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MARINE SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION

Air Gun
Primary marine source

• High pressure bubble of air is


released into the water
– Operating pressure 10-15 MPa, in
1-4 ms;
– Size (volume of the lower
chamber) 10-2000 in3 (0.16-33
liters)
– Primary pulse is followed by a
surface ghost and a train of bubble
pulses
– Environmental issues with fish and
whales
– Can be used in source arrays to
increase energy

Airgun Source Signature
Bubble Pulse
Airgun Array
Airgun Array Tuning
• Use multiple airguns with different
bubble pulse signatures
Airgun Array Tuning
• Resultant signature sums initial pulse,
damps bubble pulses
RECEIVER
Hydrophone is the standard receiver in Marine seismic and responds to variations in
pressure. It exist of a piezoelectric ceramic disc. A pressure wave effectively bends the
piezoelectric discs, thus generating a voltage (see picture). This voltage is proportional to the
variation of the pressure. Also the hydrophones are used in groups just like the geophones.

Principle of the measurement of the change in pressure with a piezoelectric cristal (Hydrophone).
Due to the bending of the material a voltage occurs.
Hydrophones
Marine Streamers
• ~6 km length
• Groups of hydrophones every 25
meters

“birds” receivers