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DESCRIPTIVE

A.purpose/sosial function

Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose
is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.

B.generic structure

Generic structure of descriptive text:

1. Identification: contains the identification of matter / a willbe described.


2. Description: contains the explanation / description of the thing / person to mention
a few properties.

C.lexion grammatical

Language features of Descriptive text :

 Specific participant has a certain object, is not common andunique (only one). for
example: Bandengan beach, myhouse, Borobudur temple, uncle Jim
 The use of the adjective (an adjective) to clarify the noun(noun) for example, be
used for the following expression: abeautiful beach, a handsome man,
the famous place in Jepara, etc..
 Use the present tense sentence patterns simple sentence patterns used are simple
present for telling the facts of object descriptions.
 Action verbs, there are verbs that show an activity (activity can be seen), for
example: run, sleep, walk, cut etc.

D.example
Borobudur temple

Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under
Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in
Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by
the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and
consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and
surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three
are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is
crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the
summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of
borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at
Angkor, Cambodia.
Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a
valuable treasure for Indonesian people.

E.Analysis the text


Generic Structure Analysis

1. Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described in general;


Borobudur temple
2. Description; describing the Borobudur temple in parts; eight terraces of
Borobudur temple and its characteristics

Language Feature Analysis

Using adjective and classifiers; valuable


Using simple present tense; Borobudur is well-known,The temple is constructed,
etc

RECOUNT TEXT

A.purpose/sosial function

“Recount text is a text that telling the reader about one story, action or activity.”

“The porpose of recount text is to entertain or inform the readers.”

Social function
to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining

When writing recounts you should:


1. Focus on individual people i.e. use the words, I or we
2. Use words which indicate when (e.g. after lunch) and where the events took
place (e.g. in the shed)
3. Write in the past tense e.g. had, visited
4. Use action words e.g. helped, crutched.

B.generic structure
Generic Structure of Recount

1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time

2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past

3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story

C.lexion grammatical future

Language Feature of Recount

Language Feature of Recount

• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc

• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc

• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc

• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc

• Using simple past tense

D.example

Our trip to the Blue Mountain

On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s


house. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court.

On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was
scary. Then, Mummy and I went shopping with Della. We went to some antique
shops and I tried on some old hats.
On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos
having a shower.

In the afternoon we went home.

E.analysis the text

Orientation

On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s house.
It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court.

Events

On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was scary.
Then, Mummy and I went shopping with Della. We went to some antique shops
and I tried on some old hats.

On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos


having a shower.

Reorientation

In the afternoon we went home.

NARATIVE

A.porpuse/social function

Narrative text is a story with complication or problematic events and it tries to


find the resolutions to solve the problems. An important part of narrative text is the
narrative mode, the set of methods used to communicate the narrative through a
process narration.

“The Purpose of Narrative Text is to amuse or to entertain the reader with a story”.

B.generic structure

1) Orientation
Sets the scene: where and when the story happened and introduces the participants
of the story: who and what is involved in the story.

2) Complication
Tells the beginning of the problems which leads to the crisis (climax) of the main
participants.

3) Resolution
The problem (the crisis) is resolved, either in a happy ending or in a sad (tragic)
ending

4) Re-orientation/Coda

This is a closing remark to the story and it is optional. It


consists of a moral lesson, advice or teaching from the writer

C.lexion grammatical future

Languange Features
• Using the simple past tense, past perfect, past continous, past perfect continous &
past future continous.

D.example

One upon time, a mother duck sat on her eggs. She felt tired of sitting on them.
She just wished the eggs would break out. Several days later, she got her wish. The
eggs cracked and some cute little ducklings appeared. “Peep, peep” the little
ducklings cried. “Quack, quack” their mother greeted in return.However the largest
egg had not cracked. The mother duck sat on it for several days. Finally, it cracked
and a huge ugly duckling waddled out. The mother duck looked at him in surprise.
He was so big and very gray. He didn’t look like the others at all. He was like a
turkey.
When the mother duck brought the children to the pond for their first
swimming lesson. The huge grey duckling splashed and paddled about just as
nicely as the other ducklings did. “That is not a turkey chick. He is my very own
son and quite handsome” the mother said proudly. However, the other animals
didn’t agree. They hissed and made fun of him day by day. Even his own sisters
and brothers were very unkind. “You are very ugly” they quacked. The little poor
duckling was very unhappy. “I wish I looked like them” he thought to himself. One
day, the ugly duckling run away ahid in the bushes. The sad duckling lived alone
through the cold and snow winter.
Finally the spring flowers began to bloom. While he was swimming in the pond, he
saw three large white swans swimming toward him. “Oh, dear. these beautiful
birds will laugh and peck me too” he said to himself. But the swans did not attack
him. Instead, they swam around him and stroked him with their bills. As the ugly
duckling bent his neck to speak to them, he saw his reflection in the water. He
could not believe his eyes. “I am not an ugly duckling but a beautiful swam” he
exclaimed.

