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DecisionSpace®

Well Engineering
Release 5000.1.13
Software Training Manual

© 2014 Halliburton

Part Number 220072 Revision C November 2014


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DecisionSpace® Well Engineering
Release 5000.1.13 Software Training
Manual
Torque & Drag Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Why use torque and drag models? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Software Torque Drag Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

Drill String Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4


Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Drill String Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Drill Pipe Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Why Use Heavy Weight Drill Pipe?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Why Use Drill Collars?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Why Use Stabilizers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Why Use Crossover Subs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

Defining Component Properties for Use in Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12


Component Catalogs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
String Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Drill Pipe Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Drill Pipe Nominal Size/Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Drill Pipe Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Drill Pipe Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Drill Pipe Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Drill Pipe Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Drill Pipe Upset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19

Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
What is Friction?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
Normal Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
Coefficient of Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23

Drag in the String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27


Drag While Tripping Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Drag While Tripping In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28

DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Release 5000.1.13 Software Training Manual i


Contents

Calculating Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28


Impact of Rotation Speed on Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29

Torsion in the String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30


Problems Exceeding the Makeup Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31
Calculating Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32
Radius of Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32
Impact of Rotation Speed on Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33
Analyzing Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34

Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35
Stress and Strain Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37
Elastic Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37
Plastic Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37
Yield Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38
Tensile Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38
Analyze String Tension Using the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Software . 1-39
Effective Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-39
Maximum Allowable Hook Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40
Margin of Overpull (MOP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42
Rig Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-44

Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-46

Pipe Burst and Collapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-48


Pipe Burst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-48
Pipe Collapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-48

Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-49
Why is buckling a problem? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-49
Buckling Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-50
Sinusoidal Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-50
Helical Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-50
Lock-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-51
Analyzing Buckling Using the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Software . . . . 1-51

Torque Drag Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53


Torque Drag Tab and Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53
Fixed Depth Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-54
Stress Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-58
Load Data Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-64

ii DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Release 5000.1.13 Software Training Manual


Contents

Roadmap Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-89


Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-93
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-95

Analysis Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-98


Torque & Drag Analysis Options on Analysis Settings Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-99
Actual Load Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-99
Block weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-101
Sheave Friction Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-101
Viscous Torque and Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-101
Bending Stress Magnification Factor (BSMF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-101
Stiff String Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-102
Buckling Limit Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-102
Maximum Overpull. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-102
Fluid Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-103
Wellhead Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-103

Supporting Information and Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-105


Additional Side Force Due to Buckling Calculation (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-105
Sinusoidal Buckling Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-105
Helical Buckling Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-105
Axial Force (API units). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-106
Buoyancy Method (used to determine buckling) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-107
Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-110
Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-110
Buoyed Weight (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-111
Critical Buckling Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-113
Curvilinear Model (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-113
Loading and Unloading Models (API units). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-114
Drag Force Calculations (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-116
Fatigue Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-118
Determine Cyclic Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-118
Apply Bending Stress Magnification Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-118
Establish a Fatigue Endurance Limit for the Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-119
Derate Fatigue Endurance Limit for Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-120
Compare the Cyclic Stress Against the Derated Fatigue Endurance Limit . . 1-123
Pipe Wall Thickness Modification Due to Pipe Class (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-123
Sheave Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-124
Side Force for Soft String Model (API units). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-125
Soft String Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-126
Stiff String Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-126

DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Release 5000.1.13 Software Training Manual iii


Contents

Hybrid Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-128


Straight Model (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-130
Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-131
Von Mises Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-131
Radial Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-132
Transverse Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-132
Hoop Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-133
Torsional Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-133
Bending Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-134
Buckling Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-134
Axial Stress (tension + bending + buckling) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-135
Stretch (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-135
Total Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-135
Tortuosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-138
Torque (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-138
Twist (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-140
Viscous Drag (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-141
Bingham Plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-142
Power Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-143
Herschel Bulkley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-143

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-145
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-145
Bending Stress Magnification Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-145
Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-145
Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-146
Hybrid Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-146
Sheave Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-146
Side Force Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-146
Stiff String Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-147

Hydraulics Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

Hydraulics Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2


Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Bingham Plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Power Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4

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Herschel Bulkley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4


Generalized Herschel Bulkley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Newtonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Types of Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Hole Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Pressure Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Annular Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Bit Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
ECD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Tripping Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14

Drilling Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16


Drilling Fluid Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Defining Drilling Fluids in the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Types of Drilling Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Rheology Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Defining Gases in the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27

Circulating System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28


Defining the Circulating System Using the Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Rig Mechanical Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Circulating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31

Analysis Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37


Hydraulics Analysis Options on Analysis Settings Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
Pump Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-38
Pumping Constraints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-38
Include tool joint pressure losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39
Include mud temperature effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39
Include back pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-40
Include cuttings loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-40
Include roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41
Returns at sea floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41
Swab and Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41
Gel Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-42

Hydraulics Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43


Hydraulics Tab and Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43
Hole Cleaning Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-44
Pressure and ECD Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
Roadmap Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51

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Bit Optimization Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52


Steady State Swab/Surge Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-56
Other Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59

Supporting Information and Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-62


Backreaming Rate (Maximum) Calculation (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-62
Bingham Plastic Rheology Calculations (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-62
Shear Stress - Shear Rate Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-62
Average Velocity in Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63
Average Velocity in Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63
Apparent Viscosity for Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63
Apparent Viscosity for Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-64
Modified Reynolds Number for Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-64
Modified Reynolds Number for Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-64
Pressure Loss in Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65
Pressure Loss in Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65
Critical Velocity and Flow in Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-66
Critical Velocity and Flow in Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-67
Bit Hydraulic Power (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-67
Bit Pressure Loss Calculations (API units). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-68
Derivations for Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0-Sec Gel, and Fann Data Calcula-
tions (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-68
Derive Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0-Sec Gel from Fann Data . . . . . . 2-68
Derive Fann Data from Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0-Sec Gel . . . . . . 2-69
ECD Calculations (API units). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69
Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Fluid Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-70
Generalized Herschel-Bulkley Rheology Calculation (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-73
Herschel-Bulkley Rheology Calculations (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-74
Hole Cleaning Methodology and Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-74
Calculate n, K, to and Reynold’s Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-75
Concentrations Based on Rate of Penetration (ROP) in Flow Channel . . . . . . 2-76
Fluid Velocity Based on Open Flow Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76
Coefficient of Drag Around Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77
Mud Carrying Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77
Slip Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77
Settling Velocity in Mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-78
Angle of Inclination Correction Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-78
Mud Weight Correction Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-79
Critical Wall Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-79
Critical Pressure Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-80
Total Cross Sectional Area of the Annulus without Cuttings Bed . . . . . . . . . . 2-80

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Dimensionless Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-80


Critical Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-81
Correction Factor for Cuttings Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-81
Cuttings Concentration for Stationary Bed by Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-81
Bit Impact Force (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-82
Nozzle Velocity (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-82
Power Law Rheology Model (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-83
Rheological Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-83
Flow Behavior Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-83
Consistency Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-83
Average Velocity in Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-84
Average Velocity in Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-84
Geometry Factor for Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-84
Geometry Factor for Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85
Reynolds Number for Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85
Reynolds Number for Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85
Critical Reynolds Numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-86
Friction Factor for Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-86
Friction Factor for Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-87
Pressure Loss in Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-88
Pressure Loss in Annulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-89
Pressure to Break Gel Calculation (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-89
Pump Power Calculations (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-89
Shear Rate and Shear Stress Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-90
Shear Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-90
Shear Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-90
Specific Gravities of Common Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-90
Swab/Surge Calculations (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-92
Tool Joint Pressure Loss Calculations (API units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-94

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97
Bingham Plastic Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97
Coiled Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97
Hole Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97
Herschel Bulkley Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-98
Optimization Well Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-98
Power Law Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-98
Rheology Thermal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-98
Surge Swab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-99

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Tool Joint Pressure Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-99

Swab & Surge Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
What’s the difference between Steady-State and Transient Model (Analysis)?. . . . 3-3
When Should I use the Transient Surge Model (Analysis)?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Why Use Swab & Surge and Reciprocation Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7


Wellbore Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
String Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Fluid Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Operational Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

Analysis Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12


Swab & Surge Options on the Analysis Settings Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Reciprocation Options on Analysis Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

Swab & Surge and Reciprocation Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14


Swab & Surge Tab and Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Swab & Surge Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Reciprocation Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Analyzing Results Using Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28

Supporting Information and Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30


Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
Pressure and Temperature Behavior of Water Based Muds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
Viscosity Correlations of Oil Based Muds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Surge Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Two Analysis Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Open Annulus Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35
Mass Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35
Momentum Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35
Coupled Pipe Annulus Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-36
Pipe Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-36
Annulus Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-37
Pipe Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-37
Closed Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-38

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Contents

Balance of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-38


Balance of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
Transient Pressure Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
Pipe and Borehole Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
Frictional Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
Pressure and Temperature Fluid Property Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45

Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
What is Underbalanced Drilling? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3


Bottom Hole Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Fluids and Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Defining Drilling Fluids in the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Defining Gases in the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Multi-Phase Flow and Flow Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Flow Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Hole Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Annular Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Liquid Holdup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Circulating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
Formation Influx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19

Analysis Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21


UB Hydraulics Analysis Options on Analysis Settings Tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Injection Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Pressure Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Calculation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Pressure at Bottom Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Operation Envelope Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26

Underbalanced Hydraulics Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28


UB Hydraulics Tab and Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28

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Contents

Underbalanced Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28

Supporting Information and Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43


Beggs-Brill Correlation 1973 (SI units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43
Hagedorn-Brown Correlation 1977 (SI units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48
Griffith Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49
Hagedorn-Brown Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-50
Hasan-Kabir Correlation 1977 (SI Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-52
Duns and Ros Correlation (Sixth World Petroleum Congress 1963 (SI units) . . . 4-59
Gray Correlations 1974 (SI units). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-68
Influx Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-70

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-73

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Chapter 1
Torque & Drag Analysis

Overview

Why use torque and drag models?


The first wells drilled in the oilfield were essentially vertical wells.
Torque and drag analysis was not required when drilling this type of
well as it involved lowering and picking up long, heavy strings of steel
components. Knowing the buoyed weight per foot and the length of each
section of the string was enough to calculate hookloads for the rig and
tensile loads for the string components. For deviated holes, directional
drilling, and horizontal wells, friction has become a pronounced
challenge to drilling, completing, and working over wells. Today
records are held for wells over 40,000 ft deep and for shallow extended
reach wells that travel miles away from the location of the rig.

With all of the advances in drilling techniques and technology, and with
the increasingly challenging wells that are drilled, the use of engineering
torque and drag software has become commonplace. The
DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software is used as a predictive tool
to determine if drilling and completing a well is even possible. The
software can be used to determine which strings will give the greatest
chance of successfully reaching total depth and completing the well, and
to model the forces that the string will endure while downhole.

Drillers rely upon surface values such as hook load, surface torque, and
surface pressure readings to understand what happens downhole. Even
with downhole tools that send information back to the surface, the
majority of drillers have very little information about what is happening
downhole. Torque and drag modeling allows us to see the forces within
the string below the surface to provide drilling and completions
engineers a much better understanding of how to plan their operations.
As with an iceberg, what can be seen above the surface gives only a
small part of the whole picture.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Software Torque Drag Analysis


The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software Torque & Drag
outputs can be used to predict and analyze the torque and axial forces
generated by drill strings, casing strings, or liners while running in,
pulling out, sliding, backreaming and/or rotating in a three-dimensional
wellbore. The effects of mud properties, wellbore deviation, weight-on-
bit (WOB) and other operational parameters can be studied.

The information in this chapter is useful for understanding data


requirements, analysis results, as well as the theory used as the basis for
the analysis.

The Torque Drag analysis includes both soft string and stiff string
models. The soft string model is based on Dawson’s cable model. In this
model, the work string is treated as an extendable cable with zero
bending stiffness.

The stiff string model includes the increased side forces from stiff
tubulars in curved hole, as well as the reduced side forces from pipe wall
clearance.

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The hybrid or discrete model uses a combination of stiff-string and soft-


string model. It assumes stiff-string model at the joints and the pipe body
is assumed as a soft string.

For all models, friction is assumed to act in the direction opposing


motion. The forces required to buckle the string are determined, and if
buckling occurs, the mode of buckling (sinusoidal, transitional, helical,
or lockup) is indicated.

For more information, refer to “Supporting Information and


Calculations” on page 1- 105 or “References” on page 1- 145.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Drill String Design

Overview
Drill strings are subjected to forces of tension, torsion, and bending
when drilling a well. Designing a string to accommodate these forces
requires knowledge of the physical properties of the pipe.

Drill strings must be designed to:

• Transmit and support axial loads

• Transmit and support torsional loads

• Withstand potential fatigue damage

• Transmit hydraulics (Refer to “Hydraulics Analysis” on page 2- 1


in the next chapter for more information.)

Drill String Components


Drill strings are made up of many different components. The
components selected for the drill string vary depending on the purpose
of the drill string, and the conditions the drill string will encounter in the
well.

Although this section discusses drill string design, the DecisionSpace®


Well Engineering software can also analyze the forces acting on casing,
tubing, or coiled tubing strings.

DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has a selection of many


component types you can use to create the string.

Accelerator Hydraulic Valve

Adjustable Near Bit Reamer Instrument

Anchor Intelligent Well Tool

Anchor Shoe Jar

Bit Mandrel

Block Mud Motor

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Casing MWD

Casing Scraper Packer

Casing Shoe Polished Bore Receptical

Coiled Tubing Port Collar/Diverter/Circulating Sub

Conventional Pump Progressing Cavity Pump

Core Barrel Pump Rod

Cuttings Bed Impeller Recorder

Drag Spring Rotating Shut-in tool

Drill Collar Safety Joint

Drill Pipe Sampler

Eccentric Blade Stabilizer Sand Control Screen

Electric Submersible Pump Slotted Pipe

Fish Stabilizer

Fishing Tool Sub

Float Collar Subsurface Safety Valve

Hanger Tubing

Heavy Weight Underreamer

Hole Opener Unknown*

Hydraulic Lift Pump Wellbore Equipment

*If the component you need is not listed, you can select Unknown as the
Section Type field of the String tab, and define the properties of the
component using the component details.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

The following example of the Schematic tab displays a drill string, and
the hole geometry the drill string is run in.

Drill Pipe Selection


Drill pipe selection is very important and depends on many factors such
as equivalent circulating density (ECD), torque and drag, tensile loads,
hole cleaning, casing wear, desired weight on bit (WOB) and other
factors depending on your particular situation.

Use the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software to analyze several


scenarios, and then select the one that meets your requirements.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Why Use Heavy Weight Drill Pipe?


Heavy weight drill pipe is primarily used to add weight to the string for
additional weigh-on-bit, although it also increases the stiffness of the
string. Heavy weight pipe comes in a variety of sizes and weights, and
is over two times heavier than the equivalent size of standard drill pipe.
Heavy weight is available in standard, spiral, and non-magnetic form.
Heavy weight has longer tool joints, with more upset than regular drill
pipe, which increases the weight.

Heavy weight drill pipe.


Notice the long tool
joints. Drill pipe. Notice the
single groove indicating
it is X95 grade pipe.

Why Use Drill Collars?


Drill collars are used to provide additional weight-on-bit (WOB) with a
stiff tubular.

Drill collars are available in many sizes and weights. Drill collar outside
diameters range from 2 7/8” to 12”, with an inside diameter range of 1”
to 4”. Drill collars are made from a variety of materials which impacts
the stiffness and weight of the drill collar.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Drill collars are predominately round like drill pipe. However, some
drill collars are triangular or square. The shape of the drill collar can
affect the stiffness as well.

There are several different type of drill collars, including:

• Non-magnetic

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

• Flex

• Spiral

Some drill collars are non-magnetic which is essential because some


survey tools use a compass. In order to get a good reading with the
survey tool, a certain amount of non-magnetic distance from the tool
must be maintained.

The material used to make non-magnetic collars is softer than magnetic


drill collars. As a result, problems with non-magnetic drill collars may
include:

• Galling on tool joints

• Frequent re-cutting the tool joints may be needed

• Hot spots may develop

• Costly

Spiral drill collars reduce differential sticking by reducing the surface


contact between the drill collar and the formation. Spiral drill collars
have an approximate 4% weight loss when compared to non-spiral drill
collars.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Why Use Stabilizers?


Stabilizers are used for many reasons, and can be used to control
deviation, reduce vibration, and increase the rigidity of the bottom hole
assembly (BHA).

Integral blade stabilizers are machined from one piece of bar stock. This
makes the stabilizer more durable, but also more expensive.

Welded blade stabilizers are not as rugged as integral blade stabilizers,


nor are they as expensive. A welded blade stabilizer is essentially a sub
with blades welded on. There is the chance a blade will fall off, and need
to be fished out of the hole.

Sleeve stabilizers are commonly used on motors. Sleeve stabilizers can


be easily changed out on the rig either to put on a kick pad, or to change
to the gauge needed on the motor.

Stabilizers can have straight or spiral blades.

Straight blades:

• Generate a lot of torque and vibration

• Lower standpipe pressure than spiral blade stabilizers

• Preferable for hole cleaning and pressure loss

• Easier to pump cuttings past a straight blade stabilizer

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Spiral blades:

• Less torque because the blades stay in contact with the formation
longer. As a result, a spiral blade stabilizer doesn’t move around in
the hole like a straight blade stabilizer would.

• Slightly higher standpipe pressure

• More difficult to pump cuttings past a spiral blade stabilizer

• More likely for cuttings to ball up around a spiral blade stabilizer

• The right-hand spiral helps move the cuttings up the hole. A left-
hand spiral would have the opposite effect.

Why Use Crossover Subs?


Crossover subs enable different sizes and types of bottom hole assembly
(BHA) components to be connected to form the drillstring. These subs
allow the crossover from large connections to smaller ones and visa
versa.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Defining Component Properties for Use in Analysis

Performing the analysis using DecisionSpace® Well Engineering


software requires detailed information about the geometric, and
mechanical properties of each component used in the string. Many of the
properties, such as weight, outside diameter (OD), inside diameter (ID),
are common to most components.

Component properties are defined for each string component using the
Details section located below the spreadsheet section of the String tab.

Spreadsheet section of
the String tab
Highlight, or click a cell in
the row containing the
component you want to edit
the details of. The Details
section(s) for the selected
component will be
displayed.

Details section of the


String tab

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Component Catalogs
Catalogs are used as a selection list to design a casing, tubing, liner or
drillstring. Catalogs are not associated with a Design or Case. A number
of read-only system catalogs are distributed with the DecisionSpace®
Well Engineering software.

Click to access a catalog from within the DecisionSpace® Well


Engineering software.

Use the Catalog Editor tool that ships with the Engineer’s Desktop™
to edit, or create catalogs. You can add to existing catalogs, create
additional catalogs, and share catalogs with other people. Custom
catalogs are useful because the catalog content can be customized to the
available pipes or other drilling products. Catalogs can be locked to
prevent changes. Refer to the Catalog Editor software Online help for
more information.

Click to access the


Catalog Editor
software tool.

String Libraries
A Library is a tool used to store a fluid or string for future use. Once a
fluid/string is stored in a Library, it can be retrieved (imported) for use
within a case or used to quickly and easily create a new fluid/sting based
on the retrieved fluid/string. You can use the Library to store
commonly used fluids and strings.

• Fluid Library- Each fluid entry in the library includes all the data
required to define that fluid, such as rheological model, density, gel
strength, etc. Imported fluids can be edited the data as desired.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

• String Library- A string Library can be used to store commonly


used assemblies or complete strings. Imported strings can be edited
to meet your current objectives.

Click to import from a Library, or click to export the current


string to a Library. These buttons are located near the top of the String
tab.

Note

Libraries should not be confused with Catalogs. A catalog contains a


collection of string components that can be used to build an assembly. There
are specific types of catalogs such as jar catalogs or drill pipe catalogs.

Drill Pipe Properties


Drill pipe is a common component for many strings, and is defined by
many of the same properties used to define other components.
Therefore, this section of the manual will examine drill pipe properties
in detail. Much of the material covered in this section applies to other
components.

Drill pipe selection is based on:

• Nominal size/diameter

• Nominal weight

• Grade

• Connection

• Class

When selecting the drill pipe from a catalog, use the following dialog.
This dialog appears automatically when you select Drill Pipe from the
Section Type drop-down list in the String tab spreadsheet. The columns
in this dialog uniquely identify a drill pipe in the catalog. Additional
information pertaining to that particular drill pipe will be visible in the
Details section of the String tab.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

To select the drill pipe you want, select one item from each column of
data. As you make selections, the remaining options changed depending
on previous selections.

Once you make your selections, the information will be visible in the
Details section as shown below.

Nominal diameter

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Approximate weight
includes the weight of
the pipe body,
including the upsets
and tool joints. It is not Grade
the nominal weight.

Connection

Class

Drill Pipe Nominal Size/Diameter


There are several sizes of drill pipe, including:

2 3/8” 4” 5 1/2”
2 7/8” 4 1/2” 6 5/8”
3 1/2” 5”

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

The following are a few of the issues to consider when selecting the drill
pipe size:

• The drill pipe with the tool joints must fit inside the diameter of the
hole, or the inside diameter of casing

• There are several hydraulics considerations such as cuttings


transport, ECD, pumping constraints, surge and swab pressures,
etc.

Drill Pipe Weight


Drill pipe weight can be expressed in the following ways:

• Nominal weight is the weight designation, and is the weight per


foot of the pipe without connections.

• Plain end weight is the weight of the pipe body without tool joints.

• Approximate weight is the weight of the pipe body, including


upsets and tool joints.

Each nominal size of drill pipe has at least 2 nominal weights. Refer to
API RP 7G.

Typically a higher weight pipe is stronger, but it will also be heavier and
tension loads may become an issue. Usually the pipe grade will be
adjusted for increased strength rather than increasing the weight.

Drill Pipe Connections


There are many different types of API connections and proprietary
connections. The following is a list of API connection threads.

• IF - Internal Flush

• FH - Full Hole

• XH - Extra Hole

• SH - Slim Hole

• DSL - Double Streamline

• NC - Numbered Connection

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Thread forms have different performance in terms of fatigue, torque,


tension, etc. Refer to API RP7G, or the proprietary connection vendor
for more information.

Drill Pipe Class


Drill pipe class is necessary because drill pipe is commonly used in a
worn condition. On the other hand, casing and tubing are usually new
when placed in the well. Once the drill pipe has been used, normal wear
and other use related defects cause the pipe to lose some of its original
strength. A pipe inspection assesses the damage, and the pipe is assigned
to a “class” corresponding to the extent of damage (outside diameter
wear).

Use the Drill Pipe section of the String tab to specify the Service Class
abbreviation and remaining wall thickness that you want to use. API
recommendations are listed below.

DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software adjusts the pipe wall


thickness based on class. Refer to “Pipe Wall Thickness Modification
Due to Pipe Class (API units)” on page 1- 123 for more information.

Drill Pipe Class Remaining Pipe Wall Thickness

New New pipe, never been used.

P > 80%

Class 2 < 70%

Class 3 < 70%

Drill Pipe Grade


There are many different pipe grades. Grade is indicative of the yield
strength of the drill pipe, or component. The yield stress is important
because it is used in the calculation of burst, collapse, and tension. Pipe
grades have specific steel chemistries, heat treatments, and are
manufactured in various ways to achieve a certain strength.
Performance data for a particular pipe is available from the vendor.

Grooves are cut into the tool joint so that the grade can be easily
identified.

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Four commonly used grades are listed below, but there are many
proprietary grades as well. The number after the letter is the yield stress
in thousands of psi, and the number in parenthesis is the number of
grooves used to identify the grade.

• E-75 (0)

• X-95 (1)

• G-105 (2)

• S-135 (3)

Because there is one


groove cut into the tool
joint, we know it is X-95.

Drill Pipe Upset


An upset can be added to drill pipe using a forging process to make the
wall thicker on the ends of the pipe. During the forging process, the pipe
is heated and placed in a machine to create an upset by forcing the heated
metal to flow backwards. This creates the upset. The size and
dimensions of the upset are dependent on the die and punch in the upset
machine. Upsetting does not improve the tensile limit of the pipe as that
is dependent on the pipe body. Upsetting does provide a smoother
transition between the stiffer tool joints and the more flexible pipe body.

The types of upset are:

• NU (non-upset) - No pipe upset

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• EU (External Upset) - All the extra metal is on the outside of the


pipe.

• IU (Internal Upset) - All the extra metal is on the inside of the pipe.

• IEU (Internal and External Upset) - The extra metal is on both the
inside and the outside of the pipe.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Friction

What is Friction?
Friction, put simply, is the resistance created as two objects in contact
attempt to move past each other. In a well environment the string is
moved in contact with the wellbore. The string is made up of drill pipe,
casing and various tools moving across the well surfaces, which consist
of casing and rock formations. The various types of string components
are run into, pulled out of, and rotated against the wellbore.

Movement in the well generates two types of friction: drag and torque.
Axial (up and down) movement creates drag. Rotational movement
creates torque. Drag makes it more difficult to push the string down or
pull it up out of the hole. Torque makes it more difficult for the rig to
turn, or rotate, the string.

Normal Force
The normal force is the force of one object pushing against another
object. Imagine pushing a simple wooden chair across the floor. It would
not be too difficult to push the empty chair across the floor because it
weighs only a few pounds. Now, imagine pushing the chair across the
floor with a person sitting in it. The force against the floor increases
when the person sits in it making it much more difficult to push the chair
across the floor.

When thinking in terms of downhole operations, the heavier a


component weighs, the more difficult it will be to push, pull, and rotate.
This is because it creates a higher side force. Also important is the angle
of the wellbore. In a vertical section there will be little force against the
wall of the wellbore, but in a horizontal section the entire buoyed weight
of the component will be pushing against the wall of the wellbore.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

In a vertical section, the weight of the object will pull it down, resulting
in little or no side force against the wall.

In a horizontal section, the object’s weight will pull it down. The result
is a large side force against the wall which will be equal to the buoyed
weight of the object.

In a deviated section, an object’s weight will pull it down. Some of the


weight will act as a side force against the wall. As the inclination
approaches 90 degrees, the greater the side force.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Normal force and side force are effectively the same thing. Using the
DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software, you can view this force
using the Side Force output available on the Torque & Drag ribbon.

Coefficient of Friction
The coefficient of friction is a measure of the resistance of two objects
moving against each other. Think about sliding an ice cube across a
glass table top. Not only are the glass and the ice cube both smooth, but
the ice will lubricate the contact surface, making it even easier for the
ice to slide across the glass. On the other hand, it is very difficult to slide
sand paper across wood. The ice/glass coefficient of friction is low and
the sand paper/wood coefficient of friction is high.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

The down hole drilling environment is more complex than this simple
example, and there are a many other parameters that contribute to torque
and drag. Example include:

• Wellbore obstructions, like cuttings bed

• Fluid lubricity

• Formation types

• Pore pressure (differential sticking)

• Wellbore instability

• Tortuosity

• Stabilizers

When using the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software, the


coefficient of friction you specify for the analysis accounts for more
downhole effects than mechanical friction. For this reason, it is
recommended that you calibrate the coefficient of friction using actual
data when possible.

The Friction Calibration plot provides the flexibility to calibrate


friction factors within a section. Sections can be created for one or more
measured depth intervals. Friction factors can be manually adjusted to
achieve the best curve fit to the actual load(s) data. You can select a
friction factor for use in a hole section, or for an operation. The Friction
Calibration plot is available from the Torque & Drag ribbon.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Typical friction factors are:

Mud Type Cased Hole Open Hole


Friction Factor Friction Factor

Air 0.35 - 0.55 0.40 - 0.60

Foam 0.30 - 0.40 0.35 - 0.55

Lingnosulfate 0.20 - 0.25 0.20 - 0.30

Polymer 0.15 - 0.22 0.20 - 0.30

Oil Base 0.10 - 0.20 0.15 - 0.20

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Use the Hole tab to input friction factors for cased and open hole
sections.

Specify friction factors for


each hole section.

Click here to use the friction


factors specified for each hole
Alternatively, you can
section.
specify friction factors
for each operation -
for both cased and
open hole.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Drag in the String

Drag While Tripping Out


When pulling out of hole (POOH), drag pulls down. Friction always
opposes movement. When tripping out (POOH), drag increases the
hookload, effectively causing the string to weigh more.

If the string cannot be pulled out of the hole, it may fail.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Drag While Tripping In


When running in hole (RIH), drag pushes up. Friction always opposes
movement. When tripping in (RIH), drag decreases the hookload,
effectively causing the string to weigh less.

Calculating Drag

vt
Fdrag = μFN  ----
 v r

Where:

Fdrag = Drag force


μ = Coefficient of friction (friction factor)
FN = Normal force
vt = Trip speed
vr = Resultant speed

(All units API)

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Impact of Rotation Speed on Drag


Increasing rotational speed (rpm) decreases drag. When considering
how string movement affects drag, it can be helpful to think of the
angular speed in terms of rotational speed.
Using the following to calculate the resultant speed, you can see that
increasing the angular (rotational speed) increases the resultant
speed. Referencing the above calculation for drag, notice increasing
the resultant speed reduces the drag force.

2 2
vr = vt + va

Where:
vt = Trip speed
vr = Resultant speed
va = Angular speed

(All units API)

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Torsion in the String

One of the functions of the drill pipe is to rotate the bit at the bottom of
the string. This rotation will cause torsional stress as the well is drilled.
Friction and other downhole conditions will increase the torque required
to rotate the string. The torsional strength of the pipe becomes critical
when:

• Drilling deviated wells

• Drilling deep wells

• Reaming

• Fishing/stuck pipe

• Drilling small diameter holes

If the torque becomes too great, the string may fail.

Although the tensional strength of the tool joint is normally higher than
the strength of the pipe, the torsional strength of the tool joints are lower
than the pipe strength. The torque applied to the drill string should not
exceed the tool joint make-up torque.

Excessive torque that exceeds the torsional limit of a component will


ultimately cause the material to yield and twist off. There are, however,
many other problems that will occur prior to this type of catastrophic
failure.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Problems Exceeding the Makeup Torque


The problems that are experienced when exceeding the makeup torque
of a component affect the threads and threaded connectors (i.e.
couplings and tool joints), and these problems occur long before the
torsional limit of a component is exceeded. The pipe body torsional limit
is always much higher than the makeup torque of the connections and is
not something that a torque and drag user needs to be concerned with
while modeling. We are concerned with not exceeding the makeup
torque of the string components. The make-up torque is specified using
the Mechanical details section for the string component highlighted in
the String tab.

The torsion in a
particular
component in the
string should not
exceed the
makeup torque for
the component.

Problems with exceeding the makeup torque of connections:

• Thread Galling

• Over-Torqued Connections

• Box Swelling

Thread galling occurs when the threads are damaged and results in
costly re-cutting the connections. Over-torqued connections that are
made up to a higher ft-lb of torque downhole than their maximum
makeup torque can be difficult to break (unscrew) on the rig floor. In
extreme cases, the rig crew has had to cut the pipe because they were
unable to break the connections when coming out of the hole.

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Box swelling occurs when the pin end of a connection screws in past the
point at which it is properly seated in the box. The pin end of the upper
joint acts like a wedge driving into the box, or upper end, of the joint
below. This causes the box to swell as the upper joint penetrates into the
bottom joint further than it was designed to. Since the shoulders of the
connections are the sealing point that keep fluids inside the pipe and in
the annulus separate, box swelling can interfere with the seal and lead to
a washout.

Calculating Torque

va
T = rμF N  -----
 vr 

Where:

T = Torque
μ = Coefficient of friction (friction factor)
r = Radius of component
va = Angular speed
vr = Resultant speed
FN = Normal force

(All units API)

Radius of Rotation
The radius about which rotational friction occurs factors into the amount
of torque generated. This is either the outside diameter (OD) of the
casing/tubing if the connection is flush, or the tool joint if it is raised past
the OD of the tube. For drill pipe with welded tool joints, the connection
OD determines the radius of rotation.

The larger the radius of the string component, the greater the effective
length of travel. The larger the OD of the string component is, the more
effort it takes for each rotation. Below the circumferences of a small and

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

large circle are shown, which represents the distance traveled for a small
and large OD component with each rotation.

Radius of Rotation Distance Traveled with each Rotation

Impact of Rotation Speed on Torque


Increasing rotational speed (rpm) increases torque. When
considering how string movement affects torque, it can be helpful to
think of the angular speed in terms of rotational speed.
Using the following equation to calculate the resultant speed, you
can see that increasing the angular (rotational speed) increases the
resultant speed. Referencing the previous calculation for torque,
notice increasing the resultant speed increases torque.
2 2
vr = v t + va

Where:
va = Angular speed
vr = Resultant speed
vt = Trip speed

(All units API)

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Analyzing Torque
In the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software, the torque limit,
or make-up torque curves displayed on the Torque and the Torque
Point outputs is pulled from the specified for the component
makeup torque on the String tab.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Tension

One of the main functions of the drill string is to transmit, support, and
raise large loads. Supporting the necessary loads causes tensile stress in
the pipe.

As mentioned earlier, drag pulls down when the string is moving


upwards during tripping out, backreaming or applying overpull. Forces
pulling the string in opposite directions creates tension.

Tension is problematic when the tensile limit of a string component is


exceeded. All pipe and other components stretch under tension, but this
is not problematic if the tensile forces remain within the elastic range. In
the elastic range, once the tensile forces are relieved (i.e. the string is
taken out of the hole), the components will return to their normal shape.
If the elastic limit is exceeded, the metal that these components are made
up of moves into the plastic range of deformation. This means that the
material will not return to its original shape when the tensile forces are
removed. The component is permanently deformed, with the walls
thinner and weaker than before. It is important to understand that there
is a disparity between different engineering disciplines regarding the use
of the term tension limit. Tension limit, as defined by design and testing
engineers, refers to the point at which metal parts, or breaks. For drilling
and completions engineers, the term tension limit refers to the plastic
deformation limit.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software shows a tension limit


line on the Effective Tension plot (Torque & Drag ribbon) that
represents the common oilfield usage of the term. The software’s
tension limit line is when metal has stretched to the point that it will not
return fully to its original shape; it has been plastically deformed.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Stress and Strain Limits


The following stress/strain plot is an example of a tensile test performed
on drill pipe.

Elastic Range
If a drill pipe is stretched, it will initially experience a region of elastic
deformation. In this region, the drill pipe will return to its original shape
if the stretching load is removed. In this region, the drill pipe can be
stretched like a rubber band. The drill pipe will stretch and then return
to its original size and shape after the load is removed. In this region, the
relation between stress (load) and strain is proportional.

The elastic range does not continue without limit. If the stretching
continues past the region of elastic deformation, it moves into a region
of plastic deformation. The maximum stress the pipe can take without
assuming permanent deformation is called the elastic limit.

Plastic Range
After the elastic limit is exceeded, the pipe will not return to its original
shape after the load is removed. In the plastic deformation region, the
pipe will remain elongated after the stretching force is removed. In the
plastic range, the relationship between the stress and strain are no longer
proportional. In this region, the pipe becomes stronger and a higher
stress needs to be applied to further deform the pipe.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Yield Strength
Steel yield strength is commonly defined as the point where a
measurable deviation of 0.2% has occurred in the steel.

Drill pipe strength is expressed in terms of yield strength. Drill string


design never uses the tabulated yield strength. Design is based on a
percentage of the yield strength (80 - 90%). In the DecisionSpace® Well
Engineering software, specify this percentage using the Torque & Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab.

Design is based on
percentage of the yield
strengh.

Tensile Strength
Yield strength should not be confused with tensile strength. Tensile
strength is the greatest tensile stress the steel can withstand without
breaking. By contrast, yield strength is the point at which the material
has deformed plastically under stress such that when the stress is
removed, the material is unable to return to its original shape.

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Tension failures generally occur while pulling on stuck drill pipe. As the
pull exceeds the yield strength, the metal distorts with a characteristic
thinning in the weakest area of the drill pipe (or the smallest cross-
sectional area_. If the pull is increased and exceeds the tensile strength,
the drillstring will part. Such failures will normally occur near the top of
the drillstring, because the top of the string is subjected to the upward
pulling force as well as the downward weight of the drillstring.

Analyze String Tension Using the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering


Software
The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software calculates the tensile
limit and displays this in the Effective Tension, Hook Load, String
Analysis Summary, and Stress plots for individual operations.

Effective Tension

Tension Limit
based on
minimum yield
strength
specified for
each component
on the String
tab.
If the effective
tension curve for
an operation
exceeds the
tension limit
curve, the string
is in danger of
parting at that
point.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

If the tripping out operation curve crosses the maximum weight yield
curve, the string is in danger of parting. The maximum weight yield for
a run measured depth is the minimum yield strength specified for any
string component that will be in the well when the bottom of the string
is at the corresponding run measured depth. Minimum yield strength is
specified on the String panel of the String tab.

Maximum Allowable Hook Load


Hook load is the weight of the drill string suspended from the hook.
When designing the drill string, it is important to keep the tensile stress
in the pipe below the material yield point.

Drill strings weigh less in weighted fluids than in air due to buoyancy.
Calculating the hook load uses the buoyed weight of the string.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Rig capacity is displayed


on the Hook Load plot.
Input Rig Capacity on the
Rig tab.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Input Rig Capacity on


the Rig tab.

Margin of Overpull (MOP)


The margin of overpull (MOP) is the difference between the calculated
load and the maximum allowable load. The MOP is how much
additional axial load we can apply to the drill string without exceeding
safety limits. In the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software, you

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

can specify the margin of overpull based on a percentage of the pipe


yield stress using the Analysis Settings tab.

Margin of overpull is determined


using the % of yield specified.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Margin of overpull is displayed on the String Analysis


output available on the Torque & Drag ribbon.

Rig Capacity
When considering the maximum weight of the drill string, the hook load
is not the only limiting factor. The rig capacity must also be considered.
The hoisting system of a rig is comprised of the following parts.

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The derrick is an open-framework structure of steel beams, whose


function is to hold the crown block, on which all of the items of
equipment operated in the well or on the drilling floor are suspended. A
derrick has a rated load capacity that is defined by API (American
Petroleum Institute) standards.

The crown block bears the load applied at the hook and its function is to
reduce the wire rope tension required to pull the tubular material used to
drill the well.

The traveling block located below the crown block and mounted to the
hook.

The hook consists of an upper section, fixed to the traveling block, and
a lower section, which is the actual hook.

Input the Rig Capacity


on the Rig tab.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Fatigue

TheDecisionSpace® Well Engineering software includes fatigue


analysis because it is a primary cause of drilling tubular failure. A
fatigue failure is caused by cyclic bending stresses when the pipe is run
in holes with doglegs. The source of fatigue failure is micro fractures
between the crystal structures of the material caused in the construction
of the material. These cracks are widened by successive stress reversals
(tensile/compressive) in the body of the cylinder. Refer to “Fatigue
Calculations” on page 1- 118 for more information.

The Endurance Limit is the greatest stress level where a fatigue failure
does not occur. A fatigue failure within the predictable period in the life
of the pipe will occur at a stress levels above the endurance limit. The
following factors affect the endurance limit of the pipe:

• Tensile strength - Increasing the pipe yield strength is not


proportional to the pipe material endurance limit.

• Surface finish - The type of surface finish can affect the endurance
limit.

• Corrosive environment - Continuous immersion in corrosive fluids


while undergoing cyclic stressing is extremely damaging to steel.

• Combined tension and bending - Tensile stress reduces the ability


of the pipe to withstand cyclic stresses. Additional factors are the
sharpness of the bend the pipe is rotating in, and the amount of
tensile load on the specific area of the drill pipe. The sharper the
angles, and the greater the tension, the faster the drill pipe fatigues.
The life of the pipe depends on its cumulative history at various
stress levels. A short period of stress can significantly shorten the
life of a joint of pipe. This damage can not be detected by any
current field method until cracks develop.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Drill String Failure


Many failures occur while rotating, or while picking up off bottom
immediately after drilling, and occur within 4 feet of the tool joint.
Failures are frequently associated with severe pitting on the inside of the
pipe. These cracks appear to have started from the inside. Failures that
appear to originate from the outside of the pipe are usually associated
with slip marks, or surface damage. When failures occur as a result of
pulling on stuck pipe, the failure frequently occurs in a location where
fatigue cracks have developed but had not progressed to failure.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Pipe Burst and Collapse

Pipe Burst
Pipe burst occurs when the internal pressure is greater than the external
pressure. Differential pressure required to produce burst has been
calculated for various sizes, grades, and classes of pipe. Refer to API
RP7G, or the pipe manufacturer for details. Safety factors are used in the
design to provide a safety margin. Pipe burst is considered during Well
Control analysis using the WELLPLAN™ software.

Pipe Collapse
Pipe collapse occurs when the external pressure is higher than the
internal pressure. Differential pressure required to produce collapse has
been calculated for various sizes, grades, and classes of pipe. Refer to
API RP7G, or the pipe manufacturer for details. Safety factors are used
in the design to provide a safety margin. Pipe collapse is considered
when using the Flotation Optimization output. See“Flotation
Optimization Plot” on page 1- 93

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Buckling

Why is buckling a problem?


When buckling occurs, the efficiency of weight transfer downhole
decreases. For example, if the rig slacks off 100,000 lbs at surface in a
vertical hole, and no buckling occurs, 100,000 lbs should make it to the
bottom of the string. When helical buckling sets in, an additional
100,000 lbs might result in only 80,000 additional lbs reaching the
bottom of the string. After that, an additional 100,000 lbs more might
only result in 20,000 additional lbs reaching the bottom of the string. At
this point helical lockup will likely occur and no additional weight
slacked off will make it to the bottom of the string.

When the string is moving downwards while tripping in, drilling, or


slacking off string weight, drag pushes up. The upward force creates
compression in the string.

Drag is problematic when running casing and liners in deviated hole


sections because the drag force pushing up can become greater than the
weight available to push the string down. When the drag overcomes the
available weight, the rig is no longer able to move the string downwards
and may not be able to place the casing or liner at the end of the hole
section.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

The most common problem with excessive drag is buckling. Buckling


causes problems because it decreases the efficiency of weight transfer
and causes fatigue in string components when they are rotated. Fatigue
due to rotation is more of a concern for drilling because of the prolonged
time spent in doglegs while rotating at high speeds.

Buckling Types
There are three types of buckling:

• Sinusoidal

• Helical

• Lockup

Sinusoidal Buckling
The first is sinusoidal, which is a wavy, snake-like buckling. This sets in
along a large section of the string and will gradually increase in intensity
(the severity of the bend). Sinusoidal buckling is something that should
be avoided, but does not pose a significant problem.

Helical Buckling
Helical buckling occurs after sinusoidal buckling has already set in and
even more compressive force is added to the string. Helical buckling
occurs suddenly in a small section of the string and propagates further
along the string as additional compressive force is added. Since a
helically buckled string section is coiled, it exerts an additional force
against the wall of the hole. Any weight slacked off through a helically
buckled section of the string will add to this compressive force against
the wall of the hole, decreasing the amount of weight that will pass

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

through to the non-buckled section of the string below. This is where the
weight is lost.

Lock-up
No additional surface slack-off weight gets to the bit.

Analyzing Buckling Using the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering


Software
The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has many outputs to
assist with predicting buckling. The String Position plot on the Torque
& Drag tab provides an easy to read schematic that indicates where
buckling is likely to occur.

The following String Position plot uses the soft string model, although
the plot can also be calculated using the stiff string model. The buckling
legend is displayed if buckling occurs. Use the drop-down lists at the top

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

of the output to select the operation and to select the type of information
you want to view on the plot.

In this example,
sinusoidal buckling
occurs first, in the
lowest portion of the
buckled section. The
sinusoidal buckling is
followed by helical
buckling, and a return to
sinusoidal buckling.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Torque Drag Outputs

Torque Drag Tab and Ribbon

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has many outputs


available on the Torque & Drag ribbon. Most of the outputs provide
you the results at the surface when the string is at the String Depth
specified on the String tab. If you want to input the surface conditions
and calculate those at the bottom of the string, use the Operations tab
to define a User Defined Operation.

Roadmap Plots are unique because they are used to predict the
measured weights and torques, at the surface or a specified distance
from the bottom of the string, when the bottom of the workstring is at a
range of wellbore depths. The calculations performed for this analysis
are similar to those used in many other outputs, except that the
calculations are performed assuming the bottom of the workstring is at
multiple depths instead of one depth.

On the Torque & Drag ribbon, the plots and tables with similar
functionality are grouped in categories in the ribbon as follows:
• Fixed Depth Plots

• Stress Plots

• Load & Stress Data

• Roadmap Plots

• Other

• Summary

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Fixed Depth Plots

Effective Tension Plot


Use the Effective Tension plot to view the effective tension in the string
for the operations enabled on the Operations tab. Effective tension can
be used to determine when buckling may occur. Data is included for the
measured depths from the surface to the String Depth specified on the
String tab.

