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LIBRARIES MUST ALSO BE BUILDINGS?

NEW LIBRARY IMPACT STUDY

MARCH 2003

JARED BRYSON,
BOB USHERWOOD,
RICHARD PROCTOR

THE CENTRE FOR PUBLIC LIBRARIES


AND
INFORMATION IN SOCIETY
(CPLIS)

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES


UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 5

IMAGE CREDITS 6

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 12

CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY 15

CHAPTER 3 PLANNING 20

CHAPTER 4 PARTNERSHIPS 31

CHAPTER 5 DESIGN 41

CHAPTER 6 MARKETING 57

CHAPTER 7 SOCIAL CAPITAL 65

CHAPTER 8 LESSONS LEARNED 74

BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCES 81

APPENDICES 85

APPENDIX 1 MISSION STATEMENT OF NORFOLK


& NORWICH MILLENNIUM LIBRARY 85

APPENDIX 2 STRATEGIC VISION OF NEWHAM LIBRARIES 86

APPENDIX 3 LETTER TO NATIONAL SURVEY RECIPIENTS 87

APPENDIX 4 SAMPLE NATIONAL SURVEY 88

APPENDIX 5 NATIONAL SURVEY RESPONDENTS 95

APPENDIX 6 NATIONAL SURVEY TABLES KEY 98

APPENDIX 7 NATIONAL SURVEY DATA TABLES 102

APPENDIX 8 NATIONAL SURVEY RESULTS:


PUBLIC CONSULTATION, PLANNING PROCESS, &
PARTNERSHIPS 121

APPENDIX 9 INTERVIEW GUIDE—ARCHITECT 124

APPENDIX 10 INTERVIEW GUIDE—LIBRARY PARTNERS 126

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APPENDIX 11 INTERVIEW GUIDE—STRATFORD
INTERIOR DESIGNER 127

APPENDIX 12 INTERVIEW GUIDE—ELECTED OFFICIAL 129

APPENDIX 13 FOCUS GROUP GUIDE—STANDARD 131

APPENDIX 14 FOCUS GROUP GUIDE—LIBRARIANS 132

APPENDIX 15 FOCUS GROUP GUIDE—BUSINESS LEADERS 133

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The research team wishes to extend its appreciation to Briony Train, member
of the Centre for Public Libraries and Information in Society, for her advice in
developing the national email survey. We also thank Anna Stevenson and
Claire Craig for their work in creating the database for analyzing the national
survey results.

We also wish to thank Professor Jeremy Till, Head of the University of


Sheffield's School of Architecture and Professor of Planning Theory and
Practice, Heather Campbell at the University of Sheffield's School of Town
and Regional Planning, for offering their time and valuable insights into their
professions and their application to public libraries.

We also appreciate the assistance given by the staff in the libraries where the
case studies were conducted. In Norfolk County Council: Jennifer Holland,
Jan Holden and Annie Gore. In Newham and Stratford: Mark Blair, Adrian
Whittle and Zainab Jalil.

We thank all of the local library authorities that participated in the national
survey.

Thank you to all those elected members and officials from partner
organisations, as well as members of the respective design teams and focus
groups that participated, and who gave so generously of their time and
without whom this research would not have been possible.

Finally, this project would not have been possible without the funding and
support of Resource, the Council for Museums, Archives, and Libraries and
their research programme manager, Margaret Croucher

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IMAGE CREDITS

THROUGH THE KIND PERMISSION OF:

THE FORUM, INCLUDING THE NORFOLK AND NORWICH


MILLENNIUM LIBRARY
The Forum Trust
http://www.theforumnorfolk.com/

STRATFORD PUBLIC LIBRARY


Newham Council
http://www.newham.gov.uk/leisure/libraries/librariesmain.htm
Miller Bourne Partnership, Chartered Architects
http://www.millerbourne.co.uk/recent.html

BOURNEMOUTH LIBRARY
BDP/Martine Hamilton Knight
http://www.bdp.co.uk/news/2002/a0206_bournemouth.asp

PECKHAM LIBRARY
The Public Libraries Group of the Chartered Institute of Library and
Information Professionals
Public Library Building Awards
http://www.cilip.org.uk/groups/plg/award_2001/peckham.html

IDEA STORES
Tower Hamlets Council
http://www.ideastore.co.uk/

MACHEN PUBLIC LIBRARY


Caerphilly County Borough Council
http://www.caerphilly.gov.uk/learning/libraries/index.htm

PAPWORTH LIBRARY
Cambridgeshire County Council,
http://www.camcnty.gov.uk/library/ver1/papw.htm

MUIRHOUSE LIBRARY
Edinburgh City Council,
http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/CEC/Recreation/Leisure/Data/Muirhouse_
Library/Muirhouse_Library.html

WATERSIDE LIBRARY
The Western Education and Library Board, Derry Council, Hazel
Philson, Photographer

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION
The study was undertaken by the Centre for Public Libraries and Information
in Society (CPLIS) in the Department of Information Studies at the University
of Sheffield, and funded by Resource, the Council for Museums, Archives,
and Libraries. It aimed to assess the impact of a new library building on local
communities, questioning the institution as a physical space and the role it
plays in the wider community. In particular the project set out to examine a
series of questions that are as follows:
· How and to what extent potential user needs were identified in the
advance planning for the building?
· How the new library fits into the local authority’s overall strategic
planning?
· How the perceived aims and role of the new library differ from the old
one?
· Whether co-operation with new partners has been achieved?
· The impact, if any, on local shops/businesses?
· The impact, if any, on the use of other library services?
· What changes to services (ICT access, materials, display etc) were
offered?
· Users views on the library as a physical and or virtual space?
· Issues of physical and psychological access?
· What publicity has been achieved locally/regionally/nationally? (How
the library has been promoted/publicised within its perceived
catchment area?)
· If the public's image/expectation of libraries has changed as a result of
the new library?
· The extent to which new library buildings can help ameliorate the
breakdown in the social connections of British society? (c.f. Putnam
Bowling Alone)
· The impact, if any, on the use of the library service by various
categories of users?
· The views of users, potential users and other stakeholders?

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METHODOLOGY
The approach was predominantly qualitative in nature, and a variety of
sources provided data for the study. A literature review examined the existing
views inside the library profession as well as current thinking about
architecture and social policy. The Norwich & Norfolk Millennium Library and
the London Borough of Newham's Stratford library were the subject of
detailed research. The case studies involved an examination of planning and
strategy documents, semi-structured interviews with key staff, partners, and
the design team, as well as a series of focus groups with an array of social
groups in the community. Data from these two case studies were amplified by
the results of a broad, nation-wide email survey to all of the United Kingdom's
Library Authorities.

STUDY THEMES
Five broad themes emerged from the data. These relate to the situation of
the new public library buildings within their communities. The five themes are:
planning, partnerships, design, marketing, and social capital.

PROCESS OF PLANNING & CONSTRUCTING A NEW LIBRARY


BUILDING
The data suggest that the strengths and weaknesses of a new public library
within a community are established with the initial conditions of planning and
construction. A thorough consultation process before the brief takes
irreversible physical form can give the client and design team critical insights
from a wide range of stakeholders. Both the Norfolk & Norwich Millennium
Library and Newham's Stratford Library undertook an extensive consultation
process before initiating their development. Nationwide the extent of the
consultation ranged from postal and telephone surveys and questionnaires, to
analysis of geographical information system (GIS) data, road shows and focus
groups. Visits to other successful libraries in the UK and abroad presented
library authorities considering a new building with an opportunity to see
particular designs in operation. The use of architectural competition in some
authorities offered a number of design options that might be best suited to the

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community's specific needs, including the condition and character of the site,
and budgetary and time constraints.

IMPACT OF PARTNERSHIPS & OTHER LIBRARY SERVICES


Public libraries are being asked to deliver an assortment of services. In order
to meet these demands more fully they are teaming up with other
organisations, and placing the delivery of an array of services under one roof.
This creates a "one-stop-shop" for users and increases access for all
involved. The Norfolk & Norwich Millennium Library is sited within the Forum
building and shares space with the regional BBC, a heritage visitor attraction,
tourist information service, local educational consortium, and an eating
establishment. The Stratford library operates with a local cafe and is sited
within a development that includes a grocery superstore, a hotel and a video
rental shop. All of these elements were seen to work together to add value
and achieve strategic aims for the authorities concerned.

DESIGN, FACILITIES, RESOURCES & SERVICES


Design is at the nexus of both the social and material, and it forms a
fundamental aspect of a new library's impact on the community. Good design
according to the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment
needs to be: fit for purpose, sustainable, efficient, coherent, flexible,
responsive to context, good looking and a clear expression of the
requirements of the brief (CABE 2002b). The investment in ICT by public
libraries has brought about a need to accommodate the new technology and
maintain space for established services. Retail techniques that focus on
customer service are being applied to the library setting, including display and
promotional areas, lounges and cafes with comfortable seating, clear signage
and inviting layouts. The Disability Discrimination Act now requires physical
for disabled people to the public library building, however, many of the new
libraries exceed these basic requirements by providing enabling equipment.
The best library buildings also provide for other dimensions of access
including psychological, sensory, financial, as well as provision for socially
excluded groups such as ethnic minorities and the mentally disabled.

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MARKETING & AWARENESS
Both case study libraries generated a high degree of attention during the short
term (with visitor numbers nearly trebling in Stratford's case). However,
recent research suggests that the high levels of use are not a forgone
conclusion, and considerable effort needs to be expended over the long term
to keep the community interested in the services provided or the events
hosted at the library. The data indicate that the libraries that achieved greater
success used a sustained and multi-component approach to marketing their
service. This involved the placement of the building in high footfall areas, and
the use of a variety of media to target specific audiences for their messages.
The frequency and quality varied with the types of methods employed,
although the Norfolk & Norwich service noted the value of "drip-marketing"
over the long term.

BUILDING ACCESS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL


Observations in this study indicate that library architecture and management
styles both work together to enable the public, giving them access to
resources that they might not otherwise be able to afford, not only in the
traditional media, but also via digital formats. Communities often have
members who are socially excluded for one reason or another; and in a
society that places a premium on the possession of information and skills to
communicate and use it, the local library allows individuals to operate on a
global level. The new libraries facilitate the connections between people and
resources that can help to ameliorate the breakdown in the society.

CONCLUSIONS
The new public library buildings in this study demonstrated the value of a
fresh start. A new public library can have an impact on the community in a
variety of ways. The nature and extent of that impact can be enhanced
through:
—Appropriate planning, including extensive public consultation and creation
of a clear design brief.
—Partnering with complementary organisations to share the workload and
multiply the beneficial effects of the library service.

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—Good design that augments the use of traditional and new media for the
public library. It also creates valuable social space for the community that can
be missing from other civic buildings.
—Marketing approaches that are strategic and sustained over the long-term.
—An understanding of the social context in which the public libraries operate
by providing access to the socially excluded and helping to build social
capital.
—The application of good management and leadership to the entire library
service, including the building itself.

Although the virtual library has a role to play, the data from this study show
that in the 21st Century libraries must also be buildings. The commitment of
the politicians and professionals responsible for the libraries involved in this
project demonstrates the value and impact these buildings can have on local
communities.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
If public life is not to disintegrate, communities must still find ways to
provide pay for and maintain places of assembly and interaction for
their members—whether these places are virtual, physical or some
new and complex combination of the two. And if these places are to
serve their purpose effectively, they must allow both freedom of access
and freedom of expression (Mitchell 1999)

Has Mitchell's call been a clarion one for Britain's local public libraries? Their
mandate seems to fit. Libraries have long been established as a public place,
offering information as a public "good", at the public's expense. Today, local
authorities with the means to build new libraries have a myriad of options not
available to them even a decade ago. But what nature of library should they
build? Since the mid-90's, the growth of both the networked world of the
information superhighway, and the success of the large retail super
bookshops have caused some to re-evaluate the changing role of libraries
within society (Greenhalgh 1995; Lushington 2002; Audit Commission 2002).
The present research was undertaken in order to understand the character of
that change, specifically in terms of the library's tangible presence within the
local community. Has the library building become a seeming irrelevancy,
fixed and unmoving, or has it successfully maintained its position as a base
from which to set off on a journey of discovery? What are the steps the new
public library has taken to re-invigorate and re-value its place among an array
of competing enterprises?

The present study aimed to assess the impact of new library buildings on their
local community, assessing the institution as a physical space and the role it
plays in people's lives. In particular it addressed a series of issues that are as
follows:
· How and to what extent potential user needs were identified in the
advance planning for new buildings
· How a new library fits into a local authority’s overall strategic planning
· How the perceived aims and role of a new library differ from an old one
· Whether co-operation with new partners has been achieved
· The impact, if any, on local shops/businesses
· The impact, if any, on the use of other library services

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· What changes to services (ICT access, materials, display etc) were
offered
· Users' views on the library as a physical and/or virtual space
· Issues of physical and psychological access
· What publicity has been achieved locally/regionally/nationally (How
new library buildings have been promoted/publicised within their
perceived catchment area)
· If the public's image/expectation of libraries has changed as a result of
a new library?
· The extent to which new library buildings can help ameliorate the
breakdown in the social connections of British society (c.f. Putnam
Bowling Alone)
· The impact, if any, on the use of the library service by various
categories of users
· The views of users, potential users and other stakeholders

As the data were evaluated, five themes emerged in response to these


questions. The first theme explored the notion of planning and consultation
that begins a dialogue with the library's public and other stakeholders. The
concept of library-ness (Greenhalgh et al 1995) was seen to be negotiated
during the planning process, and this established the initial conditions for all of
the service's future endeavours. Theme two investigated the collaborative
activities of a new library—partnerships and relationships with businesses and
other organisations in the community. The work of burden sharing and force-
multiplying was understood to be a desirable outcome of such partnerships.
The third theme encompassed the concept of design and the creation of the
physical facilities that house the library. It explored architecture's contribution
to shaping behaviour and encouraging access to the library's resources. For
the fourth theme, the study dealt with the process of marketing, awareness
and publicity that forms part of the library's conversation with its public.
Marketing strategies familiarise the public with the library's services and help
to shape its image. The fifth and final theme looked at the role that a new
public library could play in building social capital, a concept that concerns
broadening access to the library's resources and facilitating relationships
within the life of the community.

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In May 2002 the Audit Commission released its assessment of the nation's
library services. Overall the picture was bleak in terms of the physical state of
library buildings. The report stated that "over half of the libraries were poorly
located and in poor condition" (2002, p1). One of their four major
recommendations advises libraries to make their services easy and pleasant
to use, looking to the bookshop retailer for successful ideas (Ibid, p47).

The present project involved an in depth study of the Norfolk & Norwich
Millennium Library and the London Borough of Newham's Stratford branch. In
addition, evidence was obtained from an email survey of all UK local
authorities. It is hoped that data from the study will provide some new insights
into the factors that produce a relevant and high quality local public library for
the 21st century.

Norfolk & Norwich Millennium Library: Chronology

August 1994 Central Library burned


February 1995 Initial bids for Millennium proposal were being explored
Known as "Technopolis"
April 1995 Public consultation throughout Norfolk conducted via postal
questionnaire
May 1996 Technopolis bid rejected
January-April 1997 Reapplication
September -December 1998 Public Planning Consultation
May 1999 Construction begins
December 2000 Construction ends
November 2001 Facilities operational

London Borough of Newham, Stratford Branch Library: Chronology

1996 Newham Council enters agreement with Safeway PLC to develop The Grove
1996 Safeway PLC selects Miller-Bourne Architects to deign the entire Grove
development. Interior design by Faulkner-Brown
1997 Public Consultation & Community Profile
1998 Construction begins
2000 Best Value Review of Newham library services
2000 Stratford opens to the public

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CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY

The approach of this short study has been predominantly qualitative in nature.
Its scope encompassed a variety of data including a literature review, a
national email survey of all library authorities within the United Kingdom, and
two detailed case studies of authorities that had recently opened a new public
library.

Literature Review
A review of the relevant literature in the fields of architecture, planning,
geography, sociology and librarianship enabled the research team to explore
the theoretical and social contexts of new public libraries. Primary
documentation produced by the local authorities in the case study areas and
several of the survey libraries contributed specific information. In addition,
use was made of government policy documents directed toward civic
architecture and neighbourhood renewal, including the Office of the Deputy
Prime Minister's Neighbourhood Renewal Unit (Blair 2001, Prescott 2002), the
Department of Culture Media and Sport (DCMS 2001, 2002), the Commission
for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE 2002a, b) and the Audit
Commission (2002).

National Survey of Library Authorities


An email-survey (see appendix 4) was sent to the heads of the 208 local
library authorities. This requested that respondents complete the survey if
their authority had built a new library since 1995. Approximately seventy-five
authorities responded, with thirty-five indicating that they had opened a new
building in the designated period. This breaks down geographically as:
Northern Ireland with three authorities and ten total new builds; Wales with
four authorities and five new builds; Scotland with four authorities and thirteen
new builds; and England with the remaining twenty-three authorities and forty-
two new builds for a total of 70 new libraries indicated in the responses.

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Two Case Studies: Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library and London
Borough of Newham's Stratford Branch Library
In order to explore some of the nuances of the impact of a new library within a
community the project involved two detailed case studies. These were
undertaken at Norfolk & Norwich's central library located in Norwich, and the
Stratford branch of the London Borough of Newham. The specific data from
these two libraries addressed a variety of situations that can be applied to
libraries across the country. The analysis also highlights the unique set of
circumstances that each authority must face when considering the building of
a new library facility.

The Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library is the result of a jurisdictionally


cooperative effort between county council and city council. Demographically,
the highly dispersed, rural population in Norfolk County offsets the urban
nature of Norwich. Forty-eight branch and seventeen mobile libraries at the
periphery and a large and complex library at the centre serve both city and
county. The population, while suffering deprivation due often to
circumstances of isolation, is relatively homogenous. The financing of the
construction project was derived from County, City Heritage Lottery and
Millennium Lottery Funding. The Forum building that houses the Norfolk and
Norwich Library is maintained by registered charity through a publicly limited
trust. This contrasts with the urban, Inner-London borough of Newham, which
operates a series of ward focused branch libraries rather than a central
library. Newham's population is ethnically very mixed and among the
youngest in the nation. The project's funding for this development came from
the sale of council held property subsequently developed by Safeway PLC, a
grocery chain. Approximately a week was spent observing the use of both
libraries, during which time interviews and focus groups were conducted.

Interviews
Semi-structured, recorded interviews were held in person and over the
telephone. Respondents included the heads of library services for both of the
case studies, most of the recommended partners to the library service, as well

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as elected members of the two local authorities. The interview guides are
included in appendices 7-10.
Focus Groups
The researcher asked the head of library services in the two case study
libraries to identify key stakeholders across a broad demographic spectrum.
Within the Norfolk area focus groups were conducted with two youth groups, a
young adult group, an "elders" group, a business leaders' group, a group of
disabled people, the Millennium library's own staff, and mobile library users.
In Stratford a similar cross section was chosen though without a business
leaders' focus group, but including young adults, disabled users, ethnic
minority and refugee groups, an elders group and a staff librarians group.
The focus group guides (appendices 10-13) used were designed with
reference to the aims of the project and varied from group to group but were
similar between the two libraries. Holding focus groups allowed data to be
obtained from a larger number of respondents and for people to develop their
original responses after they heard other peoples views (Patton 1990). All of
the focus groups were audio recorded and notes taken by the researcher.

Data Analysis
In practice, the data collection, analysis and writing blended into one another
(Mellon 1990). The research adopted an inductive approach and began with
the general question. “What is the impact on a community when a library
service opens in a new building?” That is to say the study aimed to assess
the impact of the changes in library provision in terms of how stakeholders felt
and behaved, their perceptions, opinions and experiences. The main thrust of
the research was qualitative. Previous work undertaken by CPLIS and
elsewhere suggests that the qualitative approach is particularly suitable for
this kind of study (Linley & Usherwood 1998; Toyne and Usherwood 2001;
Proctor and Bartle 2002; Bryson, et al 2002). Quantitative data were obtained
from the national email survey and from existing documents available from the
library case studies. These permitted a statistical examination of changing
patterns of user behaviour.

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Further work examining the societal differences in rural and urban areas as
they apply to new libraries would be welcomed. A forum held by the Building
Centre Trust in 2000 raised the concern that urban libraries dominated the
trend in new libraries (Building Centre Trust 2000). Long-term research may
illuminate the effect of a public library expanding to meet a community's
demands for information and social spaces that has not been possible in a
report of this scope and duration.

What Worked and What Did Not


A longer project would have allowed an investigation of the full extent of the
new library's stakeholders in both case studies. While the focus group
technique offered a rich set of data from which to glean results, increasing the
numbers of demographic groups included in the study would offer an even
broader perspective. In the case of Norfolk & Norwich, the Central Library is
meant to serve the entire county, and further focus groups in the more
dispersed rural areas would allow greater understanding about the affects of
distance on use and access. Within Stratford, the inclusion of neighbouring
businesses such as Safeway's management team, the local cinema staff, or
the managers within the retail quarter situated nearby, would likely create a
broader understanding of the interconnectivity between the library and the
surrounding commercial enterprises.

Many of the data returned from the national survey did not allow a long-term
trend to be examined. Libraries open for only a year might return a more
optimistic result than libraries that attempt to sustain high users after five or
more years, and after the initial 'thrill' of a new resource may have worn off. A
long-term study may help to understand how the positive effects of a new
library's opening last within a community

Financial issues play an enormous role in the resources available to build a


new library. The funding process should be included in any further research
since Private Finance Initiatives may offer greater flexibility and more diverse
outcomes.

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The present study offers some common ground for understanding the impact
of a new library within a community. While each library authority encounters
unique circumstances when building a new library, the general findings from
the two case study libraries and augmented by the national survey findings,
demonstrate an array of options and routes to success.

