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History of Western architecture

Romanesque Architecture

ARCH : Mhd Nizar Al-Abrash


1 Historical

 This building began to appear in the late ninth century


AD and achieved its greatest achievements in the
eleventh and second centuries. It is a medieval
architecture
 The term "Romanesque" means “like Roman”. It refers
to the architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries in
medieval Europe to Roman Architecture, based on
similarities of forms and materials.
3 Map of Italy and its divisions
in the 10th century
4 Social factors
 The emergence of feudalism in Europe.
 The popes, where they reached the peak of their glory and
enjoyed powerful and powerful powers, dominated a large
synagogue with an organized administration, which
influenced the architecture of the churches.
 Some myths about the end of the world have emerged
 The religious fanaticism that resulted in the Crusades has
contributed to friction
 Architects of Europe in the architecture of Iraq and Syria
and took them from the use of colored marble and Arab
decorations and works Almzayek and domes.
 As a result of religious fanaticism, the building tended to
serve the religious aspects by building churches and
neglecting other buildings.
5 Religious factors

The influence of the clergy on artists and


architects was influenced by the power of
architecture that showed the strength and
durability of the Christian colonization that
prevailed in Europe. The churches were designed in
the form of a Latin cross that ends with the longest
rib in a semicircular chapel with the nave towers at
the crossroads and on the western facade.
The increase of religious sermons in the churches,
which led to the work more than before him and
the hall of worship in one church and increase the
rooms in the walk.
6 Religious factors
7 Geographical factors

The Romanesque architecture first appeared in Italy in the province


of Lombardy
In the north and from it to the countries of the catholic world, such as
France, Germany and Britain, and the influence depended on
the distance or proximity to Italy
The churches share using round contracts only for each country
It had its own Romanesque character, and it is the most famous
Romanesque church:
1. Church of saint-martin in the city of Toulouse, France.
2. Church of St. Lazarus in Even, France.
3. Church, Baptism of Florence, Pisa Church and Tower in Italy.
4. Church of Saint Michel, Germany.
8 Climate and geological
factors
 Climate diversity in the European countries We
find in Italy, for example, a permanent winter in
the north, so we find the domes of the north and
thickness of the walls, and moderate in the
middle, we find a few openings and narrow, and
hot in the south so we find the flat ceilings.
 The use of bricks made of muddy soil in the north
in the interior walls and marble of the external
arches.
 Stone and marble were used in all elements of
the building, which had an effect on the
durability of the building and the survival of many
churches so far
9 Structural elements

Columns
 Columns are an important structural feature of Romanesque
architecture. Colonnades and attached shafts are also used
structurally and for decoration. Monolithic columns cut from
a single piece of stone were frequently used in Italy, as they
had been in Roman and Early Christian architecture.
 The crowns were carved in the shape of the Corinthian
crown and the bases of the columns are based on statues in
the form of the emergence of strange animals were Kanosh
form the most prominent wage earners on different forms of
engineering
10 Structural elements
11 Structural elements

The foundations
of the column
12 Structural elements

Vaults and roofs


The crosshairs were
distinctive for this type and
were quadrilateral or
hexagonal shaped cross
ribs domes, as were used
sloping roofing and
covered with tile
13 Structural elements
14 Structural elements

WALLS
The walls were very thick and able to withstand the
loads coming from the vaults and were from the
outside built from the good stone carved and
inside of the small stones.
The openings
The openings were small round with a single
contract or in the form of two windows
combined, sometimes surrounded by a large
contract, the openings of the towers consists of
two adjacent openings with half-circular
contracts between the middle column.
15 Structural elements

WALLS
16 Structural elements

The openings
17 Beauty Elements

 The most distinctive features of the facades


decorated with the frequent use of marble in the
cladding of the walls and the interior.
 They decorated the wooden ceiling with colorful
colors.
 The presence of balconies with columns
overlooking the outside above the wings of the
side of the churches.
 The use of towers in the main intersections
between the alleys or the western facade and
were on the forms of square or octagonal or
circular.
 Use Inclined surfaces covered with tiles.
18 Use stained glass
19 Use sculptures
20 Decoration elements
21 Romanesque architecture in
Italy

Map of Lombardy and the


city of Pisa
22 pisa cathedral
23 pisa cathedral

Built in 1093, it is a Tuscan style and horizontal projection in


the shape of a Latin cross. It features three kisses in front of it
a wailing platform and aisle pedestrians on both sides of the
courtyard in the long lobby and one on the sides of the
casual lobby.
The roof of the saucer is made of wood with a flat liner inside.
The roof of the walkway of the crossroads and the portable
on the pillars of the saucer. There is an oval dome of the
Camaino sector above the intersection of the longitudinal
hall with the occasional but it did not
Was built only late in the history of the building of the
cathedral, similar to the domes of Islamic mosques in
Andalusia.
24 pisa cathedral

The interior walls were built with a double-edged


marble of dark gray marble and white marble.
The cathedral floor is covered with marble.
The ceilings are shaped like gables and covered
with bricks.
Note the attention to the western façade more
than attention to the rest of the façades and notes
in the facades that the central part symmetrically in
the plate rises somewhat on both sides (parts of the
walkway)
25 pisa cathedral
26 pisa cathedral
27 pisa cathedral
 The main feature of the facade is the repetition of the
rows of contracts in the walls in a new way of
decoration.
 The façade is divided into several strata by a large
medallion and the lower layer is much higher than the
others and contains columns connected to wide
dimensions and bearing above it the semicircular
contracts. The columns in the upper layers are
separate.
 Above the first layer there are four layers containing
rows of small contracts based on separate columns
and at the junction of the columns with the columns
statues in the form of animal heads
 In front of the cathedrals entrance, three doors of the
bronzes, one large for the saucer and two smaller for
the walkways. It has two entrances to the east.
28 pisa cathedral
 The facades of the columns are connected to it
before it is held in the eastern half hemisphere.
 It was built in two phases by architect Boscheto
and rebuilt after it was burned in 1596 by architect
Reynald.
 The podium is sculpted by Giovanni Pisanu and
the Galileo hanger.
 He was buried in the cathedrals of St. Rizius,
Emperor Henry VII and Pope Gregory.
 With a mosaic painting depicting Jesus Christ, the
Virgin Mary and St. John the Evangelist.
29 pisa cathedral
30 Romanesque architecture in
Italy

cathedral of St. Michel


31 Romanesque architecture in
Italy

cathedral of St. Michel


32 Romanesque architecture in
Italy

cathedral of St. Michel


33 Romanesque architecture in
Germany

worms cathedral
34 Romanesque architecture in
Germany

worms cathedral
35 Romanesque architecture in
Germany

worms cathedral
36 Features of the Romanesque
architecture
 The construction was carried out on the foundations of the
Roman ruins and the remains of the Roman buildings.
 Used cross-sectional, quadrilateral and hex sexpartite vault.
 The columns were not shaped and were larger and shorter, some
of them shaped like a shoulder bearing a mobile block.
 Sculpted statues were used in the walls themselves and around
the decades.
 Sculpture was used in the facades and its themes were the
Baath, the Day of Judgment and some holy figures.
 The images are drawn from animal and plant images and
centered around the openings.
 They used the stained glass for the windows and loved the glass
with a shot of the most beautiful colors that light the place with its
luster and make it charming and beautiful.
THE END