of Bangladesh
without the consent of that person or of some persons legally authorized consent on behalf of that
person, is said to kidnap that person from Bangladesh”. Section 361 of the Penal Code states, “Whoever
takes or entices any minor under fourteen years of age if a male, or under sixteen years of age, if a female,
or any person of unsound mind, out of the keeping of the lawful guardian of such minor or person of
unsound mind, without the consent of such guardian, is said to kidnap such minor or person from lawful

guardian”. Section 363 of the Penal Code states that the punishment of kidnapping in each case is
imprisonment for up to seven years, and possible financial penalty. Furthermore, there are several
aggravating factors to kidnapping warranting more punishment, such as intent to murder, kidnapping a
child under the age of 10, intention to unlawfully confine the victim, or intention to force the victim to
marry or to engage in sexual intercourse. Additionally, the Penal Code prohibits slavery. Due to the
increasing rate of trafficking in women and children, the Women and Children Repression Prevention
Act, 2000 was enacted with more stringent punishment. Section 06 states- 26
(1) Whoever brings from abroad or sends or traffics or buys or sells, or otherwise keeps a child in his/her
possession, care or custody with the intention of using the child for any unlawful or immortal purpose
shall be punished with death sentence or life imprisonment and shall also be liable for fine.
(2) Whoever steals a newborn baby from a hospital, child or maternity hospital, nursing home, clinic etc,
or from the custody of concerned guardian shall be punishable accordance with sub-section (1).
Section 07 states, “Whoever kidnap or abduct any woman and child except with the intention of
using them for any unlawful purpose mentioned in section-5 shall be punishable with life
imprisonment or rigorous imprisonment for at least fourteen years and shall also be addition to that,
be liable to monetary fine.” However, the implementation of the above national laws seems to be
insufficient. The low number of court cases and convictions regarding trafficking in Bangladesh
illustrates the lack of enforcement of the Bangladeshi laws concerning trafficking. During the last five
years, only 53 such cases were placed before the court, out of which 35 had to be dropped for lack of
adequate evidence.

Section 08, the immoral traffic (prevention) act, 1956

Chapter Six
Child Abuse and the Recent Trends in Bangladesh

Bangladesh has realized a growth in child killings and abuse in recent years; most of the
sufferers have been lowly and poor children. special law strictly prohibits the all sorts of abuse
towards child. This work also highlights about Child abuse, exploitation, child labor, and buying
or selling children for purpose of prostitutions are prohibited under the Bangladeshi laws.
Keywords: Child abuse, Islamic Law, Child exploitation, Child labor, Penal Code, Child Act

6.1 Eve-teasing problem in Bangladesh

Eve-teasing is a growing social problem in Bangladesh, taking place in the society repeatedly to
suppress women's freedom, stop their growths and create hurdles in their way of progress. This
problem is rampant throughout the country for all young women regardless of age, race, religion,
ethnicity and color. It harasses women physically and mentally. Eve-teasing is a type of public
sexual harassment, street harassment or molestation of women by men. Out-going women are the
most victims of this nuisance. They are being teased not only on road, but also in bus stoppages,
schools, colleges, train station and so on. The reason behind of eve teasing is the long-borne
attitude of males to women, moral degradation, lack of moral education, unemployment,
illiteracy, negative representation of female in media and broken law and order system etc. To
get rid our society of this growing public nuisance called ‘eve-teasing’ is not a piece of cake. Its
crux lies at the root. Punitive measures taken against the accused could only scratch the surface
of the problem. It is related to the overall law and order of the country along with desired social
reform. The present article gives the general overview of the eve-teasing in Bangladesh
6.2 Prevention of Physical Exploitation:
Childhood is mainly a period when Childs are involved to playing, entertainment and to obtain
the education and talents that will qualify them to lead a fruitful life in the future. Islamic Sharia
does not permit imposing any burden on child that would harmful their growth. (Al-Khayyatt)
The Almighty Allah said, “He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in
religion.” (Quran 22:78) Sometimes child is used in hard and dangerous works that beyond their
ability and physical strength which may threaten their health and lives.(Munir, 2014)Allah says
in the Qur’an, “Allah does not lay responsibility on anyone beyond his capacity.”(Quran 2:286)

