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Group Members

No Name Student ID
1. Siti Nabila Binti Mohamad Fauzi 51213116029
2. Nur Emilina Shuhada Binti Zaini 51215116061
3. Muhammad Na’in Bin Yahaya 51211116138
4. Nas’ah Binti Parid 51215116148

Razali Abdul Majid
Thursday, 1st March 2018




2.0 TASK 1

3.0 TASK 2

3.1 Incident/Scenario Case

3.2 Checklist to Establish Facts of Incident

3.3 Build Incident Tree

3.4 Accident Causation Model

3.5 Dominos Theory

3.6 Recommendations



Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) was instituted on 25th February 1994 with
the purpose to ensure safety, health and welfare of all people at all work environment.
It was proclaimed based on the self – regulation concept with essential obligation of
ensuring safety and health at the work environment lying with the individual who create
the danger or risk and work with risk. The Act likewise accommodates a consultative
procedure at the arrangement level with the foundation of National Council for
Occupational Safety and Health. This consultative procedure broadens to where safety
and health programs are implement with both employers and employees delegate as
members of safety and health committee. The Act are applied to the industries that
involve in manufacturing, mining, quarrying, construction, agriculture, forestry,
fishing, utilities; electricity, gas, water, sanitary services, transport, storage,
communication, wholesale, retail trades, hotels, restaurants, finance, insurance, real
estate, business services, public services and statutory bodies except the marine and
armed forces.
Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994
• Occupational = Work related
• Safety = Protection of life against injury or death
• Health = Free of sickness either physical, mental or spiritual
• Act = The Law

2.0 TASK 1

Under Section 15(2) of the Occupational Safety & Health Act 1994 requires an
employer to provide & maintain plant & “safe system of work”.

2.1 What is meant by a “safe system of work”

Safe system of work is prevision and maintenance of plant and system of work that are,
so far as is practicable, safe and without risk to health. Also, a system or mode of work
which under the circumstances make adequate provision for the safety of employees
and which, if carried out with reasonable care, will protect the employees from
foreseeable risks of injury. For example, before a new system is introduced those whom
they will affect should be instructed as to their purpose, trained as to their
implementation and there after monitored to ensure that system put in place are actually
employed in practice. Example of system of work is provision of system for working
in confine space. There must be standard operating procedures in place. Guidelines on
working in confined space by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health should
be followed.

2.2 How “safe system of work” can be created / designed at the workplace?

The safe system of work can be created by provide a legal framework to every employer
and every self – employed person to ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety, health
and welfare at work of all his employees. Without prejudice to the generality of
subsection (1), the matters to which the duty extends include in particular the provision
and maintenance of a working environment for his employees that is, so far as is
practicable, safe without risk to health, and adequate as regards facilities for their
welfare at work. This subsection requires the employer to provide and maintain a
working environment (surrounding, condition or circumstance at work) that is safe and
healthy. The working environment may include the workplace itself (e.g. building,
structure, vehicle), all plant at the workplace, the physical environment (e.g. lighting,
ventilation, dust, heat, noise), and the psychological environment (e.g. mental stressor).
The employer is also required adequate welfare facilities at work for his employees.
The working environment in the workplace would include both the physical
environment as well as the psychosocial environment. For examples in the workshop
with employees with both Malaysian and foreign employees, the physical environment

(noise, lighting, ventilation) should be safe and healthy and the psychosocial
environment would be to establish a good relationship between employees from the
different countries and to prevent conflict among them. The working environment must
be free of anything which may cause injury, disease or death. The working environment
needs to be maintained by proper means such as by good housekeeping.

2.3 How would you formulate a “ safe system of work” for the employees in your
organization who work in the confined space?

