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# Bachelor of Pharmacy (3rd Year)

## Duration: 1 h Full Marks: 10

[Use STEAM TABLE, DUHRING LINES FOR AQUOEOUS SOLUTION AND ENTHALPY CONCENTRATION
CHART FOR THE SYSTEM NaOH SOLUTION as required]

1. A continuous single effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h of 1.0 wt.% salt solution
entering at 320 K to a final concentration of 1.6 wt.%. The vapor space of the evaporator is at
101.325 kPa and the steam supplied is saturated at 150 kPa. The overall coefficient (U= 2000
W/m2.K). Calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid product and the heat transfer area
required. Assume that, since it is dilute, the solution has the same boiling point as water.
Assume, C pF  4.14 kJ / kg  K
Boiling point of dilute solution is assumed to be that of water at 101.32 kPa, T1 = 373 K as
datum temperature. Latent heat of water HV at 373 K is 2256 kJ/kg. Latent heat of steam λ at
150 kPa is 2236 kJ/kg. [4]

2. An evaporator is used to concentrate 4550 kg/h of a 30% solution of NaOH in water entering
at 800C to a product of 50% solids. The pressure of the saturated steam used is 180 kPa and
the pressure in the vapor space of the evaporator is 11.98 kPa. The overall heat – transfer
coefficient is 1568 W/m2 K. Calculate the steam used, the steam economy in kg vaporized/kg
steam used, and the heating surface area in m2. [6]

## Duration: 1 h Full Marks: 10

[Use STEAM TABLE, DUHRING LINES FOR AQUOEOUS SOLUTION AND ENTHALPY CONCENTRATION
CHART FOR THE SYSTEM NaOH SOLUTION as required]

1. A continuous single effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h of 1.0 wt.% salt solution
entering at 320 K to a final concentration of 1.6 wt.%. The vapor space of the evaporator is at
101.325 kPa and the steam supplied is saturated at 150 kPa. The overall coefficient (U= 2000
W/m2.K). Calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid product and the heat transfer area
required. Assume that, since it is dilute, the solution has the same boiling point as water.
Assume, C pF  4.14 kJ / kg  K
Boiling point of dilute solution is assumed to be that of water at 101.32 kPa, T1 = 373 K as
datum temperature. Latent heat of water HV at 373 K is 2256 kJ/kg. Latent heat of steam λ at
150 kPa is 2236 kJ/kg. [4]

2. An evaporator is used to concentrate 4550 kg/h of a 30% solution of NaOH in water entering
at 800C to a product of 50% solids. The pressure of the saturated steam used is 180 kPa and
the pressure in the vapor space of the evaporator is 11.98 kPa. The overall heat – transfer
coefficient is 1568 W/m2 K. Calculate the steam used, the steam economy in kg vaporized/kg
steam used, and the heating surface area in m2. [6]