The displayed in
the plot legend,
indicates that you
should carefully review
the associated data as
there may be a
problem.Hover the
cursor over the to
display additional
information.

The Rotating On Bottom and Slide Drilling curves exceed the buckling limit,
indicating the string may buckle.

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This plot displays:

• Curves indicating the loads required to helically or sinusoidally


buckle the string. If an operation curve crosses a buckling load
curve, the string will begin to buckle in the buckling mode
corresponding to the buckling load line as displayed in the above
plot.

• Curve indicating the tension limit for the string component at the
corresponding measured depth. If an operation curve crosses the
Tension Limit curve, the string is in danger of parting at that point.
Hover the cursor over the curve to display a tool tip indicating the
string component at that depth. The Minimum yield strength for
the component is specified in the Mechanical Details section of the
String tab.

• Curve indicating the Rig Capacity will be displayed if you have


checked Block rating and specified the block rating on the Rig tab.

True Tension Plot


The True Tension plot displays the true tension in the string for all
operations selected on the Operations tab. True tension is calculated
using the pressure area method and should only be used for stress
analysis. If you want to determine when the string will buckle, or fail
due to tension, refer to the Effective Tension plot. Data is included for
the measured depths from the surface to the String Depth specified on
the String tab.

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This plot includes a curve indicating the Rig Capacity if you have
checked Block rating and specified the block rating on the Rig tab.

Notice the Tripping


Out operation exceeds
the Rig Capacity and
shows the icon next
to it in the legend.

Torque Plot
The Torque plot displays the torque in the string for the operations
enabled on the Operations tab. Data is included for the measured depths
from the surface to the String Depth specified on the String tab.

This plot displays:

• Curve indicating the makeup torque limit for the string component
at the corresponding measured depth. If an operation curve crosses
the Torque Limit curve, the tool joints for the string are liable to
over-torque or break at that point. Hover the cursor over the curve
to display a tool tip indicating the string component at that depth.

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The Makeup torque for the component is specified in the


Mechanical Details section of the String tab.

Note

The make-up torque is derated for tension and will therefore change with
String Depth.

• Curve indicating the Torque Rating will be displayed if you have


checked Torque rating and specified the rating on the Rig tab.

Side Force Plot


The Side Force plot displays the side force per unit length in the string
for the operations enabled on the Operations tab. Use this plot to locate
points along the well that may be subject to high forces. Identifying area
subject to high force can help prevent casing wear or development of
key seats. Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to
the String Depth specified on the String tab.

Side force is the normal force acting perpendicular to the string. This
particular plot displays the side force per unit length, not at a single
point. This length is called the Contact Force Normalization Length.
Specify the Contact force normalization length at the top of the plot.
Usually this length is set to equal the length of a joint of pipe.

Hover the cursor over the curve to display a tool tip indicating the string
component at that depth.

Fatigue Plot
The Fatigue plot displays the string fatigue ratio in the string for the
operations enabled on the Operations tab. The string fatigue ratio is the
calculated bending and buckling stress divided by the fatigue endurance
limit of the pipe.

Hover the cursor over a curve to display a tool tip indicating the string
component at that depth.

String Clearance Plot


The String Clearance plot displays the position of the string in the
wellbore for the operating loads specified on the Operations tab and

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

when the Use Stiff String analysis mode is checked in the Torque &
Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.

Normally in a straight inclined hole with pipe in tension, the pipe will be
on the low side due to gravity. At the kickoff point of a build the pipe
will be on the high side of the hole due to tension. In helical buckling,
the pipe will zig-zag between the high and low side.

Only when there is azimuth turn or sinusoidal buckling will the pipe
move left or right of the center. In sinusoidal buckling the pipe will
snake left and right of the center but not reach the clearance limit.

This String Clearance plot shows the same information in graph and
tabular format as the visual information shown on the Deviated
Schematic output available on the General Outputs tab.

Stress Plots

Tripping In Stress Plot


The Tripping In Stress plot displays the stresses in the string while
tripping in. All stresses are calculated, except for Stress Limit, which is
the pipe yield stress specified in the Mechanical section of the String
tab.

For inner string analysis, the Tripping In Stress plot displays the
stresses in the outer string only. The outer string is defined using the
String tab.

Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.

To display data on this plot, the Tripping In operation must be enabled


on the Operations tab.

The following stresses are displayed:

• Hoop

• Radial

• Torsion

• Shear

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• Axial

• Buckling

• Bending

• Von Mises (tri-axial combination of the component stresses)

• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)

Tripping Out Stress Plot


The Tripping Out Stress plot displays the stresses in the string while
tripping out. All stresses are calculated, except for Stress Limit, which
is the pipe yield stress specified in the Mechanical section of the String
tab.

For inner string analysis, the Tripping Out Stress plot displays the
stresses in the outer string only. The outer string is defined using the
String tab.

Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.

To display data on this plot, the Tripping In operation must be enabled


on the Operations tab.

The following stresses are displayed:

• Hoop

• Radial

• Torsion

• Shear

• Axial

• Buckling

• Bending

• Von Mises (tri-axial combination of the component stresses)

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• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)

Rotating On Bottom Stress Plot


The Rotating On Bottom Stress plot displays the stresses in the string
while rotating on bottom. All stresses are calculated, except for Stress
Limit, which is the pipe yield stress specified in the Mechanical section
of the String tab.

For riser-less operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.

Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.

To display data on this plot, the Rotating On Bottom operation must be


enabled on the Operations tab.

The following stresses are displayed:

• Hoop

• Radial

• Torsion

• Shear

• Axial

• Buckling

• Bending

• Von Mises (tri-axial combination of the component stresses)

• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)

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Slide Drilling Stress Plot


The Slide Drilling Stress plot displays the stresses in the string while
sliding. All stresses are calculated, except for Stress Limit, which is the
pipe yield stress specified in the Mechanical section of the String tab.

Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.

To display data on this plot, the Slide Drilling operation must be


enabled on the Operations tab.

The following stresses are displayed:

• Hoop

• Radial

• Torsion

• Shear

• Axial

• Buckling

• Bending

• Von Mises (tri-axial combination of the component stresses)

• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)

Backreaming Stress Plot


The Backreaming Stress plot displays the stresses in the string while
backreaming. All stresses are calculated, except for Stress Limit, which
is the pipe yield stress specified in the Mechanical section of the String
tab.

Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.

To display data on this plot, the Backreaming operation must be


enabled on the Operations tab.

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The following stresses are displayed:

• Hoop

• Radial

• Torsion

• Shear

• Axial

• Buckling

• Bending

• Von Mises (tri-axial combination of the component stresses)

• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)

Rotating Off Bottom Stress Plot


The Rotating Off Bottom Stress plot displays the stresses in the string
while rotating off bottom. All stresses are calculated, except for Stress
Limit, which is the pipe yield stress specified in the Mechanical section
of the String tab.

For riser-less operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.

Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.

To display data on this plot, the Rotating Off Bottom operation must
be enabled on the Operations tab.

The following stresses are displayed:

• Hoop

• Radial

• Torsion

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• Shear

• Axial

• Buckling

• Bending

• Von Mises (tri-axial combination of the component stresses)

• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)

User Defined Operation Stress Plot


The User Defined Operation Stress plot displays the stresses in the
string for the user defined operation as defined on the Operations tab.
All stresses are calculated, except for Stress Limit, which is the pipe
yield stress specified in the Mechanical section of the String tab.

For riser-less operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.

Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.

To display data on this plot, the Rotating Off Bottom operation must
be enabled on the Operations tab.

The following stresses are displayed:

• Hoop

• Radial

• Torsion

• Shear

• Axial

• Buckling

• Bending

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

• Von Mises (tri-axial combination of the component stresses)

• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)

Load Data Plots

Tripping In Details
The Tripping In Details table displays load and stretch data for the
tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling, and torque are
displayed.

This table is inactive (disabled) if Tripping In is not checked on the


Operations tab.

Use the Show drop-down list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:

• All rows

• Failure rows only

• Bucking limit rows only

• Stress failure rows only

• Torque failure rows only

When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show drop-down list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.

Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.

Table Columns
Measured Depth - This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.

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Component Type - The component type positioned at the


corresponding measured depth is displayed. Components are based on
the string defined on the String tab

Fatigue - An in this column indicates the fatigue endurance limit of


the component has been exceeded.

90% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.

100% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 100% of the


yield stress of the component has been exceeded.

Sinusoidal Buckling - An in this column indicates that sinusoidal


buckling occurs in this component.

Helical Buckling - An in this column indicates that helical buckling


occurs in this component.

Lockup - An in this column indicates that excessive buckling has


caused the string to lock up at this component.

Torque Failure - An in this column indicates that the torque in this


component exceeds the make-up torque.

Distance From Bit - Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.

Internal Pressure - This is the internal pressure in the component.

External Pressure - This is the external pressure outside the


component.

Axial Force Pressure Area - The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1-110.

Axial Force Buoyancy - The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1-107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.

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Drag - This is the amount of string weight being supported by the


formation due to friction and contact forces at the component depth. For
tripping in, or slide drilling operations, the drag decreases the measured
weight at the surface. For tripping out operations, the drag increases the
measured weight at the surface.

Torque - This is the torque in the string at the component depth,


including the bit torque. For tripping operations, the torque will be zero
unless an RPM is specified for the tripping operation on the Operations
tab. Torque at bit is also specified on the Operations tab.

Twist - This is the amount of windup in the string at the component


depth. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Stretch - This is the pipe elongation of the string at the component


depth. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Sinusoidal Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce


sinusoidal buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling
column is greater than the Sinusoidal Buckling force, sinusoidal
buckling will occur. See “Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Helical Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce helical


buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling column is
greater than the Helical Buckling force, helical buckling will occur. See
“Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Contact Force - This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.

Hoop Stress - Hoop stress is caused by internal and external pressures.


See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Radial Stress - Radial stress is caused by internal and external


pressures, and is essentially the hydrostatic pressure in the well at the
component depth. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

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Torsional Stress - Torsional stress is caused by pipe twist, and is equal


to the torque divided by the Polar Moment of Inertia. See “Stress” on
page 1-131. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Shear Stress - Shear stress is a function of the contact force and


component cross-sectional area. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Axial Stress - Axial stress is caused by hydrostatic and mechanical


loading. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Buckling Stress - Buckling stress is the stress due to buckling, and is


only calculated when buckling occurs. The buckling stress considers the
distance from the string to the wellbore wall. See “Stress” on page 1-
131.

Bending Stress - This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1-131.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor - Bending Stress Magnification


Factor is a multiplier on the bending stress calculations. The BSMF is
defined as the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the
curvature in the pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This
factor can be applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations
to more accurately calculate the bending stress in a string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. See
“Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units)” on page 1-110.

Von Mises Stress - The Von Mises stress is a combination of the


individual component stresses. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Von Mises Ratio - This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.

Fatigue Ratio - Fatigue ratio is the calculated bending and buckling


stress divided by the fatigue endurance limit of the component.

Tripping Out Details


The Tripping Out Details table displays load and stretch data for the
tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling, and torque are
displayed.

This table is inactive (disabled) if Tripping Out is not checked on the


Operations tab.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Check Tripping out operation columns only to hide columns related


to buckling. Columns marked with an asterisk (*) in the descriptions
below will not be displayed if this box is checked.

Use the Show drop-down list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:

• All rows

• Failure rows only

• Bucking limit rows only

• Stress failure rows only

• Torque failure rows only

When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show drop-down list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.

Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.

Table Columns
Measured Depth - This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.

Component Type - The component type positioned at the


corresponding measured depth is displayed. Components are based on
the string defined on the String tab

Fatigue - An in this column indicates the fatigue endurance limit of


the component has been exceeded.

90% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.

100% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 100% of the


yield stress of the component has been exceeded.

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Sinusoidal Buckling - An in this column indicates that sinusoidal


buckling occurs in this component.

Helical Buckling - An in this column indicates that helical buckling


occurs in this component.

Lockup - An in this column indicates that excessive buckling has


caused the string to lock up at this component.

Torque Failure - An in this column indicates that the torque in this


component exceeds the make-up torque.

Distance From Bit - Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.

Internal Pressure - This is the internal pressure in the component.

External Pressure - This is the external pressure outside the


component.

Axial Force Pressure Area - The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1-110.

Axial Force Buoyancy - The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1-107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.

Drag - This is the amount of string weight being supported by the


formation due to friction and contact forces at the component depth. For
tripping in, or slide drilling operations, the drag decreases the measured
weight at the surface. For tripping out operations, the drag increases the
measured weight at the surface.

Torque - This is the torque in the string at the component depth,


including the bit torque. For tripping operations, the torque will be zero
unless an RPM is specified for the tripping operation on the Operations
tab. Torque at bit is also specified on the Operations tab.

Twist - This is the amount of windup in the string at the component


depth. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

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Stretch - This is the pipe elongation of the string at the component


depth. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Sinusoidal Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce


sinusoidal buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling
column is greater than the Sinusoidal Buckling force, sinusoidal
buckling will occur. See “Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Helical Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce helical


buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling column is
greater than the Helical Buckling force, helical buckling will occur. See
“Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Contact Force - This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.

Hoop Stress - Hoop stress is caused by internal and external pressures.


See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Radial Stress - Radial stress is caused by internal and external


pressures, and is essentially the hydrostatic pressure in the well at the
component depth. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Torsional Stress - Torsional stress is caused by pipe twist, and is equal


to the torque divided by the Polar Moment of Inertia. See “Stress” on
page 1-131. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Shear Stress - Shear stress is a function of the contact force and


component cross-sectional area. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Axial Stress - Axial stress is caused by hydrostatic and mechanical


loading. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Buckling Stress - Buckling stress is the stress due to buckling, and is


only calculated when buckling occurs. The buckling stress considers the
distance from the string to the wellbore wall. See “Stress” on page 1-
131.

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Bending Stress - This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1-131.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor - Bending Stress Magnification


Factor is a multiplier on the bending stress calculations. The BSMF is
defined as the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the
curvature in the pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This
factor can be applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations
to more accurately calculate the bending stress in a string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. See
“Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units)” on page 1-110.

Von Mises Stress - The Von Mises stress is a combination of the


individual component stresses. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Von Mises Ratio - This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.

Fatigue Ratio - Fatigue ratio is the calculated bending and buckling


stress divided by the fatigue endurance limit of the component.

Rotating On Bottom Details


The Rotating On Bottom table displays load and stretch data for the
tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling, and torque are
displayed.

This table is inactive (disabled) if Rotating On Bottom is not checked


on the Operations tab.

Use the Show drop-down list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:

• All rows

• Failure rows only

• Bucking limit rows only

• Stress failure rows only

• Torque failure rows only

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When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show drop-down list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.

Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.

For riser-less operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.

Table Columns
Measured Depth - This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.

Component Type - The component type positioned at the


corresponding measured depth is displayed. Components are based on
the string defined on the String tab

Fatigue - An in this column indicates the fatigue endurance limit of


the component has been exceeded.

90% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.

100% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 100% of the


yield stress of the component has been exceeded.

Sinusoidal Buckling - An in this column indicates that sinusoidal


buckling occurs in this component.

Helical Buckling - An in this column indicates that helical buckling


occurs in this component.

Lockup - An in this column indicates that excessive buckling has


caused the string to lock up at this component.

Torque Failure - An in this column indicates that the torque in this


component exceeds the make-up torque.

Distance From Bit - Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.

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Internal Pressure - This is the internal pressure in the component.

External Pressure - This is the external pressure outside the


component.

Axial Force Pressure Area - The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1-110.

Axial Force Buoyancy - The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1-107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.

Drag - This is the amount of string weight being supported by the


formation due to friction and contact forces at the component depth. For
tripping in, or slide drilling operations, the drag decreases the measured
weight at the surface. For tripping out operations, the drag increases the
measured weight at the surface.

Torque - This is the torque in the string at the component depth,


including the bit torque. For tripping operations, the torque will be zero
unless an RPM is specified for the tripping operation on the Operations
tab. Torque at bit is also specified on the Operations tab.

Twist - This is the amount of windup in the string at the component


depth. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Stretch - This is the pipe elongation of the string at the component


depth. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Sinusoidal Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce


sinusoidal buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling
column is greater than the Sinusoidal Buckling force, sinusoidal
buckling will occur. See “Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Helical Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce helical


buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling column is
greater than the Helical Buckling force, helical buckling will occur. See
“Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

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Contact Force - This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.

Hoop Stress - Hoop stress is caused by internal and external pressures.


See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Radial Stress - Radial stress is caused by internal and external


pressures, and is essentially the hydrostatic pressure in the well at the
component depth. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Torsional Stress - Torsional stress is caused by pipe twist, and is equal


to the torque divided by the Polar Moment of Inertia. See “Stress” on
page 1-131. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Shear Stress - Shear stress is a function of the contact force and


component cross-sectional area. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Axial Stress - Axial stress is caused by hydrostatic and mechanical


loading. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Buckling Stress - Buckling stress is the stress due to buckling, and is


only calculated when buckling occurs. The buckling stress considers the
distance from the string to the wellbore wall. See “Stress” on page 1-
131.

Bending Stress - This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1-131.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor - Bending Stress Magnification


Factor is a multiplier on the bending stress calculations. The BSMF is
defined as the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the
curvature in the pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This
factor can be applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations
to more accurately calculate the bending stress in a string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. See
“Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units)” on page 1-110.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Von Mises Stress - The Von Mises stress is a combination of the


individual component stresses. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Von Mises Ratio - This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.

Fatigue Ratio - Fatigue ratio is the calculated bending and buckling


stress divided by the fatigue endurance limit of the component.

Slide Drilling Details


The Slide Drilling Details table displays load and stretch data for the
tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling, and torque are
displayed.

This table is inactive (disabled) if Slide Drilling is not checked on the


Operations tab.

Use the Show drop-down list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:

• All rows

• Failure rows only

• Bucking limit rows only

• Stress failure rows only

• Torque failure rows only

When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show drop-down list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.

Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.

Table Columns
Measured Depth - This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Component Type - The component type positioned at the


corresponding measured depth is displayed. Components are based on
the string defined on the String tab

Fatigue - An in this column indicates the fatigue endurance limit of


the component has been exceeded.

90% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.

100% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 100% of the


yield stress of the component has been exceeded.

Sinusoidal Buckling - An in this column indicates that sinusoidal


buckling occurs in this component.

Helical Buckling - An in this column indicates that helical buckling


occurs in this component.

Lockup - An in this column indicates that excessive buckling has


caused the string to lock up at this component.

Torque Failure - An in this column indicates that the torque in this


component exceeds the make-up torque.

Distance From Bit - Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.

Internal Pressure - This is the internal pressure in the component.

External Pressure - This is the external pressure outside the


component.

Axial Force Pressure Area - The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1-110.

Axial Force Buoyancy - The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1-107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Drag - This is the amount of string weight being supported by the


formation due to friction and contact forces at the component depth. For
tripping in, or slide drilling operations, the drag decreases the measured
weight at the surface. For tripping out operations, the drag increases the
measured weight at the surface.

Torque - This is the torque in the string at the component depth,


including the bit torque. For tripping operations, the torque will be zero
unless an RPM is specified for the tripping operation on the Operations
tab. Torque at bit is also specified on the Operations tab.

Twist - This is the amount of windup in the string at the component


depth. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Stretch - This is the pipe elongation of the string at the component


depth. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Sinusoidal Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce


sinusoidal buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling
column is greater than the Sinusoidal Buckling force, sinusoidal
buckling will occur. See “Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Helical Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce helical


buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling column is
greater than the Helical Buckling force, helical buckling will occur. See
“Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Contact Force - This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.

Hoop Stress - Hoop stress is caused by internal and external pressures.


See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Radial Stress - Radial stress is caused by internal and external


pressures, and is essentially the hydrostatic pressure in the well at the
component depth. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Torsional Stress - Torsional stress is caused by pipe twist, and is equal


to the torque divided by the Polar Moment of Inertia. See “Stress” on
page 1-131. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Shear Stress - Shear stress is a function of the contact force and


component cross-sectional area. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Axial Stress - Axial stress is caused by hydrostatic and mechanical


loading. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Buckling Stress - Buckling stress is the stress due to buckling, and is


only calculated when buckling occurs. The buckling stress considers the
distance from the string to the wellbore wall. See “Stress” on page 1-
131.

Bending Stress - This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1-131.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor - Bending Stress Magnification


Factor is a multiplier on the bending stress calculations. The BSMF is
defined as the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the
curvature in the pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This
factor can be applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations
to more accurately calculate the bending stress in a string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. See
“Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units)” on page 1-110.

Von Mises Stress - The Von Mises stress is a combination of the


individual component stresses. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Von Mises Ratio - This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.

Fatigue Ratio - Fatigue ratio is the calculated bending and buckling


stress divided by the fatigue endurance limit of the component.

Backreaming Details
The Backreaming Details table displays load and stretch data for the
tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling, and torque are
displayed.

This table is inactive (disabled) if Backreaming is not checked on the


Operations tab.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Use the Show drop-down list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:

• All rows

• Failure rows only

• Bucking limit rows only

• Stress failure rows only

• Torque failure rows only

When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show drop-down list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.

Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.

Table Columns
Measured Depth - This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.

Component Type - The component type positioned at the


corresponding measured depth is displayed. Components are based on
the string defined on the String tab

Fatigue - An in this column indicates the fatigue endurance limit of


the component has been exceeded.

90% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.

100% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 100% of the


yield stress of the component has been exceeded.

Sinusoidal Buckling - An in this column indicates that sinusoidal


buckling occurs in this component.

Helical Buckling - An in this column indicates that helical buckling


occurs in this component.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Lockup - An in this column indicates that excessive buckling has


caused the string to lock up at this component.

Torque Failure - An in this column indicates that the torque in this


component exceeds the make-up torque.

Distance From Bit - Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.

Internal Pressure - This is the internal pressure in the component.

External Pressure - This is the external pressure outside the


component.

Axial Force Pressure Area - The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1-110.

Axial Force Buoyancy - The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1-107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.

Drag - This is the amount of string weight being supported by the


formation due to friction and contact forces at the component depth. For
tripping in, or slide drilling operations, the drag decreases the measured
weight at the surface. For tripping out operations, the drag increases the
measured weight at the surface.

Torque - This is the torque in the string at the component depth,


including the bit torque. For tripping operations, the torque will be zero
unless an RPM is specified for the tripping operation on the Operations
tab. Torque at bit is also specified on the Operations tab.

