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You are on page 1of 11

BY

Muhammad Uzair Rasheed

2009-CPE-03

UCE&T BZU MULTAN

Contents

Types

Phase Modulation

Frequency Modulation

Properties

– Modulated wave does not look like message wave

– Amplitude of an exponentially modulated wave is constant

Therefore, regardless of message signal the average transmitted power is

1

P Ac2

2

Basic Concept

c (t ) ct c (t )

]

Thus:

• Varying the frequency fc Frequency modulation

• Varying the phase c Phase modulation

Basic Concept - Cont’d.

varies (increases linearly) with time

c(t)

(red)

Frequency-modulated Unmodulated

angle carrier

Unmodulated 47 /2

carrier 35 /2

Phase-modulated

Amplitude 23 /2 angle

Ac 11 /2

Slope = - /2

c/ t t

Initial

phase c 0 1 2 3 4 (ms)

t=0 t

2 m(t)

0

-1

Phase Modulation (PM)

Where Kp is known as the phase modulation index

i(t

Ac )

Instantaneous frequency

c(t)

c(t)

d c (t )

c(t) i (t ) c c (t )

dt

Rotating Phasor diagram

Frequency Modulation (FM)

Instantaneous phase

Note that

c (t ) K f m (t )

t

Integrating

i (t ) c c (t ) c (t ) ct K f m(t ) dt 0

0

t

Substituting c(t) in c(t) results in: c(t ) FM Ac cos[ ct K f m(t ) dt ]

0

Bandwidth of Angle modulation

• For FM:-

1

BFM 2k f m p 8 B

2

BFM 2 f 2B

k f mp

Frequency deviation= f

2

k f mp

• Deviation Ratio:-

f

B

• Carson’s Rule:-

BFM 2B 1

• For PM:-

k f mp '

Now,

k pmp '

BPM 2 B

2

THANKS

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