6.3 Protection from Sexual Exploitation:
Sexual violations against child are also noted (Corby, 2006) Sexual exploitation of child is to
approach him in a way he feels painful and uncomfortable. (Munir, 2014)It can occur anywhere
normally in the workplace, institution, family where the consequences of rejecting are very
disadvantageous to the victim. It includes uninvited and unwelcome words, actions, deeds, signs,
symbols or manners of a sexual nature that create the target feel rough.(Wikipedia) In case of
female child, child marriage and female circumcision is methods of sexual provocation. (Unicef,
2005)Allah says, “Tell the believing men to reduce of their vision and guard their private parts.”
(Quran 24:30) The Quran declares, “And do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, if they
desire chastity, to seek [thereby] the temporary interests of worldly life. (Quran 24:33) Sexual
exploitation to child is commits by selling, child trafficking, homosexuality, used in prostitution
and child pornography. Islam protects entirely from sexual violations by prohibits illegal sexual
violent. The psychological shock of sexual abuse of the child is devastating. It damages his
mental development and physical aptitudes. Sexually abused child always feel hesitate to present
him in the family and the society. As a result, such child may end up as criminals and will drop
any confidence in the future. Normally such child turns to drug addiction. (Munir, 2014)
Homosexuality is one foremost aspect of sexual exploitation which strictly forbidden in
Islam. The Qur’an says, “We also (sent) Lut: He said to his people: 27"Do ye commit lewdness
such as no people in creation (ever) committed before you? For ye practice your lusts on men in
preference to women: ye are indeed a people transgressing beyond bounds." (Quran 7:80-81)
Allah has given the worst punishment to the people of Lut. He says, “Verily, by thy life (O
Prophet), in their wild intoxication, they wander in distraction, to and fro. But the (mighty) Blast
overtook them before morning; And We turned (the cities) upside down, and rained down on
them brimstones hard as baked clay.” (Quran 7:72-74) The Prophet has said, “Allah curses the
one who practices what was practiced by the people of Lot.”(Nasai)(Hadith 7297) Islam has
given a stern warning to a person for having sex with a man. The messenger of Allah said,
“Allah will not look at a man who intercourse with a man or a woman through the
anus.”(Tirmizi, 1980)

27, (Last Accessed on 25 December 2017)

6.4 Punishment for forced labor:
The Bangladesh Penal Code considers compulsory unlawful labor as an offence under
section 374(1) which says, 28
“Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labor against the will
of that person shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may
extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.”
6.5 Prohibition of sexual exploitation:
Sexual exploitation is firmly prohibited. In this Code sexual exploitation includes child
used in prostitution, sodomy and rape. The Penal Code prohibits Selling and buying minor for
purposes of prostitution etc. and deliberates punishment for doing this offence. Section 372 says,
“Whoever sells, lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any person under the age of eighteen years
with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution
of illegal intercourse with any person or for any unlawful purpose” shall be penalized with
imprisonment not extend to ten years with fine. Furthermore, Section 373 mention that,
Whoever is engaged to buys or attains possession of any person below the age of eighteen
years with intending to used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person
shall be punished with imprisonment not more than ten years with fine. According to The Penal
Code a girl cannot give consensus to sex with a man, even if she has given it, it will not be
recognized by the court when she is less than fourteen years of age and any sex with such a girl
will extent to rape and the alleged shall be punished with imprisonment for life or with
imprisonment not extend to ten years with fine. In case of Sodomy carries imprisonment for life,
or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall
also be liable to fine under section 377 of The Penal Code.
6. 6 Child Abuse and The Child Act, 2013 Penalty for Cruelty to Child:
If any person having custody, charge or care of any child abuses, assaults, neglects,
abandons unprotected, uses for personal service or exposes in an obscene way and thereby
causes unnecessary suffering or injury by which the child‟s sight or hearing is damaged or injury
to any limb or organ or causing mental derailment shall be punished with imprisonment for up to
five years or fine of up to one lac taka or both undersection-70

Section 374(1) The Bangladesh Penal Code 1860
Dr.Jeaul Hasan, Penal Code1860, Ibid,p,590