He was very happy. From that day on, he swam and played with his new friends
and was happier than he had never been.

D.analysis the text

1. Orientation of the Narrative text: It introduces the participants which involve


in the story of the Ugly Duckling. They are duck mother, Ugly duckling,
duckling’s sister, and the swan.
2. Complication of the narrative text: It brings the rising conflict. In a long story,
the complication should be minors and a major. In this story of ugly duckling, the
major complication is that the new born duck is different form other little ducks.
The difference makes him get bad treatment from others animals. As results, he is
sad, unhappy and finally runs away.
3. Resolution of the narrative text: It comes to a solution for the complication. In
narrative texts, a resolution can be happy ending or sad ending. In this story of the
Ugly duckling, the resolution is happy one. He gets new friends who do not treat
him badly.

REPORT

A.purpose/sosial function

Report text is a text which present information about something, as it is. It is as a


result of systematic observation and analyses.
• Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally
describe an entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets,
rocks, plants, countries of region, culture, transportation, and so on.

B.generic structure

Generic Structure of Report Text :


• General Classification: General statements that describe the subject of the report,
description, and classification.
• Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts,
qualities, habits or behaviors.

C.lexion grammatical

Language features of Report text :


• Nouns and noun phrases are used rather than personal pronouns. The use of
personal pronouns is limited.
• Most reports are written in the present tense.
• Use some passive voice
• Some reports use technical or scientific terms.
• Linking verbs are used, eg. is, are, has, have, belong to, to give coherence.
• Uses some action verbs (climb, eat).
• Descriptive language is used that is factual rather than imaginative eg. color,
shape, size, body parts, habits, behaviors, functions, uses.

D.example

ELEPHANT
An elephant is the largest and strongest of all animals. It is a strange looking
animal which it has thick legs, huge sides and backs, large hanging ears, a small
tail, little eyes, long white tusks and above all, elephant has a long nose, the trunk.
An elephant is commonly seen in a zoo, it has hard found in it natural habitat.
The trunk is the elephant’s peculiar feature. This trunk has various usages. The
elephant draws up water by its trunk and can squirt the water all over its body like
a shower bath. The elephant’s trunk also lift leaves and put them into its mouth. In
fact, the trunk serves the elephant as long arm and hand. An elephant looks very
clumsy and heavy and yet an elephant can move very quickly.
The elephant is very intelligent animal. Its intelligence combined with its great
strength makes an elephant a very useful servant to man. Elephant can be trained to
serve in various ways such as carry heavy loads, hunt for tigers and even fight. An
elephant is really a smart animal.
E.analysis the text

ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT


1. Analysis of The Text in Overall
a. Main Idea of The Text
An elephant is the largest and strongest of all animals. It is a strange looking
animal which it has thick legs, huge sides and backs, large hanging ears, a small
tail, little eyes, long white tusks and above all, elephant has a long nose, the trunk.
An elephant is commonly seen in a zoo, it has hard found in it natural habitat.
b. Supporting Idea
The trunk is the elephant’s peculiar feature. This trunk has various usages. The
elephant draws up water by its trunk and can squirt the water all over its body like
a shower bath. The elephant’s trunk also lift leaves and put them into its mouth. In
fact, the trunk serves the elephant as long arm and hand. An elephant looks very
clumsy and heavy and yet an elephant can move very quickly.
c. Concluding Idea
The elephant is very intelligent animal. Its intelligence combined with its great
strength makes an elephant a very useful servant to man. Elephant can be trained to
serve in various ways such as carry heavy loads, hunt for tigers and even fight. An
elephant is really a smart animal.
2. Characteristic of The Text
a. Function
To describe an elephant in general.
b. Generic Structure
• General classificasion : The definition of an elephant
• Description :
 How an elephant looks like.
 The various usages of elephant trunk.
 Explained that elephant is very intelligent animals.
3. Main Idea of each Paragraph
1) An elephant is the largest and strongest of all animals.
2) The various usages of an elephant trunk, the trunk serves the elephant as long
arm and hand.
3) An elephant is really a smart animal, elephant can be trained to serve in various
ways.

REVIEW
A.purpose/sosial function

A review text is a flexible genre which may vary according to the nature of the
creative work being worked on, the intended audience, and the aspects of the work
considered worth commenting on.

