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# Angle Modulation

BY
2009-CPE-03
UCE&T BZU MULTAN
Contents

##  Properties of Angle (exponential) Modulation

 Types
 Phase Modulation

 Frequency Modulation
Properties

##  Angle Modulation: A non-linear process:-

– Modulated wave does not look like message wave
– Amplitude of an exponentially modulated wave is constant
Therefore, regardless of message signal the average transmitted power is
1
P Ac2
2

Basic Concept

c (t ) ct c (t )

## Thus one can express c(t) as: c(t ) Ac cos c (t ) Ac Re [e j c (t )

]

Thus:
• Varying the frequency fc Frequency modulation
• Varying the phase c Phase modulation
Basic Concept - Cont’d.

##  In angle modulation: Amplitude is constant, but angle

varies (increases linearly) with time
c(t)
(red)
Frequency-modulated Unmodulated
angle carrier
Unmodulated 47 /2
carrier 35 /2
Phase-modulated
Amplitude 23 /2 angle
Ac 11 /2
Slope = - /2
c/ t t
Initial
phase c 0 1 2 3 4 (ms)
t=0 t

2 m(t)
0
-1
Phase Modulation (PM)

## Thus c(t ) PM Ac cos [ c t K p m(t )]

Where Kp is known as the phase modulation index

## Instantaneous phase i (t ) K p m(t )

i(t
Ac )
Instantaneous frequency
c(t)
c(t)
d c (t )
c(t) i (t ) c c (t )
dt
Rotating Phasor diagram
Frequency Modulation (FM)

## Where Kf is known as the frequency modulation index.

Instantaneous phase
Note that
c (t ) K f m (t )
t
Integrating
i (t ) c c (t ) c (t ) ct K f m(t ) dt 0
0
t
Substituting c(t) in c(t) results in: c(t ) FM Ac cos[ ct K f m(t ) dt ]
0
Bandwidth of Angle modulation

• For FM:-
1
BFM 2k f m p 8 B
2

BFM 2 f 2B

k f mp
Frequency deviation= f
2

k f mp
• Deviation Ratio:-

f
B

• Carson’s Rule:-

BFM 2B 1

• For PM:-
k f mp '

Now,

k pmp '
BPM 2 B
2
THANKS