You are on page 1of 3


discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at:

Methodology for the Modelling of Mobile Robot

with Differential Chassis

Conference Paper · May 2016


0 107

1 author:

Jakub Čerkala
Kybernetika s.r.o, Košice, Slovakia


All content following this page was uploaded by Jakub Čerkala on 01 June 2016.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.

Methodology for the Modelling of Mobile Robot
with Differential Chassis
Jakub ČERKALA (4rd year)
Supervisor: 2 Anna JADLOVSKÁ
1,2 Dept. of Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence, FEI TU of Košice, Slovak Republic
1, 2

Abstract—The research presented in this article is focused on

the author’s work done last year according to dissertation thesis
Application of Methods of Artificial Intelligence in Modeling and
Control Robotic Systems.
Keywords—differential chassis mobile robot, kinematic model,
dynamic model, actuator modelling, robot position control.

The precise mathematical model of mobile robot can be
very helpful mainly in the early stage of mobile robot or
control algorithms design. The knowledge of mobile robot’s Fig. 1. Illustration of mobile robot with differential chassis common concept
mathematical model allows the creation of simulation model,
that can show expected behaviour of the relevant real mobile
robot to user or algorithm inputs. This cybernetic approach, knowledge technology support, co-financed by the ERDF, that
which is the core of author’s dissertation thesis, also allows will finish this year and achieved results was presented in
to define limitations or problems, which can be resolved just paper [4]. Moreover, the educational results of the author’s
before the robot’s prototyping phase of design. Also, the work are supported by grant Kega - 001TUKE-4/2015. The
cybernetic simulation can verify the control algorithms before author is also a member of Alice Collaboration in CERN Alice
implementation into real mobile robot. The knowledge of experiment.
mobile robot’s mathematical model is essential for application
and validation of control approaches that use neural network
approximation models III. S OLVED TASKS AND RESULTS
This article briefly describes and summarizes the author’s
In order to achieve the mathematical model of differential
last year’s selected results in fulfilling the dissertation theses
driven two-wheel mobile robot that is suitable for simulation
as it was done in last conference paper [1].
experiments, it is required to take into account various phys-
ical, mathematical or technological characteristics that define
II. P REVIOUS ANALYSIS AND ACHIEVED RESULTS IN this kind of mobile robot. The differential driven two-wheel
RESEARCH FIELD chassis concept that have wheels placed in the same axis
In the previous years of study, a multiple fields of robotics of rotation is a popular choice for its mobility in plane and
were subject to author’s research, that will ultimately link simplicity [5].
together in the resulting dissertation thesis. The robotic arm
description and kinematics, which was the subject of author’s
first year of research is presented in [2]. The robotic systems, A. Differential chassis holomomic constraints and kinematics
both static and mobile, share similar traits and problems,
If we know the exact geometric dimensions of chassis and
therefore the focus of interest was changed to mobile robot
wheels, we can define holonomic constraints even for other
modelling and control, as presented in papers [1], [3]. The
kinds of wheels, common types are illustrated in Fig. 2
created mobile robot simulation models, together with virtu-
alization options and control structure components, such as
trajectory generator presented in [1] or controllers are grouped
in the Mobile Robotics Blockset, a Simulink library which is
one of the dissertation thesis program outputs.
The most of work done was supported by project Vega
No. 1/0286/11 Dynamic Hybrid Architectures of Multiagent
Network Control Systems, completed in 2014 and by Univer-
sity Science Park Technicom for innovative applications with Fig. 2. Common robot wheels - fixed, centred and castor type of wheel

SCYR 2016 – 16th Scientific Conference of Young Researchers – FEI TU of Košice

The kinematics of chassis concept depicted on Fig. 1. is D. Mobile robot control structures
defined within nonholonomic constraints [6] The basic control task for mobile robot is to get the robot to
  specific position. If a mobile robot contain the internal control
  ẋ loop (Fig. 3.), it is possible to use feedforward control to move
− sin ϕ cos ϕ 0 0 0   ẏ 