The purpose of review text is to analyze and evaluate some creative works, and to
inform people about its strengths and weaknesses.
B.generic structure

1. Title

Briefly identifies the subject of the review in some interesting way, and generally
is linked to the reviewer’s name.

3. Identification of the work


Identifies:

The name of the creative work which is the subject of the review.

What kind of work it is (such as film, movie, novel, research investigation, books,
cassette etc)

Its author(s), publisher or producer, and date of production. Not all these details are
necessary.

4. Evaluation of the work


The reviewer describes particular aspects of the work, and offers their
opinion regarding them, their quality, effectiveness, and so forth.
4. Conclusions/ recommendations
The reviewer summarizes their assessment of the value of the work, and
makes recommendations regarding how others should regard the word.

C.leoxion grammatical future

Language features:
· The use of complex and compound sentences
· The use of adjectives and phrases of appraisal
· The use of metaphorical expressions
The use of noun phrases

D.example

Now read an example of review text of a book!


Title : Science through the Ages
Title in Indonesian : Sains dari Masa ke Masa
Author : Janice VanCleave
Published by : Pakar Raya, Bandung
Price : Rp. 20.000,00

You will discover the answer to the above questions and many other fascinating
questions when you take a journey through science history with Janice VanCleave
as your guide. Packed with fun facts, activities and experiments, Janis VanCleave’s
Science through the Ages introduces you to the amazing stories behind some of the
greatest scientific discoveries of our time. Each chapter provides easy-to-follow
instructions for hands on experiments, as well as clear explanation that reveal the
many science has helped people- from ancient times right up through today!

You will find out how to use Stone Ages tools to make art, build a simple
telescope, look at your own blood vessels, construct a stethoscope, create a model
of Galileo’s gas thermometer and much more. As with all of Janice VanCleaves’s
books, the contents or materials are safe, inexpensive and easily found around the
house. So take a time traveling tour of discovery and get ready for hours and hours
of fascinating science fun at home or in classroom.

E.analysis the text

Orientation:You will discover the answer to the above questions and many other
fascinating questions when you take a journey through science history with Janice
VanCleave as your guide. Packed with fun facts, activities and experiments, Janis
VanCleave’s Science through the Ages introduces you to the amazing stories
behind some of the greatest scientific discoveries of our time. Each chapter
provides easy-to-follow instructions for hands on experiments, as well as clear
explanation that reveal the many science has helped people- from ancient times
right up through today!

complication :You will find out how to use Stone Ages tools to make art, build a
simple telescope, look at your own blood vessels, construct a stethoscope, create a
model of Galileo’s gas thermometer and much more. As with all of Janice
VanCleaves’s books, the contents or materials are safe, inexpensive and easily
found around the house. So take a time traveling tour of discovery and get ready
for hours and hours of fascinating science fun at home or in classroom.

NISCUSSION

A.purpose/sosial function

To present different opinions on a particular issue or topic arguments for and


against/positive and negative/good and bad.

B.generic structure

1.Issue: Contains of statement and preview about something

2 Supporting point: After stating the issue, it is necessary to present the argument
to support that one point is agreeing.

3.Contrastive point: Beside the supporting argument, discussion text needs the
arguments which disagree to stated issue.

4. Recommendation/conclusion: It is used to tell how to solve issue by connecting


the arguments for and against.

C.lexion grammatical future

1. Introducing category or generic participant


2. Relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using additive, contrastive, and casual connection
5. Using modalities
6. Using adverbial of manner
7. Using conjunction/transition
8. Using simple present tense

D.example
Homework

I have been wondering if homework is necessary. I think we should have


homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps
people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is
really good because it helps with our education. But, many times, doing home is
not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after
school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not
important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with
my family. According to me, homework is not as an entirely bad thing or a
completely good thing for students’ education because this is about how they learn
more their material from school.

E.analysis the text

Homework
Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary.
I think we should have homework because it helps us to
learn and revise our work.
Statement Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to
of issue remember what they have learned. Homework is really
and good because it helps with our education.
Preview
But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I
think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go
out after school to a restaurant or the movies.
Sometimes homework is boring and not important.
Statement I think homework is bad because I like to play and
of various discuss things with my family.
viewpoints
PROSEDURE

A.purpose/sosial function

“Procedure text is a piece of text that give us instructions for doing something.”

“Procedure text is a text that is designed to describe how something is achieved


through a sequence of actions or steps.”

“The social purpose of procedure text is to show how something is done through
sequence of steps which enable the reader to achieve the goal.”