Summary
The short-term exploration of the impact of new libraries described in this
report involved a literature review, and a nationwide email survey to
supplement the detailed work done in two case study areas. The Norfolk &
Norwich Millennium Library allowed a big budget central county library to be
examined, while the Newham Stratford library provided a smaller, inner city
branch library to be explored. The case studies involved qualitative analysis
of semi-structured interviews and a broad demographic spectrum of focus
groups. The data provided a snapshot of the impact of a new library.

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CHAPTER 3 PLANNING
To build a library designed for users librarians need to look at how
people actually use libraries (Lushington 2002, p 11)

CONSULTATION

Identifying user needs at the outset of the planning process provides the raw
materials for the design brief—the core document that will shape the
character of the new library building. What mission will be set for the public's
new tool? The nature of library-ness, as Greenhalgh, Worpole, and Landry
note, has changed during the last century or so (1995). Therefore, in order to
craft a design that is "fit for use" (CABE 2002b) library services are engaging
in conversations with their publics, and tailoring the service in light of their
responses. For both the Norfolk & Norwich Millennium Library and the
Stratford Library this meant a complex, long-term, and multi-component
approach to asking, and listening to, stakeholders.

A fire destroyed the Norfolk central library in 1994, and not long after, work
began on a public consultation process that would precede a replacement
building. A report details methods used by the County in order to explore the
possibilities. It notes that,
...A great deal of research into the future needs for the Norfolk and
Norwich Central Library has been undertaken...This has included an
analysis of demographic trends, discussions with key individuals, a
"think tank" of senior librarians co-sponsored by the Department of
National Heritage, visits to major English, European and American
public libraries and telephone surveys of users of the old central library.
(Hammond 1995)
The list represents a good example of the range of consultation required in
order to take account of the many facets that affect a library service and its
facilities.

Elements of New Library Consultation Exercise

Several recent works within the professional literature have explored


consultation as a major factor in beginning the library building process (Renes
1989, Lushington 2002). What follows is a compilation of elements used in

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the consultation process by respondents to the national email survey, as well
as the two case study libraries. None of the libraries used all of these
elements, and the list serves as an example of what is possible and valuable
to the country's library services. Neither of the case study libraries utilised a
strategic consultation plan, however many of the elements below added
critical information to the decision making structure. For Norfolk & Norwich an
elected representative from the county cabinet was involved in the library
client committee through the entire course of the project. The librarians who
would be staffing the new building also provided highly detailed feedback to
the brief and the architects.

The data from the present study show that library authorities have used the
following as part of the planning process for a new building:

—Exploration of existing literature and standards of library planning and


design. (Undertaken by Norfolk & Norwich and Newham)

—Discussion with other professional librarians, architects, and planners.


(Undertaken by Norfolk & Norwich and Newham)

—Consideration of existing libraries, taking into account, what works and what
does not. Elements of style as well as practical service requirements were
addressed. (Undertaken by Norfolk & Norwich and Newham)

—Demographic profile of library catchment area supplied by library user


statistics and local authority data including census materials (Gee 1989)
(Undertaken by Norfolk & Norwich and Newham)

—Focus Groups with a variety of appropriate stakeholders: user and non-user


categories including ethnic minority groups, disabled groups, children, teens,
adults, elders, mothers, business leaders; the staff of the library and perhaps
branch services; potential partners. (Undertaken by Norfolk & Norwich and
Newham)

—GIS (geographic information system) analysis of catchment area


(undertaken by Cheshire County Council, as well as Tower Hamlets for their
Idea Stores. See Tower Hamlets 2002, as well as Koontz 1999).

—Road shows and public meetings that take place around the area to be
served by the library. For Norfolk this allowed the advocates of the service to
reach the rural areas that interact less intensely with the City of Norwich.

—Postal and/or Telephone Surveys contacting every household within an


authority, or in some cases, through a consultant polling organisation, a

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statistically significant sample of the authority's population. (Undertaken by
Norfolk & Norwich and Newham)

—Public Planning Hearings, which can entail architectural site plans being
displayed in prominent public places. (Undertaken by Norfolk & Norwich and
Newham)

—Where a new build is replacing an older library suggestion boxes have been
placed within the old library or interim building that specifically ask for input
have captured the views of library users. (Undertaken by Norfolk & Norwich
and Newham)

The detail of the brief is vital to avert any unintended consequences that may
appear further down the road, either in the construction phase or in the actual
day-to-day operations of the service. Because the library staff gain a level of
intimacy with the facility that the public does not, it was found vital to seek
staff advice early and at every level of the project. At Norfolk & Norwich:
A very important element of the project was the group of library staff
with some of the project team who worked together to work out some
of the real details, and it was really detailed like 'what do the loos look
like?' to 'how will something operate?' That was a big project, but it
was essential for the ownership, and that helped to iron out the
practical issues where again you see something on paper and it's not
necessarily going to work in the way the customer (and that's the staff
customer or the public customer) needs it to work, because in the end
you need a functioning building. (Norfolk Head of Library and
Information Services)
The study found that there was a great deal of give and take during
consultation process that produced the brief. For the Norfolk & Norwich
Millennium Project the architect firm of Sir Michael Hopkins offered this
insight:
It's quite a challenge to very accurately fit the brief. And of course the
brief is never achievable because when you draw up which floors they
want the departments on or one thing and another, the building
inevitably has got different sizes...it needs to be worked through
architect and client alike to come out with a happy solution...
(Millennium Library Architect)

At times these can be two competing professional perspectives.


Something that we face with every library development is that we as
professionals think we know what we need in terms of service, and
you've got to accept challenge about that from an architect. You've
also got to help the architect understand what will be effective as a

22
functioning building and sometimes there has to be a compromise.
(Norfolk Head of Library and Information Services)
Even so, some critics felt that the consultation,
...was very hit and miss. I think it is ludicrous the way the whole thing
was planned without discussion with other important and interested
people who would have been willing to contribute.
This can be seen as an indication of the importance of maintaining clear lines
of communication between the library's different constituencies. However, as
always, "asking" needs to be balanced with "acting", as the Head of Norfolk's
Library and Information Services indicates:
I think that it was like a lot of projects, you get to a stage where you
can't keep asking the public 'what do you want'. You've just got to
analyse the information you have and work with that.

The professional librarian's understanding of the possibilities for a library


service will likely stretch beyond that of the general public, and therefore it is
incumbent upon the professional to provide options and make
recommendations not readily apparent to most users.
I think you've got to be quite brave and understand what the public tell
you they want isn't actually going to get you anything different...it is
difficult when all they want is basically what they had before...
(Millennium Librarian)

For the Borough of Newham, the Stratford ward's demographics indicated that
targeting the youth market was to be a key factor in their design and service
provision.
...That all fits in with the regeneration and social planning thing, and it's
an acknowledgement of Newham having the youngest population in
London. It's one of the fastest growing populations; it's got the highest
birth rate in London now. So all of those things are taken into account
in the planning...for the planning of the space it is the first time really
that all of those considerations were taken into account in the design of
a library. (Newham Head of Library and Information Services)
That meant that some of the other groups could be perceived as
marginalized—a calculated risk for a service and an authority that was
seeking an overall goal of reaching out to a segment of their population that:
Our people are the future of Newham. In particular, it is right that we
place children and young people at the front of our strategy. (Newham
2000)

23
AUTHORITY'S STRATEGIC PLAN

Both Newham and Norfolk, as authorities see their new public libraries as
useful tools in their efforts to promote their communities as economically and
socially viable. A new library that incorporates many of the successful
elements of collective space and information resources is in a good position to
assist local government in reaching out not only to its traditional constituency,
but those that are typically understood to be economically and educationally
disadvantaged.

For Norfolk County Council the library forms part of a system of services,
working (as will be seen in the other part of this report) in partnership with a
number of complementary organisations. For instance, the Chief Executive of
the Forum Trust argued that:
What is being done with the Millennium library is part and parcel of the
overall positioning of the library in the county...and part of a joined up
policy agenda from the County Council in particular...Some of the
themes of the project have to do with the promotion of information,
learning...everything to do with the information society...information and
learning through technology.
This marks a shift from simple resource provision toward a more active role
within the authority's strategic infrastructure, as a Councillor from Norfolk
notes:
...From the Council's perspective, Adult Education, Life Long Learning,
widening access to information, it's just an invaluable tool...people's
aspirations are different...so we've just had a complete re-look at the
way we run our library service. (Norfolk County Councillor)
For Norfolk the library is a tool to re-shape the image of the local authority and
actively engage its constituents in contemporary society. The architect on the
library's design team saw it like this:
The notion was that East Anglia had missed out on the industrial
revolution and didn't want to miss out on the technology revolution...
(Millennium Architect)
As a result,
...The actual building has created that interest in the use of the library,
which obviously in terms of lifelong learning and getting people
involved in their own personal growth and development, and the spin-
off to that which include, hopefully, people becoming more skilled and
better qualified workers and also has implications for the general

24
quality of life for people in this city. From that point of view I think it's
had quite a significant impact. (The Norwich Learning City Initiative)

For the city of Norwich and the county of Norfolk, a library and its analogous
knowledge-based partners could become a tangible focal point to accomplish
the aim of increasing the skills base of the local community. Similarly, the
Borough of Newham hoped to economically regenerate a dead corner of a
rapidly changing quarter of the town's centre. Newham's push to regenerate
creates what Central Government is calling, "liveability" (Blair 2001, Prescott
2002). A Borough's Councillor put it this way:
One starts [with the idea that] an attractive place to live is an attractive
environment. I think Stratford is certainly an example. A key part of
that would be urban space and the design of that space, and so
following that path in Stratford with buildings of character, and buildings
of stature, civic buildings that were important. (Newham Councillor)
He went on to discuss the importance of meeting place and ICT resources to
the overall health of the community.
I suppose one of the things that we've tried to do/think about in
Newham is to breath some life back into libraries and make them be an
important meeting place where people would exchange information as
well as just traditionally take out books. I think we wanted them to be a
place of cultural life so that they wouldn't be just a place where you
went and got a book or went and accessed the IT and found out what
other people thought about the world. I mean that would be obviously
one key function of them, but that they would also celebrate what it was
that our people were bringing, what Newham people were contributing
...allied to that I think we felt that they had a really important role in
terms of inclusion...partly by making them public spaces, but also by
causing literacy, supporting training, supporting employment, providing
the sorts of access to the sorts of material which you might need if you
were getting back into the world of learning and work. We wanted
them to be an important part of lifelong learning but particularly
focusing as well on young children. Try to make them a focus for civic
life. (Newham Councillor)
Boosting morale, or an area's "feel good"-factor was also repeatedly
mentioned by interviewees and focus group respondents as an outcome of a
new library. This significantly contributes to the "soft", quality of life element
that causes people to want to live in an area and stay there.
It looks smarter because of this thing [the Forum and Library] and
inevitably it's good for business. (Norfolk County Councillor)
For both Norfolk and Newham, building a new library was a symbol of the
authority's commitment to future investment. In short,

25
It makes a bold statement of public services. (Norfolk County
Councillor)

CHANGE IN ROLE AND AIMS


Both of the case study authorities had set out aims and mission of their library
services. The aims formal statements of both services appear in appendices
1 and 2.

In the instance of Norfolk County Council, when the earlier central library
burned down, library service used the opportunity to rethink the central
library's agenda. The old library had what has been called a traditional remit,
that of lending books and providing reference materials for researchers. The
new library entered a new era, with new opportunities, new resources, and
therefore new expectations from its users. A Councillor from Norfolk reflects
this viewpoint:
The old library was about people borrowing books and doing research,
and so on...the opening hours were there to suit the library service not
the people who used the library. We were not encouraging youngsters
in at all...there is so much more you can offer now. Times have
changed and libraries are now an integral part of everybody's agenda
for lifelong learning, whereas before they were places on corners to
take books from...librarians and library services can help in the social
issues, or in the education issues, or in offering services—books for
schools, all that sort of thing...while everyone knew it was there, we've
been able to raise the profile of the library quite considerably, and also
raise the spend levels on libraries which is always an issue with
councils. In fact when I first joined and had something to do with it we
were one of the lowest spending library authorities in the
country...(Norfolk County Councillor)
For Newham the opportunity to start from scratch and incorporate lessons
learned from the consultation process meant that the service could do its work
to greater affect and make an impact. The following quote from the Newham
Librarian involved in the initial phase of the new library's construction,
demonstrates the mindset of the library team in offering a new resource.
I think that part of what we created in Stratford—if it works—followed
from a very conscious decision that what we were trying to do was to
provide people with social spaces, with places that they could meet
and interact, and involve themselves with the core part of what we
were doing...what the library service saw itself as doing was providing
a library service, but when doing that, was around providing a social,
community resource, a social space, a space where people, especially

26
young people would feel welcome, and feel that they could spend time.
And part of the concept of planning the library was that it would be a
space where people could spend the day, meet their friends and use
the IT, and read the books or the paper, or have a cup of coffee, or
whatever it is...and actually it would be a social resource...(Newham
Librarian to 2002)

CONCLUSIONS
As mentioned in the introductory section, this study's original remit sought
answers to the extent to which user needs were identified in the advanced
planning stages for the new library buildings. For both the Millennium Library
and the Stratford Library a considerable consultation was conducted with the
public (users and non-users alike) and the library staff. The success within
the national survey of those libraries conducting extensive public consultation
is evident, at least in part, through an initial increase in book issues or visitor
numbers, though further study would be required to determine long-term use
patterns and levels of satisfaction with the facilities. The consultation
undertaken by the libraries in this study have been used to shape their
strategic plans as well as the specific design briefs for the building. Planning
has been used as an opportunity to establish the initial conditions for service
and explore the community's understanding of "library-ness".

The data suggest that where a new public library works best is when it is
supported and even driven by the overall strategic agenda of the local
authority. The political climate of the 21st century is one that is aware of the
benefits of an information-literate citizenry. Libraries are traditionally well
positioned to adopt a leading role in the provision of information resources,
and through partnering with training services, educational, and other
organisations, they are able to multiply their benefits to even larger numbers
than were previously possible. Both the Millennium and Stratford libraries
clearly consider and work with their council's strategic agendas, both in terms
of regeneration, education, and lifelong learning.

The aims and role of the modern public library have expanded in scope. This
can be increased through various partnerships as will be seen in the following
section. In seeking to be more flexible and responsive to their publics,

27
libraries (both in the two case studies and also in the national survey. For
data from the national survey regarding planning and consultation can be
found in appendix 6) are engaging in conversations to listen to needs and
take appropriate action. Where such conversations are fruitful it has resulted
in providing access not only to the traditional information resources, but also
vital to collective social spaces where communities can flourish.

28
Two Case Study
Libraries at a Glance
Norfolk-Norwich Newham-Stratford
Library type County & City Central London Borough Branch
Library Library
Date planning began 1994 1996
Date library operational 2001 2000
Population served County of Norfolk: Borough of Newham:
~800,000 ~240,000
City of Norwich: Ward of Stratford
~124,000 ~6227
Demographic character Mixed urban and rural; Urban; large, mixed ethnic
small ethnic minority; minority, mainly Afro-
second most deprived in Caribbean; youngest in
Eastern region (Norwich London; one of the most
Learning City Interview) deprived in London
Special Services Offered Children's Library Children's Library
Teenzone
Business Library with
Business Link and Euro-
Information

Local Studies Library with Local Studies Library with


access to archive material access to archive material

Multi-function meetings room


Express Service
Self-Issue Self-Issue
Partnerships 2nd Air Division Memorial Cafe Mondo
Library
Shared development with:
Forum Trust: including Safeway Superstore
small events venues and
car park, and Origins Visitor Ibis Hotel
Attraction & Gift Shop Blockbuster Video
Learning Shop: including
University of East Anglia,

29
Norwich City College,
Easton College, Norwich
School of Art & Design,
Norfolk Careers Service,
Health Services and
WEETU
City E-Learning Station
Tourist Information & Gift
Shop
BBC regional office
Cafe Marzano
Pizza Express Restaurant
Total Opening Hours Main: 69 60
Express: 80.5
Web-access Terminals 85 23
Volumes of Lending Stock 120,000 60,000
Library Site Norwich city-centre in Stratford town-centre nearby
cultural quarter with the town cultural quarter with
regional theatre, Georgian performing arts centre,
Assembly Hall, church, city cinema, shopping mall,
hall, city shopping district church, local authority social
including market services, transportation
terminal including: bus, train,
and underground
Number of floors 3 2
2002 Expected Issues ~996,000 ~335,000
2001-02 Expected Visits ~1,500,000 ~560,000
Visits for the last year of ~730,000 ~189,000
previous library

30
CHAPTER 4 PARTNERSHIPS
In order to be service stations on the information highway of the future,
public libraries need to re-establish their basis as a resource for
individuals...They also need to re-establish a social role...in ways that
enhance the "age of information". (Greenhalgh et al 1995)

In re-establishing their role as a resource for individuals and the community,


public libraries are increasingly working with other organisations to deliver a
service. The result is a system of specialised providers working in partnership
toward one goal—meeting user needs. This was true in the two case studies
and also in 39 libraries in the national survey that are putting non-library
enterprises under the same roof. Successful partnerships can help to create
a synergy of effort in a number of areas. Categories in the present study
include education and learning, heritage and visitor attractions,
communication, art, dining and entertainment. In addition a number of
government services are providing education and employment, business, and
other information through the venue of the new public library.

LEVEL OF COOPERATION

The Norfolk & Norwich Millennium Library is distinctive for the number of
partners in a single purpose-built space. Similar in concept to a shopping
mall, the library is the anchor tenant in The Forum building. Complementary
occupants include BBC East, Origins (a heritage visitor attraction and gift
store detailing the history of Norfolk and Norwich), the Learning City (an IT
skills centre), The Learning Shop (a consortium of further education
institutions), Norwich's tourist information centre, a coffee shop, a restaurant,
and a parking garage. The head of Norfolk's library and information services
argues,
that the library as part of a wider building has been the right thing to do.
We've done it [in] other places as well and it is the right way to go.
When you're able to attract partners and work with partners who have
some similar mission to your own, it increases your strength in terms of
your own delivery, but also you can work with partners so that your
offer is much better. (Head of Norfolk Library & Information Services)

However such partnerships can have some drawbacks due to the market-
dependent nature of some of the partners. The Head of Services continues,

31
The Forum of course has got people in it who, while their mission is
about information and learning, can only survive if they make money,
and that means that their approach is actually very different. And I
think that both partners are going through a learning curve of what the
sensible parameters are around how you deliver a public service within
a building which is actually trying to be commercially orientated...(Head
of Norfolk Library & Information Services)
Open lines of communication are essential for resolving issues quickly and
smoothly between partners. Tensions can develop around tactical, day-to-
day issues, and routes through such problems need to be found on several
managerial levels.
The point of learning is around how much influence the key partners
have. Potentially, partnerships are equal until one partner doesn't like
what the others are doing...Cooperation needs to be achieved at a
whole range of levels. It needs to be achieved at the senior level, it
needs to be achieved at the political level, and it needs to be achieved
by the people who are delivering within that location. And that's got to
be worked at. It doesn't come naturally, and probably you'd say that
about any partnership. (Head of Norfolk Library & Information Services)

The Millennium Library has several specialised libraries under the umbrella of
the larger central library. These include the Children's Library, the Norfolk
Heritage Centre, the Business Library and the Second Air Division Memorial
Library. The Second Air Division Memorial Library has a unique relationship
with the library service and formed part of the previous building. Its purpose is
to honour the Americans who were based in East Anglia, during the Second
World War, and who lost their lives in the conflict. The collection also offers
works specifically pertaining to American culture. Its place on the ground floor
within the main library has doubled the original space allowing for a more
comfortable and high profile presence. It has found favour with its users:
Every Second Air Division veteran who's been back to look at it have
all said, 'Oh my golly, what a marvellous place we now have!' (2nd Air
Division Memorial Trust)
It does have those family links. It is a two-part thing. It is a war
memorial and American library...we're now definitely becoming a tourist
office... (2nd Air Division Memorial Trust)
Any veteran who is coming back, he contacts our Memorial Library
first, and then he finds that everything is laid on for him after that. (2nd
Air Division Memorial Trust)

32
The Memorial Library also supplies four of the larger branch libraries in the
county with American-specific collections.

The Millennium Library and Forum have taken advantage of the library's
status as a local landmark and incorporated the City's tourism office into the
new build. This brings many tourists to that part of Norwich as their first stop.

Educational institutions in Norfolk have also entered into partnership. While in


the past opportunities have not been fully taken, the building of the new library
allowed new relationships to be forged and old ones to be renewed. A very
productive relationship with the Norwich City College, working through the
Learning Centre, has encouraged cooperation.

What I would hope would come out of it is both informal links so that
when they acquire resources they understand the needs of our
students but that they also understand what our stock is. Because a
significant amount of the money that they spend has been just to
reproduce stuff that is already held here, and it strikes me that that is a
waste of public money.
The dedicated business resource supports the region's strategy for
regeneration, and also assists the next generation's workforce.

As far as our students go, it will undoubtedly provide a benefit to our


students. A significant number of the students here, particularly those
studying on the higher education courses, are doing vocationally,
commercially oriented courses, and a lot of the business resources and
commercial information is going to be of use to students. (Norwich City
College)

For the Stratford Library the reliance on partnerships is minimal. There have
been no formal connections with the other tenants in the development:
Safeway grocery, Blockbuster video, or Ibis hotel. Part of the reason is simply
practical from the standpoint of the history of the development by the grocery
chain, and may have been a trade-off in terms of placing the library in a more
strategic location than would have been possible under other circumstances.
The Newham Librarian argues that,
in an ideal world we would have developed a much closer partnership
with the people in the entirety of the development, Blockbusters as well
the shop beside us, Liberty Radio, and I don't think that happened. I
think for a whole series of reasons there is much less inter-reaction
between the tenants of that development than one would like to see.

