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Module 1

Renaissance: The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th
century, considered the bridge between the middle Ages and modern history. It started
as a cultural movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest
of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age.
Renaissance Architecture:
 Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early
15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a
conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient
Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
 Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded
by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as
one of its innovators.
 The style was carried to France, Germany, England, Russia and other parts of
Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact.
 Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the
regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical
antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture.
 Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of
semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicule replaced the
more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
Mannerism: Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and
reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated with artists such as Leonardo da
Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Where High Renaissance art emphasizes
proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities, often
resulting in compositions that are asymmetrical or unnaturally elegant. Mannerism is
notable for its artificial qualities. Mannerism favors compositional tension and instability
rather than the balance.
The Holy Trinity:
 The Holy Trinity is a fresco by the Early Italian Renaissance painter Masaccio. It
is located in the Dominican church of Santa Maria Novella, in Florence.
 Trinity is noteworthy for its inspiration taken from ancient Roman triumphal
arches and the strict adherence to recently developed perspective techniques
 The fresco had a transforming effect on generations of Florentine painters and
visiting artists. The sole figure without a fully realized three-dimensional
occupation of space is the majestic God supporting the Cross, considered an
immeasurable being.
 The kneeling patrons represent another important novelty, occupying the viewer's
own space, "in front of" the picture plane, which is represented by the Ionic
columns and the Corinthian pilasters from which the feigned vault appears to
spring; they are depicted in the traditional prayerful pose of donor portraits, but
on the same scale as the central figures, rather than the more usual
'diminuation', and with noteworthy attention to realism and volume.

Church of Milan:
 Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan, Italy dedicated to St Mary of
the Nativity. The Gothic cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is
the 5th-largest church in the world and the second largest in Italy.
 The plan consists of a nave with four side-aisles, crossed by a transept and then
followed by choir and apse. The height of the nave is about 45 meters, the
highest Gothic vaults of a complete church.
 The roof is open to tourists which allows many a close-up view of some
spectacular sculpture that would otherwise be unappreciated. The roof of the
cathedral is renowned for the forest of openwork pinnacles and spires, set upon
delicate flying buttresses.
 The cathedral's five broad naves, divided by 40 pillars, are reflected in the
hierarchic openings of the façade. Even the transepts have aisles.
Palace of Versailles:
 The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles is a royal château in Versailles It
is also known as the château de Versailles.
 The court of Versailles was the center of political power in France from 1682,
when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to
the capital in October 1789 after the beginning of the French Revolution.
Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the
system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. This structure consists of:
 State Apartments
 King's Apartment
 King's Private Apartment
 Queen's Private Apartment
 Chapels of Versailles
 Royal Opera
 Museum of the History of France

Industrial revolution: The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new

manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and
1840 occurred mainly due to the overgrowing populations and some political effects.
 This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new
chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency
of water power, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine
tools and the rise of the factory system.

 Textiles – Mechanized cotton spinning powered by steam or water greatly

increased the output of a worker. The power loom and the cotton gin increased
 Steam power – The efficiency of steam engines increased and the adaptation of
stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses.
 Iron making – The substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost
for pig iron and wrought iron production. Using coke also allowed larger blast
furnaces, resulting in economies of scale.
 Where people lived in crude shanties and shacks, some not completely
enclosed, some with dirt floors. These shantytowns had narrow walkways
between irregularly shaped lots and dwellings. There were no sanitary facilities.
 Population density was extremely high. Eight to ten unrelated mill workers often
shared a room, often with no furniture, and slept on a pile of straw or sawdust.
Toilet facilities were shared if they existed. Disease spread through a
contaminated water supply.
 Tuberculosis lung diseases from the mines, cholera from polluted water and
typhoid were also common. Not everyone lived in such poor conditions. The
Industrial Revolution also created a middle class of professionals, such as
lawyers and doctors, who lived in much better conditions.
 Conditions improved over the course of the 19th century due to new public health
acts regulating things such as sewage, hygiene and home construction.

