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II.

a. Using the stress-strain steel model of Prof. Hsu’s softening theory for cover concrete in
compression
𝑤𝑐𝑟 = 14.2 mm
𝑝𝑐𝑝 = 2(𝑏 + 𝑑) = 2(1050 + 550) = 3200 mm
𝑤𝑐𝑟 14.2
𝜀𝑟 = = = 0.0044375
𝑝𝑐𝑝 3200
𝜀0 = 0.002
0.9 0.9
𝜁= = = 0.470277
√1 + 600𝜀𝑟 √1 + 600(0.0044375)

Ascending branch for (𝜀𝑑 /𝜁𝜀0 ≤ 1)


𝜀𝑑 𝜀𝑑 2
𝜎𝑑 = 𝜁𝑓𝑐′ [2 ( )−( ) ]
𝜁𝜀0 𝜁𝜀0
𝜀𝑑 𝜀𝑑 2
𝜎𝑑 = (0.470277)(21) [2 ( ) − ( ) ]
𝜁𝜀0 𝜁𝜀0
𝜀𝑑 𝜀𝑑 2
𝜎𝑑 = 9.875817 [2 ( ) − ( ) ]
𝜁𝜀0 𝜁𝜀0

Descending branch for (1 < 𝜀𝑑 /𝜁𝜀0 )


𝜀𝑑 ⁄𝜁𝜀0 −1 2
𝜎𝑑 = 𝜁𝑓𝑐′ [1 − ( 4/𝜁−1
) ]

([𝜀𝑑 ⁄𝜁𝜀0 ] − 1)2


𝜎𝑑 = (0.470277)(21) (1 − )
([4⁄0.470277] − 1)2
([𝜀𝑑 ⁄𝜁𝜀0 ] − 1)2
𝜎𝑑 = 9.875817 (1 − )
56.3344

b. Using Mander Confined Concrete Models for Core in Compression.