Twist - This is the amount of windup in the string at the component


depth. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Stretch - This is the pipe elongation of the string at the component


depth. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Sinusoidal Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce


sinusoidal buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

column is greater than the Sinusoidal Buckling force, sinusoidal


buckling will occur. See “Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Helical Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce helical


buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling column is
greater than the Helical Buckling force, helical buckling will occur. See
“Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Contact Force - This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.

Hoop Stress - Hoop stress is caused by internal and external pressures.


See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Radial Stress - Radial stress is caused by internal and external


pressures, and is essentially the hydrostatic pressure in the well at the
component depth. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Torsional Stress - Torsional stress is caused by pipe twist, and is equal


to the torque divided by the Polar Moment of Inertia. See “Stress” on
page 1-131. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Shear Stress - Shear stress is a function of the contact force and


component cross-sectional area. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Axial Stress - Axial stress is caused by hydrostatic and mechanical


loading. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Buckling Stress - Buckling stress is the stress due to buckling, and is


only calculated when buckling occurs. The buckling stress considers the
distance from the string to the wellbore wall. See “Stress” on page 1-
131.

Bending Stress - This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1-131.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor - Bending Stress Magnification


Factor is a multiplier on the bending stress calculations. The BSMF is

DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Release 5000.1.13 Software Training Manual 1-81


Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

defined as the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the


curvature in the pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This
factor can be applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations
to more accurately calculate the bending stress in a string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. See
“Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units)” on page 1-110.

Von Mises Stress - The Von Mises stress is a combination of the


individual component stresses. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Von Mises Ratio - This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.

Fatigue Ratio - Fatigue ratio is the calculated bending and buckling


stress divided by the fatigue endurance limit of the component.

Rotating Off Bottom Details


The Rotating Off Bottom table displays load and stretch data for the
tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling, and torque are
displayed.

This table is inactive (disabled) if Rotating Off Bottom is not checked


on the Operations tab.

Use the Show drop-down list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:

• All rows

• Failure rows only

• Bucking limit rows only

• Stress failure rows only

• Torque failure rows only

When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show drop-down list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.

Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.

For riser-less operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.

Table Columns
Measured Depth - This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.

Component Type - The component type positioned at the


corresponding measured depth is displayed. Components are based on
the string defined on the String tab

Fatigue - An in this column indicates the fatigue endurance limit of


the component has been exceeded.

90% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.

100% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 100% of the


yield stress of the component has been exceeded.

Sinusoidal Buckling - An in this column indicates that sinusoidal


buckling occurs in this component.

Helical Buckling - An in this column indicates that helical buckling


occurs in this component.

Lockup - An in this column indicates that excessive buckling has


caused the string to lock up at this component.

Torque Failure - An in this column indicates that the torque in this


component exceeds the make-up torque.

Distance From Bit - Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.

Internal Pressure - This is the internal pressure in the component.

External Pressure - This is the external pressure outside the


component.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Axial Force Pressure Area - The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1-110.

Axial Force Buoyancy - The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1-107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.

Drag - This is the amount of string weight being supported by the


formation due to friction and contact forces at the component depth. For
tripping in, or slide drilling operations, the drag decreases the measured
weight at the surface. For tripping out operations, the drag increases the
measured weight at the surface.

Torque - This is the torque in the string at the component depth,


including the bit torque. For tripping operations, the torque will be zero
unless an RPM is specified for the tripping operation on the Operations
tab. Torque at bit is also specified on the Operations tab.

Twist - This is the amount of windup in the string at the component


depth. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Stretch - This is the pipe elongation of the string at the component


depth. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Sinusoidal Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce


sinusoidal buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling
column is greater than the Sinusoidal Buckling force, sinusoidal
buckling will occur. See “Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Helical Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce helical


buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling column is
greater than the Helical Buckling force, helical buckling will occur. See
“Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Contact Force - This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the


contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.

Hoop Stress - Hoop stress is caused by internal and external pressures.


See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Radial Stress - Radial stress is caused by internal and external


pressures, and is essentially the hydrostatic pressure in the well at the
component depth. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Torsional Stress - Torsional stress is caused by pipe twist, and is equal


to the torque divided by the Polar Moment of Inertia. See “Stress” on
page 1-131. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Shear Stress - Shear stress is a function of the contact force and


component cross-sectional area. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Axial Stress - Axial stress is caused by hydrostatic and mechanical


loading. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Buckling Stress - Buckling stress is the stress due to buckling, and is


only calculated when buckling occurs. The buckling stress considers the
distance from the string to the wellbore wall. See “Stress” on page 1-
131.

Bending Stress - This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1-131.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor - Bending Stress Magnification


Factor is a multiplier on the bending stress calculations. The BSMF is
defined as the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the
curvature in the pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This
factor can be applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations
to more accurately calculate the bending stress in a string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. See
“Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units)” on page 1-110.

Von Mises Stress - The Von Mises stress is a combination of the


individual component stresses. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Von Mises Ratio - This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Fatigue Ratio - Fatigue ratio is the calculated bending and buckling


stress divided by the fatigue endurance limit of the component.

User Defined Operation Details


The User Defined Operation Details table displays load and stretch
data for the tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling,
and torque are displayed.

This table is inactive (disabled) if User Defined Operation is not


checked on the Operations tab.

Use the Show drop-down list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:

• All rows

• Failure rows only

• Bucking limit rows only

• Stress failure rows only

• Torque failure rows only

When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show drop-down list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.

Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.

For riser-less operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.

Table Columns
Measured Depth - This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Component Type - The component type positioned at the


corresponding measured depth is displayed. Components are based on
the string defined on the String tab

Fatigue - An in this column indicates the fatigue endurance limit of


the component has been exceeded.

90% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.

100% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 100% of the


yield stress of the component has been exceeded.

Sinusoidal Buckling - An in this column indicates that sinusoidal


buckling occurs in this component.

Helical Buckling - An in this column indicates that helical buckling


occurs in this component.

Lockup - An in this column indicates that excessive buckling has


caused the string to lock up at this component.

Torque Failure - An in this column indicates that the torque in this


component exceeds the make-up torque.

Distance From Bit - Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.

Internal Pressure - This is the internal pressure in the component.

External Pressure - This is the external pressure outside the


component.

Axial Force Pressure Area - The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1-110.

Axial Force Buoyancy - The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1-107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Drag - This is the amount of string weight being supported by the


formation due to friction and contact forces at the component depth. For
tripping in, or slide drilling operations, the drag decreases the measured
weight at the surface. For tripping out operations, the drag increases the
measured weight at the surface.

Torque - This is the torque in the string at the component depth,


including the bit torque. For tripping operations, the torque will be zero
unless an RPM is specified for the tripping operation on the Operations
tab. Torque at bit is also specified on the Operations tab.

Twist - This is the amount of windup in the string at the component


depth. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Stretch - This is the pipe elongation of the string at the component


depth. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Sinusoidal Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce


sinusoidal buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling
column is greater than the Sinusoidal Buckling force, sinusoidal
buckling will occur. See “Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Helical Buckling - This is the critical buckling force to induce helical


buckling. If the force displayed in the Axial Force Buckling column is
greater than the Helical Buckling force, helical buckling will occur. See
“Critical Buckling Forces” on page 1-113.

Contact Force - This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.

Hoop Stress - Hoop stress is caused by internal and external pressures.


See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Radial Stress - Radial stress is caused by internal and external


pressures, and is essentially the hydrostatic pressure in the well at the
component depth. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Torsional Stress - Torsional stress is caused by pipe twist, and is equal


to the torque divided by the Polar Moment of Inertia. See “Stress” on
page 1-131. See “Twist (API units)” on page 1-140.

Shear Stress - Shear stress is a function of the contact force and


component cross-sectional area. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Axial Stress - Axial stress is caused by hydrostatic and mechanical


loading. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Buckling Stress - Buckling stress is the stress due to buckling, and is


only calculated when buckling occurs. The buckling stress considers the
distance from the string to the wellbore wall. See “Stress” on page 1-
131.

Bending Stress - This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1-131.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor - Bending Stress Magnification


Factor is a multiplier on the bending stress calculations. The BSMF is
defined as the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the
curvature in the pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This
factor can be applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations
to more accurately calculate the bending stress in a string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. See
“Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units)” on page 1-110.

Von Mises Stress - The Von Mises stress is a combination of the


individual component stresses. See “Stress” on page 1-131.

Von Mises Ratio - This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.

Fatigue Ratio - Fatigue ratio is the calculated bending and buckling


stress divided by the fatigue endurance limit of the component.

Roadmap Plots

Hook Load Plot


The Hook Load plot displays the hook load at the surface, or a point of
interest when the bottom of the string is at each of the incremental

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depths specified in the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab.


Results are displayed for the operations enabled on the Operations tab.

For inner string analysis, the hook load is the combined load from both
the inner and outer strings.

Using the plot, you can determine the load that will fail the string, but
you will not be able to determine what component failed in the string.

To display the hook load at the surface, click Surface. This option is
located at the top of the plot.

To display the tension at a particular distance from total depth (TD),


click below the Surface option, and specify the distance from TD that
you are interested in.

To display the hook load at a desired point, select the Use POI check
box. Then on the Schematic tab, click and drag it to the desired point
on the string displayed. The selected depth and component type will be
displayed on both the plot and the Schematic tab.

This plot displays:

• Max Weight Yield (Tripping Out) - Curve indicating the


Maximum Weight Yield while tripping out when the bottom of the
string is at the corresponding run measured depth. If the tripping
out operation curve crosses the Maximum Weight Yield curve, the
string is in danger of parting. The Max Weight Yield for a run
measured depth is the Minimum yield strength specified for any
string component that will be in the well when the bottom of the
string is at the corresponding run measured depth. Minimum yield
strength is specified in the Mechanical Details section of the
String tab for each component.

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• Curve indicating the Rig Capacity will be displayed if you have


checked Block rating and specified the block rating on the Rig tab.

• Minimum Wt. Hel. Buckle - Curve displays the minimum hook


load at the surface to buckle the string when the bottom of the string
is at the Run Measured Depth as indicated on the Y-axis. If an
operation curve crosses a buckling load curve, the string will begin
to buckle in the buckling mode corresponding to the buckling load
line. This curve is only displayed when the Surface option is
selected.

Note

• When using the plot to view results at a specified point of interest, this
plot displays the tension in the string at the point of interest.
• If the Surface option is selected, this title of this plot is Hook Load at
Surface and the plot displays the hook load at the surface when the
bottom of the string is at the Run Measured Depth as indicated on the Y-
axis.

Torque Point Plot


The Torque Point plot displays the maximum torque at the surface, or
a point of interest when the bottom of the string is at each of the
incremental depths specified in the Common section of the Analysis
Settings tab. Results are displayed for the operations enabled on the
Operations tab, except for the User Defined Operation. This plot also
displays the torque limit for the rig (if specified and enabled on the Rig
tab), and the make-up torque limit for the component at the surface or
point of interest. The torque limit is derated for tension.

To display the torque at the surface, click Surface. This option is located
at the top of the plot.

To display the torque at a particular distance from total depth (TD), click
below the Surface option, and specify the distance from TD that you are
interested in.

To display Torque at a desired point, select the Use POI check box.
Then on the Schematic tab, click and drag it to the desired point on
the string displayed. The selected depth and component type will be
displayed on both the plot and the Schematic tab.

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This plot displays:

• Make-up Torque - Curve indicating the make-up torque of the


component currently at the surface or at the point of interest. The
make-up torque for string components is entered using the
Mechanical section of the String tab.

• Curve indicating the Torque Rating will be displayed if you have


checked Torque rating and specified the rating on the Rig tab.

• Actual torque if actual load data has been entered in the Torque &
Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.

Minimum WOB Plot


The Minimum WOB plot displays the minimum weight-on-bit (WOB)
to initiate sinusoidal or helical buckling at any point in the string when
the bottom of the string is at each of the incremental depths specified in
the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab.

Friction Calibration Plot


The Friction Calibration plot provides the flexibility to calibrate
friction factors within a section. Sections can be created for one or more
measured depth intervals. Friction factors can be manually adjusted to
achieve the best curve fit to the actual load(s) data. You can select a
friction factor for use in a hole section, or for an operation.

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Other

Flotation Optimization Plot


The Flotation Optimization plot is intended to analyze casing/liner
flotation, and does not support any type of riser-less or inner string
operations.

The Flotation Optimization plot displays the effects of the air column
length on the minimum hook load, and maximum torque. Using the plot,
you can determine the optimum the length of the air column required for
the casing/liner to reach a specific depth. Specify the depth using the
String depth field on the String tab. This output is only available for
tripping in operations. Use the Operations to enable the tripping in
operation.

Use the left Y-axis to read the minimum hook load required to push the
casing/liner into the wellbore, and the right Y-axis to read the maximum
torque for any air column length (X-axis). When the minimum hook
load is negative, the air column is not long enough to trip the casing/liner
into the wellbore. As the length of the air column increases, the
minimum hook load increases until it reaches zero. At this point
additional air column length no longer affects the minimum hook load.

The resultant optimized air column length is shown in a box floating


over the plot, along with the collapse safety factor.

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When the Use button is clicked, the optimized air column length is
added to the Air column length field. This field can be found in the
Torque and Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.

Note

The Use button is inactive unless the Use fluid column gradient box is
checked in the Torque and Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.

Collapse Safety Factor


This read-only information indicates the minimum collapse safety factor
that occurs in the string using the specified String depth field on the
String tab. Casing collapse due to hydrostatic loads is, with the
exception of yield collapse in thick-walled tubulars, primarily an elastic
or inelastic instability problem rather than one of material yield. The
collapse analysis employs the formulations from API Bulletin 5C3, and
considers the following four collapse regimes as well as the effect of
internal pressure, tension, on these collapse ratings. The four collapse
regimes are:

• Analytical expression for yield strength collapse

• Empirically derived expression for plastic collapse

• Extrapolation-based expression for transition collapse

• Analytical expression for elastic collapse

The effect of internal pressure on collapse resistance, as formulated in


API Bulletin 5C3, is considered before applying the collapse design
factor to the collapse load line by converting the collapse differential
pressure profile to an effective collapse pressure profile. The effect of

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tension on collapse resistance, as formulated in API Bulletin 5C3, is


considered after application of the collapse design factor.

Note

• If you specify (on the String tab) a collapse resistance greater than the
calculated (as formulated in API Bulletin 5C3) collapse resistance, the
collapse safety factor will default to the calculated collapse safety factor
for a more conservative analysis.
• The analysis will take a long time to calculate if the Use stiff string box
is checked on the Torque & Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.
• The analysis uses a 100 ft step size when determining the length of the air
column.

Summary

String Analysis Summary


The String Analysis Summary displays the load and stress data for the
selected operations. Any failures due to stress, buckling, or torque are
indicated.

All operations, except for User Defined Operations, can be displayed


in this table by checking the operation on the Operations tab for each
operation. Use the User Defined Operation Details Load Data table to
view information about User Defined Operations.

Note

For riser-less operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results for
any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.

Minimum WOB (Rotating) to:

• Sinusoidal Buckle - This is the minimum weight-on-bit (WOB)


that will cause sinusoidal buckling to occur at any point in the
string. The depth where the sinusoidal buckling first occurs is
displayed.

• Helical Buckle - This is the minimum weight-on-bit (WOB) that


will cause helical buckling to occur at any point in the string. The
depth where the helical buckling first occurs is displayed.

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Overpull Margin (Tripping Out) - This is the maximum additional


drag weight (overpull) that can applied to the string before the axial
force in the string reaches 90% of the yield strength.

Table Columns
Operation - This is the operation for each row of the table. Only
operations checked on the Operations tab will be displayed in this table.

Fatigue - An in this column indicates the fatigue endurance limit of


the component has been exceeded.

90% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.

100% Yield Stress - An in this column indicates that 100% of the


yield stress of the component has been exceeded.

Sinusoidal Buckling - An in this column indicates that sinusoidal


buckling occurs in this component.

Helical Buckling - An in this column indicates that helical buckling


occurs in this component.

Lockup - An in this column indicates that excessive buckling has


caused the string to lock up at this component.

Torque Failure - An in this column indicates that the torque in this


component exceeds the make-up torque.

Measured Weight - The measured weight on hook load indicator for


associated operating mode.

Mechanical Stretch - This is the amount of mechanical stretch due for


the associated operation. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Ballooning Stretch - This is the amount of stretch due to ballooning for


the associated operation. Ballooning stretch is due to differential
pressure inside and outside of the string.See “Stretch (API units)” on
page 1-135.

Thermal Stretch - This is the amount of stretch due to thermal effects


for the associated operation. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

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Total Stretch - This is the total amount of stretch for the associated
operation. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1-135.

Rotary Table Torque - This is the total torque expected at the rotary
table for the associated operation.

Windup with Torque - This is the number of complete revolutions the


rotary table must be turned in order to turn the bit for the associated
operation including the bit torque.

Windup without Torque - This is the number of complete revolutions


the rotary table must be turned in order to turn the bit for the associated
operation without including the bit torque.

Axial Stress = 0 - This is the point in the string where the axial stress
equals zero. The pressure area method is used for this calculation. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1-110.

Surface Neutral Point - Below this point in the string the buoyed
weight equals the weight-on-bit (WOB). Buckling cannot occur above
this point. See “Buoyed Weight (API units)” on page 1-111.

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Analysis Settings

The Analysis Settings tab is used to configure the analysis options


pertaining to the outputs you have added to the Output Area. Be aware
that the available settings for all selected outputs are displayed, and not
just those for the active output that you are currently viewing.

The analysis options in the Analysis Settings tab are divided into the
following sections:

• Common: Common analysis options are not specific to one type of


analysis (i.e. Torque & Drag, or Hydraulics). For example, the
Pump rate specified will be used for any Torque & Drag or
Hydraulics outputs in the Output Area that require a pump rate. If
you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that require a
Common Analysis Option, this section will not be displayed on the
Analysis Settings tab.

• Torque & Drag: The analysis options in this section pertain to one
or more of the Torque & Drag outputs you currently have in the
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require a Torque & Drag parameter, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.

• Hydraulics: The analysis options in this section pertain to one or


more of the Hydraulics outputs you currently have in the Output
Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that require
a Hydraulics parameter, this section will not be visible on the
Analysis Settings tab.

• Centralization: The analysis options in this section pertain to one


or more of the Centralization outputs you currently have in the
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require a Centralization parameter, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.

• Swab & Surge: The analysis options in this section pertain to one
or more of the Swab & Surge outputs you currently have in the
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require Swab & Surge parameters, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.

• UB Hydraulics: The analysis options in this section pertain to one


or more of UB Hydraulics outputs you currently have in the

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Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require UB Hydraulics parameters, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.

Torque & Drag Analysis Options on Analysis Settings Tab


This section provides information about analysis options pertaining to
Torque & Drag Outputs. If you do not have an output selected that
requires a specific analysis option, it will not be displayed in the
Analysis Settings tab.

Actual Load Values


Use the Actual Load table to record actual load data encountered at
certain depths. This information can be used to calculate coefficients of
friction using the Friction Calibration output, or it can be displayed in
the Roadmap Plots to compare actual values with calculated values.

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The actual load data consists of rows or information with one row per
measured depth. You can record data for any measured depth. It may be
useful to record this information just inside the casing shoe, or at total
depth just prior to setting casing. It is not necessary to specify all values
for each row. However, the measured depth must always be specified,
and must always increase. The trip in and trip out measured weights, and
rotating off bottom torque values are required to calibrate the coefficient
of friction. Other values are input for plotting actual load data on
applicable plots.

Friction Calibration
Coefficients of friction along the wellbore can be calculated from actual
data collected while drilling. This provides a means of calibrating the
model against actual field results. To calibrate coefficients of friction,
you must collect a series of weights and torques at the wellsite. Some of
this data is obtained with the string inside the casing shoe, and other
information is obtained in the open hole section. When gathering actual
field data, it is best if friction reduction devices are not being used. Over
the sections where the devices are used, the effects of the friction
devices must include the calibrated friction factors.

You must calculate the coefficient of friction in the cased hole section
first, then the open hole. This is required because data recorded in the
open hole section includes the combined effects of friction between the
string and the casing as well as the friction between the string and the
open hole. Therefore, the coefficient of friction for the cased hole must
be determined before that of the open hole.

The reliability of the data collected is important. Spurious values for any
weight may prevent calculating a solution or may result in an inaccurate
solution. It is important that the drillstring is completely inside the
casing shoe when you are recording weights for calculating the
coefficient of friction inside the casing. It is also important that the string
is not reciprocated while recording rotating weights, and vice versa. You
may not want to rely on one set of data, but make a decision based on a
number of weight readings taken at different depths inside the casing
and in the open hole section.

It is important to realize that hole conditions may also effect the


coefficient of friction calculated. If the actual weights recorded include
the effects of a build up of cuttings, the bottom hole assembly (BHA)
hanging up downhole, or other hole conditions. Because the recorded
weights include these effects, the calculated coefficient of friction will
also.

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Block weight
Specify the weight of the traveling assembly. This is the weight
indicator reading when the pipe is in the slips.

Sheave Friction Correction


When this option is enabled, the sheave friction correction model is
applied to all measured weight calculations. You must also specify the
number of Lines strung between the crown and the traveling block, and
the mechanical efficiency values. Mechanical efficiency is the energy
efficiency of an individual sheave (97.5—98% correlate with field
results). Friction estimates from pick-up and slack-off loads are
underestimated and overestimated because uneven distribution of
dynamic loads to drilling lines are caused by friction in the block
sheaves.

Martin-Decker–type deadline weight indicators do not account for this


problem. Actual pick-up loads are, therefore, always greater than
indicated while slack-off loads are always less than indicated. When you
use pick-up or slack-off hook load measurements as the basis for friction
factor determinations, this error source results in pick-up friction factors
that are too low and slack-off friction factors that are too high. Errors in
hook-load determination can be of the order of 20 percent due to this
error source (depending on lines strung), and the effect on friction factor
determinations can therefore be significant and worth correcting.

Viscous Torque and Drag


Enable this option to include viscous fluid effects in the analysis. The
viscous fluid effects cause differing torque and drag on the string
depending on the pipe rotation and trip speeds. The magnitude depends
strongly on the fluid rheology model chosen in the fluid editor.