Advent of Steel:
 Beginning in the 18th century the Industrial Revolution made fundamental
changes in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation and housing. Architecture
changed in response to the new industrial landscape. The weight of a multistory
building had to be supported principally by the strength of its walls.
 Forged iron and milled steel began to replace wood, brick and stone as primary
materials for large buildings.
 The mass production of steel was the main driving force behind the ability to
build skyscrapers during the mid-1880s.
 Steel framing was set into foundations of reinforced concrete, concrete poured
around a grid of steel rods or other matrices to increase tensile strength in
foundations, columns and vertical slabs.
 By assembling a framework of steel girders, architects and builders could
suddenly create tall, slender buildings with a strong steel skeleton. The rest of
the building's elements - the walls, floors, ceilings, and windows were suspended
from the load-bearing steel. This new way of constructing buildings is
called column-frame construction.
 The steel weight-bearing frame allowed not just for taller buildings, but much
larger windows, which meant more daylight reaching interior spaces. Interior
walls became thinner creating more usable floor space.
Henry Labrouste:
 Henri Labrouste (1801-1875) has long been recognized as one of the most
important architects of 19th century. He studied from École Royale des Beaux-
Arts in 1819.He went on to win the Grand Prix de Rome itself in 1824 with his
design for a Court of Appeals building.
 Labrouste moved away from the Romantic school which dominated architectural
thought in the 1830s, instead running his own workshop and instructing students
in the use of new materials, building’s function, and in the art of combining
minimalism with an appreciation for classical ornament.
 Labrouste took part in the design of many constructions and buildings, from
hotels to tombs and monuments. However it is undoubtedly for his two
spectacular reading rooms in Paris that Labrouste is most often recognized,
namely the Sainte-Geneviève Library and what is now known as the Salle
Labrouste in the Nationale de France Library.
 The innovations of these constructions exist in Labrouste’s use of iron, an
industrial material whose potential for both elegance and functionality is
exemplified in these libraries.
Sainte-Geneviève Library:
 Sixteen iron columns running down the center of the room divide this vast interior
into two barrel-vaulted naves
 Attention remains on the room’s primary purpose of learning and study.
 Remaining focused upon creating an intellectual and stimulating atmosphere,
Labrouste also incorporated gas lighting into the building.
 Through such innovations, the Sainte-Geneviève seems to embody Labrouste’s
belief that functionality, when built with artistry, is the most expressive and
beneficial form of decoration.
Great Exhibition London:
 The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great
Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition held
in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 11 October 1851.
 It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that
became popular in the 19th century and was a much anticipated event.
 The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert, husband of
the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria.
 It was attended by numerous notable figures of the time, including Charles
Darwin, Samuel Colt, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the
writers Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, George Eliot and Alfred
 A special building, nicknamed The Crystal Palace was built to house the show. It
was designed by Joseph Paxton with support from structural engineer Charles
 The building was architecturally adventurous, drawing on Paxton's experience
designing greenhouses. It took the form of a massive glass house, 1851 feet long
by 454 feet wide and was constructed from cast iron-frame components
and glass.
 From the interior, the building's large size was emphasized with trees and
statues. This served, not only to add beauty to the spectacle, but also to
demonstrate man's triumph over nature.
 The building was later moved and re-erected in an enlarged form at Sydenham in
south London, an area that was renamed Crystal Palace. It was destroyed by fire
on 30 November 1936.

International Exposition Paris (1867):

 The International Exposition of 1867, called "Exposition universelle “was
the second world's fair to be held in Paris, from 1 April to 3 November 1867.
Forty two nations were represented at the fair.
 The site chosen for the Exposition Universelle of 1867 was the Champ de Mars,
the great military parade ground of Paris, which covered an area of 119 acres
and to which was added the island of Billancourt, of 52 acres.
 The principal building was rectangular in shape with rounded ends, having a
length of 1608 feet and a width of 1247 feet and in the center was a pavilion
surmounted by a dome and surrounded by a garden, with a gallery built
completely around it.
 In addition to the main building, there were nearly 100 smaller buildings on the
grounds. There were 50,226 exhibitors, of whom 15,055 were from France and
her colonies, 6176 from Great Britain and Ireland, 703 from the United
States and a small contingent from Canada.
 In the "gallery of Labour History" Jacques Boucher de Perthes, exposes one of
the first prehistoric tools whose authenticity has been recognized with the
accuracy of these theories. The exhibition also included two prototypes of the
much acclaimed and prize-winning hydrochronometer invented in 1867 by Gian
Battista Embriaco, professor at the College of St. Thomas in Rome.
 The exposition was formally opened on 1 April and closed on 31 October 1867,
and was visited by 9,238,967 persons, including exhibitors and employees. This
exposition was the greatest up to its time of all international expositions, both
with respect to its extent and to the scope of its plan.
Great Exhibition Paris or Exposition Universelle (1878):
 The third Paris World's Fair, called an Exposition Universelle in French, was
held from 1 May through to 10 November 1878. It celebrated the recovery
of France after the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War.
 This exposition was on a far larger scale than any previously held anywhere in
the world. It covered over 66 acres (270,000 m2), the main building in the Champ
de Mars and the hill of Chaillot, occupying 54 acres (220,000 m2).
 The exhibition of fine arts and new machinery was on a very large and
comprehensive scale, and the Avenue des Nations, a street 730 meters in
length, was devoted to examples of the domestic architecture of nearly every
country in Europe and several in Asia, Africa and America.
 The "Gallery of Machines" was an industrial showcase of low transverse arches,
designed by the engineer Henri de Dion (1828–78). Many of the buildings and
statues were made of staff, a low-cost temporary building material invented in
Paris in 1876, which consisted of jute fiber, plaster of Paris, and cement.