Gross area
𝐴𝑔 = (550)(1050) = 577500 mm2
𝑛𝑏𝑙 . 𝐴𝑏𝑙 16(506.707)
𝜌𝑔 = = = 0.014
𝐴𝑔 577500
Longitudinal reinforcement
𝑑𝑏𝑙 = 25.4 mm
𝐴𝑏𝑙 = 506.707 mm2
𝑛𝑏𝑙 = 16
Transversal reinforcement
𝑑𝑏𝑡 = 12.7 mm
𝐴𝑏𝑡 = 126.677 mm2
Number of ties
𝑛𝑥 = 4
𝑛𝑦 = 3
Center to center horizontal spacing of tie
𝑑𝑐 = 𝑑 − 𝑑𝑏𝑡 = 500 mm − 12.7 = 487.3 mm
𝑏𝑐 = 𝑏 − 𝑑𝑏𝑡 = 1000 mm − 12.7 = 987.3 mm
Vertical spacing of the transverse rebars
𝑠 = 100 𝑚𝑚
Yield strength of steel
𝑓𝑦ℎ → 𝑓𝑦ℎ_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝑓𝑦ℎ (−1.3𝑥𝐶% + 1) = 350(−1.3𝑥25% + 1) = 236.25 MPa
Concrete strength
𝑓𝑐′ = 21 MPa
Area of transverse reinforcement in each direction
𝐴𝑠𝑥 = 𝑛𝑥 . 𝐴𝑏𝑡 = 4(126.677 ) = 506.708 mm2
𝐴𝑠𝑦 = 𝑛𝑦 . 𝐴𝑏𝑡 = 3(126.677 ) = 380.031 mm2
Vertical clear spacing of the transverse rebars
𝑠 ′ = 𝑠 − 𝑑𝑏𝑡 = 100 − 12.7 = 87.3 mm
Area of the core section
𝐴𝑐 = 𝑏𝑐 𝑑𝑐 = (987.3)(487.3) = 481111.29 mm2
Ratio of the area of longitudinal bar to that of core concrete
𝑛𝑏𝑙 . 𝐴𝑏𝑙 16(506.707)
𝜌𝑐𝑐 = = = 0.017
𝐴𝑐 481111.29
Clear transverse spacing between adjacent longitudinal bars
𝑑𝑐 − 𝑑𝑏𝑡 − 3𝑑𝑏𝑙 487.3 − 12.7 − 3(25.4)
𝑤𝑖1 = = = 199.2 mm ; n𝑤𝑖1 = 4
2 2
𝑏𝑐 − 𝑑𝑏𝑡 − 7𝑑𝑏𝑙 987.3 − 12.7 − 7(25.4)
𝑤𝑖2 = == = 132.8 mm ; n𝑤𝑖2 = 12
6 6
Confinement effectiveness coefficient
n𝑤𝑖1 (𝑤𝑖1 )2 n𝑤𝑖2 (𝑤𝑖2 )2 𝑠′ 𝑠′
[1 − ( 6𝑏𝑐 𝑑𝑐
+
6𝑏𝑐 𝑑𝑐
)] (1 −
2𝑏𝑐
) (1 −
2𝑑𝑐
)
𝑘𝑒 = = 0.7715
1 − 𝜌𝑐𝑐
𝐴𝑠𝑥 506.708
𝜌𝑥 = = = 0.010398
𝑠𝑑𝑐 100(487.3)
𝐴𝑠𝑦 380.031
𝜌𝑦 = = = 0.003849
𝑠𝑏𝑐 100(987.3)
𝜌𝑠 = 𝜌𝑥 + 𝜌𝑦 = 0.014247
𝑓𝑙𝑥′ = (𝜌𝑥 )(𝑓𝑦ℎ_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 )(𝑘𝑒 ) = (0.010398)(236.25)(0.7715) = 1.895 MPa
𝑓𝑙𝑦′ = (𝜌𝑦 )(𝑓𝑦ℎ_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 )(𝑘𝑒 ) = (0.003849)(236.25)(0.7715) = 0.702 MPa

𝑓′𝑙𝑥 1.895
= = 0.0903
𝑓′𝑐 21

𝑓′𝑙𝑦 0.702
= = 0.0334
𝑓′𝑐 21

𝐾 = 1.3
𝑓𝑐𝑐′ = 𝐾. 𝑓𝑐′ = 1.3(21) = 27.3 MPa
𝜀𝑐𝑜 = 0.002
𝑓𝑐𝑐′ 27.3
𝜀𝑐𝑐 = 𝜀𝑐𝑜 [1 + 5 ( ′
− 1)] = 0.002 [1 + 5 ( − 1)] = 0.005
𝑓𝑐 21
𝑓𝑐𝑐′ 27.3
𝐸𝑠𝑒𝑐 = = = 5460 MPa
𝜀𝑐𝑐 0.005
𝐸𝑐 = 5000√𝑓𝑐′ = 5000√21 = 22912.878 MPa
𝐸𝑐 22912.878
𝑟= = = 1.313
𝐸𝑐 − 𝐸𝑠𝑒𝑐 22912.878 − 5460
𝜀𝑠𝑚 = 𝜀𝑠𝑢_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝜀𝑠𝑢 (−0.8𝑥𝐶% + 1) = 0.12(−0.8𝑥25% + 1) = 0.096
𝜀𝑐 𝜀𝑐
𝑥= =
𝜀𝑐𝑐 0.005
1.4𝜌𝑠 𝑓𝑦ℎ 𝜀𝑠𝑚 1.4(0.014247)(236.25)(0.096)
𝜀𝑐𝑢 = 0.004 + ′
= 0.004 + = 0.02057
𝑓𝑐𝑐 27.3
Stress (𝑓𝑐 )-strain (𝜀𝑐 ) curve is
𝑓𝑐𝑐′ 𝑥𝑟
𝑓𝑐 =
𝑟 − 1 + 𝑥𝑟
𝜀𝑐
(27.3) ( ) (1.313) 7168.98𝜀𝑐
= 0.005 = up to 𝜀𝑐𝑢 = 0.02057
𝜀 1.313 𝜀𝑐 1.313
(1.313) − 1 + ( 𝑐 ) 0.313 + ( )
0.005 0.005