B.generic structure

1. Goal: showing the purpose


2. Material: Telling the needed materials. (It can be optional)
3. Step 1 up to finish. Describing the steps to achieve the purpose

C.lexion grammatical future

Language Feature of Procedure


Ø Using temporal conjunction
Ø Using action verb
Ø Using imperative sentence
Ø Using Simple Present Tense
D.example

Examples and Analysis of Procedure Texts


Example 1:
Here is the recipe you need to make Green Bean Soup

Goal HOW TO MAKE GREEN


BEAN SOUP
Materials· Unsalted butter
· 2 onions Language
· 8 cloves of garlic Features:
· 1.200 ml chicken stock Generalized
· 440 gr green beans human agent
· Large handful of clives “you”
· Large handful of coriander Action Verb
Temporal
Conjunction
Adverbials
Steps 1. Prepare the vegetables and Simple Present
herbs.
2. Peel and slice 2 onions.
3. Peel and chop 8 clover of garlic. Language
4. Slice 440 gr green beans. Features:
5. Chop large handful of chives Generalized
and coriander. human agent
6. Gently melt the butter in a “you”
saucepan and fry the onion and Action Verb
garlic for five minutes, to soften. Temporal
7. After that, pour the stock into Conjunction
the pan, bring to the boil and Adverbials
then reduce the heat. Simple Present
8. Then, add the beans
and simmergently for 8-10
minutes.
9. Remove from the heat and stirin
the fresh herbs.
10. Ladle the soup into for soup
bowls and serve it.

E.analysis the text

Social Function:
To explain how to make green bean soup.

b. Generic Structure:
1. Goal:
How to make green bean soup.
2. Materials:
Unsalted butter, 2 onions, 8 cloves of garlic, 1.200 ml chicken stock, 440 gr green
beans, large handful of chives, and large handful of coriander.
3. Steps:
1. Prepare the vegetables and herbs.
2. Peel and slice 2 onions.
3. Peel and chop 8 clover of garlic.
4. Slice 440 gr green beans.
5. Chop large handful of chives and coriander.
6. Gently melt the butter in a saucepan and fry the onion and garlic for five minutes,
to soften.
7. After that, pour the stock into the pan, bring to the boil and then reduce the heat.
8. Then, add the beans and simmer gently for 8-10 minutes.
9. Remove from the heat and stir in the fresh herbs.
10. Ladle the soup into for soup bowls and serve it.

c. Process Type:
1. Material Process (Action Verb)
- Prepare - Melt - Boil - Remove
- Peel - Fry - Reduce - Stir
- Slice - Pour - Add - Ladle
- Chop - Bring - Simmer - Serve
2. Conjunction
And, then, after that.
3. Adverbial
Gently
4. Tenses
Simple Present Time
d. Reading Skill:
1. Scanning Skill
 What is the second step?
= Peel and slice 2 onions.
 How much green bean do we need?
= 440 gr green beans.
 How long do onion and garlic fry?
= For 5 minutes.
2. Skimming Skill
 What is the text above?
= How to make green bean soup.
3. Referring Skill
 “. . . and serve it.” (Steps 10). What does the underline word refer to?
= The soup.
4. Deducing the word meaning from the context
 What is “chopping” in Indonesian?
= Mencincang.
 “Peel and slice 2 onions.” (steps 2). The underline word in the sentence is
similar in meaning to . . .
= Pare.

NEWS ITEM

A.purpose/sosial function

“The purpose of news item text is to inform the readers about newsworthy or
important events of the day.”

News Item Text is used to inform readers about events of the day which are
considered newsworthy or important.

B.generic structure

The main Generic Structure of News Item Text:

1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Elaboration ( background, participant, time, place )
3. Resource of information
C.lexion grammatical future

The Language Features of News Item Text:

1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline


2. Focusing on circumstances
3. Using action verbs
4. Using saying verbs
5. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.

D.example

Landslide in Bukittinggi

Two people died while four others were wounded in a landslide at a


yard behind a house near Teleng market in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra on Tuesday.
The death people were 3-year-old Yusuf, who was theson of a kiosk owner at
the market, Bujang, and 22-year-old Meli, who was a visitor to the market. The
injured were rushed to the Achmad Muchtar and Yarsi hospitals.
Bukittinggi Deputy Mayor Ismet Amziz said Tuesday it was suspected that
recent heavy rainfall had caused the landslide.
Source: the jakarta post
After reading above example of news item text, it is clearly that news item text
is written to inform the newsworthy. It is socially important to know that there was
an accident of landslide in Bukittinggi which caused two people died.