Among the many inventions on display was Alexander Graham Bell's telephone.
Electric arc lighting had been installed all along the Avenue de l'Opera and the
Place de l'Opera, and in June, a switch was thrown and the area was lit by
electric Yablochkov arc lamps, powered by Zénobe Gramme dynamos. Thomas
Edison had on display a megaphone and phonograph.
Great Exhibition Paris or Exposition Universelle (1889):

 It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the
Bastille, an event considered symbolic of the beginning of the French Revolution.
The fair included a reconstruction of the Bastille and its surrounding
neighborhood, but with the interior courtyard covered with a blue ceiling
decorated with fleur-de-lys and used as a ball room and gathering place.
 The 1889 Exposition covered a total area of 0.96 km2. It was claimed that the
railway carried 6,342,446 visitors in just six months of operation.
 The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower, which served as the entrance
arch to the Fair.
 The exhibition will be famous for four distinctive features. In the first place, for its
buildings, especially the Eiffel tower and the Machinery Hall; in the second place,
for its Colonial Exhibition, which for the first time brings vividly to the appreciation
of the Frenchmen that they are masters of lands beyond the sea; thirdly, it will be
remembered for its great collection of war material.

Eiffel Tower:
 Alexandre Gustave (1832 –1923) was a French civil engineer and architect. A
graduate of the prestigious École Centrale des Arts ET manufactures of. He is
best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal
Exposition in Paris, and his contribution to building the Statue of Liberty in New
York after his retirement from engineering, Eiffel concentrated his energy on
research into meteorology and aerodynamics, making important contributions in
both fields.
 The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris,
France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel. Constructed in 1889 as the
entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was initially criticized by some of France's
leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but has become a global cultural
icon of France The tower is the tallest structure in Paris.
 The tower is 324 meters (1,063 ft.) tall about the same height as an 81-storey
building. Its base is square, 125 meters (410 ft.) on a side. During its
construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become
the tallest man-made structure in the world.
 The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second.
The top level's upper platform is 276 m (906 ft.) above the ground, the highest
accessible to the public in the European Union.
 The puddled iron of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tons, and the entire structure,
including non-metal components, is approximately 10,000 tons.
Ferro Concrete: Concrete reinforced with steel. Ferroconcrete, or ferrocrete, was a
composite building material made from the combination of concrete andiron that was
molecularly bonded to produce a substance with exceptional resistance to wear and
tear. The material was used primarily in the construction of roads and walkways, but
also for reinforced bunkers and building foundations.
Auguste Perret:
 Auguste Perret (1874 –1954) was a French architect and a world leader and
specialist in reinforced concrete construction. In 2005, his post-World War
II reconstruction of Le Havre was declared by UNESCO one of the World
Heritage Sites.
 Perret worked on a new interpretation of the neo-classical style. He continued to
carry the banner of nineteenth century rationalism after Viollet-le-Duc. His efforts
to utilize historical typologies executed in new materials were largely eclipsed by
the younger media-savvy architect Le Corbusier, Perret's one-time employee,
and his ilk.
 From 1940 Perret taught at the École des Beaux-Arts. He won the Royal Gold
Medal in 1948 and the AIA Gold Medal in 1952.