I would formulate a safe system of work for the employees in my organization who
work at confined space is by sending the worker to Confined Space Safety (Trainer’s
Program) and Confined Space Rescue and First Response, notify supervisor before
the confined space entry, ensure all rescue equipment (e.g. tripod, body-belt, lanyard)
is in place prior to entry, safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the
use or operation, employee shall have a radio and any other necessary personal
protective equipment, the entrant and attendant should sign the permit authorization
section on the bottom of the permit to ensure all actions and conditions necessary for
safe entry have been performed. Employee can enter the confined space once the
Entry Procedure Checklist is completed. Also, make sure all employees are follow the
Factories and Machinery Act Regulation where an Act to provide for the control of
factories with respect to matters relating to the safety, health and welfare of person
therein, the registration and inspection of machinery and for matters connected
therewith. Example for working at confined space, where any work has to be done
inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pressure or other vessel or other confined space in
which dangerous fumes are liable to be present to such an extent as to involve risk to
any person being overcome thereby, such confined space shall, unless there is other
adequate means of egress, be provided with a manhole; such manhole may be
rectangular, oval or circular in shape, and shall not be less than sixteen inches wide or
not less than eighteen inches in diameter if under Section 13 of the Factories and
Machinery Safety, Health and Welfare Regulation 1970.

3.0 TASK 2

3.1 Incident Scenario/Case


Bernama | January 10, 2018

KUALA LUMPUR: A Bangladeshi worker died after the structure of a building

under construction on Jalan Cochrane here collapsed at about 5.30pm yesterday.

Pudu Fire and Rescue Station head Armdan Mahad said the victim who was in his
20s was working at the construction site on the third floor before the structure of the
building gave way.

“Nine firemen from the Pudu and Hang Tuah stations rushed to the location after
receiving a call at 5.36pm.

“The victim, who was believed to have fallen from the third to the first floor, was
found dead after being crushed by the collapsed structure,” he said when met at the
scene last night.He said firemen had also inspected the site to ensure the area was
safe.As at 11.30pm, firefighters were still working to extricate the victim.

Meanwhile, Tenaga Nasional Bhd (TNB) confirmed in a statement that a small floor
section of the main intake substation (PMU) building near the Cochrane MRT had
collapsed yesterday.

According to the statement, the incident was believed to have occurred when the
floor scaffolding on the third storey collapsed while concrete was being poured.

“The level of damage due to the collapse is still under investigation,” it said.

Mass Rapid Transit Corporation Sdn Bhd (MRT Corp) said the incident was not
related to the Klang Valley MRT project.

Its director of public relations and stakeholder relations, Najmuddin Abdullah, said
the construction of the MRT Sungai Buloh-Kajang line, in which Cochrane was one
of the stations, was completed and opened to the public in July 2017.

“There is no longer any construction work being undertaken by MRT Corp or any
of its contractors at the Cochrane MRT station site.

“The substation which is currently under construction by Tenaga Nasional Bhd is

not part of the MRT project,” he said in a statement yesterday.

The substation was believed to be for the upgrading of power supply in the area, he

3.2 Checklist to establish facts of Incident

 Who
One worker died while four other worker managed to escape. The died victim was a
Bangledshi aged in his20’s. The four workers was nearby him during the accident. Pudu
Fire and Rescue Department Station, chief Armdan Mahad had the information regardin
the accident scenario.

 What
The worker was buried under tonnes of construction scaffolding, wet cement, and metal
reinforcement beams before the floor crashing down. Before the accident, the victim
was layering and setting concrete cement.

 Where
The accident occurred at third floor of the building. The victim was found unconscious
and trapped at first floor. The accident occurred in TNB substation site which is in
construction situated next to Cochrane Mass Rapid Transit (MRT).

 How
The accident occur when the area the victim was working suddenly crashing down. The
victim died instantly due to trapped under tonnes of construction rubble. The extraction
process taken around two hours. The accident could be avoided if the worker wear
safety harness and the floor was labelled with caution sign or tapes.
 When
The accident occurred on 5.30 pm.The Pudu Fire and Rescue Department received the
emergency alert around 5.33pm.

 Why
The accident occurred due to the condition of the third floor which is unfinished
flooring making the area become unstable. There was no caution or warning sign were
labelled on the area making the area was permitted for the worker to work.

3.3 Build Incident Tree

Why did the accident happen ?