33
And I think that's a shame. But I actually think that part of the reason
why that is the case is that all of the residents in that development
stand on their own merits, and have been successful on their own
merits and I actually don't feel they need each other...And I think that
that is much more of a background thing than it should be. (Newham
Librarian until 2002)
The potential for building partnerships still exists at Stratford because the raw
resources are available in terms of space and staff, so future partnerships
may not only be possible but necessary.
We have got the ability, we've got the fundamentals in place, and we've
got the option of being able to do that. We're one of the very few
libraries where we can actually do that—start working closer together,
but it doesn't happen. At Manor Park we had closer links with other
businesses, the community forum, than we do here just because I had
the time to do it and I wanted links, whereas here—one for the future!
Because there is a lot to be gained...yeah, a lot to be gained. (Stratford
Library Manager)
None of the Stratford enterprises were planned to engage in cooperative
activities in the way they were at the Millennium Library. That having been
said, opportunities lost at Stratford are being explored in another of the
Borough's branches, Forest Gate. A Councillor for Newham explains,
The reason we could build it at all was from the value of the land in
order to build a supermarket...I think what we're planning at Forest
Gate with a smaller library will realise some of the synergies between
the Education Department, Housing, Social Services, the library and
the broader community. (Newham Councillor)

From the beginning there was a desire to incorporate a coffee shop/cafe into
the design of the library. Cafe Mondo is a locally owned shop that contributes
not only refreshments to the general library users but also supplies catering to
the groups that book into the library's large community meeting room. For the
Newham Librarian, what Cafe Mondo offered in partnership was wedded to an
entirely new approach for the Borough's library service. In his opinion:
We offered a coffee shop. Good coffee! That was actually important to
us. That the quality of the product that we offered through there, even
if we weren't making the coffee, would be really good, because it was a
statement of the importance of the whole package to us...So what we
were trying to do...was change the ethos of the service, of what was
happening in the library... (Newham Librarian until 2002)

For both of the case study libraries the partnerships have added value to their
overall vision and service provision. All partners benefit from higher footfall,

34
facility maintenance costs, and marketing returns. The space afforded by a
new library construction has also provided users with a greater level of
convenience, a "one-stop-shop". When the library shares a relationship with
another enterprise it can be argued that the greatest benefits are derived from
well thought out and agreed positions at the earliest possible stage, especially
positions that support the social and information remit of the library.
Educational and Training organisations use the information resources
provided by the library; restaurants and cafes offer refreshment and
communal activities that invite people into the establishment and help to keep
them there.

LOCAL COMMERCIAL IMPACT

Location is the key ingredient in the impact of the library on local shops and
other businesses. As will be discussed in the following section on marketing,
both Norfolk & Norwich and Stratford were placed on sites that would
generate a high volume of traffic. This has had the affect of mutually re-
enforcing the marketing efforts of both library service and commercial
enterprises, as explained by the Chief Executive of the Forum Trust:
I suppose the concept in economic development terms of clustering
comes into if you like...it's an adjunct...that is starting to reinforce as far
as the public are concerned the nature of this community resource.
(Forum Trust)
He continued,
It's clearly, too early days for us to have any data on, but there is quite
a lot of...cross-selling opportunity. And we expect certainly to see over
time certain amount of cross-penetration in terms of the extent in which
people are coming into the building for one purpose and actually
become users of a second or third facility. (Forum Trust)
A similar principle is being applied by Tower Hamlets in the planning of their
Idea Stores.
Each Store, attracting large numbers of users, would bring great
benefits to their shopping centre, breathing new life into local
retail...(Tower Hamlets 2002)
The study was not able to assess the impact of libraries and businesses in the
more rural and dispersed communities where the nature of the impact and the
types of partnerships may also make an important difference, though it has

35
been addressed in an earlier social impact audit report on rural Somerset
(Linley and Usherwood 1998).

OTHER LIBRARY SERVICES

The attention given to the new public libraries in the case studies by the local
authority, the public, and the media has also had a noticeable impact on the
other libraries in each of the authorities.

For the staff of the smaller or more traditional libraries there may be an
amount of jealousy or a claim of undue attention toward the budgets and time
invested in a larger or more central library, especially if funds are withdrawn in
support of the new build. In the case of Norfolk & Norwich, the Librarian
noted,
When we first opened we used a lot of staff from out in the county to
come in and help. What they say is that they are really proud to be a
part of that initiative that was going on—which is nice, because there
had been quite a bit of jealousy and anxiety that all of the focus of
attention was on Norwich and in this financial year and last we've
actually gone to the branches. (Millennium Librarian)

It was also suggested that the smaller and traditional branch libraries offer
their own strengths, including a greater level of intimacy with the users and
perhaps a less hurried pace.
When you look at the Millennium Library you can see that there aren't
as many older people using the library as perhaps one would have
anticipated and that's reflected in the use of large print...so we know
that there's an issue there. However, issues of large print in our branch
libraries in Norwich have increased. So, people are choosing where
they want to have their library service...if you don't want to use it then
we've got other libraries for people to use. (Millennium Librarian)
The retreat of the "elders" to the smaller, quieter, more familiar libraries was
noted within Newham as well. As noted by some of the librarians in the focus
group:
...[While] they got the teenagers in, they alienated a lot of the older
people which make up a big group...they come in all day at the other
libraries, but you rarely see them here. They're very often intimidated.
Not just from the size of it and where you go, and where their books
have been hidden over in a corner, but also just because of teenagers
shouting... (Stratford Librarians Focus Group)

36
The Millennium Library operates an electronic learning network with its branch
libraries. This involves data being shared out to the more rural areas and yet
managed from a central location. The Forum Trust is one of the partners in
the Learning Centre that assists in this provision. Their Chief Executive
explains,
The Millennium Library is connected to the 47 branch libraries across
the county, and therefore to the extent that there are digital resources,
within the Millennium Library then to some extent those are available to
branch libraries around the county and will be increasingly the case as
connectivity and bandwidths improve. (Forum Trust)

Since the BBC eastern regional office will be based within the Forum, it
provides a unique marketing opportunity for the county library service.
However, the Head of Library Services worries that the simplicity of having the
central library "out one's back door" might cause them to miss the larger,
countywide activities of the library service as a whole.
The other side of the impact, and one that I'm a little bit concerned
about is...the media's perception is that the library service is the
Millennium Library, and the need to make sure that when messages go
out that relate to library services that the media remember that there
are actually 47 other libraries... (Head of Norfolk Library & Information
Services)
In Newham the new building at Stratford, and a commitment by the council to
pay attention to new library development across the Borough, has affected all
of the branches. Stratford's flagship status and success in attracting nearly
triple the numbers of public through the doors seems to have been the
catalyst.
It may have taken some trade, but it certainly raised the profile of the
service, it raised the profile of what was possible through the service. I
think that it probably did that on a wider scope. I think that it probably
did that for other boroughs as well. (Newham Librarian to 2002)

I think we have net gains with the public because we have dragged
from a wider borough, and even people from Stratford who never
joined the library, are joining the library. So our impact on the other
branches was not as great as I felt it was and I'm sure that's pleased
the other library managers who thought the nearer libraries would see
their issues just plummet and they'd really be fighting against the wall...
We found a way of getting more people through the doors, we now
open all the libraries five days a week, we can give you so much more
to do that you actually become part of the community instead of just a
very narrow spectrum of the community (Stratford Library Manager)

37
A new build within the service seems to have its biggest impact in terms of
encouraging the political will of the community, and specifically within the
authority. For the case study libraries a new build provided a test-bed for new
concepts of customer service and staff management.

Data from the national survey indicates that exactly half of all new libraries
were associated with retail developments, 15% were associated with a school
or college, and the same percentage with a local Housing Department office.
Some 12% of new libraries shared premises with other council facilities, and
only one out of 66 libraries were associated with a non-retail commercial
organisation (Gilmerton branch, Edinburgh.)

CONCLUSION

What do partnerships achieve? From these examples it appears that the


potential for sharing opportunities and creating synergy is worth the effort
expended in planning and establishing complementary partnerships. For the
enterprises sharing tenancy with the library a degree of cross fertilisation
occurs where ideas and strategic visions can be realised.

For the users, the convenience of a place that offers several services at once
is a savings of time and money. It also communicates a bolder message
about the importance of the provision of public services because it expands
the libraries' capabilities as well as those of its partners.

At least eight libraries from the national survey are taking advantage of their
building to provide museum or exhibition space and work in partnership with
the local authority supported museum, gallery or heritage centre. Others have
expanded their local studies collections in cooperation with the local council
archives. These last two types of partnerships, with museums and archives,
may help to further cross-domain working, especially since Resource: the
Council for Museums, Archives, and Libraries are funding cooperative efforts
(Bryson et al 2002). A list of partnerships used by libraries responding to the
national survey can be found in appendix 6.

38
Where the architecture supports the addition of tenants that are
complementary to the library's overall ethos, a great deal can be gained from
the relationship, both for the partners and the public.

39
National Survey Spotlight—Partnerships

Bournemouth Central Library (opened April 2002)


(Courtesy of Shelagh Levett, Bournemouth Libraries)

PFI (Private Finance Initiative)

PFI new building and ICT - Pathfinder status partnership covering new library building and
ICT network in libraries. External partners and contractors work to detailed Output
specification.

Facilities Management – cleaning, care taking and maintenance services within a detailed
performance specification.

External agencies in the library

Connexions – sub office with information, advice and guidance for young people (13 – 19
years) on work, learning and lifestyle issues.

Connect2Learning partnership – information, advice and guidance in learning and work


for adults through public advice sessions and information resources.

Care Direct – free monthly drop in information and advice sessions for older people (60yrs+)
including health and financial concerns.

Businesslink Wessex and European Information Centre – free business information and
advice surgeries and business seminars e.g. on international trade.

Employment Service – free monthly drop in advice sessions for public on work schemes
and benefits.

Dorset Record Office – free help desk with archivist for family history and research
enquiries.

Examples from Council partners

Adult Education – essential skills advice sessions for public and ‘taster’ courses for adult
learners.

Trading Standards – public consumer information displays and library staff training

Local Democracy Week – Council staffed display stand aimed at young people

40
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN
SERVICE CHANGES

One of the greatest benefits presented in the construction of a new library is


that it offers the opportunity to custom build many of the services that
previously had been "strapped on", such as ICT or the allocation of space
specifically for children, or other special groups.

People's Network
Both the Millennium and Stratford libraries are offering a greater range of
services in their new facilities. Most noticeably this involves a greater use of
information and communication technology for the staff and public. This
enables access to on-line journals, electronic mail, and community and
council information networks as well as allowing software to be employed to
assist disabled users. The New Opportunity funding to create the People's
Network (DCMS 1998), a web access project placing Internet accessible
machines in all libraries by the end of 2002, has provided a powerful resource
previously only available in limited quantities to libraries around the country.

While books have not by any means been displaced through the use of ICT,
computers are a resource that demand a great deal of attention in terms of
design, including space allocation for computer terminals, power cabling and
network runs, as well as mainframes or servers. Computer terminals also
require no-glare lighting and special dedicated power sources. At Stratford
there is an emphasis on electronic media that the borough had not previously
invested in. This is to support a community that has a relatively low number
of personal computers or web access.

With regard to ICT facilities nationally the picture shows relatively little new
provision impacting on library design. As can be seen from the table below, a
quarter of new libraries had provided facilities for laptops and only three
facilities (audio carrels, facilities for laptops and a scanner) were provided in
more than 10% of new libraries. Since all but the top three facilities were
suggested by libraries in the ‘other’ category, there is, however, likely to be

41
some under-reporting. There was no evidence that new facilities were more
prominent in recently opened libraries.
Frequency Percent
Facilities for laptops 17 25.4
Audio carrels 10 14.9
Scanner 9 13.4
CD-ROMs/ Other Software 8 11.9
Learning Centre 6 9.0
OPAC 5 7.5
Video playback 2 3.0
Computer Games 2 3.0
Special needs facilities 2 3.0
Printer 2 3.0
Fax 2 3.0
Access to local community 2 3.0
info system
Video wall 1 1.5
Projection equipment 1 1.5
Assistive technology on 1 1.5
Peoples Network
Viewpoint library catalogue 1 1.5
Total 67 100.0

Allocation of Space and New Facilities


To meet the library's growing role as provider of lifelong learning, greater
space is being devoted to group work and training areas. Study space within
the library plays a vital role to the community, and the national survey data
suggests the library's response to the public for this provision with 77.6% of
new libraries offering separate study space, and all libraries open 45 hours
per week or more had separate provision. In terms of space set aside for
collective social activities—public space, 85% of libraries open 45 hours per
week or more had a separate public space, and 52.2% of libraries open 30-44
hours per week had a separate space. Where new buildings had replaced
existing libraries the survey asked how the new facilities differed from the old.
With respect to non-ICT facilities, just under a half (48.9%) of new libraries
had more space, and just under a quarter had benefited from new stock.
Eight libraries (17%) had a separate meeting room. Apart from this provision
of new non-ICT facilities was negligible.

42
Number of Percent
libraries
More space 23 48.9
Children & young 1 2.1
people's area
Meeting room 8 17.0
New stock 11 23.4
Reading area 1 2.1
Cafe 1 2.1
Modern furnishings 1 2.1
Total 47 100.0

Disability Discrimination Act


The designs of new public libraries are reflecting a strong emphasis on
access. This includes conformity to the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act,
with lifts and ramps, wide aisles, low counters, and disabled toilets. The act
ensures that minimum physical access requirements are built into the library's
structure. At the case study libraries a variety of enabling technologies are
being used to expand access to library resources still further, for example
Braille and Kurzweil machines, and software for the visually impaired.

Retail Principles
The homage being paid by designers to the retail establishment means that
spaces are being used to attract the customer inside and sustain their interest
for longer stays. This takes the form of display areas for new literature,
express or self-issue service featuring the most popular book, CD, DVD and
video collections, refreshment areas and cafes, as well as informal sitting
areas with sofas or easy chairs. The national survey data suggests that all
libraries open 60 hours a week or more had refreshment facilities. And 55.5%
of libraries open 45-59 hours per week had refreshment facilities within or
adjacent to the library. The customer-oriented commercial sector principles
were applied to the Stratford library in particular. The Interior Designer
explained that,
Stratford has been most successful because we took a series of retail
strategies, in terms of placing things where the most user-friendly, the
most active elements were at parts of the library where you had to
move through other aspects of the library...we hold people, we invite
people in and then take them into certain venues within the library...
....

43
...There's a stimulus all the time that's been played upon the user. And
simple things like say, accepting there's a cafe in there, and if you want
to encourage people to have longer stays, let's get them some
refreshments. And you know it encourages people—the smell of nice
coffee, or the social dynamics of discussion while you're relaxed is very
important. (Interior Designer Stratford)
He goes further to note that this approach helps,
You generate a long stay. As far as I'm concerned it's then down to the
management and the library staff to make sure that while they're in that
building that they're educated. All we can do is get them in.

The architect for the Norfolk & Norwich Millennium Library worked with a
number of issues concerning layout and use patterns in order to make the
best use of the space. In this particular instance reference is made to the
Victorian designers a century earlier.
You can analyse our building and say quite simply we've got a semi-
circular library that you could say is half a classical reading room,
literally chopped in half—around the outside which we've got a
relatively traditional construction with relatively modest window-sized
openings with bay windows, with study booths, we've then got a
panopticon-type radial plan which comes into a central space. And
then on the other half of that we've got, instead of having your
complete circle of the library we've got the equivalent of a Victorian
railway station, really with a large open concourse with people milling
through it. So in a way the Victorians had the prototypes and we've
merged various ideas that have been around...The building makes an
outside space and then that connects through a big glass wall to an
inside space...so that it sort of links directly right into the streetscape.
(Norfolk-Norwich Millennium Library Architect)
The architect goes further to describe the design in terms of the public's
behaviour throughout the space:
We had a three-storey building and we had it at the back of a hub of
this U-shaped space. And we decided to have this semi-circular form,
and that had interesting aspects in terms of context on the outside of
the building, but had an interesting aspect in terms of the inside of the
building, in that it had a very much a central space it could allow a
more noisy activity, and then you could filter through that space
towards the outside of the building and go towards quieter study areas.
So there was a very clear idea on the plan as a circular arrangement
how that might work architecturally. (Norfolk-Norwich Millennium
Library Architect)
The idea of segregating spaces for various activities is a very useful one for
libraries because of the multitude of activities that go on inside them.

44
Libraries-within-Libraries
At the Buildings Centre Trust's 2000 forum on library architecture a question
was proffered as to whether the idea of "library as meeting place,
performance space and group learning site was compatible with the traditional
need for quiet reflection and solitary study" (Building Centre Trust 2000). In
answer the panel suggested solutions in the form of zones within the library
design that would allow all these behaviours to occur simultaneously. The
concept of zones and libraries-within-libraries has been a successful
architectural feature for both of the case study libraries (as well as some of
the libraries in the national survey, specifically Peckham as highlighted by the
text box at the end of this chapter). This allows an array of special users
access to highly specific resources, from children, teens and the disabled (in
the case of Papworth in Cambridgeshire—see chapter 7 spotlight), to
businesses and genealogists (as in the case of local studies or heritage
libraries).

PHYSICAL vs. VIRTUAL SPACE

Architecture creates a behavioural setting (Reich and Weiser 1993; Lawson


2001) by imposing restrictions and offering opportunities for movement, and
the library building that is well designed creates spaces that fulfils its mission.
Even with regards to the virtual and electronic world of the "global information
society", libraries offer a physical place, a tangible node, for the users of
cyberspace. As a result of the implementation of the People's Network and
other initiatives the library's traditional remit of general and broad public
access now extends to these electronic resources. For Stratford,
The Internet has been such a boon for us! (Stratford Library Manager)
And for the service this means that,
Most of the computers are booked a week to two weeks in advance,
and we could strip out another 50% of the library, and I think we could
near enough get away with getting rid of all the books here and just put
study space and computers in, and we'd only then just about have
enough room. (Stratford Library Manager)
This sentiment derives from the low level of personal home use of the Internet
within Newham, and the library is stepping in to fill the gap in information
provision and study space. Nevertheless, the Library manager continued,

45
There is always going to be a need for libraries. I think ICT is going to
be a fairly short-lived thing...but I can see there come a time when
everybody has a PC and we're going to have to reinvent ourselves
again—which is what we're doing now. We're reinventing ourselves
into ICT-shops if you like. But when everybody's got a PC at home or
through the TV or whatever, where are we going to be left? We've got
to start thinking about that now...(Stratford Library Manager)

The libraries studied in this project have not discarded printed materials in lieu
of the World Wide Web (Benton Foundation 1996, Local Government Division
2000, Herring 2001), but instead have incorporated them into their normal
framework as a powerful tool for providing their publics with information. For
the Millennium Library, books are not relegated to a small back room at the
expense of the 85 public terminals that they now offer. Instead, according to
the Head of Library and Information Services,
You've got to have the two. And, I think that what's nice is that the two
are integrated. We go into a lot of libraries where the IT is all in one
space together, and the books are all in another space, so you're
almost recreating what we used to have in a lending and a reference
section, you're getting your books and your other. Ideally the two need
to be integrated.
The new public libraries seek good designs that allow them to make the fullest
use of these new tools.

The principles of good design are currently understood by Central


Government as a cornerstone for good quality of life in Britain's communities.
Lord Falconer of Thoroton QC, writing for the Commission for Architecture
and the Built Environment (CABE) concerning civic spaces states,
The Government is firmly committed to achieving a step change in the
quality of the design of public buildings. We want to continue the long
tradition of creating boldly designed public buildings that are the pride
of our towns and cities and that help to foster a strong local regional
and national identity—as well as providing public services efficiently.
(CABE 2002a)
CABE acts as a quality control agent—watchdogs for Britain's built
environment, and their advocacy of design fitness begins to play a much-
needed role as the new 'arbiters of good taste' for the new government
buildings of the New Labour government—and that includes libraries.

46
The appearance of our built environment is important, but good design
is about much more than how things look. It is about uplifting
communities and transforming how people feel and behave.
It is also about using resources effectively and imaginatively. In short
every good design improves the quality of life for everyone. (CABE
2002b)

In pointing out the importance of good urban design CABE sets out to define
what that entails. Paul Finch, chairman of CABE's Design Review Committee
says:
By good design we mean design that is fit for purpose, sustainable,
efficient, coherent, flexible, responsive to context, good looking and
clear expression of the requirements of the brief. (CABE 2002b)
Throughout much of the British and international literature discussing
appropriate library design there are a number of elements that are becoming
standard fare for the new library building. The guidelines for development of
the public library set out by UNESCO and IFLA list a series of design and
facilities that need to be included in any moderately sized library. They state
that:
In planning a new library the following should be considered for
inclusion:
· the library collection including books, periodicals, special collections,
sound recordings, and video cassettes and other non-print and digital
resources
· reader seating space for adults, children, and young adults to use for
leisure reading, serious study group work, and one-to-one tutoring;
quiet rooms should be provided
· outreach services: spaces should be provided to house special
collections and preparation areas for outreach services
· staff facilities including workspace (including desks or PC
workstations), rest space for eating and relaxing during breaks and
meeting rooms where staff can meet with colleagues and supervisors
in private
· meeting room space for large and small community groups which
should have separate access to the washrooms and the exterior to
enable meetings to be held while the library is closed
· technology including public access workstations, printers, CD-ROM
stations, copiers, microfilm/fiche readers, public typewriters, and
facilities for listening to recorded sound
· special equipment including atlas cases, newspaper racks, self-service
book circulation, dictionaries, wall-mounted display racks, display
stands, filing cabinets, map cases etc.
· sufficient space for ease of circulation by both public an staff; this can
be 15%-20% of public areas and 20%-25% of staff areas
· in larger libraries a cafe area for the public is a desirable facility

47
· space must be allowed for the mechanical services of the library e.g.,
elevators, heating, ventilation, maintenance, storage of cleaning
materials etc.
(Henry 2001)
In 1989, H Faulkner-Brown, who later was to be the lead partner for the
design firm that created the Stratford Library interior, contributed his 'Ten
Commandments' for an IFLA seminar detailing library design standards. He
notes:
A library should be:
1. Flexible
2. Compact
3. Accessible
4. Extendible
5. Varied
6. Organised
7. Comfortable
8. Constant in Environment
9. Secure
10. Economic
(Faulkner-Brown 1989)
To the extent that they incorporate the preceding elements, they likewise
need to avoid what Fed Schilpf and John Moorman called the seven deadly
sins of public library architecture:
1. Bad Lighting
2. Inflexibility
3. Bad Location
4. Complex Maintenance
5. Insufficient Work and Storage Space
6. Bad Security
7. Signature Architecture
(Schilpf and Moorman 1998)
Several of these elements were beyond the control of the libraries in the
study. For both Stratford and Norfolk the location was predetermined. The
budget and building site also dictated the extent of the building's size and
number of facilities that could be housed under the roof.