 Rue Franklin Apartment-

 This apartment building with which Perret established his reputation is to
be regarded as one of the canonical works of 20th-century architecture,
not only for its explicit and brilliant use of the reinforced concrete frame
(the Hennebique system) but also for the way in which its internal
organization was to anticipate Le Corbusier's later development of the free
 Perret deliberately made the apartment partition walls nonstructural
throughout and their partial removal would have yielded an open space,
punctuated only by a series of free-standing columns.
 As it is, each floor is organized with the main and service stairs to the rear
(each with its own elevator) the kitchen to one side and the principal
rooms to the front. These last are divided up from left to right into rooms
assigned to smoking, dining, living, sleeping and reception.

 Notre Dame du Raincy-

 The Church of Notre Dame du Raincy is a modern church built in 1922-23 by
the French architects Auguste Perret and Gustave Perret. It is considered a
monument of modernism in architecture, using reinforced concrete in a manner
that expresses the possibilities of the new material.
 Felix Nègre, proposed in 1918 to build a church to commemorate the French
victory in the Battle of the Marne in 1914. Nègre came into contact with the
Perrets. The design used concrete for economy. Rather than attempting to
simulate masonry, the new material was used on its own terms, with
standardized elements, slender supports, and thin membranes pierced by
 The completed church received widespread favorable attention, influencing
architectural thought at a time of rebuilding and economic recovery. The
magnificent stained glass was created by Marguerite Huré using colored coatings
on clear glass for economy. The colors are dominated by blues near the entry
and progress to warmer tones in the sanctuary.

 St. Joseph's Church-

 A Roman Catholic Church in Le Havre, France, built between 1951 and 1957/58
as part of the reconstruction of the town of Le Havre, which was entirely
destroyed by the British during World War II. It acts as a memorial to the five
thousand civilians who died in the conflict.
 The church was designed by the chief architect for the reconstruction of Le
Havre, Auguste Perret. Interior is in the Neo-Gothic style. The tower is 107
meters tall and acts as a beacon visible from out at sea, especially at night when
Tony Garnier:
 Tony Garnier (1869 –1948) was a noted architect and city planner. He was most
active in his hometown of Lyon.
 Garnier is considered the forerunner of 20th century French architects.
 Garnier studied architecture at the des Beaux-arts de Lyon (1886-89) and the
des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1890-99).
 The Stade de Gerland (otherwise known as Municipal de Gerland or Stade
Gerland) is a stadium, in the city of Lyon, France is Garnier’s famous works.
Module 2

L’art Nouveau Movement:

 Art Nouveau was an innovative international style of modern art that became
fashionable from about 1890 to the First World War. Arising as a reaction to 19th-
century designs dominated by historicism in general and neoclassicism in
particular, it promulgated the idea of art and design as part of everyday life.
 Henceforth artists should not overlook any everyday object, no matter how
functional it might be. This aesthetic was considered to be quite revolutionary
and new, hence its name - New Art - or Art Nouveau.
 Hence also the fact that it was applied to a host of different forms including
architecture, fine art, applied art, and decorative art. Rooted partly in the
Industrial Revolution, and the Arts and Crafts Movement, Art Nouveau was given
a major boost by the Exposition Universelle in Paris. After this, it spread across
Europe and as far as the United States.
 A highly decorative idiom, Art Nouveau typically employed intricate curvilinear
patterns of asymmetrical lines, often based on plant-forms. Floral and other
plant-inspired motifs are popular Art Nouveau designs, as are female silhouettes
and forms.

Three Places of Nancy:

Alliance Square: This square originally called Saint Stanislas Square is part of the
architectural unity commissioned by Stanislas from Emmanuel Héré, to be built on the
site of the Duke's kitchen garden. A baroque fountain by the sculptor Cyfflé, which to
begin with, was meant to stand in the center of the semicircle on Carrière Square was
finally installed here. It is a symbol of the alliance in 1756 between the Austro-
Hungarian Empire and France and is the origin of the name of the square.

Carriere Square: Place de la Carrière, or Carriere Square, appeared in the middle of

the sixteenth century when the medieval fortifications of the city were moved back due
to a recent extension of the city to the east. Its name comes from its career use for
jousting, tournaments and other equestrian games.