Refer to “Viscous Drag (API units)” on page 1- 141 for more


information.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor (BSMF)


In both tensile and compressive axial load cases, the average curvature
between the tool joints is not changed, but the local changes of curvature
due to straightening effects of tension or the buckling effects of
compression may be many times the average value. Therefore to
accurately calculate the bending stress in the pipe body requires the
determination of these local maximum curvatures.

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The quantity bending stress magnification factor (BSMF) is defined as


the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the curvature in the
pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This factor can be
applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations to more
accurately calculate the bending stress in a work string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. This
modified bending stress is then used in the calculation of the von Mises
stress of the pipe. BSMF is useful because when a drill string with tool
joint OD greater than the body OD is subjected to either a tensile or
compressive axial load, the maximum curvature of the drillpipe will
exceed that of the hole axis curvature. The drillpipe sections conform to
the wellbore curvature primarily through contact at the tool joints.

BSMF is applied to the calculated bending stresses when you mark the
Use Bending Stress Magnification check box on the Analysis Settings
tab. Refer to “Bending Stress Magnification Factor” on page 1- 145 for
more information.

Stiff String Model


The Stiff String model computes the additional side force from stiff
tubulars bending in a curved hole as well as the reduced side forces from
pipe straightening due to pipe/hole clearance. This model is complex,
and therefore takes a significantly longer time to run than the Soft String
model. For more information, refer to “Stiff String Model” on page 1-
126.

Buckling Limit Factor


The buckling limit factor modifies the constants used in the buckling
equation and adjusts the buckling limit lines based on the wellbore
tortuosity, or shape. A zero or empty field will be assumed to be a factor
of 1, and will not modify the limits. Higher values increase the buckling
limit, and smaller values reduce the limit. Suggested values based on the
WELLPLAN Model (He & Kyllingstad) vary from 0.848 to 2.0.

Maximum Overpull
Specify the percentage of yield you want to maintain while calculating
the maximum overpull. Maximum overpull is the margin of extra weight
above the static hook load the string can handle when pulling out of hole
before the specified percentage of yield is exceeded.

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Fluid Column
Use this option to specify surface pressure, and multiple, or different
fluid densities in the string and/or annulus. If you are not applying
pressure at the surface, and you are using one fluid in the string and
annulus, enter the fluid information on the Fluids tab.

Enable (check) Use fluid column gradient if:

• More than one fluid is present

• Different fluid densities are present

• Surface pressure is applied

How does Fluid Flow Change the Forces and Stresses on the
Workstring?
Fluid flow changes the forces and stresses on the work string in three
ways.

• The calculated Pump Off Force is an additional compressive force


at the end of the string caused by the acceleration of fluid through
the bit jets. The calculations for bit impact force are used to
determine this force.

• Forces and stresses in the drill string are caused by the differential
between the pipe and annulus fluid pressures from the hydraulic
system, including bit and MWD / motor pressures losses.

• Fluid shear forces act on the work string as a result of shear stresses
caused by the frictional flow in the pipe and annulus.

How Does Surface Pressure Change the Forces And Stresses On


the Workstring?
• Surface pressure in the string acts as an additional axial force.

• Surface pressure in the annulus acts as an additional compressive


force.

Wellhead Details
For riserless operation, you can either specify the side force at the
wellhead, or calculate it. If you want the software to calculate the side

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force at the wellhead it will be calculated using the Soft String model.
The side force is based on the string position using a catenary profile and
the specified offset from wellhead and angle at wellhead. The software
calculates the side force using a static mode. Therefore, the calculated
side force may differ from the actual side force.

Click the Perform Pressure Balance button to perform a steady-state


fluid pressure balance of the fluids in the string and in the annulus. This
option is only available for riserless scenarios.

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Supporting Information and Calculations

The calculations and information in this section are presented in


alphabetical order using the calculation or topic name. The material
contained in this section is intended to provide you more detailed
information and calculations pertaining to many of the topics presented
in this chapter.

If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 1- 145 for additional
sources of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.

Additional Side Force Due to Buckling Calculation (API units)


Once buckling has occurred, there is an additional side force due to
increased contact between the wellbore and the string. For the soft string
model, the following calculations are used to compute the additional
side force. These calculations are not included in a stiff string analysis
because the Stiff String model considers the additional force due to
buckling in the derivation of the side force.

Sinusoidal Buckling Mode


No additional side force due to buckling is added.

Helical Buckling Mode


rcl Fab2
Fadd = ---------------
4EI
Where:
Fadd = Additional side force
rcl = Radial clearance between wellbore and string
Fab = Axial compression force calculated using the
buoyancy method
E = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
I = Moment of Inertia

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Axial Force (API units)


There are two calculation methods to determine the axial force: the
buoyancy method and the pressure area method. In checking for the
onset of buckling, the buoyancy method is used. This is because the
Critical Buckling Force calculations (page 1-113) are based on the same
assumptions regarding hydrostatic pressure. For stress calculations, the
pressure area method is used.

Both methods predict the same measured weight at the surface because
there is no hydrostatic force acting at the surface. Below the surface, the
axial force calculated using each method will be different.

Consider a work string “hanging in air,” or more specifically, in a


vacuum. Some of the string weight is supported at the bottom by a force
(specifically, the weight on bit). In this situation, the upper portion of the
string is in axial tension, and the lower portion of the string is in axial
compression. Somewhere along the string there is a point where the
axial force changes from tension to compression, and the axial stress is
zero. This is the neutral point.

In this simple case, the distance from the bottom of the string up to the
neutral point can be calculated by dividing the supporting force at the
bottom (specifically, the weight on bit) by the weight of the string per
unit length. In other words, the weight of the string below the neutral
point is equal to the supporting force.

In a normal drilling environment, the string is submerged in a fluid. The


fluid creates hydrostatic pressure acting on the string. Two different
neutral points can be calculated as a result of the handling of the
hydrostatic forces. The buoyancy method includes the effects of
buoyancy, while the pressure area method does not.

The pressure area method computes the axial forces in the work string
by calculating all the forces acting on the work string, and solving for
the neutral point using the principle of equilibrium. Using this method,
the axial force and axial stress is exactly zero at the neutral point.

Using the buoyancy method, the axial force at the neutral point is not
zero. The axial force and stress is equal to the hydrostatic pressure at the
depth of the neutral point. Because hydrostatic pressure alone will never
cause a pipe to buckle, the buoyancy method is used to determine if and
when buckling occurs.

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Buoyancy Method (used to determine buckling)

F ab =  [ Ld Wair cos θ + Fdrag + ΔFarea ] – Fbtm – Fbit + Fbsf


Where:

Fab = Axial force calculated using the buoyancy method


Ld = Length of string
Wair = Weight per foot of string in air
cosθ = Inclination
Fdrag = Drag force
ΔFarea = Change in force due to a change in area at junction
between two components with different cross-
sectional areas, such as the junction between drill
pipe and heavy weight, or between heavy weight
and drill collars. If the area of the bottom
component is larger, the force is tension. If the top
component is larger, the force is compression.
Fbtm = Bottom pressure force which is a compressive force
due to fluid pressure applied over the cross-
sectional area of the bottom component
Wbit = Weight on bit
Fbsf = Buckling stability force

Fbsf = pe Ae – pi Ai

Where:

Fbsf = Buckling stability force


pe = External pressure
Ae = External area
pi = Internal pressure
Ai = Internal area

pe = pa +  ( ga Dtvd )

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Where:
pe = External pressure
pa = Annular surface pressure
ga = Annular pressure gradient
Dtvd = True vertical depth

pi = ps +  ( gs Dtvd )

Where:

pi = Internal pressure
ps = String surface pressure
gs = String pressure gradient
Dtvd = True vertical depth

For Components with Tool Joints


Note

The constraints 0.95 and 0.5 are used to assume 95% of the component length is
body and 5% is tool joint.

π 2 2
A e = --- ( 0.95d bo + 0.05d jo )
4

Where:

Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body

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djo = Outside diameter of tool joint

π 2 2
A i = --- ( 0.95d bi + 0.05d ji )
4

Where:

Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
dji = Inside diameter of tool joint

For Components Without Tool Joints

π 2
Ae = --- d bo
4

Where:

Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body

π 2
Ai = --- d bi
4

Where:

Ai = Internal area
dbi = Outside diameter of body

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Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)

F apa =  [ Ld Wair cos θ + Fdrag + ΔFarea ] – Fbtm – Fbit


Where:
Fapa = Axial force calculated using the pressure area
method
Ld = Length of string
Wair = Weight per foot of string in air
cosθ = Inclination
Fdrag = Drag force
ΔFarea = Change in force due to a change in area at junction
between two components with different cross-
sectional areas, such as the junction between drill
pipe and heavy weight, or between heavy weight
and drill collars. If the area of the bottom
component is larger, the force is tension. If the top
component is larger, the force is compression.
Fbtm = Bottom pressure force which is a compressive force
due to fluid pressure applied over the cross-
sectional area of the bottom component
Wbit = Weight on bit

Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) (API units)


Bending stress magnification (BSM) will be applied to the calculated
bending stresses if you have checked the BSM box on the Torque Drag
Setup Data dialog. The magnitude of the BSM is reported in the stress
data table.

When a drill string is subjected to either tensile or compressive axial


loads, the maximum curvature of the drillpipe body exceeds that of the
hole axis curvature. The drillpipe sections conform to the wellbore
curvature primarily through contact at the tool joints. In both tensile and
compressive axial load cases the average curvature between the tool
joints is not changed, but the local changes of curvature due to
straightening effects of tension or the buckling effects of compression
may be many times the average value. Therefore, to accurately calculate
the bending stress in the pipe body requires the determination of these
local maximum curvatures.

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The bending stress magnification factor (BSM) is defined as the ratio of


the maximum of the absolute value of the curvature in the drillpipe body
divided by the curvature of the hole axis. The BSM is applied as a
multiplier on the bending stress calculation. This modified bending
stress is then used in the calculation of the von Mises stress of the
drillpipe.

Buoyed Weight (API units)


The surface pressure and mud densities are used to calculate the pressure
inside and outside of the string. These pressures are used to calculate the
buoyed weight of the string, which is used to calculate the forces and
stresses acting on the string.

W buoy = W air – W fluid

Where:

Wbuoy = Buoyed weight per foot of the component


Wair = Weight per foot of the component in air
Wfluid = Weight per foot of displaced fluid

Wfluid = Wma A e – Wmi A i

Where:
Wfluid = Weight per foot of displaced fluid

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Wma = Annular mud weight at component depth in the


wellbore
Ae = External area
Wmi = Internal mud weight at component depth in the
component
Ai = Internal area

For Components with Tool Joints


Note

The constraints 0.95, and 0.5 are used to assume 95% of the component length is
body, and 5% is tool joint.

π 2 2
A e = --- ( 0.95d bo + 0.05d jo )
4

Where:
Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body
djo = Outside diameter of tool joint

π 2 2
A i = --- ( 0.95d bi + 0.05d ji )
4

Where:

Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
dji = Inside diameter of tool joint

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For Components Without Tool Joints


π 2
A e = --- d bo
4

π 2
A i = --- d bi
4

Where:

Ae = External area
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
dbo = Outside diameter of body

Critical Buckling Forces


The critical buckling force is the axial force required to be exerted on a
work string to initiate buckling. Buckling first occurs when compressive
axial forces exceed a critical buckling force. The axial force computed
using the Buoyancy Method is used to compare with the critical
buckling force to determine the onset of buckling.

Different critical buckling forces are required to initiate the sinusoidal


and helical buckling phases. Calculations for the critical buckling force
also vary depending on the analysis options selected.

Curvilinear Model (API units)


For a torque drag analysis, the string is divided into 30-foot sections.
The Straight Model assumes each section is of constant inclination. The
Curvilinear Model considers the inclination (build or drop) change
within each 30-foot section.

In hole sections where there is an angle change, compression in the pipe


through the doglegs causes extra side force. The additional side force
acts to stabilize the pipe against buckling unless the pipe is dropping
angle.

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 EIW 
F b > 2  ------------c-
 rcl 
Where:

Fb = Critical buckling force


E = Young’s Modulus
I = Moment of Inertia
Wc = Contact load
rcl = Radial clearance between wellbore and component

2 2 2 2
W c = 2 ( ( Wt sin θ + Fc ε′ ) + Fc sin θ ε ′ )

Where:

Wc = Contact load
Wt = Tubular weight in mud
sinθ = Inclination
Fc = Compressive axial force
ε' = Wellbore direction (azimuth)

Loading and Unloading Models (API units)


In SPE 36761, Mitchell derives the loading method. The idea presented
is that for compressive axial loads between 1.4 and 2.8 times the
sinusoidal buckling force, there is enough strain energy in the pipe to
sustain helical buckling, but not enough energy to spontaneously change
from sinusoidal buckling to helical buckling. That is, if you could reach
in and lift the pipe up into a helix, it would stay in the helix when you
let go. This means that in an ideal situation, without external
disturbances, the pipe would stay in a sinusoidal buckling mode until the
axial force reached 2.8 times the sinusoidal buckling force. At this point,
the pipe would transition to the helical buckling mode. This is the
"loading" scenario.

Once the pipe is in the helical buckling mode, the axial force can be
reduced to 1.4 times the sinusoidal buckling force, and the helical mode

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will be maintained. If the axial force falls below 1.4 times the sinusoidal
buckling force, the pipe will fall out of the helix into a sinusoidal
buckling mode. This is the "unloading" scenario.

In the figure, in Stage 1 the compressive load is increased from the force
required for sinusoidal buckling to the threshold force where the pipe
snaps into a helical buckled state. This is the "loading" force. Stages 2
and 3 represent the reduction of the compressive load to another
threshold force to snap out from helical buckled into a sinusoidal
buckled state. This is the "unloading" force.

Taking friction into consideration, we can imagine buckling friction acts


a bit like glue. It gives resistance when the pipe is pushed into buckling
(loading) and it also provides resistance to release the pipe from
buckling (unloading). But when the pipe is rotating the "glue" bond is
broken, and gives no resistance. In the case where friction is effective,
the transitions from sinusoidal to helical and vice versa are more
explosive because the pipe picks up more spring energy because the
friction prevents free pipe movement until the stored energy is enough
to break the friction bond.

Loading Model

F h = 2.828427F s

Where:

Fh = Compression force to induce onset of helical buckling


Fs = Compression force to induce onset of sinusoidal
buckling

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Unloading Model

F h = 1.414213F s

Where:
Fh = Compression force to induce onset of helical buckling
Fs = Compression force to induce onset of sinusoidal
buckling

Drag Force Calculations (API units)


The drag force acts opposite to the direction of motion. The direction of
the drag force is governed by the type of analysis being performed. The
drag force may be acting up the axis of the pipe, down the axis of the
pipe, or acting in a tangential direction resisting the rotation of the pipe.

vt
Fdrag = μFN  ----
vr

2 2
vr = vt + va

Where:

Fdrag = Drag force


μ = Coefficient of friction (friction factor)
FN = Normal force
vt = Trip speed
vr = Resultant speed
va = Angular speed

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The side, or normal force is a measurement of the force exerted by the


wellbore onto the work string. In the diagram below, the forces acting
on a small segment of work string lying in an inclined hole are shown.
In this simple diagram, the segment is not moving.

This diagram illustrates that the normal force acts in a direction


perpendicular to the inclined surface. The weight of the work string acts
downward in the direction of gravity.

Another force, the drag force, is also acting on the segment. The drag
force always acts in the opposite direction of motion. The segment does
not slide down the inclined plane because of the drag force. The
magnitude of the drag force depends on the normal force, and the
coefficient of friction between the inclined plane, and the segment. The
coefficient of friction is a means to define the friction between the
wellbore wall and the work string.

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Fatigue Calculations
DecisionSpace Well Engineering torque and drag analysis includes
fatigue analysis because it is a primary cause of drilling tubular failure.
A fatigue failure is caused by cyclic bending stresses when the pipe is
run in holes with doglegs. The source of fatigue failure is micro fractures
between the crystal structures of the material caused in the construction
of the material. These cracks are widened by successive stress reversals
(tensile/compressive) in the body of the cylinder.

Determine Cyclic Stresses


Cyclic stresses are those components of stress that change and reverse
every time the pipe is rotated. In this analysis, only bending and
buckling stresses go through this reversal. If you are using the Stiff
String model, the buckling stresses are integrated with the pipe
curvature and hence included in bending. The soft string model treats
buckling stress independent to bending stress and adds the two together
for fatigue analysis.

Bending stresses are caused by pipe running through curved hole. In this
situation, one side of the pipe is in tension, and the other side is in
compression. Bending stresses are maximum at the outside of the pipe
body, and undergo a simple harmonic motion as the pipe rotates.

Apply Bending Stress Magnification Factor


Bending stress becomes concentrated close to the tool joints in external
upset pipe when the pipe is in tension. This magnifies the bending radius
in the section of the pipe closest to the tool joints.

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Establish a Fatigue Endurance Limit for the Pipe


Fatigue endurance limit is not a constant value that is related to the yield
strength of the pipe. Bending stress concentrations are also in the tubular
due to the design of tool joints, and the shape of upsets in the body of the
pipe apart from those considered in the bending stress magnification
factor.
Table 1:

Drill 25 - 35 This is a general value for continuous steel


pipe kpsi tubular pipe.

Heavy 18 - 25 More stress concentration in the tool joint.


weight kpsi

Drill 12 - 15 Use for drill collars and other non-upset BHA


collars kpsi components, including stabilizers, jars, MWD,
and so forth.

Casing 5 - 20 Depends on the connectors; five for 8-round, 20


kpsi for premium shouldered-connectors.

Non externally upset tubulars, like collars and casing, will have
maximum concentration of bending stress at the tool joint.

The fatigue endurance limit needs to be reduced if the steel is used in a


corrosive environment like saline (high chloride) or hydrogen sulfide
environment.

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Derate Fatigue Endurance Limit for Tension


The crack widening mechanism that causes fatigue is strongly
influenced by tension in the pipe.

A simple empirical mechanism is used to reduce the fatigue endurance


limit for tensile stress as a ration of the tensile yield stress. This is known
as the Goodman relation.

F ay = σ my A eff

Where:
Fay = Axial yield force
σmy = Minimum yield stress
Aeff = Effective sectional area

If Fab > 0.0, then:


Fab
σ fl = σ fel  1 – --------
Fay ( tension )

Where:

σfl = Fatigue limit


σfel = Fatigue endurance limit (for pipe and heavy weight);
this is input. For all other components it is assumed to
be 35,000 psi.
Fab = Axial force calculated using the buoyancy method

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Fay = Axial yield force

Else:
σ fl = σ fel ( compression )

Where:

σfl = Fatigue limit


σfel = Fatigue endurance limit (for pipe and heavy weight);
this is input. For all other components it is assumed to
be 35,000 psi.

( σ bend + σ buckle )
R f = -----------------------------------------------
σ fl

Where:

Rf = Fatigue ratio
σbend = Bending stress corrected by the bending stress
magnification factor
σbuckle = Buckling stress
σfl = Fatigue limit

A eff = A e – A i

Where:
Aeff = Effective sectional area
Αe = External area of the pipe, heavy weight, or collar
component
Αi = Internal area of the pipe, heavy weight, or collar
component

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For Components with Tool Joints


Note

External area of the pipe, heavy weight, or collar component. The constraints 0.95
and 0.05 are used to assume 95% of the component length is body and 5% is tool
joint.

π 2 2
A e = --- ( 0.95d bo + 0.05d jo )
4

π 2 2
A i = --- ( 0.95d bi + 0.05d ji )
4

Where:

Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body
djo = Outside diameter of tool joint
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
dji = Inside diameter of tool joint

For Components Without Tool Joints:


π 2
A e = --- d bo
4

π 2
A i = --- d bi
4

Where:

Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body

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Compare the Cyclic Stress Against the Derated Fatigue Endurance Limit
Fatigue ratio is the combined bending and buckling stress divided by the
fatigue endurance limit. Some judgment is required in using the fatigue
endurance limit (FEL), because the limit is normally determined for a
number of cycles of pipe rotation. The number of cycles for the fatigue
endurance limit is approximately taken at 107 rotations. This is the level
of cyclic stress beyond which the material is immune to fatigue failure.
This is normally equivalent to the pipe drilling for 1000,000 feet at 60
ft/hr while rotating at 100 rpm. The relationship between fatigue stress
(S) and number of cycles to failure (N) is known as the S-N curve. The
following plot is an idealized S-N curve for G105 pipe that has a yield
of 105 Kpsi, and a fatigue endurance limit of 30 Kpsi.

You can observe from this plot that a pipe may yield at a lower number
of cycles at an intermediate stress between the fatigue endurance limit
and the tensile stress limit.

Pipe Wall Thickness Modification Due to Pipe Class (API units)


Drill pipe wall thickness will be modified according to the class
specified for the pipe on the String tab. The class specified indicates the
wall thickness modification as a percentage of the drill pipe outside
diameter.

The outside diameter will be modified as follows:

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d co = d bo + d bi ( 1 – c )

Where:

dco = Calculated outside diameter, based on pipe class


dbo = Outside diameter, as specified on the string tab
dbi = Inside diameter, as specified on the string tab
c = Based on the pipe class and based on dividing the
percentage wall thickness by 100

Sheave Friction
Sheave friction corrections will be applied to all measured weight
calculations if you check the 'Use sheave friction correction' box on the
Analysis Settings tab.

n ( Es – 1 ) ( Whr + Wblock )
Wir = ------------------------------------------------------------
E s  1 – -------n-
1
 
Es

n ( 1 – E s ) ( Whl + Wblock )
W ie = ----------------------------------------------------------
n
-
Es ( 1 – Es )

Where:

Wir = Weight indicator reading while raising the string


Wie = Weight indicator reading while lowering the string
n = Number of lines between the blocks
Es = Individual sheave efficiency
Whr = Calculated hook load while raising
Wblock = Weight of traveling block as specified on the
Analysis Settings tab
Whl = Calculated hook load while lowering

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Side Force for Soft String Model (API units)


Sheave friction corrections will be applied to all measured weight
calculations if you check the 'Use sheave friction correction' box on the
Analysis Settings tab.

n ( Es – 1 ) ( Whr + Wblock )
Wir = ------------------------------------------------------------
E s  1 – -------n-
1
Es

n ( 1 – E s ) ( Whl + Wblock )
W ie = ----------------------------------------------------------
n
-
Es ( 1 – Es )

Where:

Wir = Weight indicator reading while raising the string


Wie = Weight indicator reading while lowering the string
n = Number of lines between the blocks
Es = Individual sheave efficiency
Whr = Calculated hook load while raising
Wblock = Weight of traveling block as specified on the
Analysis Settings tab
Whl = Calculated hook load while lowering

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Soft String Model

The soft string model is based on Dawson’s cable model, or soft string
model. As the name implies, in this model the work string (such as
drillstring or casing, and so forth) is considered to be a flexible cable or
string with no associated bending stiffness. Since there is no bending
stiffness, there is no standoff between the BHA and the wellbore wall
due to stabilizers or other upsets.