There was a clear understanding on the part of the architect of the


monumental nature of a public library. The architect for Norfolk & Norwich
noted that,
...It works at various levels. I think it works at the level of image—
having a new building especially done for them is very important. I

48
think having a building they like and felt they were participatory in
designing and helping make decisions about it is very important. I also
think in this particular instance having it link into a major public space in
the centre of the conservation area in a very open design so that their
activities can take place, sort of, under view as it were from the public.
The glass area in front brings a sort of exposure to the activities in the
library, which I think adds some excitement to it. Not only that, it invites
new users, and sort of raises the stakes really in terms of the public
aspect of that library in the context of the fact that a lot of people use
the internet and perhaps don't use books as much as they used to, it is
a sort of public gesture to put the architecture out in the open realm.
(Norfolk-Norwich Millennium Library Architect)
The invitation is not only into a library but a collective space, both within the
Forum, but also outside, into the square and the market. It creates a social
environment many feel comfortable lingering in. According to the Head of
Norfolk's Library Services,
Part of the architectural vision that emerged at the Millennium Library
was the large atrium that would provide a collective, public space...On
a lovely Summer day the steps are just full of people, and it looks like a
scene in Paris. There are these public spaces, but in Norwich there
has never been that sort of public space, I think it takes time for people
to recognise the potential of a space like that.
As a landmark within the City's centre it also needed to regard the other public
spaces surrounding it, from the place of worship at St. Peter Mancroft Church,
to the City Hall, to the Market and the Theatre Royal.
It's imposing. It's right for the space...there were a lot of concerns
whether it would swallow up that lovely church, St Peter Mancroft, but
in fact I think it opens its arms to St Peter Mancroft...But it's imposing—
it's certainly not grand, it's just right...it's a thing of it's time. It hasn't
kowtowed to the other buildings around it, because there's no era,
there's Georgian, there's Art Nuevo, there's all sorts of buildings around
it so it hasn't bowed down to that. It's a statement of its own time.
(Norfolk Councillor)

Lawson (2001) and Worpole (2002) both convey the idea that space should
leave its occupants under no illusion as to the function of the space. A library
building should not confuse users about the behaviours that can be performed
inside. The Norfolk & Norwich Millennium library, as one of the members of
the business focus group pointed out, has changed the language of its space
without being confusing.
First of all what really pleased me is that I've traditionally seen libraries
as something you sit in, you focus inward in personal spaces—but this
is a completely different sort of atmosphere! First of all it's very

49
welcoming, you hardly feel like you've walked into a building. You've
walked into an environment—which I really do like. You've got this
immediate feeling like being a part of something. You can use the
opportunity to learn, have fun and relax. You can look outside and see
the most wonderful views, obviously which I think helps the whole
creative process, and that's very impressive, particularly from a
business point of view, well for anybody really, because you need to
take those breaks, you need to have those moments of inspiration and
you can get that from this place and this type of environment. (Norfolk
Business Focus Group)
These behavioural considerations are not lost on the various user groups
throughout the ward in Stratford either. Many remarked on the variety of
spaces needed within the library.
I think it's better, 'cause when you got kids you need the space.
(Stratford Library Disabled User Focus Group)
I think that it's very important to have enough space and to a place that
you can go to with your child, you can have your own space, you can
go with a friend and discuss what you are learning about. (Kosovan
Refugee Women Focus Group)

ACCESSIBILITY
As previously mentioned, consultation with the stakeholders can help to
shape the design brief. This is the document that the architect uses to give
physical form to the many ideas that are embodied in a library service. In the
words of one commentator,
An ideal library design is an effective combination of many related
functions. The building gives people a wide range of choices and
services, and accommodates many different needs. (Lushington 2002)
This means asking the questions; how do readers read; how do researchers
research; how do students study; how do browsers browse? Do users
behave with spontaneity and serendipity? In groups? As individuals? A
space that is poorly designed can intimidate people not familiar with or
initiated-into the library environment. Such considerations are paramount for
designing a welcoming and accessible space that will be comfortably used by
the broad spectrum of the public. As the interior designer for Stratford notes,
We start out by trying to understand all the base requirements of all the
niche groups. I think it's important that you don't pander to each group,
but you create a general design which is accepted by all of those...
What results is a space that is a useful resource, one that assists the librarian
and user alike in their activities. At Stratford,

50
We're using spaces to create length of stay and to simply get them into
the building. And they're very much lessons learned from retailers...It
reinforces the idea that the library is open to anybody and everybody.
You break down all the social barriers we used to have. Can you
imagine if you're illiterate? Where do I go? Where do I seek help? And
you might just go into there because it's friendly, staff are good, the
environment suits you. You know you go there because of the other
aspects of the building. Its just giving another opportunity for the staff
to endear themselves to the public. (Interior Designer Stratford)

The architects for both the Millennium and Stratford Libraries were cognizant
that a great deal was at stake in terms, not only of financial, but emotional
investment. Their design needed to nurture a degree of ownership with the
new space. The Millennium Architect put it this way,
...I think people have very strong feelings about what libraries are like
and very strong emotional attachments to libraries because they've got
very fond memories from childhood of how they've used libraries, and
what libraries should be like. So you are touching on some very, quite
strong feelings, in terms of the people and staff of the libraries about
what you should and shouldn't be doing. (Norfolk-Norwich Millennium
Library Architect)

The public, as well as the library staff could see that the Millennium Library, as
a tenant of the Forum, would inhabit the site of the old central library in the
centre of Norwich; so, in a sense the new resource had big shoes to fill. The
emotional importance of the library is illustrated by a respondent who said,
I don't think I will ever forget watching people stand in the street crying
when the other one burned. I think it brought home to people how
much the library meant to them (Norfolk Elders Focus Group)
The Forum's design is self-conscious about the surrounding, established
architecture, but it is confidently welcoming, almost swaggering. The
psychological appeal is intentional, and creates an inviting spectacle that
greets the visitor with hospitality.
Obviously the overall aims from our point of view was to make
something very inviting, very flexible, very comfortable to use, and from
our point of view architecturally to have a hard edged, modern, clean
aspect to it, at the same time as being very welcoming... (Norfolk-
Norwich Millennium Library Architect)
The entire building holds together as a system with each of the small
elements contributing to the overall affect. The design plays on the public's
inquisitiveness, not only in their search for knowledge generally, but simply in
their search for the new and interesting.

51
Although it's big and glass and stunning, it is welcoming. It's certainly
not warm and cosy. I was worried about the noise level, but there's so
much acoustic stuff gone in that it's not too bad, except when there's
music playing. It's not welcoming in the apple-pie, motherhood sense,
but it is an environment/sense that people want to go into it. It's
interesting. You see through the glass and want to go in there.
(Norfolk Councillor)
Young people between the age of 18 and 34 are a group the public library
would like to see use its services more often. The following response
indicates that the look of the building is one factor in attracting them in.
It's more about curiosity really, when you look at the front of the thing.
You don't know there's a library there and it draws you in to have a
look. (Youth Training Focus Group Norwich)
Some of the teens did worry that there was no dedicated space or big enough
selection of young adult material,
I can't find books for my age. It kind of goes from little books up to
adult books. There's a big gap (Norfolk Middle School Focus Group)
On the other hand, as suggested earlier, there are indicators of reduced use
by the more elderly in the population. The large print material is thus far
under-utilised at both case study libraries. Older people seem to be using the
local branch services, with their smaller, traditional, and more familiar
approach. While the Millennium Library is completely Disability Discrimination
Act compliant, some groups appear to prefer to use their closer branch
services. Mobility impaired users did mention some difficulties with the multi-
level and glassed-in upper portions of the library. The issue of fire protection
and evacuation came up during the focus group discussion with the elders in
Norfolk. Perhaps because the old library had burned down there was concern
about the multiple floor levels and glass barriers surrounding their edges.
I felt quite distressed about it...and those little narrow openings... which
is such a pity because I do love libraries...I find that I have to brace
myself to do it simply because of age and you're not so confident.
(Norfolk Elders Focus Group)
This study found that another safety issue can also play a role in the uptake of
users. An elderly respondents at Stratford was,
frightened that someone might attack because we are minority within
society...the young people scare us off...the fear is there. (Stratford
Elders Focus Group)

52
That having been said, the library does have a traditional image of a quiet and
peaceful place to be as Greenhalgh points out,
The library space is regarded as a sanctuary, a place where one may
sit, read, browse, sleep and remain unharassed; nobody is judged and
therefore nobody found wanting. It is often one of the few places in a
busy city centre where people, particularly women, of all ages go alone
and spend time without worry. (Greenhalgh et al 1995, p51-52)
This view was confirmed by at least one of the focus group respondents,
Libraries are a peaceful calm area to study (Stratford Elders Focus
Group)

Access to the location is also an issue for the new public libraries in this study.
It can't create its own footfall totally; it needs to be in where people
want to go. It needs to have good public access for busses, and so on.
People have to be able to get to a library... (Norfolk Councillor)
For the more car-dependent in society, parking places are a valuable
resource for the library, as one of the business focus group respondents
observed of the Millennium Library:
there is a car park...and that is another particularly thing attractive to
business. (Norfolk Business Focus Group)

CONCLUSION

Design is at the nexus of both the social and the material, and it forms a
fundamental aspect of a new library's impact on the community. It puts into
physical form the aspirations of the library's mission to serve the public by
providing them with resources that they find valuable. Some of the issues
regarding design have been mentioned in the planning section of this study
since they become obvious from the very outset of the process of building a
new public library. In order to be fit for purpose, the new libraries of
contemporary Britain have to respond to a range of traditional as well as
completely new demands. Demas and Scherer argue that,
[The] key challenge is achieving a balance among an opposing range
of functions and needs. Examples include solitude versus interaction;
quiet versus noise; conservation versus food and drink; order versus
mess; openness versus security; and limited hours versus 24/7
expectations. (2002)
As indicated earlier, consultation is essential if the library service is to respond
to these varied demands. In the words of one respondent,

53
As designers we're only as good as the information we receive, and
we're only as good as the questions we ask. I think it would be
interesting to have a forum and debate about what a community library
is about. (Interior Designer Stratford Library)

The two case study libraries attempted to incorporate the best of the new
technologies and accessibility components. This included borrowing
presentational techniques from the retail sector and tapping into the growing
number of electronic resources available on the World Wide Web. Since
architecture shapes behaviour, the decisions that are made about the library's
design have been seen to be critical to the success of the library's mission.

54
National Library Spotlight—Design

Southwark—Peckham Library

http://www.ajspecification.com/Buildings/Picture_Gallery/?CI_Building_ID=118
http://www.cilip.org.uk/groups/plg/award_2001/peckham.html

Project Overview
Project value - £4.5 million
Gross internal floor area - 2300m2
Start on site - February 1998
Completion date - October 1999
Fit-out completion - February 2000,
opening 8 March 2000
(Melvin 2000)

Stirling Prize Winner for Best Building Award 2000 Royal Institute for British Architects

Alsop Architects from their web site: http://www.alsoparchitects.com/culture/peckham.html


The public library at Peckham, south London, completed late in 1999, is part of a
concerted programme of regeneration and community growth for this part of the
borough of Southwark and forms one element in a new public square. Alsop
Architects' architectural approach responds to, and interacts with, a client brief which
seeks to redefine the role of the library in the local community. After the practice's
appointment (through a process of competitive interview), Alsop Architects launched
an intense dialogue with the community to discover what sort of building Peckham's
inhabitants wanted. The result was a striking example of the new community
architecture...Eschewing the idea of a library as a static and somewhat rarefied
preserve of accumulated knowledge, wisdom and information, the Peckham model
proposes that the 21st century library should reach out to the community, encourage
access to knowledge and embrace the diversity of the local population. Special
areas for the local African-Caribbean community and for children were to be
provided, as well as places for meetings - all part of an attempt to provide a new
image of the library - in effect, to re-brand it - as a dynamic and creative centre of
local life. Yet this remains a library - not a multimedia centre - and books are still at
its heart (though supplemented by videos and new information technology).

55
The library stands within an area of regeneration already underway within Southwark. It is
sited on one side of new Peckham Square which was created as a "focal point for the
community", hosting activities such as arts week and holiday activities for children and a
regular Sunday morning farmers' market. The square is the starting point for a green chain
walk leading to Burgess Park. The design's cantilevered, or tipped-over-'L'-shape creates a
space below the bulk of the three-storey library that rides on stalk-like pillars some 12 meters
high. The space below creates a second major access point to the square and improves
security and through-flow of people. The vertical block accommodates the council's
information centre and entrance, several stories up, to the horizontal block housing the
library. Inside are three 'pods' that create a space-within-a-space. Two of them are
completely enclosed, one a children's space the other a meeting room, while the third is
open to the volume and contains the library's world-class Afro-Caribbean literature collection
(Melvin 2000)

While it does provide drink and snack machines in its foyer, it relies on the cafe located in
the Peckham Pulse, a health and fitness centre also located on Peckham Square.
Accessibility for the physically disabled has been accommodated within the design and is
much improved over the previous two smaller libraries that this one replaces. These
improvements offer more space for book stock, accommodation of new services including
advice and training, and even the provision of always-needed public toilets.

If the building can be said to have weaknesses they derive from its unique design. The
architects worked to a very stringent financial and operating brief and did not include air-
conditioning, and as a result the space can become too hot and its open circulation spaces
too noisy for older users and students. Additionally, some worried about access to a library
on the fifth floor of a building, but this has not proved to be the case.

The library's great strength and pride derive from its unusual architecture, and in all, the
design has proved to be exciting and attractive to Peckham's community.

56
CHAPTER 6 MARKETING
There is a lot of good will. People will say, 'libraries are really good
places—never used them myself mind you', and we've got that good
will, we trade on that good will...(Stratford Library Manager)
NATURE OF PUBLICITY
Besides the good will of the public derived in part from the long established,
free provision of information, several of the new libraries in this study are
exploiting a variety of methods to raise the community's awareness about
their services. Part of this is a response to competition from a variety of other
sources of information, as well as leisure activities. In 1995, Greenhalgh,
Worpole and Landry, observed that this has produced a change in the way
the public library approaches individual citizens. They note,
The individual self-improving citizen of the Victorian public libraries has
been reshaped more in the mould of a customer. The citizen is re-
valued as a taxpayer and therefore a customer of services.
(Greenhalgh et al, 1995)

Stratford and Norfolk & Norwich both worked to reach out to their publics and
acquaint (or even, re-acquaint) them with the relevancy of their services. This
takes many forms, but is necessarily of a long-term nature, as the Head of
Norfolk Library and Information Services explains,
...what we have to do as a service is employ proper marketing
techniques, and if we don't do that then we are never going to be
effective. For, two-and-a-half years—we have been using really
serious marketing techniques. And they do give us the results that we
need...what we're learning is that the "drip effect" works...we'll do
something fairly high profile to start with, from then on it's just this
constant drip, then the people who want it at that point will hear the
message. It's long term. (Head of Norfolk Library & Information
Services)

For the Stratford Library it was,


The simple fact that the building is where it is, is its biggest promotional
statement! (Stratford Librarian)
Because it sits within a development containing a hotel, video store and super
grocery store, as well as being placed across a main thoroughfare to
Stratford's largest shopping and entertainment centres, it generates a level of
footfall three times what the previous library site witnessed. As a result some
of the librarians in the focus group suggested that they couldn't keep up with

57
the level of business and did not need to promote the service. However, the
management suggested that a concerted marketing effort would be made,
and more than likely it would be directed toward those users who had
abandoned Stratford in favour of other more traditional branches within the
borough.
We probably haven't marketed Stratford as much or as well as we
could as we could have done if you're talking about proactive stuff, and
some of that is because we have trouble coping with the level of
business we have now...you would expect that to eventually to reach a
plateau and tail off a little bit, kind of find its natural level, but we don't
really want that to happen. We want to maintain the high level of use
and if possible to increase that...if I didn't have to worry about money,
there is the direct thing, straight into people's houses which works
best...(Head of Newham Library and Information Services)
According to the library staff, the idea of a marketing strategy might mean a
change in the management culture would be required. They claimed that,
Newham is not a promoting place. They promote other bits and pieces
outside, but for what its actually offered in libraries and what you can
have, and things like that, they are rubbish at promoting, and it's been
like that for years. (Stratford Librarians Focus Group)
As has been the case with other libraries studied (Bryson et al 2002, Linley
and Usherwood 1998), Stratford's library users welcomed any efforts to
explain the services available and advertise community events. They
suggested that,
Maybe advertise more and make people more aware, perhaps in the
newspaper. (Stratford Disabled User Focus Group)
...It's only when you walk in there that you know what's going on
(Stratford Disabled User Focus Group)

Data from the national survey points to a plateau or tailing off in terms of issue
figures the longer the library has been open. Unsurprisingly issues were most
likely to peak 12-24 months after the library’s opening with a minority of
libraries open for four years or more (8%) peaking in year three. The
following table demonstrates the difficulty almost all new libraries had of
sustaining initial borrowing use of the library

58
Average change No. libraries No. libraries No. libraries
between peak reporting fall reporting rise reporting same
issue year and in issues in issues issues
latest year
Libraries open -2.4% 9 6 1
2 full year
Libraries open -3.1% 2 2 0
3 full years
Libraries open -22.6% 9 0 0
4 full years
Libraries open -23.3% 15 1 0
5 full years

Some of the techniques used by various libraries within this study involved
tapping into the local press, including newspaper, television and radio.
Others, the Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library included, invited
celebrities to generate a high visibility event at the opening. Her Majesty, The
Queen opened several libraries during her 2002 Jubilee tour, or during the
turn of the Millennium in 2001. Others used dignitaries ranging from the
Secretary of State for the Department of Culture, Media and Sport to the local
nobility to shine a useful spotlight on the moment of inauguration.

Direct marketing into the homes of the authority's constituency by way of mail-
shots, was used by several libraries, including Norfolk & Norwich and Tower
Hamlets. The initial work was undertaken in the planning phase of the project
but was to be continued as a means of understanding the changing nature of
the services users. Efforts to create personal contact between the library and
potential users also helped to produce a degree of comfort and familiarity with
the service. For instance the business leaders from Norfolk noted that,
You want some sort of mechanism that makes the discovery process
easier, so that you actually get in. It's like anything, once you've got in
a few times it's much easier...but it may need to be an ongoing thing,
because I suspect that with IT it's going to change fairly rapidly, in
particular in business services...so perhaps you follow that up with mail
shots... (Norfolk Business Leaders Focus Group)
I've used it for private purposes but I still can't think of how I can use it
for business purposes...yes I do need to be spoon fed and told you can
use it for this, this and this... (Norfolk Business Leaders Focus Group)

Those well-enough off to have personal access to the internet can often
access a local authority's web site which may or may not give detailed access

59
to their library service. However, many of these sites are limited in content to
the hours of opening and branch locations, and most are not tapping into the
wealth of potential promotion that digital community information networks
could provide.

The Millennium Library has been able to indirectly piggyback onto some of the
marketing work done for the Forum, for example, any advertising undertaken
for the Origins visitor attraction will bring people within the same building as
the library. This benefit also applied to those using the tourist information
office for the city, eating at the Pizza Express or Cafe Marzano or using the
partnered educational services.
...There has been quite a lot of effort to give publicity to the place, to
make it more open, to have stuff that's going to attract people in...
(Norwich City College)
Each of these examples represents a system of approaches that can be used
by the library service to raise awareness and change the service's image.

CHANGING IMAGE
A change in image can be the result of quality of life issues associated with
the provision of services. This is a situation affirmed by a respondent from the
Norfolk Business Focus Group in relation to the Millennium Library. He notes,
Although I don't benefit directly from the library I think the indirect
benefit is very important, because there is a perceptual problem with
Norfolk and Norwich. It's that place somewhere up the A11 that is
maybe not quite at the cutting edge of things. You know if you're in a
cutting edge business, anything that will help remove this perception is
important. And I think having a flagship library that looks good and has
all the facilities that everyone's talked about, slap-bang in the city
centre only helps to create, reinforce the fact that Norwich, despite the
fact, is a medieval city, isn't lost in medieval times—it is still a vibrant
centre. So in a way I think it benefits my business, as perceptual for
the whole area, as in the nitty-gritty of what it's actually supplying. The
other side of that is that it's actually a cracking good library. And one of
the big ways we have to attract staff up here is in fact by showing them
that Norwich is a great place to live. And if you put in great social
amenities like a first class library it really attracts the type of people
we're wanting to recruit to the area. (Norfolk Business Focus Group)

Libraries can have a reputation for strict rules governing noise and study
behaviours, a reputation that can discourage greater numbers of users,

60
including mothers with young children and teenagers. Therefore, instead of
regimenting behaviours the staff in both case study libraries are encouraged
to remove the barriers to relaxation and refreshment, and in so doing the
library is encouraging use by a wider range of users. The Head of Norfolk's
Library and information services puts it this way,
There are some issues that we need to learn from about their ability to
relate to what we're trying to provide, about the public space, and their
responsibility to behave in a particular way because they are in a public
space without actually starting to lay down some of those rules and
regulations again, threatening to boot them out if they behave badly.
(Head of Norfolk Library and Information Services)
Both case study libraries attempt to offer a hospitable environment, not only
with the provision for areas offering food and drink, but also an
encouragement of more active behaviours such as talking on mobile phones
or children playing with toys. If people can feel comfortable they might wish to
return. A young adult respondent offered this insight:
It's quite clever, 'cause you can just come and go and get a book, just
take it out for a little time, and just read it while you're having a cup of
coffee, yeah, it's clever... (Norfolk Young Adult Focus Group)
The noise levels are a distraction for some, as one respondent from the
Norfolk Middle School focus group remarked:
In the other library there was one room where you had to be quiet,
which I rather like, because otherwise you can't concentrate...