Stanislas Square: Considered the most beautiful royal square in Europe and high point
of Nancy’s outstanding collection of 18th century monuments, on UNESCO’s World
Heritage List. A magnificent example of Classical French architecture, built by
Emmanuel Héré, it is surrounded by the wrought-iron worker Jean Lamour’s finely
worked railings with gold highlights. The Square’s majestic fountains are by Barthélemy
Guibal. Famous buildings surrounding the square include the City Hall, the Theatre-
Opera House, and Fine Arts Museum. The magnificent buildings round the square are
classical in style. The City Hall takes up the whole of the south side. The facade above
the main entrance is decorated with the coats of arms of both Stanislas and the town of
Nancy. The present day Grand Hotel and the Opera House stand on the east side.

Victor Horta:
 Victor Horta (1861 –1947) was a Belgian architect and designer and he is
known as “the key European Art Nouveau architect." Horta is considered one of
the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture.
 With the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3, he is sometimes
credited as the first to introduce the style to architecture from the decorative arts.
 He joined the Department of Architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in
Ghent. In 1884 Horta won the first Prix Godecharle to be awarded for
Architecture as well as the Grand Prix in architecture on leaving the Royal
 He focused on the curvature of his designs, believing that the forms he produced
were highly practical and not artistic affectations.
 Hôtel Tassel-
 The Hotel Tassel is a town house built by Victor Horta in Brussels for the
Belgian scientist and Professor Emile Tassel in 1893–1894. It is generally
considered as the first true Art Nouveau building, because of its highly innovative
plan and its groundbreaking use of materials and decoration.
 The first town house built by Victor Horta was the Maison Autrique. This dwelling
was already innovative for its application of a novel 'Art Nouveau' decorative
 However the floor plan and spatial composition of the Maison Autrique remained
rather traditional. On the deep and narrow building plot the rooms were
organized according to a traditional scheme used in most Belgian town houses at
that time. It consisted of a suite of rooms on the left side of the building plot
flanked by a rather narrow entrance hall with stairs and a corridor that led to a
small garden at the back.
 Horta made the maximum of his skills as an interior designer. He designed every
single detail; door handles, woodwork, panels and windows in stained
glass, mosaic flooring and the furnishing. Horta succeeded in integrating the
lavish decoration without masking the general architectural structures.
 Hotel Solvay:
The Hôtel Solvay is a large Art Nouveau town house designed by Victor Horta on
the Avenue Louise in Brussels. The house was commissioned by Armand Solvay, the
son of the wealthy Belgian chemist and industrialist Ernest Solvay.
For this wealthy patron Horta could spend a fortune on precious materials and
expensive details. Horta designed every single detail; furniture, carpets, light fittings,
tableware and even the doorbell. He used expensive materials such as marble, onyx,
bronze, tropic woods etc.
For the decoration of the staircase Horta cooperated with the
Belgian pointillist painter Théo van Rysselberghe.
 12 Rue de Turin:

True Construction: True construction relates to the term a form of construction which
is something between traditionalist and modernist architecture.
 Hendrik Petrus Berlage:
 Hendrik Petrus Berlage (1856 –1934) was a prominent Dutch architect.
Berlage was born in Amsterdam. He studied architecture at the Zurich
Institute of Technology between 1875 and 1878 after which he traveled
extensively for 3 years through Europe.
 Berlage was influenced by the Neo-Romanesque and of the combination
of structures of iron seen with brick of the Castle of the Three Geckos.
 Considered the "Father of Modern architecture" in the Netherlands and the
intermediary between the Traditionalists and the Modernists.
 Jachthuis St. Hubertus-

 This building is also called Hunting Lodge St. Hubert was in 1914 designed
by architect Hendrik Petrus Berlage.
 The whole building is built of brick , inside often glazed , and slate . Berlage
designed not only the building but also the interior. Everything in the interior is
matched: the tiles, lamps, furniture and even the crockery and cutlery are
designed to detail by Berlage.
 The tower in the middle of the building is a cross displayed. The large stained-
glass windows in the hall give the story of Hubertus. Lobby, dining room, library
and tea room have different color themes that symbolize the stages in the life of
 The building is very luxurious performed. The windows on the ground floor can
sink in their entirety in the basement wall, just like in old trains.

 Museum de Fundatie- It is an art museum on two locations in the province

of Overijssel in the Netherlands, one in the city of Zwolle and the other near the
villages of Heino and Wijhe. In the collection of over7,000 objects are works
of Chagall, Mondrian, and Van Gogh. In 2014, the museum had 261,500 visitors.
 The Gemeentemuseum Den Haag- It is an art museum in The Hague in
the Netherlands. The museum, built 1931–1935, was designed by the Dutch
architect H.P. Berlage. It is renowned for its large Mondrian collection, the largest
in the world.