When determining contact forces, the work string is assumed to lie


against the side of the wellbore. However, within the soft string analysis
it is actually considered to follow the center line of the wellbore. When
determining the contact or normal force, the contact between the string
and the wellbore is assumed to occur at the midpoint of each string
segment.

Stiff String Model

The stiff string model uses the mathematical finite element analysis to
determine the forces acting on the string. This model considers the

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tubular stiffness and the tubular joint-to-hole wall clearance. The model
modifies the stiffness for compressive forces. Like the soft string model,
it calculates single point weight concentrations so determining the
contact force per unit area is not possible.

Stiff String analysis should be used to complete the following tasks:

• Evaluate a work string containing stiff tubulars run in a well with a


build rate of at least 15 deg/100 ft.
• Analyze running stiff casing in a well.
• Observe buckling using the Position Plot.
• Analyze work string containing upsets found on stabilizers or
friction reduction devices.
The stiff string model analyzes the string by dividing it into sections
(elements) equal to the lesser of the component length or 30 feet. The
model computes the side force at the center point of each element. The
side force is used to compute the torque and drag change from one
element to the next element.

The analysis of each element involves analyzing the nodes defining the
end points of each element. The detailed analysis of each node involves
creating a local mesh of 10 to 20 elements around the node. Each
element is given the same dimensions and properties as the
corresponding full drill string portion.

If the node length exceeds the maximum column-buckling load for the
section, the node is further broken into fractional lengths to keep each
section below the buckling threshold. This is why the analysis may take
considerably longer when large compressive loads are applied.

This short section is solved by solving each individual junction node for
moments and forces, then displacing it to a point of zero force. If this
position is beyond the hole wall, a restorative force is applied to keep it
in the hole. This process is repeated for each node in the short beam until
they reach their “relaxed” state.

The stiff string produces slightly different results when run “top down”
or “bottom up.” The difference is explained because the direction of
analysis is reversed. The length of beam selected for each stiff analysis
has been selected to optimize speed while maintaining reliable
consistent results.

The following illustrations depict an inclined beam section with length


L. P is the axial force, and Fv, F1, and F2 are the calculated ends or
contact forces caused by weight W.

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M = End Moment

Fv = End Force
I

P
Fv

M1 M2
W

F1 F2
L

Hybrid Model
In the traditional soft-string and stiff-string torque and drag model, the
drillstring shape is taken as the wellbore shape, which is commonly
determined by the minimum curvature method. This method assumes
that wellbore shape forces the bending moment to be discontinuous at
survey points, and the discontinuity is a defect normally dealt with by
neglecting the bending moment component in the calculation. This
neglect decreases the efficacy to predict lock-up in short radius
deviation wellbores.

The Hybrid Torque and Drag Model employs an approach which


assumes that the drillstring position corresponds with the minimum
curvature wellbore only at discrete points. The choice for these discrete
points is at the positions of the tool joints in the drillstring, rather than
survey stations. While these tool joints are fixed in position, they are
allowed to rotate within the wellbore.

These extra degrees of freedom address the neglect for the bending
moment discontinuity; for now bending moment can be continuously
resolved at each tool joint. Further, experimental studies of actual
drillstrings have shown the potential to develop contact forces for lateral
buckling that are significantly larger than predicted by smooth-pipe

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models. In summary, the approach by discrete-point assumption


resolves the issues of bending moment continuity and thus reconciles
the under-prediction of lock-up.

The “minimum curvature” wellbore trajectory is indicated by the blue


line in the figure, and the drillstring displacement solution is shown by
the red line. The drillstring displacements are constrained to correspond
with the “minimum curvature” wellbore trajectory at the tool-joint
positions; however, the drillstring is allowed to rotate at these points,
ensuring the continuity of the bending moment component in the
calculation. If the displacement solution extends through the wellbore
wall, the solution is calculated by restricting the axial displacement at
that point to be tangent to the wellbore wall.

To access Hybrid Torque and Drag calculations:


The calculation for hybrid torque and drag is located in the Effective
Tension and Torque outputs in the Fixed Depth Plots group in Torque
& Drag ribbon. Once the output is open and necessary data is input, use
the Operations tab to access the T&D Hybrid Model.

For Effective Tension output, start by clicking an unknown force


parameter, either hook-load or weight on bit. There are 3 operating
modes (Tripping In, Tripping Out, and Rotating) in which hybrid torque
and drag model calculates effective tension. Type the known force value
in the empty box and the application resolves the unknown in the output.
Hover the mouse cursor over the hybrid model title in the legend to
identify the associated curve.

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For Torque output, similarly, start by clicking an unknown force


parameter and input values in the empty boxes in Rotating mode, the
curve for torque at the bit resolves from the top down. Hover the cursor
over the hybrid model title in the legend to identify the associated curve.

Straight Model (API units)


The straight model analyzes the string in 30-foot sections. The
inclination and azimuth of these sections change along the well as
described by the survey data, and the approximate three dimensional
well shape. However, each 30-foot section is assumed to be "straight" or
of constant inclination. The curvilinear model takes into account the
inclination (build or drop) change within each 30-foot section.

The critical inclination angle is calculated, and then used to select the
buckling model as described in the following equations.

1
 1.94
2 W tm --3-
---------- ( r cl )  ---------
–1
θ c = sin
 2   EI 

Where:

θc = Calculated critical inclination angle, used to select


buckling model
rcl = Radial clearance between wellbore and component
Wtm = Tubular weight in mud
Ε = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
Ι = Moment of Inertia

If (θ > θc), then:


1---
( sin θ )EIWtm 2
Fs = 2 --------------------------------
rcl

Where:

Fs = Compression force required to induce the onset of


sinusoidal buckling
θ = Inclination
rcl = Radial clearance between wellbore and component

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Wtm = Tubular weight in mud


Ε = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
Ι = Moment of Inertia

If (θ < θc), then:


1
---
2 3
Fs = 1.94 ( EIWtm )

Where:

Fs = Compression force required to induce the onset of


sinusoidal buckling
Wtm = Tubular weight in mud
Ε = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
Ι = Moment of Inertia

Stress
In DecisionSpace Well Engineering, many stress calculations are
performed using the following equations. These calculations include the
effect of:

• Axial stress due to hydrostatic and mechanical loading


• Bending stress approximated from wellbore curvature
• Bending stress due to buckling
• Hoop stress due to internal and external pressure
• Radial stress due to internal and external pressure
• Torsional stress from twist
• Transverse shear stress from contact
• Von Mises

Von Mises Stress

2 2 2 2 2
( σ r – σ h ) + ( σ a – σ r ) + ( σ h – σ a ) + 6σ s + 6σ t
σ VM = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
2

Where:

σVM = Von Mises stress

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σr = Radial stress
σh = Hoop stress
σa = Axial stress
σs = Transverse shear stress
σt = Torsional stress

Note

The Von Mises stress is calculated on the inside and outside of the pipe wall. The
maximum stress calculated for these two locations is reported in the analysis results.

Radial Stress

σ ro = – p e

σ ri = – p i

Where:

σro = Radial stress outside pipe wall


pe = Pipe external pressure
pi = Pipe internal pressure
σri = Radial stress inside pipe wall

Transverse Shear Stress

2F N
σ so = σ si = ----------
Ac

Where:

σso = Transverse shear stress outside pipe wall


FN = Normal force
Ac = Cross sectional area of component
σsi = Transverse shear stress inside pipe wall

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Hoop Stress

2 2 2
[ 2 ( r i ) ( p i ) – ( r i + ro ) ( p e ) ]
σ ho = ---------------------------------------------------------------------
2 2
-
( ro – r i )

2 2 2
[ ( r i + r o ) ( p i ) – 2ro p e ]
σ hi = ------------------------------------------------------------
2 2
-
(ro – r i )

Where:

σho = Hoop stress outside pipe wall


ri = Inside pipe radius
pi = Pipe internal pressure
pe = Pipe external pressure
ro = Outside pipe radius, as modified pipe class
σhi = Hoop stress inside pipe wall

Torsional Stress

12ro T
σ to = --------------
J

12r i T
σ ti = -------------
J

Where:

σto = Torsional stress outside pipe wall


ro = Outside pipe radius, as modified by pipe class
T = Torque
J = Polar Moment of Inertia
σti = Torsional stress inside pipe wall
ri = Inside pipe radius

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Bending Stress

ro EδB BSMF
σ bendo = ----------------------------
68, 754.9

ri EδB BSMF
σ bendi = ---------------------------
68, 754.9

Where:

σbendo = Bending stress outside the pipe wall


σbendi = Bending stress inside the pipe wall
E = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
ri = Inside pipe radius
ro = Outside pipe radius, as modified by pipe class
δ = Wellbore curvature as dogleg severity (degree/100)
for soft-string model; stiff-string model calculates
local curvature
BBMSF = Bending stress magnification factor

Buckling Stress
This is calculated only if buckling occurs.

( r o ) ( rcl ) Fapa
σ bucko = -----------------------------------
2I

( – r i ) ( rcl ) Fapa
σ bucki = -------------------------------------
2I

Where:
σbucko = Buckling stress outside the pipe wall
σbucki = Buckling stress inside the pipe wall
ro = Outside pipe radius, as modified by pipe class
ri = Inside pipe radius
rcl = Maximum distance from string to wellbore wall

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Fapa = Axial force as calculated by the pressure area


method
I = Moment of Inertia

Axial Stress (tension + bending + buckling)

F apa
σ ao = ----------- + σ bendo + σ bucko
Ac

F apa
σ ai = ----------- + σ bendi + σ bucki
Ac

Where:

σbucko = Buckling stress outside the pipe wall


σbucki = Buckling stress inside the pipe wall
σbendo = Bending stress outside pipe wall
σbendi = Bending stress inside pipe wall
σao = Axial stress outside pipe wall
σai = Axial stress inside pipe wall
Ac = Cross section area of component
Fapa = Axial force as calculated by the pressure area
method

Stretch (API units)


Total stretch in the work string is computed as the sum of several
components. These components consider the stretch due to axial load,
buckling, ballooning, and temperature. Ballooning is caused by
differential pressure inside and outside of the work string.

Total Stretch

ΔL stretch = ΔL Hlaw + ΔL buck + ΔL balloon + ΔL temp

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Where:

ΔLstretch = Total stretch


ΔLHlaw = Stretch due to axial load
ΔLbuck = Stretch due to buckling
ΔLballoon = Stretch due to ballooning
ΔLtemp = Stretch due to temperature effects

Stretch Due to Axial Load


The term is based on Hooke’s Law. The first term reflects the constant
load in the string, while the second term reflects the linear change in the
load.

Fapa L c ΔFapa L c
ΔL Hlaw = ----------------- + ---------------------
Ac E 2A c E

Where:

ΔLHlaw = Stretch due to axial load


Fapa = Axial force as calculated by the pressure area
method
Lc = Length of component
E = Modulus of Elasticity
Ac = Cross-sectional area of the component

Stretch Due to Buckling


If buckling occurs, the additional stretch in the buckled section of the
string is calculated using the following equation.

2 2
rcl Fapa L c rcl ΔFapa L c
ΔL buck = -------------------------- + ------------------------------
4EI 8EI

Where:

ΔLbuck = Stretch due to buckling


Fapa = Axial force as calculated by the pressure area
method
rcl = Radial clearance between wellbore and string

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Lc = Length of component
E = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
I = Moment of Inertia

Stretch Due to Ballooning


This type of stretch is due to differential pressure inside and outside of
the string, and is defined by the following equation.

2 2
( – v )L c   d bo     d bo  
ΔL balloon -  ρ mi –  -------
= -----------------------------------  ρ ma L c + 2  p s – ρ ma  -------  
   d bi     d bi  
2
  d bo 
E   -------  – 1
  d bi  

Where:

ΔLballoon = Stretch due to ballooning


v = Poisson’s Ratio for a component
ρmi = Mud density inside string component
ρma = Mud density in annulus at depth of string
component
dbi = Component inside diameter
dbo = Component outside diameter
Lc = Length of component
E = Young’s Modulus for the component
ps = Surface pressure, string side

Stretch Due to Temperature Effects

ΔL temp = αL c ΔT

Where:

ΔLtemp = Stretch due to temperature effects


α = Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
Lc = Length of component
ΔT = Temperature change over length of component

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Tortuosity
Wellbore tortuosity is a measure of the random meandering that occur
in a well during drilling operations.

In designing a well, tortuosity or rippling is not normally modeled


during directional well path planning. Typically, a wellpath file is
generated based on “ideal” trajectories which follow smooth paths
governed by the wellpath calculation method. DecisionSpace® Well
Engineering software uses the minimum curvature method.

Similarly, during actual drilling operations, “wiggle” may occur


between consecutive stations, even though the actual well path appears
to match the “ideal” plan at the station measurement point. The
recording of the well’s precise tortuosity can be captured only through
the use of closer and closer stations, although this may be impractical.

In both the design case and the operational case, the degree of tortuosity
is a factor on the overall loading (both torque and drag) on a particular
work string. The “smoother” the well, the smaller the frictional effects.

Modeling of wellbore tortuosity has been recognized as especially


significant at the planning stage, enabling more realistic load predictions
to be established.

Torque (API units)

va
T = rμF N  -----
 vr 

2 2
vr = v t + va

Where:

T = Torque
μ = Coefficient of friction (friction factor)
r = Radius of component
va = Angular speed
vr = Resultant speed
vt = trip speed

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FN = Normal force

The side, or normal force is a measurement of the force exerted by the


wellbore onto the work string. In the diagram below, the forces acting
on a small segment of work string lying in an inclined hole are shown.
In this simple diagram, the segment is not moving. From this diagram,
we can see that the normal force acts in a direction perpendicular to the
inclined surface. The weight of the work string acts downward in the
direction of gravity.

Another force, the drag force, is also acting on the segment. The drag
force always acts in the opposite direction of motion. The segment does
not slide down the inclined plane because of the drag force. The
magnitude of the drag force depends on the normal force, and the
coefficient of friction between the inclined plane, and the segment. The
coefficient of friction is a means to define the friction between the
wellbore wall and the work string.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Twist (API units)


Twist in the string is calculated along the string for each segment, and is
accumulated along the length of the string.
TL c
φ = ---------
JG

E
G = ---------------
2 + 2v

Where:

φ = Angle of twist (in radians)


T = Torque
Lc = Length of component
J = Polar Moment of Inertia
G = Modulus of Rigidity
v = Poisson’s ratio

For Components with Tool Joints:

Note

The constraints 0.95, and 0.5 are used to assume 95% of the component length is
body, and 5% is tool joint.

π 4 4
J b = ------ ( d bo – dbi )
32

π 4 4
J j = ------ ( d jo – d ji )
32

Jb J j
J = -------------------------------------
0.95J b + 0.05J j

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Where:
J = Polar Moment of Inertia
Jb = Polar Moment of Inertia for the body of components
with tool joints
dbo = Body outside diameter
dbi = Body inside diameter
dji = Joint inside diameter
djo = Joint outside diameter
Jj = Polar moment of inertia for the joint of components
with tool joints
Jb = Polar moment of inertia for the body of components
with tool joints

For Components Without Tool Joints

π 4 4
J = ------ ( d bo – d bi )
32

Where:

J = Polar Moment of Inertia


dbo = Body outside diameter
dbi = Body inside diameter

Viscous Drag (API units)


Viscous drag is additional drag force acting on the string due to
hydraulic effects while tripping or rotating. The fluid forces are
determined for "steady" pipe movement, and not for fluid acceleration
effects. To include viscous drag effects, check the 'Use viscous torque
and drag' box on the Analysis Settings tab.

The additional force due to viscous drag is calculated as follows. Note


that this drag force is added to the drag force calculated using drag force
calculations.

2 2
πΔp loss ( d h – d p )d p
ΔF vd = ----------------------------------------------
4 ( dh – dp )

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Where:

ΔFvd = Additional force due to viscous drag


ploss = Annular pressure loss calculated according to
selected rheological model
dh = Hole diameter
dp = Pipe diameter

There are no direct computations of fluid drag due to pipe rotation.

The shear rate in the annulus due to pipe rotation is computed using the
following equation.

4π  ------
N
 60
γ = ----------------------------
2 1 1
d p  -----2 – -----2
 d p d h

Where:

γ = Shear rate in the annulus due to pipe rotation


N = Rotary speed (RPM)
dh = Hole diameter
dp = Pipe diameter

Given the shear rate, the shear stress is computed directly from the
viscosity equations for the fluid type. The 479 in the equations below is
a conversion from Centipoise to equivalent lb/100 ft2

Bingham Plastic
μp γ
τ = τ o + ---------
479

Where:

τ = Shear stress computed from the viscosity equation for


the fluid rheological model
τo = Yield point
μp = Plastic viscosity

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γ = Shear rate in the annulus due to pipe rotation

Power Law
n

τ = ---------
479

Where:

τ = Shear stress computed from the viscosity equation for


the fluid rheological model
Κ = Consistency index
γ = Shear rate in the annulus due to pipe rotation

Herschel Bulkley

2

τ = τ z + ---------
479

Where:

τ = Shear stress computed from the viscosity equation for the


fluid rheological model
τz = Zero gel yield
Κ = Consistency index
γ = Shear rate in the annulus due to pipe rotation

No consideration is made to laminar or turbulent flow in this derivation.


Additionally the combined hydraulic effects of trip movement and
rotation are ignored, which would accelerate the onset of turbulent flow.

Given the shear stress at the pipe wall (in lb/100 ft2), the torque on the
pipe is computed from the surface area of the pipe and the torsional
radius.

dp 2
τ2πL d  ------
 24
ΔT = ------------------------------
100

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

Where:

ΔΤ = Calculated pipe torque


τ = Shear stress computed from the viscosity equation for
the fluid rheological model
Ld = Length of work string
dp = Pipe diameter

In the case of rotational torque the forces are equal and opposite between
the pipe and the hole, although we are interested in the torque on the pipe
and not the reaction from the hole.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

References

General
“The Neutral Zones in Drill Pipe and Casing and Their Significance in
Relation to Buckling and Collapse”, Klinkenberg, A., Royal Dutch
Shell Group, South Western Division of Production, Beaumont, Texas,
March 1951.

“Drillstring Design for Directional Wells, Corbett, K.T., and Dawson,


R., IADC Drilling Technology Conference, Dallas, March 1984.

“Uses and Limitations of Drillstring Tension and Torque Model to


Monitor Hole Conditions”, Brett, J.F., Bechett, A.D., Holt, C.A., and
Smith, D.L., SPE 16664.

“Developing a Platform Strategy and Predicting Torque Losses for


Modelled Directional Wells in the Amauligak Field of the Beaufort Sea,
Canada”, Lesso Jr., W.G., Mullens, E., and Daudey, J., SPE 19550.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor


“Bending Stress Magnification in Constant Curvature Doglegs With
Impact on Drillstring and Casing”, Paslay, P.R., and Cernocky, E.P.,
SPE 22547.

Buckling
“A Buckling Criterion for Constant Curvature Wellbores”, Mitchell, R.,
Landmark Graphics, SPE 52901.

“A Study of the Buckling of Rotary Drilling Strings, Lubinski, A., API


Drilling and Production Practice, 1950.

“Drillpipe Buckling in Inclined Holes”, Dawson,R., and Paslay, P.R.,


SPE 11167, September 1982.

“Buckling Behavior of Well Tubing: The Packer Effect, by Mitchell,


R.F., SPE Journal, October 1982.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

“Frictional Forces in Helical Buckling of Tubing”, Mitchell, R.F., SPE


13064.

“New Design Considerations for Tubing and Casing Buckling in


Inclined Wells”, Cheatham, J.B., and Chen, Y.C., OTC 5826, May
1988.

“Tubing and Casing Buckling in Horizontal Wells”, Chen, Y.C., Lin,


Y.H., and Cheatham, J.B., JPT, February 1989.

“Buckling of Pipe and Tubing Constrained Inside Inclined Wells”,


Chen, Y.C., Adnan, S., OTC 7323.

“Effects of Well Deviation on Helical Buckling”, Mitchell, R.F., SPE


Drilling & Completions, SPE 29462, March 1997.

“Buckling Analysis in Deviated Wells: A Practical Method,” SPE


Drilling & Completions, SPE 36761, March 1999.

Fatigue
“Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials”, by
Richard W.Herzberg, 3rd Edition 1989, Wiley.

Hybrid Model
“Drillstring Analysis with a Discrete Torque-Drag Model”, Mitchell,
Robert F., Halliburton, Bjorset, Arve, and Grindhaug, Gaute, Statoil.

Sheave Friction
“The Determination of True Hook and Line Tension Under Dynamic
Conditions”, by Luke & Juvkam-Wold, IADC/SPE 23859.

“Analysis Improves Accuracy of Weight Indicator Reading”, by


Dangerfield, Oil and Gas Journal, August 10, 1987.

Side Force Calculations


“Torque and Drag in Directional Wells – Prediction and Measurement”,
Johancsik, C.A., Friesen, D.B., and Dawson, Rapier, Journal of
Petroleum Technology, June 1984, pages 987-992.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

“Drilling and Completing Horizontal Wells With Coiled Tubing”, Wu,


Jiang, and Juvkam-Wold, H.C., SPE 26336.

Stiff String Model


“Background to Buckling”, Brown & Poulson, University of Swansea,
Section 3.4 Analysis of Elastic Rigid Jointed Frameworks (with sway).

“Engineering Formulas”, Gieck, Kurt, Fourth Ed. McGraw Hill 1983,


Section P13, Deflection of Beams in Bending.

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Chapter 1: Torque & Drag Analysis

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Chapter 2
Hydraulics Analysis

Overview

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software can be used to model


pressure losses across the circulating system of the rig and the string,
estimate the equivalent circulating density (ECD) across the annular
space, and analyze formation cuttings transport and the effect on
pressure and ECD calculations. Five rheological models are available,
and temperature effects, fluid compressibility, Fann® Viscometer
readings at different temperature points, critical fluid velocity, and bit
nozzle size calculations for optimized rate of penetration, eccentricity,
pipe roughness, returns to sea floor for dual-gradient operations and
back pressure for under-balanced operations are all considered. Because
these drilling hydraulic parameters are inter-related and affect each
other, designing hydraulics can be very complicated.