Another example of image being affected by comfort level concerns


accessibility for disabled users. For one mother with a wheel-chair bound
child, her comments about the degree of accessibility offered by the new
Stratford library indicate that it is better than the previous place she used
where she needed to park and carry her son up.
I think it turns a lot of people off coming as it used to be...but that's why
you feel easier now going in to these new type libraries... (Stratford
Disabled User Focus Group)
I could never take him now, that's why it's brilliant. Stratford you can
just wheel right in. (Stratford Disabled User Focus Group)

Opening hours that allow greater access to the building are a crucial factor in
the relevance to the library's public. The national survey data demonstrates
that 49% of libraries replacing existing libraries had increased opening hours,
49% head the same hours as the libraries they replaced.

61
Hours Number Percent
open per of
week libraries
60+ 2 3.0
45-59 18 27.3
30-44 23 34.8
10-29 23 34.8
Total 66 100.0

The newness factor cannot be overlooked either. The Audit Commission's


report (2002) notes the appearance was a factor in the use of the library.
New libraries, besides offering a new experience for the curious, also avoid
the shabby and run-down appearance of poor maintenance and under
investment in upkeep.

CONCLUSION

The long established "good will" of the public can no longer alone sustain
attention in the library's service with so many other competing interests.
A system of layered marketing approaches, sustained over the long-term
appears to work the best for the new libraries in this study. This allows them
to take advantage of the local press's free attention, as well as multiplying the
efforts of any advertising done by partnering enterprises.

Design (as indicated by the discussion in the preceding section) and location
are vital factors in creating high footfall. Several of the libraries in the study
including Stratford, and in particular Tower Hamlets (see text box following)
have chosen to place their libraries in proximity to grocery stores or other
retail precincts. This research has indicated that by placing the building in the
way of the public's path, the service can expect to see greater use.

Both Norfolk & Norwich and Stratford have taken the opportunity to re-think
their management styles, and in the process are offering not only a new
facility, but also a new approach to user behaviours. Along with the additional
resources such as web access, and special library zones, they are attempting
to shape the image of a public service that is flexible and responsive to their
constituents. The end result of this has been to meet the needs of the
community that the library serves.

62
NATIONAL SURVEY DATA
MARKETING STRATEGIES
Frequency Percent
Media 36 55.4
Banner 4 6.2
Door to door 4 6.2
Opening event 5 7.7
Posters and leaflets 16 24.6
Total 65 100.0

63
National Survey Spotlight—Marketing & Awareness
Tower Hamlets—Idea Stores

"Libraries and Lifelong Learning have to fight for people's attention in today's society. There
is a need to develop new ways of delivering and presenting services that maximise their
attractiveness to the local community and which are capable of successfully competing for
people's time on equal terms." (Tower Hamlets 2002, p. 17)

"Tower Hamlets has the fastest growing commercial district in Europe but along side this lies
probably the worst poverty in Europe...A staggering 72% of the population never used the
library services on offer and it was decided that a radically different approach to provision of
library services in terms of marketing and presentation was needed." (Building Trust 2000)
Despite having more libraries per head than any other London borough, Tower Hamlets
suffered from a serious image problem. Their solution was to incorporate the lessons
learned over the years about how the community uses the library to substantively 're-brand'
the library as the Idea Store. Instead of the perception of the library as "untrendy and out of
touch," being a place an eleven year old "wouldn't be seen dead in" (Ibid). The new Idea
Stores would mirror the High Street retail approach to service provision and building style.
The re-branding emerged out of one of the largest public consultation exercises in the
nation, including surveys, questionnaires, road shows and GIS (geographic information
system) catchment-area analysis.

(Whitechapel Idea Store, design by Adjaye Associates, image by Miller Hare


Bow Idea Store: designed by Bisset Adams
Idea magazine (c) London, Borough of Tower Hamlets)

Up to the initial opening, a "sophisticated and long running advertising campaign promoting
the buildings' locations, aims, and services." (Tower Hamlets 2002, p18) A more targeted
and personal touch was provided in letters sent to all the regular library's active users to
advise them of the opening. Local press and advertisements on main bus routes through the
area were also used as well as a leaflet drop around the community.

Long term awareness takes many forms, from the obvious architectural styles of each of the
Idea Stores, to their placement within a high footfall areas of the various high streets
throughout the borough. Most will be within the vicinity of a large chain grocery store. This
assures that a large portion of the population will encounter the Idea Stores on their way to
other activities.

64
CHAPTER 7 SOCIAL CAPITAL
BUILDING CONNECTIONS

The resources of a public library can influence the degree to which individuals
and groups respond to one another around the world, enabling even the most
deprived communities to be global players. Part of this is the consequence of
sharing ideas, conversations and stories with others—books of every variety,
emailed personal letters, and even music and films. These elements work
together to create common interests, aspirations and even tangible artefacts.
In short, they help to make links between people and institutions that are the
basis of community. The accumulation of these links involves the
construction of social capital.

The concept of social capital has been variously defined. For Putnam (2000:
19):
Whereas physical capital refers to physical objects and human capital
refers to the properties of individuals, social capital refers to connections
among individuals—social networks and the norms of reciprocity and
trustworthiness that arise from them. In that sense social capital is closely
related to what some have called “civic virtue.” The difference is that
“social capital” calls attention to the fact that civic virtue is most powerful
when embedded in a sense network of reciprocal social relations. A
society of many virtuous but isolated individuals is not necessarily rich in
social capital.
According to the World Bank (1999):
Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape
the quality and quantity of a society's social interactions... Social capital is
not just the sum of the institutions that underpin a society – it is the glue
that holds them together.
And other writers have suggested that,
Social capital consists of the stock of active connections among people:
the trust, mutual understanding, and shared values and behaviours that
bind the members of human networks and communities and make
cooperative action possible. (Cohen and Prusak 2001: 4)

Although there are some distinctions between these definitions, all are
concerned with building connections within the community. The architecture
of a public library service can act as a catalyst for the construction of social
capital. Each building takes on the flavour and uniqueness of the local

65
community in which it resides. In that vein it is a physical institution that
contributes in various ways to what New Labour calls "liveability". In his
Croydon speech in the Spring of 2001, Tony Blair sets the vision of New
Labour's Neighbourhood Renewal Unit.
We live in an increasingly competitive world where people and capital
are ever more mobile. Towns, cities, regions, and countries that can
provide safe and attractive places for people to live and work will be the
winners. For Britain to prosper, we need to make such places the rule,
not the exception...In the US they call this agenda "liveability" and in
many American communities, politics is now focused on improving
these aspects of local quality of life. Rudy Guiliani in New York,
Richard Daley in Chicago and many others—they have understood that
small things add up to make a bigger picture. They invoke the concept
of liveability as a short hand for all the things which improve our daily
experience of the life where we live.
John Prescott who called for good design and the renewal of the built
environment reiterated this theme in 2002. He stated,
Getting the planning, the design and the building right is important. But
we've also got to include what former Vice President Al Gore described
to me as "liveability". People care about their communities. They want
cleaner, safe streets; good parks…a good quality of life. (in Kloby:
accessed 2002)

Emeritus professor of social anthropology Ray Oldenburg explores the notion


of the third place, a place standing beside both work and home and providing
a vital function the other two cannot. Jerry Kloby in reviewing his book for the
Institute for Community Studies, picks out several of Oldenburg's ingredients
for being successful as a third place,
—They must be free or relatively inexpensive to enter and purchase
food or drinks
—They must be highly accessible; ideally one should be able to get
there by foot from one's own home
—A number of people can be expected to be there on a daily basis
—All people should feel welcome; it should be easy to get into a
conversation. A person who goes there should be able to find both old
and new friends each time they visit. (Kloby: accessed 2002)

The best of new library designs are attempting to facilitate these elements of
the third place. Mangers at the Millennium Library acknowledge the
importance of social capital in both its architecture and its service.
I think that if we need evidence of the libraries' role as what you
describe as social capital, the grief that the County suffered after the

66
fire is a good example of, whilst people can't actually express what the
place does, it has got a significant role to play and that was a building-
issue rather than a service-issue...The majority of people refer to the
whole of the Forum as The Library, they don't see it as being anything
else. They also perceive that the spaces and the other services that
provided within the Forum are provided by the library service. (Norfolk
Head of Library and Information Services)
The perception that the library has a significant role within the community is
moved forward by a need to remove the barriers that prevent the social
connections from being made. The Head of Services continued,
We are being seen as really important in delivering learning and
information. We are a meeting place for all types of community groups,
but also we are about removing the rules about some of those barriers
that are often seen as associated with public buildings, how you
behave in a public building can be quite intimidating to some
people...people do own this building and have quite a high expectation
of what they can receive through this building...it also raises their
expectation of what else can be delivered.

The vision of being a pivotal point in the city may be hampered by the
demographics of the county of Norfolk, since the majority of its residents are
dispersed into the rural hinterland. A respondent from Norwich City College
expresses the worry:
...You know the majority of people are not excluded and deserting
libraries and other public services, that they don't have difficulty getting
in, and those traditional things are needed and valued. However, the
people who have not been coming are still not going to come in and the
services need to be taken out to them in the way that those kind of
ground breaking attempts to take library services out to the people
should be continued...The people who for whatever reason, are
excluded for the moment I guess are still going to be excluded...I think
what you will see is the middle class and lower middle class groups
continuing to use it, or perhaps encouraged to use it more than they
have in the past, and those excluded people continuing not to use it...
For inner city Stratford, the issues of multi-culturalism and staff attitudes
present a challenge to building connections. The Interior Designer remarked
on this as he dealt with his brief to create the space where the service would
work.

You're asking for fairly traditional librarians to become more


adventurous. And they have to deal with more social problems. For
example encouraging teenagers into a library as a group in an after-
school club creates its own social problem because it's now a trendy
place to be. I know it sounds bizarre but Stratford Library is now one of

67
the trendiest places to be in Stratford. You're asking people to deal
with different problems...It's a completely different world, and teenagers
in Stratford come from a multi-cultural background, and they respond to
a lot of multi-cultural issues and you almost need a librarian that
understands that, so they know what's happening with the music, they
know what's happening with IT. But they're there saying, "have you
read this, or have you looked at that". And they're out on the floor and
they're not behind a desk. (Interior Designer Stratford Library)

As mentioned previously in this report, data from both the Millennium Library
and Stratford suggested that older library users feel "marginalized" by the
emphasis on the young. Some of this stems from what one elder within
Stratford's ethnic minority community called 'hoodlum-ism'. Efforts at Stratford
are beginning to focus on recovering the lost "elders" demographic. The
Head of Services puts it this way:
We're still anxious that we don't loose all of our older people. And we
need to be a bit careful and think about what we're going to do to keep
them on-board, because we still want them to keep coming as well, but
it is difficult serve two groups in very close proximity to each other
because of the different expectations...

Nevertheless, connections are being made and social capital is being created
within these new public libraries. The library is a place that stakeholders use
in a number of ways.

For example the Norfolk & Norwich Millennium Library, according to one of
the library's partners, has,
...excited and fired the imagination of the local population (The Norwich
Learning City Initiative)
A signature piece of civic architecture like these case study libraries can help
to instil a bit of pride into the community. The "feel-good" factor can be a
powerful tool for regenerating an area and improving the quality of life.

New library buildings are revealed as a physical space to see people and be
seen, to carry on a conversation, even find a 'date'. The public libraries in this
study offer a place to form relationships.
Whatever time of day you go in there you will find lots of teenagers and
young people. Certainly in the ground floor area and also in areas
throughout the facility and making use of non-traditional library things
like watching TV, and sitting around and talking. It's even become a bit
of a dating agency for the ethnic groups who, it's safe for them to go to

68
libraries when their parents don't want them to go anywhere else. So
it's a library alright, but it's so much more than that. (Head of Newham
Libraries)

It's a good meeting place. (Norfolk Elders Focus Group)

It's a place to go with friends... (Norfolk Children's Focus Group)

It's a place to bring visitors to. (Norfolk Business Focus Group)

The opportunities to get away from a busy and hectic lifestyle is offered in the
traditional, contemplative spaces within the public library.
Libraries are a peaceful calm area to study (Stratford Elders Focus
Group)

I read to calm down and it's somewhere quiet, it's a nice place to relax
(Young Adult Focus Group)

That level of comfort for some extends to a sense of security and safety.
Parents leave their children alone because they feel comfortable
(Norfolk Librarians Focus Group)

A concept related to relaxation and comfort is that of leisure and recreation.


The act of reading can be an intensely personal one, and the books and
materials on offer at the library are one of the primary reasons for people to
use the library.
...It's much more leisure than an educational establishment. So
whether we go along those lines, who knows. Watch this space for the
next reinvention. (Stratford Library Manager)

It's essential if you're on your own. (Norfolk Elders Focus Group)

The information resources and the ability to learn new skills and ideas are
also embodied in the library's ethos. Several of the partners at the Norfolk &
Norwich Millennium Library are primarily interested in the tools that the library
provides to their users. Several of the school aged respondents noted,
It's a place to do research for school—to study in the library...(Norfolk
Middle School Focus Group)
A further sign of the globalised environment that libraries inhabit is seen in the
use by refugees and minority ethnic immigrants. Their needs are immense
and many look to the public library to supply a range of services.

69
It would be good if they would provide books in our language...even
newspapers, at least the newspapers because they cannot buy them in
the shops. It would be perfect if they had books in both languages
because our children are now learning English and becoming bi-
lingual. (Stratford Ethnic Minority-Refugee Focus Group)
For those out of work and looking for a job, the Internet resources offer a
tremendously useful tool for the search.
It's useful for people on DSS, instead of going down to the job centre.
(Norfolk Young Adult Focus Group)

In Norfolk, the area is experiencing an influx of new workers. Those new to


the area can begin to orient themselves using the resources on offer at the
public library.
I came here based on the quality of life. I gave up my job...came here
without a job, and the first place I came to was the library...because I
needed to find out about governments, who the employers were here,
what sort of turn over they'd got, and who was recruiting. So the library
was one of my first ports of call...It plays a very important role for those
coming in because one of the first things they need is information...It
has a huge role to play in terms of creating perceptions. (Norfolk
Business Focus Group)

CONCLUSION
From the data returned in this study, it can be argued that the new public
libraries can be a tool for building social capital. The library is at any one time
a meeting place, a learning resource, and a comfortable and relaxing public
space. The buildings that are well designed and managed offer an array of
resources that enable people and groups to establish relationships, carry on
conversations, exchange ideas, and engage the life of the mind.

The text boxes that follow highlight some of the work done to make
connections and build social capital by libraries throughout the UK. Each has
its own unique response to its community's needs. In Machen, Wales the
library shares space with the village hall, placing all of the things that the
library can stand for, at the heart of the community. In Cambridgeshire, the
village has a new landmark, one shared with a disabled community service.
The work at Papworth highlights the efforts to include those who are often on
the margins of society. For the Waterside Library of Derry, the Protestant and
Catholic come together to share a new resource. Muirhouse, Edinburgh, part

70
of a social inclusion zone, is reaching out to ethnic minorities and offering
opportunities to tap into the global community through the World Wide Web.
In the words of two American commentators,
The physical library when designed and maintained with 'place-making'
in mind, serves as a vital agent in community-building—bringing people
together to promote a community's civic and educational values.
(Demas and Scherer 2002)
The stakeholder's views reflected in the present study indicate the variety of
uses to which the modern public library is put. All of these reinforce the work
of binding communities together and improving the quality of life.

71
National Survey Spotlight—Access & Social Capital
Caerphilly, Machen—village library

This library was built as a joint provision for Machen Village Hall and Social Centre
as well as a library. The village hall's kitchen provides facilities for the library's
coffee mornings. Its perception is that of a community resource with concerts and
author visits, as well as community education classes. More young people are
taking up the service. It also provides a much needed access to the Internet which
brings it into the sphere of all the other global players.

Cambridgeshire, Papworth Everard—village library

Before this building the community was served by a mobile unit. The objective was
to offer library service provision to the entire community as well as act as a teaching
library for disabled people, giving them an opportunity to gain experience and
qualifications in library work. The site shares space with the Disabled Living Centre
and Disability Information Service and several commercial organisations that deal
with disabilities. Because the potential to be seen solely as a disability service
within the community, and that this might be a barrier to able-bodied users, coffee
mornings and open days were held to bring both elements of the community
together. The Library can be seen as the first real community building within the
village.

72
Londonderry, Waterside Library—city branch library

The Waterside Library serves both Protestant and Catholic communities and the
location needed to be taken into account in order to accommodate them. It replaced
an earlier library sited close to the Control Zone around the Waterside Police
Station. The library now inhabits the Old City Workhouse, and while it still serves
the same patrons, it is in a much better location and had "given new life to one of the
city's landmarks."

Edinburgh, Muirhouse Library—city branch library

One of the library's primary objectives was to provide its services within a social
inclusion partnership zone. Its location in a refurbished shopping centre allows for
shared access to a community garden and an arts centre. The new facilities are
more attractive to young people in the area making a positive contribution to
discouraging anti-social behaviour in the shopping centre. It carries a special
collection of Chinese language texts and is encouraging larger numbers of black
youths in to access the web. "It has become 'the' place to advertise services and for
the local people to find out what is happening... When parts of the housing scheme
are so run down I think it is important for self esteem that there is something so
valuable in the community."(Muirhouse Librarian)

73
CHAPTER 8 LESSONS LEARNED

As new information and communication media proliferate throughout society,


some question the relevancy of a public library within a local community. The
present report explored the changing role of the public library and its key
position within many local authorities as a public space for delivering a host of
services ranging from free Internet access and book loans, to the provision of
social spaces and community landmarks. The growing use of partnerships by
library authorities is also has been shown to reap rewards by providing a
broader range of services under one roof, as well as offering potential
solutions to funding issues, service delivery and sustainability.

In 1995 Liz Greenhalgh, Ken Worpole, and Charles Landry wrote that,
Public Libraries are institutions whose functions appear to be
fundamentally challenged by continuing technological and social
changes (1995, p142)
They go on to encourage the identification of the library's future rationale and
cultural position—seeking to understand and actualise "library-ness". The
present study argues that the construction of a new library creates an
opportunity to do just that. The opportunity to renew and re-value the library
within the local community in the light of the technological and social changes
allows it to change with, rather than in reaction to, external forces. All five of
the themes emerging from the data point to a new public library the character
of which makes a positive impact when it engages in a continuing
"conversation" with the people it is serving. The conversation involves both
listening and acting with care and confidence.

PLANNING
The study sought to examine to what extent potential user's needs were
identified in the advance planning. The data suggest that at both the Norfolk
& Norwich Millennium Library and Newham's Stratford Branch Library the
consultation experience was beneficial and not merely perfunctory. The
responses the library and design teams received from a broad and diverse
group of stakeholders were used to shape a detailed and flexible brief.

74
Embedded in the designs were the seeds of the long-term vision for what the
resource could be to the community. The local authority's strategic aims of
economic regeneration, life-long learning and civic renewal were considered
to be the driving force for the new library. Both of the case study libraries
grew out of a political will to provide a re-invigorated resource for their
community. The opportunity to re-assess the library, root and branch, meant
that some of the elements of service, particularly the provision of ICT, did not
need to be "strapped on", but could be customised and integrated into the
fabric of the library from the very beginning.

The buildings represented a unique balance between resources actually


available and a strategic vision of what might be possible. Some factors were
beyond the control of the library service or the local authority. For instance,
the location of the Millennium Library was established on the site of the
previous library that had burned down. The Stratford library was built within a
larger development and completed under tight deadlines.

In terms of the changing character and role of new libraries, this study found
the services catering to a variety of demands created by the addition of new
media (ICT and audio-visual), and the ability to reach targeted interests such
as children, teens/young adults, businesses, and local studies groups. By
undertaking the various forms of consultation library services are better
placed to understand the make-up of their public, and cater to their needs.

PARTNERSHIPS
The library services that have built new libraries recognise that they cannot
operate in isolation from the community in which they are located. The non-
interventionist approach to self-improvement represented by the library
(Greenhalgh et al 1995, p 155) has given way to concerted efforts by
government and not-for-profit organisations to deliver services which respond
to a host of community issues. In a rapidly changing knowledge and
technology-based society one of the library's roles is as the venue for
education and business information dissemination.

75
The quality of the relationships that libraries are entering into varies
tremendously. As has been seen in the partnership section of this report, the
Millennium Library service shares space and goals in a mutually re-enforcing
and complementary way with several of its partners. The Stratford library on
the other hand, has not been able to take advantage of the other businesses
in its development partly because of incompatible purposes.

Where successful cooperation has been achieved, it was a partnership


designed into the library's life at a very early stage. This was the case
especially if the relationship meant that the library shared the built space with
its partners. The partners that concentrated on their own strengths acted as
force multipliers and added to the overall value and impact of the library by
creating a burden-sharing environment and allowing synergy to form. Critical
to the successful partnerships were clear and open lines of communication
that avoided bureaucratic bottlenecks and missed opportunities.