 Henry Hobson Richardson:

 Henry Hobson Richardson (1838 –1886) was a
prominent American architect. Richardson went on to study at Harvard
College and Tulane University. Initially, he was interested in civil
engineering, but shifted to architecture.
 The Trinity Church in Boston solidified Richardson's national reputation
and led to major commissions for the rest of his life.
 Style Richardsonian is a revival style based on French and Spanish
Romanesque. Richardson's style is characterized by massive stone walls
and dramatic semicircular arches. Continuity and unity are keynotes of
Richardson's style.
 Trinity Church in the City of Boston-
 It is located in the Back Bay of Boston, Massachusetts, is a parish of
the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. Four services are offered each
Sunday, and weekday services are offered three times a week from September
through June. The building's plan is a modified Greek Cross with fore arms
extending outwards from the central tower, which stands 64 m (211 ft.) tall.
 The church is situated in Copley Square, in the shadow of the John Hancock
Tower. Having been built in Boston's Back Bay, which was originally a mud flat.
 Trinity rests on some 4500 wooden piles, each driven through 30 feet of gravel
fill, silt, and clay, and constantly wetted by the water table of the Back Bay so
they do not rot if exposed to air.
 The church's windows were originally clear glass at consecration in 1877, with
one exception, but soon major windows were added, and revolutionized window
glass with their layering of opalescent glass.
 Trinity Church is the only church in the United States and the only building in
Boston that has been honored as one of the "Ten Most Significant Buildings in
the United States" by the American Institute of Architects (AIA).

Balloon Frame Structure:

 Balloon framing is a style of wood-house building. It uses long continuous
framing members (studs) that run from the sill plate to the top plate, with
intermediate floor structures let into and nailed to them.
 When it first came into use, well before the mid-nineteenth century, it was a
radically different type of construction from the "timber frame" or "braced frame"
that preceded it for centuries.
 The earlier style timber framing used large timbers interlocked with chiseled
joints secured with wood pegs.

 "Balloon" was originally intended to be a derogatory term implying a light weight

structure that could be easily carried off in a breeze.
 When balloon framing first appeared, there's certainly plenty of evidence that
there was for this new type of construction. Many of those only familiar with the
heavy timber framing of earlier times felt it would be suitable only for temporary
 At first, most balloon framed buildings were rather plain and simple.
Module 3

Chicago School:
Chicago's architecture is referred to as the Chicago School. The style is also known
as Commercial style. In the history of architecture, the Chicago School was
a school of architects active in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century.
They were among the first to promote the new technologies of steel-frame construction
in commercial buildings, and developed a spatial aesthetic which co-evolved with
parallel developments in European Modernism.
 The Home Insurance Building is generally noted as the first tall building to be supported,
both inside and outside, by a fireproof metal frame. It was constructed in 1884 in Chicago.
William Le Baron Jenney was the architect.

Bibliothèque nationale de France:

The Bibliothèque nationale de France is the National Library of France, located
in Paris. Dominique Perrault is a French architect and urban planner. He became world
known for the design of the French National Library, distinguished with the Silver medal
for town planning in 1992 and the Mies van der Rohe Prize in 1996. Based on the
principle of ‘less is more’.
 Sullivan Centre:
 The Sullivan Center, formerly known as the Carson, Pirie, Scott and
Company Building or Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Store, is a
commercial building at 1 South State Street at the corner of East Madison
Street in Chicago, Illinois. It was designed by Louis Sullivan.
 The Sullivan Center was initially developed because of the Chicago Great Fire of
1871. In 1890, Schlesinger and Mayer hired Adler and Sullivan to prepare plans
for the removal of the Bowen Building’s attic story and the addition of two stories
across the Bowen Building and the adjacent four-story structure to the south. The
facades were added to match the bottom stories of the building and the building
was painted white.
 In 1892, Schlesinger and Mayer hired Adler and Sullivan to do further remodeling
and add a new entrance to the corner of State and Madison. In 1886, Sullivan, no
longer working with Adler, redesign the façade and add two stories to the newly
leased four-story building on Wabash avenue, as well as connecting it to the
State Street store. The facades were added to match the bottom stories of the
building and the building was painted white.