Penalty for Engaging a Child in Begging
According to Section 71 Any person who engages a child for the purpose of begging or causes
any child to beg or if any person having custody, charge or care of the child colludes with or
encourages the engaging of a child for begging then he shall be penalized with imprisonment for
up to five years or fine of up to one lac taka or both.
Penalty for giving Intoxicating Liquor or Injurious Medicine to a Child
Section 73 provides If any person gives to a child any intoxicating liquor or medicine on account
of illness or emergency without consulting a qualified doctor then he will be deemed to have
committed an offence under this Act for which he shall be punishable with imprisonment for up
to three years or fine of up to one lac taka or both.
Penalty for using a Child for Carrying Fire Arms for Committing Terrorist Actions
Section 73 of The Child Act mention Anyone causing any child to convey or transport fire arms
or illegal or banned articles will be deemed to have committed an offence under the Act for
which he shall be punished with imprisonment for up to three years or fine of up to one lac taka
or both.
Penalty for Exploitation of Child
If any person delegated by the Childrens Court with custody or care of a child or with the duty of
upbringing a child or any other person keeps any child ostensibly for the purpose of employment
as a servant or for employment in any factory or establishment under the Bangladesh Labor Act,
2006 but in fact exploits the

Chapter Seven
Recommendations & Conclusions

1. Firstly, the State and Society have to work together to decrease child victimization from our
2. We have to correct our moral views of children. It is also necessary to amend our social
3. Governments should introduce strict law by amending existing laws regarding child to cope
with present situation and sternly implement those laws.
4. The Existing Woman and Child Repression Act 2000 should be amended. There should be an
individual bare Act in name, “the Child Repression Act” for children only. In every district,
Government should establish an individual Tribunal for Child Repression. There should be the
provisions in this aforesaid proposed Act that a punishment of not less than death for person/s
who commit or abate in child homicide. The trial should be finished within two months.
5. Child Welfare Board should have the power for adjudicating allegations against children in
6. There should be an independent non judicial forum as contemplated by the CRC to deal with
children in conflict with the law.
7. There are needed to add some provisions in Child Act 2013 that use of children for house
breaking, pick pocketing, political demonstration or reception of VIPs would be treated as
punishable offence.
8. The Government should implement the provisions of The Children Act 2013 especially
provision of probation officer, separate court building and proceedings for child trail, without
any delay
9. It is important also to train up the persons concerned in the children justice system so that
proper implementation of the new law can be ensured.
10. The judiciary, law enforcing agents and the parents and guardians of children themselves,
must be sensitized to the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the law
protecting children in Bangladesh.

The gravity of the situation demands that the issue of child abuse be placed on the national
agenda. The Ministry on its part has taken measures such as the enabling legislation to establish
the National and State Commissions for Protection of Rights of the Child, the Integrated Child
Protection Scheme, the draft Offences against Children Bill etc. These are a few important steps
to ensure protection of children of the country. But clearly, this will not be enough, the
government, civil society and communities need to complement each other and work towards
creating a protective environment for children. The momentum gained needs to enhance further
discussion on the issue amongst all stakeholders and be translated into a movement to ensure
protection of children of this country.


1. M. Imman Ali, “Justice for Children in Bangladesh and the Children Act 2013 ,SC
Publications (2014) Dhaka
2. Ahmed, A. and Quasem, M. A. Child Labor in Bangladesh, (1991) Dhaka: The
Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies.
3. Dr. Mohammad Jeaul Hasan, A Commentary on Penal Code 1860, 1st Ed , 2015

Journals and Articles

1. Jones, P. R., Harris, P. W., Fader, J., & Grubstein, L. (2001). Identifying chronic
juvenile offenders. Justice Quarterly, 18 (3), 479–507.

2. James Cook University Youth Crime in Focus:

3. The Children Act 2013 – Brief Commentary by Hon Justice M Imman Ali*


5. Mohammad Ashraful Alam and Iqbal Hossain , Child labor and victimization: An
Empirical, Study,r,


1. The Daily Ittefaq, April 25, 2017,


1. Bangladesh Penal Code 1860

2. Bangladesh Shishu Academy Ordinances, 1976
3. Bangladesh Labor Code , 2006
4. Nari O Shishu Nirjatan Damon Ain – 2000

5. Child Marrriage Restraint Act 1929
6. Acid Crime Control Act, 2002
7. Women (Deterrent Punishment) Ordinance, 1983
8. Joutuk Nirodh Ain 1980’


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