The library's effects on the community's businesses were seen to be at least


twofold. On a practical issue of footfall, the location of the library within a
retail and/or cultural precinct was mutually beneficial to both shops and the
library. In both case studies, people who appeared to be visiting the grocery
store might stop by the library, and vice versa. As noted in the social capital
section of this report, the quality of life factors that a library offers to a
community can help to attract the type of employees wanted by area
businesses.

For the library service as a whole the effects were positive. The attention that
was focused on building a new library had the effect of raising the profile of
the entire service, benefiting the authority's other libraries in terms of funding
further new library construction and producing opportunities to learn lessons
from the re-evaluation of the library service. Norfolk & Norwich used the
opportunity of a new library to introduce new management styles, while
Stratford opened to an extraordinary increase in users during an authority-
wide review process that had the effect of overwhelming the new staff.

76
DESIGN
The Norfolk & Norwich Millennium Library and Newham's Stratford branch
library both make tangible statements about the role and character of the
library in the 21st century. The buildings are located in the way of people
coming into the heart of the community. This means that the public
encounters a library with a confident sense of itself and the type of services it
can provide. The architecture enables the library to perform this function in
several ways: access to information resources, the creation of collective social
space, and for some of the libraries in this study a venue for partnering
enterprises. Because the public library has a tradition of free service
provision, the best new library architecture enhances the aim to increase
access to an ever-greater degree. This takes the form in both Norfolk &
Norwich and Stratford of libraries-within-libraries that can cater to the specific
needs of their users. For example, separate areas within the library are made
for children, young adults/teens, heritage and local studies, and businesses.
In recognition of the various activities the library hosts, space is made for
quiet and individual work, as well as collective and noisy behaviour.

An express service at the Millennium Library operates with longer opening


hours and stocks only the more popular titles of books, tapes, and DVDs.
Since it is a self-issue facility, it makes a statement of trust to the users and
caters to their busy life styles. It also frees up valuable staff time.

The Disability Discrimination Act ensures that minimum physical access


requirements are built into the library's structure. At the case study libraries a
variety of enabling technologies are being used to expand access to library
resources still further, for example Braille and Kurzweil machines, and
software for the visually impaired. Beyond these tools of access, the designs
encourage curiosity and attempt to be less intimidating to the uninitiated and
socially marginalized.

The New Opportunity Funding for the People's Network has meant the new
libraries need to accommodate web-access terminals. This greatly expands
the resources available to the public in terms of global information sharing and

77
web-based documents. With personal web-access still relatively low in some
areas of the country, the library provides a valuable resource to the public. It
is a provision that allows the local community to interact on a global level.

MARKETING
The public responds to the library's long established and beneficial presence
within society with a great degree of good will (Linley and Usherwood 1998).
To a limited extent this study examined just how much the traditional dividend
of good will can be exploited.
Libraries and Lifelong Learning have to fight for people's attention in
today's society. There is a need to develop new ways of delivering and
presenting services that maximise their attractiveness to the local
community and which are capable of successfully competing for
people's time on equal terms. (Tower Hamlets 2002, p. 17)
Both case study libraries generated a high degree of attention during the short
term (with visitor numbers nearly trebling in Stratford's case). But services
realise that sustaining high levels of use are not a forgone conclusion, and
considerable effort needs to be expended over the long term to keep the
community interested in the services provided or the events hosted at the
library. Newham's Head of Services felt that visitor numbers had plateaued
two years after opening but that further targeted work needed to be done to
invite back into their service, specific groups that may have been left behind.
The findings indicate that the libraries that achieved success used a sustained
and multi-component approach to marketing their service. This involved the
placement of the building in high footfall areas, and the use of a variety of
media to target specific audiences for their messages. The frequency and
quality varied with the types of methods employed, although the Norfolk &
Norwich service noted the value of "drip-marketing" over the long term.

SOCIAL CAPITAL
Social capital refers to the glue that binds a society's institutions together
(World Bank 1999), and builds networks of trust, giving people access to
economic, cultural, and political resources that helps to create "liveability"
(Prescott 2002).

78
Responses in this study and others (Linley and Usherwood 1998, Bryson et al
2002) indicate that the library can make an impact on the social fabric of a
community. The knowledge-resources that a public library provides, allow a
local community to be a global player. Users across a wide demographic are
now expecting the library to offer access to a greater variety of information
media, from traditional printed matter, to digital, audio and video formats.
They are increasingly using the space to make connections with other people.
Depending on the character of the architecture it is a valued meeting place
where relationships are formed or renewed, a place to study where the life of
the mind is exercised, and a place to relax where re-creation takes the form of
reading and enjoying a cup of coffee.

In the end, the project found it impossible to hold constant the two variables of
management and content while only examining the impact of space and
architecture. All three of these components are bound together in their effect
on the library's impact on the community.
The magic of libraries is not in the building, not in the collections, and
not even in the staff. The magic is in the connection. Connecting
minds with different knowledge ages and cultures. The successful
library building in the 21st century will enable those connections to
happen. (Dowlin1999)

The report indicates that new library buildings can and do have beneficial
impact on communities. The degree of that impact depends on a variety of
factors such as the initial conditions established during the planning and
consultation process, the nature of the partnerships the library enters into, the
quality and fitness of the design, and the library's various marketing
strategies. All of these are part of the library service engaging in a
conversation with its public, while seeking to remain relevant in a changing
world.

79
Library strengths (staff) Perceived library strengths (public)
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Location 23 39.0 Location 8 13.6
Layout 9 15.3 Layout 7 11.9
Visual impact 8 13.6 Visual impact 9 15.3
Stock 6 10.2 Facilities 7 11.9
Facilities 4 6.8 Computers 8 13.6
Computers 3 5.1 Stock 13 22.0
Furnishings 2 3.4 Opening 4 6.8
Toilets 1 1.7 hours
Staff facilities 1 1.7 Friendly staff 3 5.1
Building 1 1.7 Total 59 100.0
ICT provision 1 1.7
Total 59 100.0

Library weaknesses (staff) Perceived library weaknesses (users)


Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Space too little 13 26.0 Opening hours 16 29.1
Building faults 8 16.0 Stock 11 20.0
No air 6 12.0 Lack of Parking 8 14.5
conditioning Space too little 4 7.3
Stock 4 8.0 Building faults 3 5.5
Parking 4 8.0 No internet 3 5.5
Opening hours 3 6.0 access
Layout 3 6.0 Location 3 5.5
Maintenance 2 4.0 Too few 2 3.6
Lack of staff 2 4.0 computers
facilities Too noisy 2 3.6
Staffing 2 4.0 Too busy 1 1.8
problems Not enough 1 1.8
Too few 1 2.0 study tables
computers Technical 1 1.8
Design restricted 1 2.0 problems (ICT)
by listed status Total 55 100.0
Technical 1 2.0
problems
Total 50 100.0

80
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84
APPENDIX 1 MISSION STATEMENT OF NORFOLK &
NORWICH MILLENNIUM LIBRARY

Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library

Mission Statement:

To support reading and learning for everyone

Our Library Charter Statement is:

We will give everyone access to books, information and works of creative


imagination which will:

v Support lifelong learning


v Provide Information for life and for citizenship
v Encourage a love of reading and knowledge
v Support arts and cultural activities in local communities

Charter Aims

1. To provide a high quality service which will give value for money and
will aim to satisfy users’ needs
2. To provide sufficient libraries, static and mobile, to enable Norfolk
residents and visitors to have adequate and equitable access to the
library and information service
3. To ensure that the widest possible choice of books, compact discs,
cassettes, videos and other library material is provided and maintained
4. To ensure that timely and accurate information is provided to all
enquirers on request
5. To provide facilities and materials to assist with independent learning
6. To contribute to the artistic and cultural life of the community, and to
knowledge and enjoyment of our rich local heritage
7. To ensure that sufficient Chartered Librarians and other staff are
deployed to undertake the functions of the service
8. To encourage the use of the full range of library, arts and information
services by adults and children
9. To keep a close check on all our services to make sure they are
effective, offer value for money and meet your needs.

Last reviewed: 15/10/02


http://www.library.norfolk.gov.uk/mission.htm

85
APPENDIX 2 STRATEGIC VISION OF NEWHAM LIBRARIES
Newham Library Strategy
http://www.newham.gov.uk/leisure/pdf/libstrat.pdf

Our priorities
We want to make sure that the library service in Newham is accessible and
relevant to everyone in Newham. But we also know that we can’t put all our
energies into everything at once. So we propose the following 3 priority areas
for the lifetime of this strategy:
• Social Inclusion
• Children and Young people
• Lifelong Learning

Strategic Priority Milestone And Action


Social Inclusion
Children and Young People
Lifelong Learning
Developing Service Efficiency and Best Value
Improving the Customer Focus
Meeting national standards and ensuring that Newham represents best
practice
Partnership and Funding Initiatives
Management and Administration of the Service

The expected outcomes will be: Increased use of the whole service and, in
particular, increased issues, up to and beyond 2 million items per year. In the
medium term we will increase membership of libraries from 52% of the
population and 25% active membership to 70% of the population and 35%
active membership. Increased use of libraries as an information resource as
demonstrated by a 5% year on year increase in recorded enquiries Increased
user satisfaction rates from 55% Good/Excellent amongst residents and 72%
amongst users, to 60% and 80% respectively.

86
APPENDIX 3 LETTER TO NATIONAL SURVEY RECIPIENTS
Dear Colleagues,

Libraries must also be buildings? New Library Impact Study

We have been funded by Resource to undertake a study of the impact of new


library buildings on their user communities. This short study involves an in-
depth assessment of the Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library and the new
Stratford Library. We also plan to undertake telephone interviews with a
selection of professionals from authorities who have opened new libraries in
the last five years. In order to set these data in context we require information
on other new library buildings and are seeking your help in providing this.

At the time when some commentators from within and outside the information
professions have been considering indeed questioning the idea of the public
library as a physical space, and the roles it plays in the wider community, the
views of the leading professionals are most important. We anticipate that the
data from this project will help us assess actual user behaviour and attitudes
in the circumstances resulting from the provision of a new library building.
This research will enhance the information available to policy makers and help
inform decisions on service planning. We would therefore be most grateful if
you would help us achieve these aims by taking time to complete as much as
you can of the attached questionnaire.

This should be returned to Jared Bryson (j.bryson@sheffield.ac.uk) by June


15th. If you have any questions regarding this project please do not hesitate to
contact Jared or myself. (Tel. 0114 222 2668)

We look forward to receiving your reply,

Bob Usherwood
Professor of Librarianship & Project Head

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APPENDIX 4 SAMPLE NATIONAL SURVEY

New Libraries Survey

Please feel free to expand the spaces in order to accommodate


your answers. If you print this survey in a hard copy, please add
extra sheets to accommodate your answers. We need one survey
for each new library in your authority. If you have any
questions please contact Jared Bryson at the Centre for Public
Libraries and Information In Society at the Department of
Information Studies, University of Sheffield,
j.Bryson@sheffield.ac.uk

The New Library Building

By ‘new library building’ we mean either a new building or an existing building


previously used for another purpose but now used as a library.

1. Has a new library been opened within your authority since January 1995?
Yes/ No (If NO, please answer this question 1 and return)

2. Please give the name and location of the new library.

3. What was the primary objective of your local authority in opening the new
library?

Library Facilities Design

Location (Location of library and immediate external environment)

1. We want to know about the immediate location and environment of the


new library. Please describe this, especially noting any other organisations or
businesses that may be in proximity or sharing space, including parks,
museums restaurants, or any other civic or cultural buildings.

2. Does the design provide for gardens or green spaces?

3. Are there public transport facilities such as bus or tram stop or station,
nearby?

4. Are there adequate parking facilities for the library?


5. Is there any provision for public art in or around the new library? Please
explain.

88
6. Are there any other issues about the library’s location that were specifically
considered?

7. If the new library replaces an older one, what major differences exist in
terms of location?

Opening Hours

1. How many hours/days per week is the new library open?

2. If the new library replaces an older one were there any changes to opening
hours? Please explain.

Facilities and services (non-ICT) Does the new library provide:

1. Separate public space for group or shared activities? (e.g. auditorium or


meeting rooms) Please provide details.

2. Informal reading areas or seating? Please provide details.

3. Separate areas for study? Please provide details.

4. Refreshment facilities? Please provide details.

5. Community notice boards? Please provide details.

6. Any other non-ICT facilities not mentioned above?

7. If the new library replaces an older one, explain what major differences
exist in terms of non-ICT provision.

Facilities and services (ICT)

1. How many public access PCs does the library have?

2. How many of these have Internet access?

89
3. What is the charge for Internet access?

4. Are there facilities for using laptops: power and networking sockets?

5. Are there listening carrels for audio resources?

6. Are there video playback areas?

7. Are there any other ICT facilities and services not mentioned above?

8. If the new library replaces an older one, explain what differences exist
in terms of ICT provision?

Layout and accessibility

1. How many floors does the new library have?

2. What are the library’s physical access facilities (e.g.: toilets, signage,
hearing impaired, lifts, etc.)?

3. What consideration, if any was there in psychological access when


planning the new building?

4. If the new library replaces an older one, explain what major differences
exist in terms of accessibility?

90
Statistical information

1. What is the overall catchment population (approximate) of the new library?

2. What was the membership of the new library a year after the new library
building opened and what is it now?

1st year Current


No. of registered
users
Number of active
registered users

3. If possible, please provide annual book issue figures for each complete year
the library has been open.

Book Issue figures


1st year
2nd year
3rd year
4th year
5th year

4. If detailed figures are not available, how have issues changed?

5. How would you account for any change in these statistics?

6. How have issue statistics changed since the new library was opened?

91
Shelf stock
1. How many of each type of stock category does the new library possess?
Fiction

Non-Fiction

CDs

DVDs

Videos

Computer

Other

2. What is the shelving capacity (in meters)?

3. If the new library replaced an older facility, were there any changes in
shelving capacity?

Staff

1. What is the total number of staff employed?

2. How many are professional posts?

3. How many are para-professional posts?

4. How many others?

3. If the new library replaces an older one, what differences exist in staff?

The planning process

1. Please describe any formal planning process or model you used to decide on
the range and extent of services.
2. Briefly describe what consultation with architects, your staff and the general
public took place during the planning period for the new library.

92
3. Was any design feature imposed rather than deliberately planned? Please
explain.

Staff responses

What does the staff on site believe are the main strengths and weaknesses of the
new library?

Strength Weakness
1 1

Strength Weakness
2 2

Strength Weakness
3 3

Public Responses

What do users believe are the main strengths and weaknesses of the new library?

Strength Weakness
1 1

Strength Weakness
2 2

Strength Weakness
3 3

Characteristics of library users

1. If the library replaces an older one, what differences, if any, have you noticed
in terms of the population using the library? E.g. ethnicity, age, gender

Promotion

1. How was the new library promoted/publicised within its perceived catchment
area?

Partnerships

93
1. Have you entered in to any partnerships that have affected the delivery of your
services, with external agencies or with those organisations in your immediate
environment e.g. neighbouring shops or businesses?

2. What is the nature of these partnerships?

3. In what ways do you plan to sustain the partnerships e.g. opening hours, shared
space, additional services, and shared resources?

Any Other Comments


Please provide any other comments on the impact of the new library building.

Request for further information


We would be grateful if you could send us any documentation concerning
The planning of the new library e.g. Committee reports
Promotional material at the time of opening
Performance measurement after opening.
Web address.

May we contact you for further information? Yes/No.


If so, please provide contact details:
Name

Address

Telephone Number

Email address

Thank you for completing this survey.

94
APPENDIX 5 NATIONAL SURVEY RESPONDENTS

Number of Library Authority


Libraries
1 1 Bournemouth
1. Bournmouth

2 1 Bolton
1. Halliwell

3 2 Buckinghamshire
1. Aylesbury Local Stds
2. Fleckwell Heath

4 2 Cambridgeshire
1. Papworth
2. March

5 2 Cornwall
1. Upton Cross Liskeard

2. Cornwall Centre Reduth

6 1 Derby
1. Bakewell

7 5 Devon
1. Chudleigh
2. Lynton
3. Stoke Flemming
4. Tavistok
5. Torrington

8 1 Durham
1. Clayport

9 1 Harrow
1. Bob Lawrence Edgeware

10 2 Lancashire
1. Great Harwood
2. Read

11 2 Leicestershire
1. Bottlesford
2. Countesthrope

12 1 Milton Keynes
1. Westcroft

13 3 Norfolk
1. Norfolk & Norwich Millennium
2. Downham Market
3. West Earlham

95
Number of Library Authority
Libraries
14 1 Northamptonshire
1. Brixworth

15 1 Rotherham
1. Dinnington

16 1 Sheffield
1. Firth Park

17 1 Southwark
1. Peckham

18 3 Staffordshire
1. Codsall
2. Cheadle
3. Stafford

19 4 Sunderland
1. City Library & Arts Centre
2. Doxford Park
3. Houghton
4. Washington
20 1 Surrey
1. Epsom Park

21 1 Tower Hamlets
1. Idea Store Bow

22 2 Wiltshire
1. Calne
2. Tidworth

23 1 Wolverhampton
1. Tettenhall

24 2 Newham

25 1 Caerphilly
1. Machen
26 2 Neath Port Talbot
1. Cwmllynfell
2. Port Talbot

27 1 Powys
1. Presteigne

28 1 Rhondda Cynon Taff


1. Mountain Ash

96
Number of Library Authority
Libraries
29 7 Edinburgh
1. Currie
2. Gilmerton
3. Kirkliston
4. Muirhouse
5. Piershill
6. Ratho
7. Wester Hailes

30 1 Fife
1. Dalgety Bay

31 2 East Ayershire
1. Kilmaurs
2. Mauchline

32 3 North Ayrshire
1. Bourtreehill
2. Stevenston
3. West Kilbride

33 1 Belfast Education & Library Board


1. Holywood Arches

34 6 N. E. Education & Library Board


1. Bellaghy
2. Castlerock
3. Cullybackey
4. Kells & Connor
5. Magherfelt
6. Portrush

35 3 Western Education. & Library Board


1. Creggan
2. Strathfoyle
3. Waterside

TOTAL 70

97
APPENDIX 6 NATIONAL SURVEY TABLE KEY

Null data appears as either 9 or "." in tables that follow.

Number Category Survey Question


1 Library Authority
2 Library
3 Location We want to know about the immediate
location and environment of the new
library. Please describe this, especially
noting any other organisations or
businesses that may be in proximity or
sharing space, including parks, museums
restaurants, or any other civic or cultural
buildings.

4 Catchment Population What is the overall catchment population


(approximate) of the new library?

5 Green Space Does the design provide for gardens or


green spaces?

6 Parking Are there adequate parking facilities for the


library?

7 Hours open Per Week How many hours/days per week is the new
library open?

8 Days Open Per Week How many hours/days per week is the new
library open?

9 Separate Community Room Separate public space for group or shared


activities? (e.g. auditorium or meeting
rooms) Please provide details.

10 Cafe Refreshment facilities? Please provide


details.

11 Audio Are there listening carrels for audio


resources?

12 Video Are there video playback areas?

13 Laptops Are there facilities for using laptops: power


and networking sockets?

14 Toilets What are the library’s physical access


facilities (e.g.: toilets, signage, hearing

98
impaired, lifts, etc.)?

15 Bus Route Are there public transport facilities such as


bus or tram stop or station, nearby?

16 Public Art Is there any provision for public art in or


around the new library? Please explain.

17 Difference In Location If the new library replaces an older one,


what major differences exist in terms of
location?

18 Opening Hours Changes If the new library replaces an older one


were there any changes to opening hours?
Please explain.

19 Soft Seating Informal reading areas or seating? Please


provide details.

20 Separate Study Space Separate areas for study? Please provide


details

21 Community Noticeboards Community notice boards? Please provide


details.

22 Additional Facilities Any other non-ICT facilities not mentioned


above?

23 Differences in Non-IT If the new library replaces an older one,


explain what major differences exist in
terms of non-ICT provision.

24 Other IT Are there any other ICT facilities and


services not mentioned above?

25 Differences in IT If the new library replaces an older one,


explain what differences exist in terms of
ICT provision?

26 Number of Floors How many floors does the new library


have?

27 Disabled Access What are the library’s physical access


facilities (e.g.: toilets, signage, hearing
impaired, lifts, etc.)?

28 Induction Loop What are the library’s physical access


facilities (e.g.: toilets, signage, hearing
impaired, lifts, etc.)?

99
29 Psychological Access What consideration, if any was there in
psychological access when planning the
new building?

30 Differences in Access If the new library replaces an older one,


explain what major differences exist in
terms of accessibility?

31 Membership Old Library What was the membership of the new


library a year after the new library building
opened and what is it now?

32 membership New Library What was the membership of the new


library a year after the new library building
opened and what is it now?

33 Issues Year 1 If possible, please provide annual book


issue figures for each complete year the
library has been open.

34 Issues Year 2 ''


35 Issues Year 3 ''
36 Issues Year 4 ''
37 Issues Year 5 ''

38 Years Open Between 1995 and 2002

39 Issues Up or Down If detailed figures are not available, how


have issues changed?

40 Issues Differences How have issue statistics changed since


the new library was opened?

41 Why the Difference How would you account for any change in
these statistics?

42 Shelveing (meters) What is the shelving capacity (in meters)?

43 Shelveing Differences If the new library replaced an older facility,


were there any changes in shelving
capacity?

44 Staff Change If the new library replaces an older one,


what differences exist in staff?

45 Differences in User Demography If the library replaces an older one, what


differences, if any, have you noticed in
terms of the population using the library?

100
E.g. ethnicity, age, gender

46 Promotional Techniques How was the new library


promoted/publicised within its perceived
catchment area?