The hydraulics design must be able to clean the hole by maximizing


flow rates while remaining within the pressure limits of the rig surface
equipment, pumps, drill string and downhole equipment, open hole and
casing pressure. Hole cleaning is usually directly related to the flow rate
and drilling fluid properties. Rate of penetration is usually directly
related to the bit nozzle sizes. PDC bits are an exception where a specific
flow rate is required for acceptable rate of penetration, rather than
hydraulic horsepower.

The flow rate and pressure drop requirements of downhole tools must
also be met for components such as:

• Bit - optimize bit nozzle velocities, hydraulic horsepower and


impact force, and to clean the bit

• Mud pulse telemetry systems - must transmit data through the fluid
column

• Drilling motors - must operate within the optimum pressure drop


and flow rates

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Hydraulics Design Considerations

Rheology
Rheology is the study of the flow (of fluids) and deformation (of solids)
of matter. Most drilling fluids are dispersions or emulsions with
complex rheologies. Basic fluid rheology concepts are required to
understand the flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluids. Shear rate and
shear stress play an important role in describing fluid rheology.
Rheology is studied by measuring the shear stress imposed on fluids at
varying shear rates.

Shear rate is a velocity gradient measured across the diameter of a pipe


or annulus. It is the rate at which one layer of fluid is moving past
another.

Shear stress is the force per unit area required to sustain fluid flow. Shear
stress is the resistance, or drag force opposing the movement.

The relationship of shear stress to shear rate defines the flow behavior
of the fluid, or the viscosity of the fluid. If the ratio of shear rate to shear
stress is linear, the fluid is Newtonian. If the ratio is not linear, then the
fluid is called Non-Newtonian. Non-Newtonian fluids can be further
classified as “Shear-thickening” (dilatent), or “Shear-thinning”
(Pseudo-Plastic).

Drilling fluids are classified into two major groups: Newtonian and non-
Newtonian fluids.

• Newtonian fluids such as water and light oil are fluids whose
behavior can be described by the term viscosity.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

• A non-Newtonian fluid has viscous properties that cannot be


described by a single term, but instead by a model.

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software supports several


rheology models, including:

• Bingham Plastic

• Power Law

• Herschel Bulkley

• Generalized Herschel Bulkley

• Newtonian

Bingham Plastic
In the Bingham Plastic model, the deformation takes place after a
minimum value of shear stress is exceeded, and the minimum value is
termed as the yield stress or yield point. Beyond this, the relationship
between shear stress and shear rate is linear. Note that more than one
parameter is needed to describe fully the flow behavior of the fluid. See
“Bingham Plastic Rheology Calculations (API units)” on page 2-62.

τ = τ o + Kγ

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Power Law
In the Power Law model, the value of n indicates the degree of the non-
Newtonian behavior of the fluid. Note that more than one parameter is
needed to describe fully the flow behavior of the fluid. See “Power Law
Rheology Model (API units)” on page 2-83.

n
τ = Kγ

Herschel Bulkley

n
τ = τ o + Kγ

The Herschel-Bulkley model is a three-parameter model that has the


Bingham and Power Law models as special cases. This model is also
known as the Yield Power Law (YPL) rheology model. See “Herschel-
Bulkley Rheology Calculations (API units)” on page 2-74.

The shear stress (Fann reading) is modeled as a Zero Shear Yield Value
( τ o ) plus a power law term. For n = 1, the YPL reduces to the Bingham
Plastic model, where the Plastic Viscosity PV = K and the Bingham

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Yield Point YP = τ o . For τ o = 0, it reduces to the standard Power Law


model.

Parameters ( τ o , n, K) are calculated by a non-linear fit to the YPL


rheology equation if three or more Fann readings are provided. If only
two Fann readings are provided, the Power Law model is assumed.

The rheology of drilling muds (oil and water based) and cements may be
modeled accurately as YPL fluids.

The τ o parameter is the zero-shear yield value and has been shown to
correlate well to the tendency of weighted muds to "dynamically sag"
under flowing conditions. τo should not be confused with or compared
to the standard yield point (YP) calculated from 600 and 300 rpm Fann
data.

Generalized Herschel Bulkley


The Generalized Herschel-Bulkley rheological model should be used in
foam drilling because this model more accurately calculates pressures
when using foamed fluids.This model encompasses the conventional
Newtonian, Bingham Plastic, and Herschel Bulkley models. See
“Generalized Herschel-Bulkley Rheology Calculation (API units)” on
page 2-73..

Newtonian
The shear stress of a Newtonian fluid is directly proportional to the shear
rate. Water is an example of a Newtonian fluid.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Types of Flow
Fluid flow can be categorized using the following flow regimes:

• Laminar Flow: In laminar flow, fluid particles move in straight,


parallel lines. (Low flow rate)

• Transitional Flow: This is the transition zone between laminar and


turbulent.

• Turbulent Flow: In Turbulent flow, fluid particles move in all


directions in bursts of upward, downward, and forward motion, and
even some backward movement – however, there is an overall
direction.

The Critical Velocity is the fluid velocity when the flow changes from
the laminar to the turbulent regime.

Hole Cleaning
There are many factors that affect hole cleaning, such as:

• Flow rate

• Rheological properties

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

• Cutting density, size, and shape

• Fluid density

• Rate of Penetration (ROP)

• Hole angle

• Hole eccentricity

• Pipe movement (rotation and reciprocation)

Hole cleaning is a concern because it can cause major issues, including:

• Inability to continue drilling because of:

• Increased Torque, plus increased variability of torque

• Weight transfer issues

• Increased Drag

• Difficulty maintaining directional control

• Stuck pipe

• Formation Breakdown due to increased ECD

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has several outputs to


assist with analyzing hole cleaning. See “Hole Cleaning Plots” on
page 2-44.

Flow Rate

The flow rate is very important to avoid hole cleaning issues. The
minimum flow rate is the rate that will clean the wellbore for a specified
rate of penetration, rotary speed, pump rate, bed porosity, cuttings
diameter, and density.

If there is a bed height forming, the total cuttings volume will begin to
become greater than the suspended cuttings volume in that portion of the
wellbore. Also, you will notice that the bed height begins to form when
the minimum flow rate to avoid bed formation for a section of the well
is greater than the flow rate specified on the Analysis Settings tab. In
order to avoid the formation of a cuttings bed in that portion of the well,
you must increase the specified flow rate to a rate greater than the

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

minimum flow rate. Refer to “Minimum Flow Rate vs Depth Plot” on


page 2-44 and “Minimum Flow Rate vs ROP Plot” on page 2-44.

Rheological Properties
Rheological properties, such as the yield point and K, determine the
thickness of the fluid, and therefore have an effect on the ability of the
fluid to keep the cuttings suspended in the fluid.

Cuttings Density, Size, and Shape


Smaller cuttings are easier to remove from the wellbore than larger ones.
Cuttings shape is also important, and flatter cuttings are easier to remove
than spherical cuttings. Rock density also has an effect, as lighter
cuttings are easier to remove than heavier cuttings.

Fluid Density
Increasing fluid density will increase buoyancy, and can help lift
cuttings off the low side of the wellbore into the areas with higher flow
rates. Cuttings in higher flow areas are more easily removed from the
wellbore. Drilling fluid “sweeps” are specific fluids designed to
transport cuttings that cannot be removed by ordinary drilling fluid
circulation, and can be effective in high angle sections.

Rate of Penetration (ROP)


As ROP increases, the amount of cuttings will also increase. When
drilling at faster rates, the annular fluid velocity must also increase. At
some point, the flow rate may not be able to effectively remove the
cuttings generated. If this occurs, the ROP must be decreased, or another
action, such as a short trip, circulate bottoms up, or using a high density
sweep may be used.

Hole Angle
The hole angle must be considered for hole cleaning. In vertical hole
sections, the flow around the string is uniform. In high angle hole
sections, there is uneven flow. The string may be laying in the wellbore.
Cuttings may fall towards the low side of the hole and develop into a
cuttings bed.

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Cuttings bed development and hole inclination

• Inclination < 30 degrees: No bed forms, cuttings are suspended


and transported.

Note:

In the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software, the cuttings bed formation


is not totally dependent on the inclination. For instance, with a flow rate less
than the minimum flow rate to clean a hole section, a cuttings bed may still
form in a vertical hole

• Inclination > 30 degrees: Cuttings bed form

• Inclination 30 to 65 degrees: Most critical as cuttings on the low


side can form an unstable bed, and can slide down and cause a
blockage

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Hole Eccentricity
Hole eccentricity refers to where the string is in regards to the center of
the wellbore. Normally eccentricity is expressed as a percentage. A
string is considered 100% eccentric when it is lying on against the side
of the wellbore. On the other hand, a string is considered concentric (0%
eccentricity) when it is centered in the wellbore. Eccentricity has a
significant effect on annular pressure drop.

Pressure Loss
The total pressure necessary to push the drilling fluid through the system
can generally be read on the gauge near the standpipe or the pump. The
total pressure required is the sum of the pressure losses through each
part of the entire system. The entire system includes the surface
equipment, drill string, bit, and annulus. The active mud pumps, as
specified on the Rig tab, must have the required pressure and power.

Tool joint pressure losses are sometimes referred to as minor pressure


losses. Pressure losses due to tool joint upset in the annulus are
accounted for in the calculations by considering the cross-sectional area
change in the annulus regardless of whether or not this box is checked.
However, in these calculations the length of the tool joint is not
considered. Refer to “Tool Joint Pressure Loss Calculations (API units)”
on page 2-94 for more information.

Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological model specified


for the active fluid using the Fluid tab. Sources of pressure loss include
both surface and downhole system losses and are a combination of
hydrostatic, and frictional pressure loss. Total system pressure losses are
the sum of the downhole and surface pressure losses.

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You can use the Component Pressure Losses pie chart to determine the
pressure losses for each component of the drill string and in the annulus.

Annular Velocity
Annular Velocity can be used to determine the flow regime and critical
velocity for each section in the annulus for a range of flow rates. Critical
velocity is the velocity resulting from the critical flow rate.

For the Power Law and Bingham Plastic rheology models, the critical
flow rate is the flow rate required to produce a Reynold’s number
greater than the critical Reynold’s number for laminar flow. The
Reynold’s number is dependent on mud properties, the velocity the mud
is traveling, and on the effective diameter of the work string or annulus
the mud is flowing through. Based on the calculated Reynold’s number

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

and the rheological model you are using, it is possible to determine the
flow regime of the mud. For regimes where the Reynold’s number lies
between the critical values for laminar and turbulent flow, a state of
transitional flow exists.

The Ga number is a generalized Reynold’s number that is used in the


Herschel Bulkley rheology calculations.

Note that when an annular velocity curve crosses the critical velocity
curve, then the flow regime for that annulus section moves from laminar
to either transitional or turbulent flow.

Notice in this example of


the Annular Velocity vs
Depth plot that the
annular velocity at some
of the pump rates being
analyzed result in an
annular velocity greater
than the critical velocity
and are therefore in the
turbulent flow regime.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Bit Optimization
The available power for cleaning the bottom of the well is the pressure
at the bit multiplied by the flow rate. Therefore, ideally it is desirable to
have most of the pressure loss at the bit and little pressure loss elsewhere
in the system. Bit jet velocity is the velocity of the drilling fluid as it goes
through the bit nozzles.

The total flow area (TFA) is the summation of the nozzle areas used for
fluid flow through the bit. Consider all nozzles when calculating TFA.

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has several outputs to


assist with bit optimization. See “Bit Optimization Plots” on page 2-52.

ECD
As drilling fluid is circulated through the wellbore, the circulating
pressure must be greater than the friction losses in the string and bit, the
hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the annulus, and the friction losses in
the annulus. The equivalent circulating density (ECD) is the pressure
required to overcome the total friction losses in the annulus, and the
hydrostatic pressure of the fluid.

Commonly ECD is calculated at the last casing shoe. The ECD of the
mud is the mud weight that would exert the circulating pressures under
static conditions at the specified depth.

ECD is an important factor in avoiding fluid losses and kicks in wells


especially when the window between the fracture gradient and pore
pressure gradient is narrow.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has outputs regarding


ECD. See “ECD vs Depth Plot” on page 2-46. See “ECD vs Run Depth
Plot” on page 2-51.

Tripping Schedule
The Swab/Surge Trip Schedule assists with determining the rate to trip
in or out of the hole without exceeding a pressure change (Maximum
Delta - P) you specify in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis
Settings tab. The surge or swab pressure changes in the well can be
calculated with or without flow through an open-ended workstring or
without flow through a closed-ended workstring. You must specify the
length of a stand of drill pipe or casing, and the Maximum Delta - P for
both surge and swab. The Maximum Delta - P is the maximum change
in ECD at the bit or casing shoe that you are willing to accept.
Specifying a large value allows faster tripping speeds, whereas a low
value only allows slower tripping speeds.

Moving a work string is accompanied by a displacement of the mud in


the hole that can result in pressure changes. Depending on the direction
of the string movement, and the resulting mud displacement, these
changes may add to the pressure exerted by the mud. If the pipe
movement is downward, this may result in a surge pressure. If the pipe
movement is upward, this may result in a swab pressure. These pressure
changes may impair the stability of the hole through removal of the filter
cake, resulting in a blowout by dropping below the pore pressure, or

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

may cause lost circulation by exceeding the fracture pressure and


fracturing the formation.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Drilling Fluids

Drilling Fluid Functionality


The drilling fluid must be able to:

• Remove cuttings from the hole

• Suspend cuttings during trips

• Allow cuttings to settle in the surface system

• Build wall cake on the formation

• Prevent caving of the formation, or hole collapse

• Control formation pressures

• Control corrosion of drilling tools

• Cool and lubricate the drill string and the bit

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Defining Drilling Fluids in the Software

Click to define a mud.

This is a list of the


defined fluids.

The fluid used in the


analysis is selected
in the Common
section of the
Analysis Settings
tab.

The Fluids tab is used to define drilling fluids by specifying the basic
characteristics of the fluid. A Case may have more than one associated
fluid or gas, but only one fluid and one gas can be active at a time.

If a fluid or gas is used in multiple Cases within the same Wellbore, any
changes to the fluid or gas will be applied in all Cases where it is used.
For example, assume fluid 'A' is used in multiple Cases, and all cases are
associated with the same Wellbore. If any changes are made to fluid 'A',
in any of the Cases, the change will be applied to all Cases using the
fluid "A".

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Types of Drilling Fluids


The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software supports the use of the
following mud types and associated base fluids:

• Brine

• Oil, including the following base fluids:

• Diesel

• ESCAID110

• LVT200

• XP07

• Synthetic, including the following base fluids:

• Accolade

• PetroFree (PetroFreeLE, PetroFreeLS, and PetroFreeSF)

• Customized (All customized use the same density corrections as


Accolade)

• Water

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Water or Brine Based Muds

Select the Mud base


type. For Water and
Brine, the Base fluid is
the same as the Mud
base type.

The complexity of the water-based fluid ranges from fresh or salt water
with little additive, to more complex fluids with many additives such as:

• Weighting agents

• Viscosifiers

• Chemically active ingredients specific to the application

Water based mud usually falls into one of the following classes:

• Un-weighted Clay-water Systems

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

• De-flocculated Clay-water Systems

• Calcium-treated, Weighted, De-flocculated Systems

• Salt-water Systems

• Inhibitive, Potassium (K+) Systems

• HPHT De-flocculated Systems

• HPHT Polymer Systems

• Encapsulating Polymer Systems

• Cationic Polymer Systems

• Extended, Flocculated Clay-based Systems

• (Poly) Glycol Enhanced Systems

• Inhibitive Silicate Systems

De-flocculated means that the clay particles (or polymers) suspended


within the base fluid are kept separate. The method of separation may be
mechanical, although some chemical additives also aid de-flocculation.
When flocculation occurs, the particles bind into coagulated masses
which, when they attain enough mass, fall out of suspension and sink
through the continuous phase in a precipitative manner.

Simple water based muds include:

• Spud mud used to drill from the surface to a shallow depth

• Low solids mud that contains a minimum amount of solid


material (sand, silt, etc.)

• Lignite mud - lignite has a thinning action

Compressibility data for diesel (base fluid) and water (base type) are
assigned internally within the software, and you will not be able to view
or edit the compressibility data for these fluids.

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Oil Based Muds

Select Oil as the Mud base type,


and then select the Base fluid.

Oil based muds can use diesel, mineral, or ester oil. For a mud to be
termed a true oil based mud, the water must make up no more than 5%
of the content. Greater than 5% water and the mud is termed an Invert
Emulsion. Oil based muds are used to:

• Further reduce torque and drag

• Allow for drilling of water-sensitive formations

• Better filtration control in production zones

• Longer bit runs by maintaining fluid quality and weight

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

• Temperature stability

Compressibility data for diesel (base fluid) and water (base type) are
assigned internally within the software, and you will not be able to view
or edit the compressibility data for these fluids. See “Compressibility
Data” on page 2-23..

Synthetic Based Muds

Select Synthetic as the Mud base


type, and then select the Base
fluid.
Specify Compressibility Data for
the fluid.

Synthetic fluids share many of the same properties as oil based muds,
but may offer a more environmentally sensitive options for some
applications such as offshore drilling.

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Compressibility Data
The Compressibility Data section of the Fluids tab is only displayed
when the Mud base type is Synthetic or Oil (and Base fluid is not
Diesel). Default compressibility data will automatically be assigned
although you can change it.

Compressibility data for diesel (base fluid) and water (base type) are
assigned internally within the software, and you will not be able to view
or edit the compressibility data for these fluids.

Oil content - Specify the volume percentage of oil in the fluid. For
example, assume the total volume is 120 with 80 oil, and 40 water. In
this example, the volume of oil is 80/120 or approximately 67% and the
volume of water is 40/120 or approximately 33%. The oil-water ratio is
80/40.

Water content - Specify the volume percentage of water in the fluid.

Salt content - Specify the weight percentage of any type of salt in the
fluid.

Reference temperature - Specify the temperature of the fluid when the


compressibility measurements were taken.

Average solids gravity - Specify the average specific gravity of the


solids in the fluid.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Rheology Test

Rheology Tests section


of the Fluids tab.

The Rheology Test section of the Fluids tab is used to select the
rheology model, enter rheology test data (Fann readings or rheology
parameters) and select a rheology test (Reference) to use in the analysis.

Rheology Model
Select the rheology model you want to use. The options are:

• Newtonian

• Bingham Plastic

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

• Power Law

• Herschel Bulkley

• Generalized Herschel Bulkley

Rheology or Fann
Click associated with Rheology or Fann to indicate how you will
be defining the fluid properties.

Rheology Parameters:
The rheology parameters required vary depending on the selected
rheology model.

Density - (all rheology models) Specify the density of the fluid.

Plastic viscosity - (all rheology models) Specify the plastic viscosity of


the fluid. Plastic viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow. It is
defined as the ratio of the increment of the shear stress and the
corresponding increment in the shear rate. This is the slope of the curve
in the fluid plot at the bottom of the Fluids tab.

Yield point - (all rheology models except Newtonian) Specify the yield
point of the fluid you are describing. Yield point is a measure of the
cohesive forces between fluid particles that cause resistance to flow.
Yield point can also be derived from the Fluid plot located at the bottom
of the Fluids tab. (Yield point is the intercept of the curve with the Y
axis.)

n' - (Power Law) Specify the flow behavior index and indicates the
degree of the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid.

K' - (Power Law) Specify the fluid consistency factor

n - (Herschel Bulkley, Generalized Herschel Bulkley) Specify the flow


behavior index.

K - (Herschel Bulkley) Specify the fluid consistency factor

m - (Generalized Herschel Bulkley) Specify the control for the


exponential growth of stress.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Fann Data:
The number of required Fann readings vary depending on the rheology
model selected. You must supply Fann readings for those speeds
displayed by default. When using Herschel Bulkley models, at least 3
Fann readings are required (2 at high shear rate and 1 at low shear rate,
e.g., 600,300 & 3). When using Generalized Herschel Bulkley models,
4 Fann readings are required. In general, the more Fann readings you
provide will result in better fluid property modeling.

Speed - Specify the rotational speed (rpm) of the Fann viscometer when
the corresponding dial reading was recorded. Enter as many data points
as possible.

Dial - Specify the dial reading for the corresponding rotational speed of
the Fann viscometer.

Rheology Test Spreadsheet


The rheology test spreadsheet is used to define one or more rheology
tests for the fluid selected in the Fluids list at the top of the Fluids tab.
You can enter multiple tests at different pressures, temperatures, and
densities. Each test can have different parameter values. Input and
calculated data for a rheology test varies depending on the Rheology
model selected.

If you are including mud temperature effects in the analysis, the


rheology test marked by clicking associated with the test in the
Reference column will be used for the initiation of the wellbore thermal
simulation. Mud temperature effects will be included in Hydraulics
outputs if the Include mud temperature effects box on the Analysis
Settings tab is checked. See “Effect of Temperature and Pressure on
Fluid Physical Properties” on page 2-70.

Torque Drag analysis will use the rheology test data marked by clicking
associated with the test in the Reference column, and multiple
rheology tests will not be used.

Fluid Plot
The Fluid Plot is used to determine which rheological model to use for
approximating fluid behavior. If the data points form a straighter line on
a log-log plot, use the Power Law model. If the data points form a
straighter line on a Cartesian plot, use the Bingham Plastic model.

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Shear rates and shear stresses are calculated directly from the Fann data
specified. Shear rate and shear stress data points can be used to
determine the yield point and plastic viscosity, and the equation
coefficients n (flow behavior index) and K (consistency index). These
properties are used in pressure loss calculations.

Defining Gases in the Software


Gases are used for Underbalanced Hydraulics analysis only. Please
refer to the Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis chapter for more
information.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Circulating System

Defining the Circulating System Using the Software

Use the Rig tab to define:

• Rig mechanical limits, including:

• Rig hoisting capacity

• Rotary torque rating.

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• Circulating system information, including:

• Rated working pressure - Specify the maximum rated pressure


for the surface equipment.

• Surface pressure loss - You can specify or calculate a surface


equipment pressure loss to be used for the wellbore pressure loss
calculations. Surface pressure losses include losses incurred in
the pumps, and the piping between the pumps and the string.
Calculated pressure loss is based on the surface configuration
you select.