Unsafe Act Unsafe Condition Equipment Difficulty

- There was no
- Improper training or - Poor design of the
inexperience floor.
- Language barriers
- Wrong materials
between the - No safeguarding on
while constructing the
supervisor and the area.
- Heat-stress or - Unstable floor - Overload on the
overwork condition unstable floor
- No caution tape or
mark provided by site

3.4 Accident Causation Model

An accident causation model is a systematic method of ascertaining the causes of

an accident. An accident is a complex coincidence of activities or phenomena in a
single time and space. Therefore, determining the causes leading to an accident can be
quite difficult, as there are so many variables to consider. In order to evaluate the
accident investigation methods, specific plausible requirements established in order to
verify that a specific accident investigation method fulfils the principles of a specific
accident causation model or give evidence to the degree of alignment between them.

Lack Of Control Basic Cause Immediate Cause Incident Loss

- Employers do Personal Factor Unsafe Condition - One person Process loss

not provide instantly died
competent - The workers - Wet and after the accident. Investigation death
training . work overtime unstable surface and working
condition. - The victim die operation stop
- Employers not because the floor
provide safety Job Factor - No and scaffolding 2 days : 2 x
briefing on safeguarding or falling over RM30,000 =
construction - There was no warning sign on victim. RM60,000.
site. any warning the unstable
sign element area.
- The employer nor People Loss
does not safeguarding - Weak body
provide provided on condition 1 x RM1,200,000 =
suitable safety the restricted RM1,200,000.
equipment and area.
harness for Unsafe Action
employees. - The supervisor TOTAL LOST
permitted to - Careless RM 1.69 Billion
work on the

Nature Factor

- Rainy season
causing the
area become

3.5 Dominoes Theory

Dominoes theory developed by H. W. Heinrich, a safety engineer and pioneer in the

field of industrial accident safety. According to Heinrich, an "accident" is one factor
in a sequence that may lead to an injury. The factors can be visualized as a series of
dominoes standing on edge, such as when one falls, the linkage required for a chain
reaction is completed. Each of the factors is dependent on the preceding factor.

For this incident case, dominoes theory has been applied to provide solutions to
overcome the similar accident in the future.

Lack Of Control
 Organize training for workers to manage safety at construction site. Proper
training on safety for employees is compulsory to ensure the workers or
employees understand perfectly standard procedure, rules and regulations at the
construction site.
 Risk/hazard assessment should always be carried out frequently to ensure
every worker alert about the situation and their own safety.

Basic Cause
 Allowing the workers to take some day off will prevent the workers from
exhausted or fatigure due overwork. It can also prevent the workers from
making mistake or careless in the site.
 Supervisor or Site Manager must frequently patrolled the construction site and
alert about the situation.
 Safeguarding elements and warning sign must be

Immediate Cause
 Safeguarding elements and warning sign must be presented at the risked area
to prevent any incident occur. The permitted area must be tagged to inform
the workers about the area whether it is safe or vice versa.

 Personal protective equipment (PPE) such as glove, body suit and helmet
should be implemented for safety of the employees.
 Serious disciplinary actions in the form of summon or fine will be taken towards
employees that refuse or neglect safety and regulations that have been enforced
by the company when handling their work at the site.

3.6 Recommendations


For Task 1,The safe system of work is one of the circumstances to make adequate
provision for the safety of employees and will protect the employees from foreseeable
risks of injury. It can be created by provide a legal framework to every employer and
every self – employed as far as is practicable. Beside the employer is required to
provide and maintain a working environment and adequate welfare towards the

For Task 2,the investigation of accident case in newspaper article regarding the
construction site worker died at the TNB substation. The investigation was done by
applying checklist fact to build incident tree regarding the case. Next, Accident
Causation Model (ACM) is implied strengthen the facts and causes of the incident. To
provide solution and overcome the problem in the future, Dominoes Theory was applied
by suggestion a series of suggestion based on ACM. Finally, by using Occupational
Safety and Health Act and Regulations a few recommendations were provided by
referring to suggestion on Dominoes Theory.