c. Using smeared stress-strain model for concrete in tension

For ascending branch


𝑓𝑐 = 𝐸𝑐 𝜀𝑐 for (0 ≤ 𝜀𝑐 ≤ 𝜀𝑐𝑟 )
𝜀𝑐𝑟 = 0.00008
𝐸𝑐 = 3875√𝑓𝑐′ = 3875√21 = 17757.4808 MPa
Therefore,
𝑓𝑐 = 17757.4808𝜀𝑐 for (0 ≤ 𝜀𝑐 ≤ 0.00008)

For descending branch


𝜀𝑐𝑟 0.4
𝑓𝑐 = 𝑓𝑐𝑟 ( ) for (𝜀𝑐 > 𝜀𝑐𝑟 )
𝜀𝑐
𝑓𝑐𝑟 = 0.31√𝑓𝑐′ = 0.31√21 = 1.4206 MPa
Therefore,
𝜀𝑐𝑟 0.4 0.00008 0.4
𝑓𝑐 = 𝑓𝑐𝑟 ( ) = 1.4206 ( ) for (𝜀𝑐 > 0.00008)
𝜀𝑐 𝜀𝑐

c. Using the stress-strain steel model for reinforcement in tension and compression due to
corrosion
𝑓𝑦 = 350 MPa
𝑓𝑢 = 520 MPa
𝐸𝑠 = 200000 MPa
𝜀𝑦 = 0.0017
𝜀𝑠ℎ = 0.008
𝜀𝑠𝑢 = 0.12
𝑓𝑦_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝑓𝑦 (−1.3𝑥𝐶% + 1) = 350(−1.3𝑥25% + 1) = 236.25 MPa
𝐸𝑠_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝐸𝑠 (−1.3𝑥𝐶% + 1) = 200000(−1.3𝑥25% + 1) = 135000 MPa
𝜀𝑠ℎ_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝜀𝑠ℎ (−0.75𝑥𝐶% + 1) = 0.008(−0.75𝑥25% + 1) = 0.0065 MPa
𝜀𝑠𝑢_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝜀𝑠𝑢 (−0.8𝑥𝐶% + 1) = 0.12(−0.8𝑥25% + 1) = 0.096 MPa
𝑓𝑢_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝑓𝑢 (−1.2𝑥𝐶% + 1) = 520(−1.2𝑥25% + 1) = 364 MPa

a. Elastic Region
𝑓𝑠 = 𝐸𝑠_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝜀𝑠 = 135000𝜀𝑠 for (0 ≤ 𝜀𝑠 ≤ 𝜀𝑦 = 0.00175)

b. Plastic Region (perfectly plastic)


𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 236.25 MPa for (𝜀𝑦 = 0.00175 ≤ 𝜀𝑠 ≤ 𝜀𝑠ℎ_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 0.0065)

c. Strain Hardening Region


𝑓𝑢_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝑓𝑢_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝜀𝑠𝑢_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 − 𝜀𝑠
2
𝑢
𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 [ −( − 1) ( ) ]
𝑓𝑦_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝑓𝑦_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝜀𝑠𝑢_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 − 𝜀𝑠ℎ_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟

520 520 0.12 − 𝜀𝑠 2


𝑓𝑠 = 350 [ −( − 1) ( ) ]
350 350 0.12 − 0.008
0.12 − 𝜀𝑠 2
𝑓𝑠 = 350 [1.4857 − (0.4857) ( ) ]
0.112
For (𝜀𝑠ℎ_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 0.0065 ≤ 𝜀𝑠 ≤ 𝜀𝑠𝑢_𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 0.096)