E.analysis the text

Additionally the generic structure of above news item is as follow:

1. Newsworthy event: News item text presents the dailynewsworthy. In this


example of news item text, the first paragraph is the main event. It informs the
reader that a landslide happened.
2. Elaboration: The second paragraph of this example of news item gives
further explanation about the main event that the two victim were 3 and 22 years
old while the injured were brought to hospitals.

3. Resource of information: The last paragraph is the officialstatement from the


expert or the authority which strengthen the news of the main event.

SPOOF

A.purpose/sosial function

Spoof text is a text which tells the events of the past with an unexpected ending
and funny.

To entertain the readers with funny story.

B.generic structure

Generic Structures:

1. Orientation: Introduction of the participant of the story, where it


happens and when it happens. By giving the orientation, reader will recognize the
story.

2. Events: Tells about the chronological of the story. Several events are
explored in chronological way which able to arrange the story read nicely.

Twist: An unpredictable plot in the end of the story which amuse the reader.
Readers even didn’t predict before that it would be.

C.lexion grammatical future

Language Features:

1. Focusing on individual participant like as people, animals or certain


things
2. Using past sentence

3. Using action verb (ate, ran, was walking, etc.)

4. The use of adverbial phrase of time and place (in the garden, two days
ago)

5. Told in chronological order

6. Use of direct speech or indirect speech for the dialogues

6. The use of connective (first, then, finally)

D.example

Nasreddin’s Coat

One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. He went to the party by
wearing old clothes.
When he arrived in the party, nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat.
He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes
Next he put on his best clothes. He wore his newest coat and went to the party
again. The host at once got up and came to meet him. The host offered him the best
table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food
Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. He put his coat and said; “Eat the food, Coat!”
the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin; “What are doing?”
Nasreddin replied calmly; “When I came here with my old clothes, nobody looked
at me. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. I came back in my newest
coat and you all give me this best food and drink. So, you give food to my coat
instead of me”. Getting Nasreddin’s answer, they just shook the head.

Generic Structure Analysis


Orientation: one day, Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party
Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth
Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat
Twist: Among the hosts and guests, he aske his coat to eat the served
EXPLANATION

A.purpose/sosial function

The purpose of explanation text is to explain the process involved in the formation
of a natural or social phenomena.

B.generic structure

The generic structures of this text are divided into three parts as follows:

1. General Statement (this part consists of a general statement / general


introduction of the phenomenon that we are going to explain)
2. Sequenced Explanation (this part explains about some process involved in
the formation of the phenomenon)
3. Closing (the concluding paragraph is presented in this part of explanation
text even though it is not a mandatory)

C.lexion grammatical future

1. Using simple present tense


2. Using passive voice
3. Focus on natural and socio cultural phenomena

D.example

1. A. Tsunami
The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour (“tsu”) and
wave (“nami”). A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or
the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.

A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically
displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth’s crust
can occur at plate boundaries.

Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis, and


occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.
As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its
equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.

Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge
mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising
fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.

E.analysis the text

General statement; stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than
in winter.

Explanation; it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the
distance of the earth from the sun.

EXPOSITION

A.purpose/sosial function

To persuade the readers that idea is important matter.


2. To persuade the readers or listeners that there is something that,
certainly, needs to get attention
To analyze a topic and to persuade the reader that this opinion is correct and
supported by arguments

b.generic structure

Generic Structures:
1. Thesis (Introduction): Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s
position
2. Arguments (Body): Explaining the arguments to support the writer’s
position.
Reiteration (Conclusion): Restating the writer’s position.

c.lexion grammatical future

Language Features:
1. Using relational process = Relationships between and among leaders,
workers, followers, partners, co-workers, etc. people knowing and caring about
people.
2. Using external conjunctions = Enhancing by linking to real world events
(Holocaust, the Final Solution, death trains)
3. Using internal conjunction = Elaborating and itemizing steps in an
argument (Firstly, secondly, next, finally)
4. Using causal conjunction = the cause of an event, because
5. Using contrastive conjunction = but, nevertheless
6. Using simple present tense = Bruno is quiet boy
7. Focusing on generic human and non-human participants, e.g.: car,
pollution, leaded petrol car
8. Using abstract noun, e.g.: policy, government
9. Using relational processes, e.g.: It is important
10. Using modal verbs, e.g.: We must preserve
11. Using modal adverbs, e.g.: Certainly we.
12. Using passive sentence

D.example and analysis

Cars should be banned in the city


Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars
create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other
Thesis accidents.
Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the
pollution in the world.Carsemit a deadly gas that causes
illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off
asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die
from them.Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians
wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the
city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads
biggest killers.
Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may
find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your
homework, and especially talk to someone.
Arguments
In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the
Reiteration reasons listed.

ARECCDULE