 cos ϕ sin ϕ b −r 0   ϕ̇  = 0 the robot into position [1]. This approach is not sufficient,
cos ϕ sin ϕ −b 0 −r θ̇R 
  because the position error grow with the distance travelled,
even in straight line motion. Therefore, a feedback loop is
required to correct this error [5]. The usual, more complex
where x, y are the mobile robot centre of gravity plane mobile robot control scenarios are
Cartesian coordinates, ϕ is overall robot orientation, θR , θL • posture control - include robot orientation,
are wheel angular positions, r is wheel radius and b is half • path following - move on path defined as points or
distance between wheel mounts. postures,
• trajectory following - include time aspect,
• obstacle avoidance - reaction control with mapping.
B. Actuator modelling and internal control
As actuators, the mobile robots use DC motors, usually with
gearboxes that can produce enough torque force to set them The precise simulation model of mobile robot with dynam-
into movement [7] . The relation between applied voltage Um ics and actuators will serve as source of training and validation
and DC motor rotor axis angular velocity Ωm can be modelled data for feed-forward and inverse neural network models.
in form of linear transfer function Mentioned control scenarios can use classical approaches, but
in some cases, the artificial intelligence methods will be used
Kτ as in [5] to compare the overall control performance.
FΩm /Um (s) = (2)
(Ir s + Br ) (Lr s + Ra ) + Kτ Ke
where Ra is armature resistance, Lr is rotor inductance, Ir is
This work has been supported by the Research and De-
rotor moment of inertia, Br is friction coefficient, Kτ is motor
velopment Operational Program for project: Realization of
torque constant and Ke is back electromotive force constant.
control/expert tasks within resolving the project University
Model (2) can be furthermore extended with the gearbox, more
Science Park Technicom for innovative applications with
precise friction model, the inertia of load, that the motor moves
knowledge technology support - 2nd phase, co-financed by the
or disturbance effects [8]. Because of practical aspects, the
ERDF (80%) and by grant KEGA - 001TUKE-4/2015 (20%)
angular velocity of motor rotor is usually controlled indirectly,
using the additional internal loop through the armature current R EFERENCES
- this approach reduces the unwanted high acceleration. The [1] J. Čerkala, “Trajectory Generator for Mobile Robot in Plane,” in SCYR
DC motor as an actuator is also used as a dynamics component 2015 : 15th Scientific Conference of Young Researchers. Faculty of
of robotic arms too [9]. Electrical Engineering and Informatics, May 2015, pp. 322–323.
[2] ——, “Control of OWI 535 robotic arm using C# and possibilities of
future applications,” in SCYR 2013 : 13th Scientific Conference of Young
Researchers. Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, May
C. Dynamics model of mobile robot 2013, pp. 23–25.
[3] ——, “Modeling and Control of Robotic Systems,” in SCYR 2014 :
In general, the mobile robot’s dynamic model can be con- 14th Scientific Conference of Young Researchers. Faculty of Electrical
sidered as an disturbance effect that have to be suppressed. Engineering and Informatics, May 2014, pp. 217–218.
The basic mobile robot dynamic model, which minimally [4] J. Jadlovský, A. Jadlovská, S. Jadlovská, J. Čerkala, M. Kopčík, J. Ča-
bala, M. Oravec, M. Varga, and D. Vošček, “Research Activities of the
incorporate the robot’s mass and moment of inertia, can be Center of Modern Control Techniques and Industrial Informatics,” in
obtained using Newton-Euler or Lagrange approach. Also, this Applied Machine Intelligence and Informatics (SAMI), 2016 IEEE 14th
dynamic model can contain the frictions effects [6] or the International Symposium on, 2016, pp. 279–285.
[5] A. Jadlovská, J. Čerkala, and M. Tomčák, “Neural Model in Mobile
actuator dynamics [7]. An internal control loop, depicted on Robot Trajectory Following Task,” in Electrical Engineering and In-
Fig. 3. with PI controllers should be used [5], [10]. The mobile formatics 6 : proceedings of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Informatics of the Technical University of Košice. Faculty of Electrical
Engineering and Informatics, September 2015, pp. 739–744.
[6] J. Čerkala and A. Jadlovská, “Nonholonomic Mobile Robot with Differ-
ential Chassis Mathematical Modelling and Implementation in Simulink
with Friction in Dynamics,” Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica, vol. 15,
no. 3, pp. 3–8, 2015.
[7] R. Dhaouadi and A. A. Hatab, “Dynamic Modelling of Differential-
drive Mobile Robots using Lagrange and Newton-Euler Methodologies:
Fig. 3. Mobile robot internal control loop that suppresses the dynamic effects a Unified Framework,” Advances in Robotics & Automation, vol. 2013,
on robot movement 2013.
[8] F. A. Salem, A. A. Mahfouz, and A. A. Aly, “Systems Dynamics and
Control, Proposed Course Overview and Education Oriented Approach
robot is controlled by desired angular velocities w(t) and the for Mechatronics Engineering Curricula; Case Study,” American Journal
internal control loop should minimize the velocities errors of Educational Science, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 135–151, 2015.
[9] D. Receanu, “Modeling and Simulation of the Nonlinear Computed
e(t) with particular forces/torques represented by action u(t). Torque Control in Simulink/MATLAB for an Industrial Robot,” SL:
The real robot velocities q̇(t) are using the kinematics model Structural Longevity, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 95–106, 2013.
transferred into position vector q(t). The kinematic model is [10] J. Čerkala, T. Klein, and A. Jadlovská, “Modeling and Control of
Mobile Robot with Differential Chassis,” in Electrical Engineering and
used as a simple odometry sensor, but in real application, a Informatics 6 : proceedings of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
position correction using the sensors as gyroscope or cameras Informatics of the Technical University of Košice. Faculty of Electrical
is recommended. Engineering and Informatics, September 2015, pp. 651–656.

View publication stats