101
APPENDIX 7 NATIONAL SURVEY DATA TABLES

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Authority Library Catch. Location Green Parking Hours Days Sep. Cafe Audio Video Laptops Toilets
popn space open open community
p.w. p.w. room
Belfast Holywood 17000 Retail Yes Yes 30-44 6 Yes No No No No Yes
Bolton Halliwell 12000 School Yes Yes 10-29 . No No No No No Yes
Bournemouth Bournemouth Retail No Yes 45-59 . Yes Adjacent Yes No No Yes
163000
Buckinghamshire Aylesbury Council Yes Yes 45-59 . Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
477000 Off
Flackwell 6000 School Yes Yes 10-29 4 No No No No No Yes
Heath
Caerphilly Machen 4000 Commu No Yes 10-29 . No No No No No Yes
nity
Cambridgeshire March 19000 Retail Yes Yes 45-59 . Yes No No No No Yes
Papworth 2000 Housing Yes Yes 10-29 . No No No No No Yes
Everard Off.
Cornwall Redruth Housing No Yes 45-59 6 Yes Adjacent Yes Yes No Yes
Off.
Liskeard 2000 School No Yes No data 6 No No No No No
Derbyshire Bakewell 15000 Commu No No 30-44 6 No No No No No Yes
nity
Devon Tavistock 10000 Retail Yes Yes 45-59 . Yes No No No Yes Yes
Chudleigh School No Yes 10-29 5 No No No No Yes Yes
Stoke 1000 Housing Yes Yes 10-29 3 No No No No Yes Yes
Flemming Off.
Lynton 2000 School No Yes 10-29 3 Yes No No No No Yes
Torrington 4000 Housing Yes Yes 10-29 5 No No No No Yes
Off.
Durham Clayport 9 No Yes 45-59 . Yes Yes Yes No Yes
East Ayrshire Kilmaurs 3000 School Yes No 10-29 . Yes No No Yes No Yes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Authority Library Catch. Location Green Parking Hours Days Sep. Cafe Audio Video Laptops Toilets
popn space open open community
p.w. p.w. room
Mauchline 4000 School Yes No 10-29 . No No No No Yes
Edinburgh Wester 16000 Retail No Yes 45-59 . Yes Adjacent Yes No No Yes
Hailes
Muirhouse 17000 Retail Yes Yes 45-59 . Yes Adjacent Yes No No Yes
Piershill 27000 Retail No Yes 45-59 . Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Kirkliston Housing No Yes 30-44 6 No No No No Yes Yes
Off.
Currie 12000 School No Yes 30-44 6 Yes No No No No Yes
Gilmerton 15000 Commer No Yes 30-44 6 Yes No No No No Yes
cial
Ratho 2000 School Yes Yes 30-44 6 No No No No No Yes
Fife Dalgety Bay 9000 Retail Yes Yes 30-44 . Yes No No No No Yes
Harrow Edgware 16000 Retail No Yes 30-44 . No No No No No Yes
Lancashire Read Retail No Yes 10-29 . No No No No Yes Yes
Great Retail No Yes 30-44 5 No No No No No No
Harwood
Leicester Bottesford 4000 Council No Yes 10-29 5 No No No No No No
Off
Countesthorp 7000 Retail Yes Yes 10-29 . No No No No No
e
Milton Keynes Westcroft 11000 Retail No Yes 10-29 6 No No No No No Yes
Neath Port Talbot Retail No Yes 45-59 . Yes No No No No Yes
Cwmllynfell Commu No Yes 10-29 4 No No No No No Yes
nity
NI NE Educ & Bellaghy 1000 Housing No Yes 10-29 . Yes No No No No Yes
Lib. Off.
Board Castlerock 1000 Housing No Yes 10-29 . No No No No No Yes
Off.
Culleybackey 1000 Retail Yes Yes 10-29 . No No No No No Yes
Kells and 1000 Retail No Yes 10-29 4 No No No No No Yes
connor

103
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Authority Library Catch. Location Green Parking Hours Days Sep. Cafe Audio Video Laptops Toilets
popn space open open community
p.w. p.w. room
Magherafelt 2000 Council No Yes 45-59 . No No No No No Yes
Off
Portrush 6000 Housing No No 30-44 5 No No No No No Yes
Off.
N.I. Western Strathfoyle School Yes Yes 10-29 5 Yes No No No No Yes
Educ Creggan Retail Yes Yes 30-44 . Yes No No No No Yes
& Lib. Board Waterside Retail Yes Yes 30-44 . Yes No No No No Yes
Norfolk West 29000 Retail No No 10-29 4 No No Yes No Yes Yes
Earlham
Downham 28000 Retail Yes Yes 30-44 5 No No Yes No Yes Yes
North Ayrshire Bourtreehill 5000 Retail No No 30-44 . Yes No No No Yes Yes
Stevenston 9000 Housing No No 30-44 . No No No No Yes Yes
Off.
West Kilbride 5000 Retail No No 30-44 . No No No No Yes Yes
Northants Brixworth Council Yes Yes 10-29 5 Yes Adjacent No No No Yes
Off
Powys Presteigne 4000 Council No No 10-29 . Yes Yes No No No Yes
Off
Rhonda Mountain 8000 Retail No No 30-44 . Yes No No No No Yes
Ash
Rotherham Dinnington Retail Yes Yes 45-59 . Yes Yes No No No Yes
Sheffield Firth Park Retail No Yes 30-44 5 Yes Yes No No No Yes
Southwark Peckham 50000 Retail Yes No 60+ 7 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Staffordshire Cheadle 20000 Retail No Yes 45-59 . No No No No No Yes
Codsall 12000 Council Yes Yes 30-44 5 No No No No No Yes
Off
Stafford 95000 Retail No No 45-59 . No Adjacent No No No Yes
Sunderland Tyne and 15000 Retail No Yes 30-44 . Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Ware
Doxford Park 8000 Commu No Yes 30-44 . Yes No No No Yes Yes
nity

104
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Authority Library Catch. Location Green Parking Hours Days Sep. Cafe Audio Video Laptops Toilets
popn space open open community
p.w. p.w. room
City Council No Yes 45-59 . Yes No No No No Yes
229000 Off
Washington 12000 Housing Yes Yes 30-44 . Yes No No No No Yes
Off.
Surrey Epsom 20000 Retail No Yes 45-59 . Yes Adjacent Yes No No Yes
Tower Hamlets Bow 45000 Retail No No 60+ 7 Yes Yes Yes No No
Wiltshire Calne 16000 Retail Yes Yes 45-59 . Yes No No No Yes Yes
Tidworth 12000 Council Yes Yes 30-44 . No Adjacent No No No Yes
Off
Wolverhampton Tettenhall 23000 Retail Yes Yes 45-59 . Yes No No No No Yes
Norfolk Millennium 800000 Retail Yes Yes 69+ 7 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Newham Stratford 240000 Retail No No 60 7 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes

105
1 2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Authority Library Bus Public Difference Open Soft Separate Community Added Different Other Difference
Route Art in Location Hours Seating Study Facility Facilities Non-IT IT in IT
Change Space
Belfast Holywood Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 9 9 No IT in old
lib.
accessible
Bolton Halliwell Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 Meeting Scanner No IT in old
lib.
central Room
Bournemouth Bournemouth Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes Sale Meeting Scanner More PCs
central products Room
Buckinghamshire Aylesbury Yes No More More Yes Yes Yes 9 More CD More PCs
Roms/S
central space oftware
Flackwell Yes No More More Yes Yes Yes Microform More CD No IT in old
Heath Roms/S lib.
central readers space
oftware
Caerphilly Machen Yes No 9 Same Yes Yes No Fax 9 Spec More PCs
needs
Cambridgeshire March Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes 9 Meeting Learnin More PCs
g
central Room Centre
Papworth Yes No 9 9 Yes No Yes Audio 9 Spec 9
Everard Needs
Guide
Cornwall Redruth Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes 10 More Projecto More PCs
r
accessible space
Liskeard Yes No 9 9 Yes No No 10 9 9 9
Derbyshire Bakewell No More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 New OPAC No IT in old
lib.
central stock
Devon Tavistock Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes 9 New 9 More PCs
accessible stock
Chudleigh Yes Yes Same site Same Yes Yes Yes 9 New 9 No IT in old
lib.
stock
Stoke Yes Yes Less Same Yes Yes Yes 9 New 9 No IT in old
Flemming lib.
central stock

106
1 2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Authority Library Bus Public Difference Open Soft Separate Community Added Different Other Difference
Route Art in Location Hours Seating Study Facility Facilities Non-IT IT in IT
Change Space
Lynton Yes No More Same Yes Yes Yes . New Learnin More PCs
g
accessible stock
Centre
Torrington Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes . New Viewpoi No IT in old
nt lib.
accessible stock
Catalog
ue
Durham Clayport Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes 9 More OPAC More PCs
central space
East Ayrshire Kilmaurs Yes No 9 Same Yes No Yes 9 More 9 9
space
Mauchline Yes Yes More Same Yes No Yes 9 More 9 9
central space
Edinburgh Wester Yes No 9 9 Yes Yes Yes 9 9 9 9
Hailes
Muirhouse Yes Yes Same site More Yes Yes Yes 6 More Comp More PCs
games
space
Piershill Yes Yes 9 9 Yes Yes Yes Young 9 Scanner 9
people's
area
Kirkliston Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes Photocopier More Comp No IT in old
games lib.
accessible space
Currie Yes No More Same Yes Yes Yes Sale 9 9 No IT in old
lib.
central products
Gilmerton Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes Under 5 Meeting Learnin More PCs
g
central area Room
Centre
Ratho Yes No 9 9 Yes No Yes 9 9 9 9
Fife Dalgety Bay Yes No More More Yes Yes Yes Phone More 9 No IT in old
lib.
central space
Harrow Edgware Yes No Same site More Yes No Yes Photocopie 9 CD No IT in old
Roms/S lib.
r
oftware

107
1 2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Authority Library Bus Public Difference Open Soft Separate Community Added Different Other Difference
Route Art in Location Hours Seating Study Facility Facilities Non-IT IT in IT
Change Space
Lancashire Read Yes No More More No No Yes 9 More CD No IT in old
Roms/S lib.
central space
oftware
Great Yes Yes More Same Yes No Yes 9 9 9 9
Harwood central
Leicester Bottesford Yes No More Same Yes No Yes Photocopie More 9 No IT in old
lib.
central r space
Countesthorp Yes Yes More 9 Yes No Yes 9 9 Access No IT in old
e CI lib.
central
system
Milton Keynes Westcroft Yes Yes 9 9 Yes Yes Yes 9 9 OPAC 9
Neath Port Talbot Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes Photocopie Meeting OPAC No IT in old
lib.
accessible r Room
Cwmllynfell Yes No More Same Yes Yes Yes Fax 9 OPAC OPAC
central
NI NE Educ & Lib. Bellaghy Yes No More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 More 9 No IT in old
Board lib.
central space
Castlerock Yes No More Same Yes No No 10 Reading Printer No IT in old
lib.
accessible area
Culleybackey Yes Yes 9 9 Yes No Yes 9 9 9 9
Kells and Yes No 9 9 Yes Yes Yes Fax 9 9 9
connor
Magherafelt Yes Yes More More Yes Yes 9 More 9 More PCs
central space
Portrush No No More Less Yes Yes Yes 9 More 9 No IT in old
lib.
accessible space
N.I. Western Educ Strathfoyle Yes No Same site Same Yes Yes Yes 9 Meeting 9 No IT in old
& Lib. Board lib.
Room
Creggan Yes No 9 Same Yes Yes Yes 9 Meeting Scanner No IT in old
lib.
Room
Waterside Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes 9 9 9 No IT in old
lib.
accessible

108
1 2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Authority Library Bus Public Difference Open Soft Separate Community Added Different Other Difference
Route Art in Location Hours Seating Study Facility Facilities Non-IT IT in IT
Change Space
Norfolk West Yes No More 9 Yes Yes Yes 9 Modern Assisted No IT in old
Earlham Tech. lib.
central furnishin
g
Downham Yes Yes More More Yes Yes 9 More Scanner No IT in old
lib.
central space
North Ayrshire Bourtreehill Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 New CD Internet
Roms/S Access
central stock oftware
Stevenston Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 New CD Internet
Roms/S Access
central stock
oftware
West Kilbride Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 New CD Internet
Roms/S Access
central stock
oftware
Northants Brixworth Yes Yes Same site More Yes Yes Yes 9 New 9 No IT in old
lib.
stock
Powys Presteigne Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes Cash More Learnin No IT in old
g lib.
central payment space
Centre
office
Rhonda Mountain Yes No More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 9 9 No IT in old
Ash lib.
central
Rotherham Dinnington Yes Yes Same site More Yes Yes Yes 9 New Scanner More PCs
stock
Sheffield Firth Park Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes Tevlevision Meeting Printer More PCs
central Room
Southwark Peckham Yes Yes Same site More Yes Yes Yes Young More CD Internet
Roms/S Access
people's space oftware
area
Staffordshire Cheadle Yes No More More Yes Yes Yes 9 More 9 More PCs
accessible space
Codsall Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes 9 More 9 More PCs
central space

109
1 2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Authority Library Bus Public Difference Open Soft Separate Community Added Different Other Difference
Route Art in Location Hours Seating Study Facility Facilities Non-IT IT in IT
Change Space
Stafford No Yes More More Yes Yes Yes 9 9 Access More PCs
CI
central
system
Sunderland Tyne and No More 9 Yes Yes Yes Young More Scanner More PCs
Ware central people's space
area
Doxford Park No 9 9 Yes No Yes 9 9 9 9
City Yes Yes More Same Yes Yes Yes Display More Scanner More PCs
central Area space
Washington Yes Yes Now in More Yes No Yes 17 Children's Scanner No IT in old
area lib.
residential
area
Surrey Epsom Yes Yes Same site More Yes Yes Yes 9 More Learnin More PCs
g
space Centre
Tower Hamlets Bow Yes Yes More More Yes Yes No 9 Cafe Video More PCs
wall
accessible
Wiltshire Calne Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes 9 9 9 More PCs
central
Tidworth No Yes More More Yes No Yes 9 More 9 More PCs
central space
Wolverhampton Tettenhall Yes No More More Yes Yes Yes 9 8 Learnin No IT in old
g lib.
central Centre
Norfolk Millennium Yes Yes Same More Yes No Yes Libraries Integration Finding More PCs
kiosks
within Lib
Newham Stratford Yes Yes More More Yes Yes Yes Children's Cafe 4 TVs More PCs
central Library,

110
1 2 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Authority Library Floor Disabled Induct Psychologic Difference Memb Memb. Issues Issues Issues Issues Issues
Access loop al access in access Old New Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Belfast Holywood 2 Yes Yes Bus access 9 9 10200 105000 101000 101000 9
0
Bolton Halliwell 1 Yes Yes Accessibility, Auto doors 2100 2100 69000 70000 9 9 9
use of colour
Bournemouth Bournemouth 3 Yes 9 Dis. Access 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
Buckinghamshire Aylesbury 1 Yes Yes Dis. Access 3000 9 10000 9 9 9 9
Flackwell 1 Yes No Dis. Access 1000 1000 71000 62000 9 9 9
Heath
Caerphilly Machen 1 9 9 9 9 1000 17000 9 9 9 9
Cambridgeshire March 1 Yes Yes Visible from 9 10000 11000 20200 171000 9 9 9
town 0
Papworth 1 Yes Yes Attractive to 9 700 800 18000 9 9 9 9
Everard entire
community
Cornwall Redruth 1 Yes 9 Dis. Access 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
Liskeard 1 9 9 9 9 9 2800 3000 9 9 9
Derbyshire Bakewell 1 9 9 Lift 9 4000 90000 91000 9 9 9
Devon Tavistock 1 Yes Yes Bus access 9 16000 14400 9 9 9 9
0
Chudleigh 1 Yes 9 Housed in Dis. Access 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
former
primary
school
familiar to
community
Stoke 1 Yes 9 Shared Dis. Access 9 9 7000 7000 9 9 9
Flemming community
building
Lynton 1 Yes 9 Dis. Access 9 9 7000 9 9 9 9
Torrington 1 9 9 Parking 9 3000 61000 58000 9 9 9
Durham Clayport 3 9 9 Traffic flow, 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
security

111
1 2 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Authority Library Floor Disabled Induct Psychologic Difference Memb Memb. Issues Issues Issues Issues Issues
Access loop al access in access Old New Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
East Ayrshire Kilmaurs 1 Yes 9 Makes use of Disabled 1000 1000 18000 17000 17000 17000 9
daylight and toilet
space
Mauchline 1 Yes 9 Disabled 1400 1000 33000 26000 25000 22000 9
toilet
Edinburgh Wester 2 Yes Yes Stock 9 9 7000 24000 158000 143000 130000 9
Hailes categorised 0
Muirhouse 1 Yes Yes Similar layout Disabled 9 6000 10500 94000 9 9 9
to previous toilet 0
lib
Piershill 1 Yes Yes 9 9 8000 26900 330000 208000 168000 157000
0
Kirkliston 1 Yes Yes Welcoming Auto doors 9 2000 44000 44000 53000 33000 35000
entrance
Currie 1 Yes Yes Stock Lift 9 3500 89000 76000 71000 9 9
categorised
Gilmerton 1 Yes Yes Welcoming Auto doors 4000 4000 66000 9 9 9 9
entrance
Ratho 1 Yes Yes 9 9 1000 26000 18000 18000 9 9
Fife Dalgety Bay 2 Yes 9 Lift 9 3000 72000 114000 121000 111000 101000
Harrow Edgware 1 Yes Yes Shop front 9 9 7600 13800 141000 128000 106000 93000
windows, 0
bright
modern
design
Lancashire Read 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
Great 1 No No Parking 3000 4000 67000 60000 90000 9 9
Harwood
Leicester Bottesford 1 9 No Bright Central locn 9 1000 29000 29000 28000 26000 26000
interior,
welcoming,
easy to use
Countesthorpe 1 9 9 9 9 1000 33000 29000 28000 24000 23000
Milton Keynes Westcroft 1 Yes 9 Proximity to 9 9 9 10100 100000 96000 87000 86000

112
1 2 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Authority Library Floor Disabled Induct Psychologic Difference Memb Memb. Issues Issues Issues Issues Issues
Access loop al access in access Old New Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
shops and 0
facilities
Neath Port Talbot 1 Yes Yes Made an Lift 9 7000 66000 91000 87000 81000 9
integrated
part of
shopping
centre
Cwmllynfell 1 Yes 9 Included in 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
wider
community
development
NI NE Educ & Lib. Bellaghy 1 9 9 Dis. Access 900 1100 9 18000 15000 9 9
Board Castlerock 1 9 9 Central locn 1000 1500 15000 17000 14000 9 9
Culleybackey 1 9 No Welcoming 9 1100 1500 23000 28000 25000 25000 9
to children
and the
elderly
Kells and 1 9 9 windows look 9 9 500 10000 9 9 9 9
connor into library
friendly and
welcoming
Magherafelt 1 Yes Yes Lift 9 7000 25000 9 9 9 9
Portrush 1 Yes 9 Parking 2500 3000 39000 38000 42000 9 9
N.I. Western Educ Strathfoyle 1 Yes Yes Welcoming Counter 9 2000 26000 9 9 9 9
& Lib. Board layout height
Creggan 1 Yes Yes Welcoming 9 9 9000 46000 41000 43000 34000 9
design
Waterside 2 Yes 9 Make library Lift 5000 11000 95000 88500 83000 75000 9
welcoming

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1 2 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Authority Library Floor Disabled Induct Psychologic Difference Memb Memb. Issues Issues Issues Issues Issues
Access loop al access in access Old New Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Norfolk West 1 Yes 9 whole Central locn 9 1000 60000 61000 55000 52000 45000
Earlham frontage is
window
showing
easy seating
and
children's
area
Downham 1 Yes 9 Large foyer, Central locn 5000 5000 14400 156000 9 9 9
children's 0
library visible
through
window
North Ayrshire Bourtreehill 1 Yes 9 Pleasant, Disabled 9 9 41000 74000 57000 51000 49000
non- toilet
threatening
place
Stevenston 1 Yes 9 Pleasant, Disabled 9 9 70000 92000 75000 65000 58000
non- toilet
threatening
West Kilbride 2 Yes 9 Pleasant, Disabled 9 9 41000 59000 52000 46000 41000
non- toilet
threatening
Northants Brixworth 2 Yes Yes Dis. Access 3000 4000 67000 66000 9 9 9
Powys Presteigne 1 Yes Yes Local access Lift 1500 3000 25000 22000 22000 22000 21000
group
worked with
architect
Rhonda Mountain 2 Yes 9 Bright, Lift 4000 5000 92000 84000 74000 67000 62000
Ash cheerful
atmosphere
Rotherham Dinnington 2 9 9 9 9 9 13600 9 9 9 9
0
Sheffield Firth Park 2 Yes 9 Light colours. Auto doors 8600 11100 13100 112000 9 9 9
Street 0

114
1 2 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Authority Library Floor Disabled Induct Psychologic Difference Memb Memb. Issues Issues Issues Issues Issues
Access loop al access in access Old New Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
furniture
Southwark Peckham 2 Yes 9 Accessibility Disabled 9 14000 38500 9 9 9 9
as library is toilet 0
on top floor
of larger
building
Staffordshire Cheadle 2 Yes 9 Bright, Disabled 3000 9 71000 89000 9 9 9
modern, toilet
inviting
Codsall 1 Yes 9 Pleasant and Dis. Access 3000 9 11800 116000 9 9 9
welcoming 0
Stafford 3 Yes 9 Modern, Lift 13000 9 27600 264000 9 9 9
welcoming 0
atmosphere
Sunderland Tyne and 1 Yes 9 Dis. Access 4000 9 64000 9 9 9 9
Ware
Doxford Park 1 Yes 9 9 9 1000 45000 55000 52000 58000 60000
City 3 Yes Yes Welcoming, Lift 9 24000 85600 791000 723000 680000 615000
warm 0
ambience
Washington 1 Yes 9 Auto doors 1000 1000 65000 54000 46000 35000 9
Surrey Epsom 1 Yes Yes Welcoming Dis. Access 13700 9 27000 9 9 9 9
entrance with 0
highly visible
reception
Tower Hamlets Bow 2 Yes 9 Non- Dis. Access 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
threatening,
akin to a
retail
environment
Wiltshire Calne 1 Yes Yes Accessible Dis. Access 9 6000 9 9 9 9 9
Tidworth 1 Yes 9 Dis. Access 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
Wolverhampton Tettenhall 1 Yes 9 Made to look Dis. Access 9 9 12500 126000 9 9 9
inviting, face- 0