 The Chicago Building:

 The Chicago Building or Chicago Savings Bank Building was built in 1904-
1905. It is located at 7 W. Madison Street, Chicago.
 It was designed by architectural firm Holabird & Roche, it is an early and highly
visible example of the architecture. The building's features characterize this style
through the use of large "Chicago windows", metal frame construction, distinctive
bays, and terra cotta cladding.
 The combination of the north side projecting bay windows, and the east side
rectangular "Chicago windows" with movable sashes is representative of the two
typical Chicago school window types.
 The building is prominently located on the southwest corner of State Street and
Madison Street, with visibility increased by an offset in the alignment of State
Street. The building was designated a Chicago landmark on March 26, 1996. In
1997, it was converted to a dormitory for the School of the Art Institute of
Louis Sullivan:
 Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was
an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and
"father of modernism".
 He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an
influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd
Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to
be known as the Prairie School.
 He studied at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and École des Beaux-Arts.
Prudential Building, also known as the Guaranty Building and Sullivan Centre are
his famous work.
Organic Architecture:

 Organic architecture is a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human

habitation and the natural world through design approaches so sympathetic and well integrated
with its site, that buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated

 Be inspired by nature and be sustainable, healthy, conserving, and diverse.

 Follow the flows and be flexible and adaptable.
 Satisfy social, physical, and spiritual needs.
 "Grow out of the site" and be unique.
 Express the rhythm of music and the power of dance.

Frank Lloyd Wright:

 Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 –1959) was an American architect, interior designer,
writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which
were completed.
 Wright believed in designing structures that were in harmony with humanity and
its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. He made innovative
use of new building materials such as precast concrete blocks, glass bricks and
zinc comes (instead of the traditional lead) for his leadlight windows, and he
famously used Pyrex glass tubing as a major element in the Johnson Wax
 Wright was also one of the first architects to design and install custom-made
electric light fittings, including some of the very first electric floor lamps, and his
very early use of the then-novel spherical glass lampshade (a design previously
not possible due to the physical restrictions of gas lighting).
 Wright's best-known art glass is that of the Prairie style. The simple geometric
shapes that yield to very ornate and intricate windows represent some of the
most integral ornamentation of his career.
The Falling Water:
 Falling water or Kaufmann Residence is a house designed by architect Frank
Lloyd Wright in 1935 in rural southwestern Pennsylvania, 43 miles) southeast
of Pittsburgh. The home was built partly over a waterfall on Bear Run, of
the Allegheny Mountains.
 Falling water stands as one of Wright's greatest masterpieces both for its
dynamism and for its integration with the striking natural surroundings. Wright's
passion for Japanese was strongly reflected in the design of Fallingwater,
particularly in the importance of interpenetrating exterior and interior spaces and
the strong emphasis placed on harmony between man and nature.
 This organically designed private residence was intended to be a nature retreat
for its owners. The house is well-known for its connection to the site; it is built on
top of an active waterfall which flows beneath the house.
 From the cantilevered living room, a stairway leads directly down to the stream
below, and in a connecting space which connects the main house with the guest
and servant level, a natural spring drips water inside, which is then channeled
back out. Bedrooms are small, some with low ceilings to encourage people
outward toward the open social areas, decks, and outdoors.
 Bear Run and the sound of its water permeate the house, especially during the
spring when the snow is melting, and locally quarried stone walls and
cantilevered terraces resembling the nearby rock formations are meant to be in
harmony. The design incorporates broad expanses of windows and balconies
which reach out into their surroundings. The staircase leading down from the
living room to the stream is accessed by movable horizontal glass panes.
The Guggenheim:
 The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, often referred to as The
Guggenheim, is an art museum located at 1071 Fifth Avenue on the corner
of East 89th Street in the Upper East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York
 Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, the cylindrical building, wider at the top than the
bottom, was conceived as a "temple of the spirit". Its unique ramp gallery extends
up from ground level in a long, continuous spiral along the outer edges of the
building to end just under the ceiling skylight.
 Wright produced four different sketches for the initial design. While one of the
plans had a hexagonal shape and level floors for the galleries, all the others had
circular schemes and used a ramp continuing around the building.
 Wright's original concept was called an inverted "ziggurat", because it resembled
the steep steps on the ziggurats built in ancient Mesopotamia. The spiral design
recalled a nautilus shell, with continuous spaces flowing freely one into another.