115
1 2 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Authority Library Floor Disabled Induct Psychologic Difference Memb Memb. Issues Issues Issues Issues Issues
Access loop al access in access Old New Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
on book
display
Norfolk Millennium 3 Yes Yes Consciously . . . . . . .
Planned to
Welcome
Newham Stratford 2 Yes Yes Consciously . 29783 34554 217328 . . .
designed in 1
with bright
colours,
layout, and
separate

116
1 2 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
Authority Library Years Issues Issues Why Shelving Shelving Staff Difference in Promotional
Open Up or Difference Difference (meters) Difference Change User Technique
Down Demography
Belfast Holywood 4 Same 9 Public IT 9 Less Less 9 Posters
leaflets
Bolton Halliwell 2 9 9 New locn 418 Less More More young Opening
people event
Bournemouth Bournemouth . 9 Up Stock 2500 9 More More young Posters
people leaflets
Buckinghamshire Aylesbury 1 9 Up 9 3600 More More Wider x Media
section
Flackwell 2 9 9 CDs, DVD 124 More More More young Media
Heath people
Caerphilly Machen 1 9 Up Stock 81 More More More young Media
people
Cambridgeshire March 2 9 9 9 584 9 More 9 Banners
Papworth 1 9 Same Public IT 109 9 9 9 Posters
Everard leaflets
Cornwall Redruth . 9 Up New locn 9 9 Same More Media
disabled
Liskeard 2 9 9 9 40 9 9 9 Opening
event
Derbyshire Bakewell 2 9 9 9 400 More Same 9 Posters
leaflets
Devon Tavistock 1 9 Up Stock 850 More More More young Door to door
people
Chudleigh . 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
Stoke 2 9 9 9 9 More Same More young Media
Flemming people
Lynton 1 9 Up 9 70 More Same More young Door to door
people
Torrington 2 9 9 Stock 230 More Same More older Media
people
Durham Clayport . 9 Up 9 850 More More More young Door to door
people

117
1 2 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
Authority Library Years Issues Issues Why Shelving Shelving Staff Difference in Promotional
Open Up or Difference Difference (meters) Difference Change User Technique
Down Demography
East Ayrshire Kilmaurs 4 Same 9 Public IT 9 Less Same More young Media
people
Mauchline 4 Same 9 Public IT 9 Less Same More young Media
people
Edinburgh Wester 4 Same Down 9 9 9 9 9 Media
Hailes
Muirhouse 2 Same Up Public IT 450 More More More ethnic Door to door
min.
Piershill 5 Same Down 9 406 9 9 9 Media
Kirkliston 5 Same Down 9 184 More More More young Media
people
Currie 3 Same Up New locn 9 More More More older Media
people
Gilmerton 1 Up Stock 273 Same Same More young Media
people
Ratho 3 Same Up Stock 180 9 9 9 Opening
event
Fife Dalgety Bay 5 Same Down 9 9 More More More young Opening
people event
Harrow Edgware 5 Same 9 Stock 240 9 9 9 Posters
leaflets
Lancashire Read . 9 9 9 796 More Same 9 Banners
Great 3 9 9 Dev. pro 425 9 Same More young Media
Harwood people
Leicester Bottesford 5 Same 9 Trend 160 More Same More older Posters
people leaflets
Countesthorp 5 Same 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
e
Milton Keynes Westcroft 5 Same 9 Trend 9 9 9 9 Posters
leaflets
Neath Port Talbot 4 Same Down User pat 9 More More More young Media
people
Cwmllynfell . 9 9 9 9 Less Same 9 Media
NI NE Educ & Lib. Bellaghy 3 Same 9 9 9 Less Same 9 Media

118
1 2 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
Authority Library Years Issues Issues Why Shelving Shelving Staff Difference in Promotional
Open Up or Difference Difference (meters) Difference Change User Technique
Down Demography
Board Castlerock 3 Same 9 9 115 Less Same More older Media
people
Culleybackey 4 Same 9 9 225 9 9 9 Media
Kells and 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 More young Media
connor people
Magherafelt 1 9 9 9 200 Less More More young Media
people
Portrush 3 Up 9 9 136 Less Less More young Media
people
N.I. Western Educ Strathfoyle 1 9 Down Stock 9 9 Same 9 Media
& Lib. Board Creggan 4 Same Down Stock 9 9 Same 9 Media
Waterside 4 Same 9 Stock 9 Same Same 9 Media
Norfolk West 5 Same 9 9 9 9 9 9 Banners
Earlham
Downham 2 9 9 9 9 More More More young Banners
people
North Ayrshire Bourtreehill 5 Same Down Stock 9 9 Same 9 Media
Stevenston 5 Same Down Stock 9 9 Same 9 Media
West Kilbride 5 Same Same 9 9 9 More 9 Media
Northants Brixworth 2 9 9 9 244 More Same 9 Opening
event
Powys Presteigne 5 Same 9 Stock 116 9 More More young Media
people
Rhonda Mountain 5 Same Down Stock 9 More More Wider x Posters
Ash section leaflets
Rotherham Dinnington 1 9 Up Public IT 9 More More More young Posters
people leaflets
Sheffield Firth Park 2 9 9 User pat 9 More More More older Media
people
Southwark Peckham 1 9 Up Stock 9 More More More ethnic Media
min.
Staffordshire Cheadle 2 9 Up User pat 9 More More Wider x Media
section

119
1 2 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
Authority Library Years Issues Issues Why Shelving Shelving Staff Difference in Promotional
Open Up or Difference Difference (meters) Difference Change User Technique
Down Demography
Codsall 2 9 Up User pat 9 More Same More men Posters
leaflets
Stafford 2 9 9 User pat 9 Less More More young Posters
people leaflets
Sunderland Tyne and 1 9 Up 9 9 More More More ethnic Posters
Ware min. leaflets
Doxford Park 5 Up 9 9 9 9 9 9 Media
City 5 Same Up New locn 9 More More More ethnic Media
min.
Washington 4 Same 9 ICT 220 More Same More ethnic Posters
min. leaflets
Surrey Epsom 1 9 Up User pat 1400 More More More young Media
people
Tower Hamlets Bow . 9 Up 9 795 Same 9 More young Posters
people leaflets
Wiltshire Calne . 9 Up Stock 9 More More 9 Posters
leaflets
Tidworth . 9 Up New locn 210 More More More young Posters
people leaflets
Wolverhampton Tettenhall 2 9 9 9 300 9 Less More young Media
people
Norfolk Millennium . .
Newham Stratford . .

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APPENDIX 8 NATIONAL SURVEY QUALITATIVE RESPONSES

Qualitative responses were analysed in SPSS and of the varying number of


returns are the result of nil responses from several authorities.

Public Consultation

Few libraries admitted to no consultation although many responses were


vague and generalised:

1. User questionnaires and focus groups


2. Suggestions book and consultation with local group
3. Consultation
4. Local groups consulted
5. Schoolchildren & local groups consulted
6. Public meetings
7. Consultation with Community council and Welfare Hall committee
8. Shopping centre management consulted
9. Questionnaires of existing users and non-users
10. None
11. None
12. None
13. Local consultation involving local bodies
14. Consulted about layout and services
15. Consulted about layout and services
16. Drawings displayed in public areas
17. Consultation between community group and NEELB
18. Questionnaires sent to local organisations
19. Consulted on stock
20. Extensive surveys of users and non-users
21. Door-to-door questionnaire, special consultation with disabled users
22. Questionnaire, public meetings, meetings with local groups
23. Public meetings and consultation
24. Public meeting, local groups consulted, plans displayed and comment
forms available
25. Informal discussions
26. Quarterly public meetings
27. Consultation with community leaders and groups, eg schools &
churches
28. Involved in services and working hours.
29. Public involved in opening hours, local shops and police about security
30. Two public meetings held, public give views
31. Extensive public consultation
32. Consulted throughout
33. Public meetings before and during build process
34. Consulted - focus groups and public meetings
35. Consulted - focus groups and public meetings
36. Consulted - focus groups and public meetings
37. Parish council consulted, plans printed in village magazine
38. Surveys and public meeting
39. Presentation made
40. Consulted
41. Consulted about book stock

Planning Process

Few authorities appeared to have undertaken a rigorous approach to planning


their new libraries. Many had relied on previously successful local models
and only a handful appeared to have considered national and international
standards.

1. Stock surveys, consultation process


2. Feasibility study
3. Business planning process
4. Business planning
5. Strategy document
6. Visits to other similar libraries
7. COSLA Library Standards, Robertson Standards
8. None
9. Consultation with community
10. Took cognisance of resources of other libraries
11. Consultation with ELB
12. Economic appraisal sent to Dept. of Education
13. Economic appraisal approved by the Dept for Culture, Arts and Leisure
14. Review of other libraries, IFLA Standards
15. Extensive market research
16. Based on budget and consultations
17. Visits to other new and similar libraries
18. Local authority planning exercise
19. Local Libraries tiering model for a district library
20. Modelled on other local authority libraries
21. Focus groups, consultation with young people, population projections
22. Replacement of previous services
23. Based on library levels which link services to library size
24. Not public/private partnership, footprint of building not optional
25. CIPFA survey returns, children survey, standards documents
26. In and out replacement for existing library
27. Local standards for library services applied
28. Best Value review
29. Joint planning with County Council and Army
30. Learning centre model taken from another of authority’s libraries

Partnerships
We asked authorities to list partnerships involved in planning and running the
new library. It is hard to find any common pattern in the resulting list.
Partnerships seemed to depend on specific local circumstances and may
involve no more than consultation on joint provision.

122
1. Local art org., local college, design agency
2. Joint use of building with City partnership
3. Building shared with Housing Association
4. WRVS book delivery, mini-bus for disabled users
5. Local community groups
6. Community centre
7. Local groups, health centre, playgroup
8. Age concern
9. Archive service
10. Health Board, schools
11. Shared with city council
12. Community group
13. Village community group
14. Regeneration Company
15. Local council
16. External agencies and local organisations
17. Lifelong Learning Providers and local trust
18. County Council and Papworth Trust
19. Council and Adult Learning Service
20. City college & university
21. School
22. School, LearnDirect and After School Club
23. Site owner
24. County and Borough Councils
25. University, Archive, History Group
26. Learn Direct, Surestart
27. Schools, Disabled People's Assoc., Benefits Office
28. Borough Council, learning centre, Tesco
29. Early Excellence Centre. Nursery
30. Isle College, Registrars, Connexions
31. Citizen's advice bureau, tourist info
32. Part of multi-agency building
33. ICT training centre
34. Local community college
35. District council, careers service
36. Art Gallery, Borough Council
37. District council
38. Local charity, parish and district council
39. Council and army
40. District council
41. Junior school
42. Local Council
43. Local community groups
44. City College, shopkeepers, WRVS

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APPENDIX 9 INTERVIEW GUIDE—ARCHITECT

Norwich and Newham Architects Interview

1. As an architect, what does the library mean to you?

2. As architects given an opportunity to design a completely new library,


what value does the library have?
i. to the community
ii. to the staff
iii. to the reader/user

3. What do you consider the aims and the objectives for this library?

4. What were your objectives on this design project?

5. What were your influences? What other libraries do you consider to be


of a good design?

6. How did your team approach the library's brief?

7. How many other libraries has your firm designed before?

8. How do you give each an individual local character?

9. Did your team see this design as an opportunity to build collective or


civic space?

10. What do you consider to be your greatest design challenge?

11. What do you see as the most innovative element in your design? (For
the Forum, the Origins Centre, the Pizza Express, the city Info centre,
etc...For Stratford, the surrounding retail and government streetscape)

12. How important were the non-library elements in your design?

13. What measures did you take in order to consider the community's
needs?

14. How important are the different users to design process?

15. How are these users involved? (Method of consultation)

16. To what degree did accessibility need to be taken into account?


i. physical,
ii. psychological,
iii. sensory,
iv. cultural

124
17. When designing a new library, what use did you consciously make of
new information technologies?

18. Is there a place for public art or green space in your design? (since in
both instance the answer will be 'NO', why?!)

19. How did your team conceive of the separate spaces within the library
that would be needed for various users?

20. What impact do you think this new library has had on:
a. the local community?
b. businesses and shops, especially those linked to the site?
c. the other partnerships?

21. How has the publicity of the project benefited your firm?

22. Has this project in any way changed your expectations about what a
library is for?

23. Are there any other points or issues about the Library that you would
like to raise which have not been covered so far?

125
APPENDIX 10 INTERVIEW GUIDE—LIBRARY PARTNERS
Library Partners Interview Guide
1. What do you see as the value of this new library to your
organisation?

2. And to the community?

3. How would you describe the nature of your partnership with the
library?

4. What led you to your partnership?

5. What are the benefits and drawbacks of this partnership to your


organisation? To the community?

6. Libraries are said to contribute to an agenda of life long learning


and social inclusion. How do you see the library and your
partnership contributing to this agenda?

7. Let me read through some descriptions of modern library buildings.


Tell me which one best fits your view of the design of this new
library:
a. warm and cosy
b. cold and bureaucratic
c. industrial and modern
d. innovative and unusual
e. sympathetic to surroundings and non-descript

8. How does the designed space, the architecture, contribute to the


partnership between the various organisations?

9. The new library has been promoted throughout its catchment area.
What has been the impact of this publicity and marketing for your
organisation?

10. How have user needs been identified in the advanced planning of
the new library?

11. How do you think the library fits into the local authority's overall
strategic plan?

12. How do you perceive the impact of this new library on your clientele
(Students, customers)

13. Have your expectations changed as a result of your partnership?

14. Are there any other points or issues about the Library that you
would like to raise which have not been covered so far?

126
APPENDIX 11 INTERVIEW GUIDE—STRATFORD INTERIOR
DESIGNER

Newham Interior Designer Interview

24. As an Interior Designer, what does the library mean to you?

25. As architects given an opportunity to design a completely new library,


what value does the library have?
i. to the community
ii. to the staff
iii. to the reader/user

26. What do you consider the aims and the objectives for this library?

27. What were your objectives on this design project?

28. What were your influences? What other libraries do you consider to be
of a good design?

29. How did you approach the library's brief?

30. How many other libraries has your firm designed before?

31. How do you give each an individual local character?

32. Did your team see this design as an opportunity to build collective or
civic space?

33. What do you consider to be your greatest design challenge?

34. What do you see as the most innovative element in your design? (For
the Forum, the Origins Centre, the Pizza Express, the city Info centre,
etc...For Stratford, the surrounding retail and government streetscape)

35. How important were the non-library elements in your design?

36. What measures did you take in order to consider the community's
needs?

37. How important are the different users to design process?

38. How are these users involved? (Method of consultation)

39. To what degree did accessibility need to be taken into account?


i. physical,
ii. psychological,
iii. sensory,
iv. cultural

127
40. When designing a new library interior, what use did you consciously
make of new information technologies?

41. Is there a place for public art or green space in your design? (since in
both instance the answer will be 'NO', why?!)

42. How did your team conceive of the separate spaces within the library
that would be needed for various users?

43. What impact do you think this new library has had on:
a. the local community?
b. businesses and shops, especially those linked to the site?
c. the other partnerships?

44. How has the publicity of the project benefited your firm?

45. Has this project in any way changed your expectations about what a
library is for?

46. Are there any other points or issues about the Library that you would
like to raise which have not been covered so far?

128
APPENDIX 12 INTERVIEW GUIDE—ELECTED OFFICIAL

New Library Study Council Interview Guide


15. What do you see as the value of this new library to your
constituents and the larger community?

16. How do you see the new library fitting into the Council's overall
strategic plan?

17. How do you see the perceived aims and role of the new library
differing from the old one?

18. How (if at all) does the library service with this new library contribute
to the other council departments?

19. What are your ambitions for the partnerships forged with this new
library?

20. What do you think the impact, if any has been on the surrounding
businesses because of the introduction of the new library?

21. Libraries are said to contribute to an agenda of life long learning


and social inclusion. How do you see the library addressing those
two issues?

22. How have user needs been identified in the advanced planning of
the new library? (What mechanisms exist to find out how local
people regard the library and information service? And how are they
made aware?)

23. What groups has the Council identified as being a priority


(Check the following groups are identified)
women
children and young people
lone parents
ethnic minorities
elderly people
people with disabilities

10. In what ways, if any, does the library benefit these groups?
Supplementary questions (depending on the answer): If the
library service does not benefit a particular group or groups, how
might it do so?
Or:- Could it do more to benefit these groups?
(Prompt: Encourage specific examples.)

11. In the light of your previous answer, how relevant (or irrelevant)
is the library service to the needs of: (prompt)

129
women
children and young people
lone parents
ethnic minorities
elderly people
people with disabilities
Prompt: - again, encourage examples

12. What impact has the new library had on the other library
services in the area?

13. Let me read through some descriptions of modern library


buildings. Tell me which one best fits your view of the design of
this new library:
warm and cosy
cold and bureaucratic
industrial and modern
innovative and unusual
sympathetic to surroundings and non-descript

14. How does the designed space, the architecture, contribute to the
Council's objectives?

15. Have your expectations changed as a result of your


partnership?

16. Are there any other points or issues about the Library that you
would like to raise which have not been covered so far?

130
APPENDIX 13 FOCUS GROUP GUIDE—STANDARD

New Library Impact Focus Group Questions


September 2002

1. What do you know about the new library? (gets at awareness)


a. Were you aware of the public being asked about the new library
before it was built?
b. How did you hear about the new library?

2. Have you visited both the old and new libraries?


Prompt if necessary:
Why did you visit?
Why have you not visited?
How would you compare them?

3. How do the building and its space make you feel?


Prompt if necessary:
Comfortable/uncomfortable
Happy/sad
Warm, friendly, inviting
Thoughtful, energetic, peaceful, restful

4. What do you use the new library for?


(gets at user needs, virtual vs. physical, public expectations)
Prompt if necessary on topics:
The building outside and the space inside
Place to "hang out" with your friends
Places to read
Places to listen to stories
Places to watch a video
Places to use the Internet (WWW)
The types of books
*The help that you need for careers or college
The fun things like books to read for pleasure or videos to watch

5. Have you noticed any changes in service between the old and the new
library?
6. What changes do you like the most? (gets at access, etc.)
7. What changes do you like the least?
8. Now that you've been to the new library, have your expectations about
libraries changed? In what ways? (gets at public expectations)

131
APPENDIX 14 FOCUS GROUP GUIDE—LIBRARIANS

New Library Impact Focus Group Questions


Norwich and Stratford Librarians

1. What do you consider to be some of the aims of this new library within
the community?

2. How does this differ from the aims of the old library?

3. How do you think the architecture and the use of space contribute to
the social or community-focused mission of the library?

How important is the collective space in the Forum to the


library's success?
How important is the relationship of the other services and
shops to the success of the Stratford library?

4. What service changes have been the most valuable to the public?

5. How do you think the services are provided to the disabled and socially
excluded segment of the public?
physical, mental, sensory, financial, cultural

6. What do you think the library does to build social capital?

7. How has this new library impacted the other branches?

8. How do you feel about the partnerships that the new library has with
businesses and other organisations?
9. What do think the level of awareness is within the community about the
library and its various resources?
10. Are there any other issues that you would like to raise?
Defining social capital
Whereas physical capital refers to physical objects and human capital refers to the
properties of individuals, social capital refers to connections among individuals – social
networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them. In that
sense social capital is closely related to what some have called “civic virtue.” The
difference is that “social capital” calls attention to the fact that civic virtue is most powerful
when embedded in a sense network of reciprocal social relations. A society of many
virtuous but isolated individuals is not necessarily rich in social capital. (Putnam 2000: 19)
Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and
quantity of a society's social interactions... Social capital is not just the sum of the
institutions which underpin a society – it is the glue that holds them together. (The World
Bank 1999)
Social capital consists of the stock of active connections among people: the trust, mutual
understanding, and shared values and behaviors that bind the members of human
networks and communities and make cooperative action possible. (Cohen and Prusak
2001: 4)

132
APPENDIX 15 FOCUS GROUP GUIDE—BUSINESS LEADERS

New Library Impact Focus Group Questions


Norwich and Stratford Business Community

1. What role does the new library play in the community's quality of life?
Prompts:
Regeneration & Thriving Economy
Identity
Inclusive community
Learning
Health & Wellbeing

2. What is the value, if any, of the new library to your business?

3. What services do you use the most? What services do you use the
least?

4. What encourages or discourages you from using the library? (gets at


access, etc.)

5. How conducive is the building and its space for conducting your work?
What do you think about the architecture of the library? Does it help or
hinder its purpose?

6. How do you know about the services the library offers? (gets at
awareness)

7. Were you in any way consulted or involved in the planning of the new
library?

8. What if anything would you, representing a local business, or the


community in general lose if this library no longer existed?

9. Are there any other points or issues about the Library that you would
like to raise which have not been covered so far?

133
THE CENTRE FOR PUBLIC LIBRARIES
AND
INFORMATION IN SOCIETY
(CPLIS)

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION STUDIES


UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD

211 PORTOBELLO STREET


REGENT COURT
SHEFFIELD S1 4DP

TELEPHONE: 0114-222-2630
FAX: 0114-278-0300
WEB: HTTP://PANIZZI.SHEF.AC.UK/CPLIS/

134