• Flowing fluid temperature based on mud pit data - You can


specify the average mud inlet temperature or calculate it using
mud pit and environmental parameters. The input or calculated
mud inlet temperature will be used to determine the string
internal temperature profile for hydraulics analysis.

• Return Surface Line - This is from the wellhead to a pit. Also


referred to as a “blooie line”.

• Mud pumps - Define working parameters of the available


pumps, including volume per stroke, maximum speed,
maximum discharge pressure, and horsepower. Additionally,
you can select a pump from the catalog. These values will then
be pulled from the catalog. You can also specify whether the
pump is active and inactive.

Rig Mechanical Limits


The Rig Mechanical Limits section of the Rig tab is used to specify the
block and torque ratings for the rig you are using. These values are not
used in any calculations, but appear on some outputs for reference.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Notice the Torque Rating is displayed in the image of the Torque plot
below.
Notice the torque for three of the operations exceeds
the Torque Limit specified on the Rig tab. The
indicates there may be an issue requiring further
investigation. Hover your mouse pointer over and a
tool tip with additional information is displayed.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Circulating System

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Rated working pressure


Specify the maximum rated working pressure for the surface equipment.
This value will be displayed on some of the outputs.

Notice the Rated working


pressure is displayed on the
Pressure Loss vs Pump
Rate output.

Surface pressure loss


The surface equipment configuration is used to account for pressure
losses incurred in the pumps, and the piping between the pumps and the
string. You can input the surface pressure loss, or you can calculate it
based on the surface configuration.

If you choose to calculate the surface pressure loss, you can base the
calculations on one of four IADC configurations, or you can create a
custom rotary or coiled tubing configuration. If you select one of the

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

IADC configurations, you cannot change the components, lengths, or


inside diameters.

IADC - Select the configuration you want to use from the list. The
length and inside diameter of the components included in the
configuration are listed. You cannot edit this information.

Custom Rotary - Check the box associated with the components


included in the configuration, and specify the component length and
inside diameter. If you select Top drive stackup, the swivel and kelly
input fields will be disabled so you can specify the top-drive rotary
system.

Coiled Tubing - Input the following parameters.

• Pump discharge line - (Optional) Check Pump discharge line to


specify the length and ID of the discharge line from the fluid
pump to the coiled tubing reel.

• Coiled tubing wrap type - Specify how the coiled tubing is


wrapped on the reel. Select Inline for wraps that wrapped one
over the other, or select Offset for wraps that are uniformly
wrapped between each other.

• Reel OD - Specify the outside diameter of the coiled tubing reel.

• Core OD - Specify the outside diameter of the reel core the


coiled tubing is wrapped around.

• Reel wrap width - Specify the width of the reel core.

• Remaining CT length - Specify the length of coiled tubing


remaining on the reel.

• Injector/Stackup height - Specify the stackup length from the


coiled tubing to the gooseneck/injector.

• Umbilical - (Optional) Check Umbilical to specify the outside


diameter of the umbilical which is used to calculate the pressure
loss inside the coiled tubing on the reel.

• Total CT length - The total length of the coiled tubing will be


calculated and displayed.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Mud Pit
Use the Mud Pit section of the Rig tab to specify the average inlet
temperature of the mud, or calculate it based on mud pit and
environmental data. The mud inlet temperature is used to determine the
string internal temperature profile used in hydraulics analysis.

If you want the software to calculate the flowing temperature of fluids


as they exit the mud pit system at the surface. The following parameters
must be specified:

Mud stirrer power (per tank): This information is important as the


fluid is stirred, the shearing action of the drilling fluid will result in
increased temperatures in the fluid.

Surface mud volume: Specify the actual volume of the drilling fluid in
all mud pits combined.

Air Temperature: Input the temperature of the air near the mud pits.
This temperature is used when calculating the inlet mud temperature.

Wind Speed: Input the wind speed near the mud pits. The wind speed
is used when calculating the inlet mud temperature.

Initial mud pit temperature: Specify the initial mud temperature in the
pits.

Return Surface Line


This is from the wellhead to a pit. Also referred to as a “blooie line”. The
return surface line is only used for UB Hydraulics analysis.

Mud Pumps
Define the working parameters of all available (active and inactive)
pumps, including the volume per stroke, maximum speed, maximum
discharge pressure, and horsepower. Only active pumps are used in the
analysis.

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Only pumps with a


checked box are used in
the analysis.

This pump will not be used


in the analysis because the
box is not checked.

Mud pump parameters include:

Volume per stroke - Specify the volume of fluid the pump can displace
per stroke.

Maximum speed - Specify the maximum speed that the pump can
operate.

Max. discharge pressure - Specify the maximum discharge pressure


the pump will have.

Horsepower rating - Specify the maximum horsepower the pump is


capable of providing.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Volumetric efficiency % - Specify the efficiency of the pump that you


have selected. Entry is numeric, and between 0 (zero) and 100.

Max. pump rate - The maximum pump rate is a read-only field


calculated by multiplying the following input parameters: (Volume per
stroke)(Maximum Speed)(Volumetric Efficiency).

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Analysis Settings

The Analysis Settings tab is used to configure the analysis options


pertaining to the outputs you have added to the Output Area. Be aware
that the available settings for all selected outputs are displayed, and not
just those for the active output that you are currently viewing.

The analysis options in the Analysis Settings tab are divided into the
following sections:

• Common: Common analysis options are not specific to one type of


analysis (i.e. Torque & Drag, or Hydraulics). For example, the
Pump rate specified will be used for any Torque & Drag or
Hydraulics outputs in the Output Area that require a pump rate. If
you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that require a
Common Analysis Option, this section will not be displayed on the
Analysis Settings tab.

• Torque & Drag: The analysis options in this section pertain to one
or more of the Torque & Drag outputs you currently have in the
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require a Torque & Drag parameter, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.

• Hydraulics: The analysis options in this section pertain to one or


more of the Hydraulics outputs you currently have in the Output
Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that require
a Hydraulics parameter, this section will not be visible on the
Analysis Settings tab.

• Centralization: The analysis options in this section pertain to one


or more of the Centralization outputs you currently have in the
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require a Centralization parameter, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.

Hydraulics Analysis Options on Analysis Settings Tab


This section provides information about analysis options pertaining to
Hydraulics Outputs. If you do not have an output selected that requires
a specific analysis option, it will not be displayed in the Analysis
Settings tab.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Pump Rates
Use this section to specify a range of pump rates to use for the:

• Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate Plot (See “Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate
Plot” on page 2-45.)

• Critical Pump Rate vs Depth Plot (See “Critical Pump Rate vs


Depth Plot” on page 2-46.)

Note

These plots will not use the Pump Rate specified in the Common Analysis
section of the Analysis Settings tab even if it is visible in the tab. (It may be
visible because another plot in the Output Area requires a single pump rate).

The minimum and maximum rates define the range of rates where the
analysis will be performed. Within a range, additional rates (evenly
spaced within the defined range) will be analyzed. Although the step
size field is not used in the analysis, you must enter a value greater than
0.

Pumping Constraints
Use this section to specify the maximum pump pressure, power, and
allowable rate. You can manually enter these values, or you can default
them based on data input on the Circulating System panel of the
Rig tab.

To use values from the circulating system:


Click the Use values from circulating system radio button to
automatically populate the pumping constraints based on data input on
the Circulating System panel of the Rig tab. This option is not
available if a surface equipment configuration is not specified on the
Circulating System panel of the Rig tab, and at least one pump is
active. The data will populated as follows:

• Max. pressure field will be populated with the lowest pressure


rating of all active pumps and surface equipment.

• Max. power field will be populated with the combined


horsepower ratings for all active pumps. (The horsepower
ratings for all active pumps are added together to calculate the
maximum power.)

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• Max. allowable rate field will be populated with the combined


pump rates for all active pumps. (The pump rates for all active
pumps are added together to calculate the maximum allowable
rate.)

To manually enter pumping constraints:


1. Click the Use manually entered values radio button.

2. Specify the maximum surface pressure in the Max. pressure field.


This value should be the lowest pressure rating of all the active
pumps as well as the surface equipment pressure rating. For
example, if you have two active pumps with ratings of 7500 and
6000 psi and a surface equipment rating of 5,000 psi, you would
enter 5,000 psi in this field.

3. Specify the combined maximum pump horsepower for all active


pumps in the Max. power field. (Add together all horsepower
ratings for all active pumps.)

4. Specify the combined Max. allowable rate for all active pumps.
(Add together all maximum pump rates for all active pumps.)

Include tool joint pressure losses


Select this check box to include tool joint pressure losses in the
calculations. This type of pressure loss occurs as a result of constrictions
inside the drill pipe tool joints. Thus, the magnitude of this type of loss
is affected primarily by the internal geometry of the tool joint. These
losses are sometimes referred to as minor pressure losses. See “Tool
Joint Pressure Loss Calculations (API units)” on page 2-94.

Include mud temperature effects


Select this check box to update the fluid rheology based on the
formation temperature defined in the Geothermal Gradient panel of
the Subsurface tab. If this box is selected, each temperature input on the
Fluids tab will be used to calculate a plastic viscosity for use in pressure
loss calculations. Use the Time of circulation field to specify the time
length for the temperature simulation. When using this option, the
calculation time will be extremely lengthy.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Include back pressure


Select this check box to apply a back pressure to the annulus. Specify
the amount of back pressure using the Back pressure field.

Include cuttings loading


Select this check box to include the effects of cuttings buildup in the
annulus on the hydraulics pressure calculations. When the Include
cuttings loading box is checked, the analysis will use the data specified
below the check box to calculate the suspended cuttings, bed height, and
the adjusted mud weight (including the cuttings) for the specified flow
rate(s). The hole cleaning model is used to run the analysis. The
calculated adjusted mud weight (including the cuttings) is used to
calculate frictional pressure losses. Annular pressure losses are used to
calculate the equivalent mud weight (including the cuttings) based on
the selected rheology model. Segmented calculations are performed
along the wellbore to account for the calculated cuttings volume and bed
height determined by the hole cleaning model. See “Hole Cleaning
Methodology and Calculations” on page 2-74.

Cuttings diameter - Specify the diameter of the cuttings. A normal


range is 0.1 to .25 inches.

Cutting density - Specify the specific gravity of the formation being


drilled. Typically, shale is 2.65. “Specific Gravities of Common
Materials” on page 2-90.

Bed porosity - Specify the porosity of the cuttings bed on the low side
of the hole. A typical estimate is 36%.

MD calculation interval - Specify the calculation interval to be used in


the analysis. The entire well will be analyzed. This value indicates the
interval at which to perform the analysis. A maximum of 600 points can
be analyzed.

Rate of penetration - Specify the rate at which the formation is being


drilled. This value is used to determine the amount of cuttings produced
per time increment (a cuttings flow rate).

Rotary speed - Specify the rate of pipe rotation. This model is based on
the fact that rotating pipe reduces the eccentricity (even in a deviated
well), which alters velocity distribution. When velocity is increased on
the narrow side, hole cleaning is improved. A similar effect also occurs
when you increase the rotation, because this action drags cuttings from
the low side of the annulus to the high side. This model is based on a

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

theoretical analysis of this effect, but assumptions must be made about


the position of the pipe. A default rpm of 90 is assumed, which gives you
the same values as earlier models.

Note

• The effect of rotation is more pronounced in laminar flow, because


velocity profiles are generally more skewed.
• Flow loop tests have shown the effect of RPM on hole cleaning is
negligible when the hole angle is less than 30 degrees.

Include roughness
Select this check box and enter pipe and annulus values to specify
pipe/annulus roughness. Roughness affects friction pressure losses in
turbulent flow only. The nominal value of surface roughness for new
steel pipe is 0.0018 inches. Old or corroded pipe can have values up to
.0072 inches. This factor is more important in deep wells using old
tubulars. If the predicted surface pressure is consistently low, increasing
pipe roughness can increase your calculated pump pressures by several
hundred psi. The effect of wall roughness is usually not important for
equivalent circulating density (ECD), since the annulus is almost always
in laminar flow for the wellbore dimensions and flow rates encountered
in most drilling. This option is only enabled when the Herschel-Bulkley
fluid rheology is selected as the wellbore fluid model on the Fluids tab.

Returns at sea floor


Select this check box if you want to input the sea water density to use as
the gradient between the mud line and the sea level. Use this option
when you have a subsea wellhead and no riser.

Swab and Surge


Stand length - This stand length will be used to calculate the tripping
schedule as time per stand.

Maximum Delta - P (swab) - Specify the maximum pressure change


that you will allow during tripping out of the hole. This pressure change
is used to determine how fast you can trip out of the hole.

Maximum Delta - P (surge) - Specify the maximum pressure change


that you will allow during tripping in the hole. This pressure change is
used to determine how fast you can trip in the hole.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Gel Strength
Specify the pressure to break the gel for various gel strengths.

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Hydraulics Outputs

Hydraulics Tab and Ribbon

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has many outputs


available on the Hydraulics ribbon. Most of the outputs provide you the
results at the surface when the string is at the String Depth specified on
the String tab. If you want to input the surface conditions and calculate
those at the bottom of the string, use the Operations tab to define a User
Defined Operation.

Roadmap Plots are unique because they are used to predict the
equivalent circulating densities (ECD) and pressures at the surface or a
specified distance from the bottom of the string, when the bottom of the
workstring is at a range of wellbore depths. The calculations performed
for this analysis are similar to those used in many other outputs, except
that the calculations are performed assuming the bottom of the
workstring is at multiple depths instead of one depth.

On the Hydraulics ribbon, the plots and tables with similar functionality
are grouped in categories in the ribbon as follows:
• Hole Cleaning Plots

• Pressure and ECD Plots

• Roadmap Plots

• Bit Optimization Plots

• Steady State Swab/Surge Plots

• Other

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Hole Cleaning Plots

Minimum Flow Rate vs Depth Plot


This plot can be used to determine the minimum (critical) pump flow
rate at which a cuttings bed will begin to form. In order to prevent
cuttings bed formation, maintain a flow rate for a particular depth
greater than the minimum flow rate. The minimum flow rate varies
because of variations in hole and string geometry.

Use the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab to include


cuttings loading in the analysis, and to specify cuttings information.

Minimum Flow Rate vs ROP Plot


This plot can used to determine the minimum (critical) flow rate that a
cuttings bed will begin to form in the annulus for a range of penetration
rates (ROP) while rotating at the rotary speed (RPM) specified on the
Analysis Settings tab. (RPM for this output is not specified on the
Operations tab.) The ROP determines the amount of cuttings produced
(a cuttings flow rate)..

Use the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab to include


cuttings loading in the analysis, and to specify cuttings information.

Cuttings Bed Height vs Depth Plot


Use the Cuttings Bed Height vs Depth plot to determine if a cuttings bed
will form at any distance along the string when pumping at the pump
rate specified in the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab. If a
cuttings bed is forming, increase the pump rate so that it is greater than
the critical pump rate to avoid cuttings bed formation in that section of
the well. You can use the Minimum Flow Rate vs Depth plot to
determine the critical pump rate for that section of the well.

Use the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab to include


cuttings loading in the analysis, and to specify cuttings information.

Cuttings Volume vs Depth Plot


Use the Cuttings Volume vs Depth plot to display cuttings total volume,
and cuttings suspended volume at the Pump rate specified in the
Common section of the Analysis Settings tab. At any depth, if the total

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

volume % is greater than the suspended volume % of cuttings, a cuttings


bed has formed.

Use the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab to include


cuttings loading in the analysis, and to specify cuttings information.

For any distance along the string, use this plot to determine the:

• Suspended volume % of cuttings - This is the percentage of the


annular volume filled with cuttings suspended in the drilling fluid.
Suspended volume does not include cuttings lying in the hole and
forming a cuttings bed.

• Total volume % of cuttings - This is the percentage of the annular


volume filled with cuttings, including cuttings suspended in the
drilling fluid, and cuttings forming a bed.

Pressure and ECD Plots

Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate Plot


Use the Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate plot to display system, bit, string,
and annular pressure losses for the range of flow rates specified in the
Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab. Each curve on the plot
represents a separate pressure loss. This plot also displays the
Maximum Rated Pressure and the Maximum Pump Pressure.

The Maximum Rated Pressure is the Rated working pressure


specified on the Rig tab.

The Maximum Pump Pressure can be input in the Hydraulics section


of the Analysis Settings tab, or it can use the Max discharge pressure
specified for the active pump as specified on the Rig tab. If more than
one pump is marked active on the Rig tab, the smallest Max discharge
pressure specified for any active pump will be used.

Use the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab to select


analysis options.

Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological model selected


for the active fluid on the Fluids tab. Annular volumes are calculated
based on information entered on the String and Hole tabs.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Circulating Pressure vs Depth Plot


Use the Circulation Pressure vs Depth plot to display the combined
hydrostatic and frictional pressure losses through the string, annulus, or
bit at any depth in the wellbore. Data is included for the measured depths
from the surface to the String Depth specified on the String tab.

This plot uses the pump rate specified in the Common section of the
Analysis Settings tab.

Pressure losses are calculated based on the rheological method specified


in the Fluids tab. The shoe setting depth is retrieved from the Hole tab.
Pore pressure and fracture gradient data are input on the Subsurface tab.

You cannot use this plot to determine pressure loss results from static or
dynamic losses.

ECD vs Depth Plot


Use the ECD vs Depth plot to analyze ECD (equivalent circulating
density) at any point in the string. Data is included for the measured
depths from the surface to the String Depth specified on the String tab.
ECD is the density that would exert the circulating pressure under static
conditions.

This plot uses the pump rate specified in the Common section of the
Analysis Settings tab.

ECD is calculated based on the rheological method specified in the


Fluids tab. The shoe setting depth is retrieved from the Hole tab. Pore
pressure and fracture gradient data are input on the Subsurface tab.

Critical Pump Rate vs Depth Plot


The Critical Pump Rate vs Depth plot is used to determine the pump rate
that will result in fluid flow outside of the laminar flow regime for any
depth in the wellbore. Data is included for the measured depths from the
surface to the String Depth specified on the String tab.

Pump rates greater than the critical flow rate at any depth indicates the
flow regime is moving out of laminar flow and into transitional or
turbulent flow.

This plot cannot be used to determine whether the flow is transitional or


turbulent. Use the Annular Velocity plot or the Flow Regime output.

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See “Flow Regime” on page 2-47.

This plot does not consider tool joints, or standoff devices.

Annular Velocity vs Depth Plot


Use the Annular Velocity vs Depth plot to determine the velocity of the
fluid in the annulus for any measured or true vertical depth for the range
of Pump Rates specified in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis
Settings tab.

This plot displays the calculated annular velocity in the annulus as well
as the critical velocity. When the annular velocity exceeds the critical
velocity, the flow regime for that section of the annulus at the associated
pump rate moves from laminar to either transitional or turbulent flow.

This plot does not consider tool joints, or standoff devices.

Fluid velocity calculations are based on the rheological model selected


on the Fluids tab. Cross-sectional flow areas are calculated based on the
information entered on the Hole and String tabs.

You can view the data as a function of measured depth (MD) or true
vertical depth (TVD). Use the MD/TVD drop-down selector located in
the top-right corner of the plot tab to select the depth measurement.

Pressure to Break Gel Plot


Use the Pressure to Break Gel plot to determine the pressure required
to break the gel for various gel strengths.

Flow Regime
Use the Flow Regime output to view the annular flow regime (laminar,
transitional, turbulent), pressure loss, average velocity, Reynolds
Number, and critical pump rate for all sections in the wellbore. This plot
does not consider tool joints, or standoff devices when calculating the
critical velocity. The number of rows presented in the table vary
depending on the analysis options selected in the Hydraulics section of
the Analysis Settings tab. Results are always displayed at the mudline
and at the top of the flow.

• If the Include cuttings loading box is checked, data will be


calculated and displayed using the MD calculation interval.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

• If Include mud temperature effects is checked, data will be


calculated and displayed at the bottom of each section length. In
addition, drill pipe and heavy weight sections will be divided
into twelve sections and results will be calculated and displayed
for each section.

• If neither of the above options are selected, the results will be


calculated and displayed for each string component depth.

The schematic on the left side of the table provides a visual


representation of the hole and string geometry as well as the annular
flow regime. Hover over the string to display a tool tip. The annular flow
regime is represented by three different colors.

Color Flow Regime


Blue Laminar

Green Transitional

Yellow Turbulent

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Table Columns
Measured Depth - The measured depth at the top of the section.

String Component - The string component at the associated measured


depth. The string is based on input to the String tab, and the measured
depth is based on data entered on the Wellpath tab.

Hole OD - The diameter of the hole section as input on the Hole tab.

Pipe OD - The outside diameter of the component as input on the String


tab.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Pressure Loss - The pressure loss in the annulus of the String


Component.

Average Velocity - The average fluid velocity in annulus of the String


Component.

Reynolds Number - The Reynold’s number is dependent on mud


properties, the velocity the mud is traveling, and on the effective
diameter of the string or annulus the mud is flowing through.

Critical Pump Rate -

• For the Power Law and Bingham Plastic rheology models: The
critical pump rate is the flow rate required to produce a
Reynold’s number greater than the critical Reynold’s number for
laminar flow. Based on the calculated Reynold’s number and the
rheology model you are using, it is possible to determine the
flow regime of the mud. For regimes where the Reynold’s
number lies between the critical values for laminar and turbulent
flow, a state of transitional flow exists. See “Power Law
Rheology Model (API units)” on page 2-83. See “Bingham
Plastic Rheology Calculations (API units)” on page 2-62.

• The Ga number is a generalized Reynold’s number that is used


in Herschel Bulkley rheology calculations. See “Herschel-
Bulkley Rheology Calculations (API units)” on page 2-74.

Flow Regime - Indicates whether the flow regime in the section is


laminar, transitional, or turbulent.

Component Pressure Losses Pie Chart


The Component Pressure Losses Pie Chart is used to view:

• Total string pressure loss

• Pressure losses in each string component section

• Total annular pressure loss

• Pressure losses in each annular section

Note: Annular sections or string components with zero (0) power loss
will not be displayed.

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Component Power Losses Pie Chart


The Component Power Losses Pie Chart is used to view:

• Total string power loss

• Power losses in each string component section

• Total annular power loss

• Power losses in each annular section

Note: Annular sections or string components with zero (0) power loss
will not be displayed.

Roadmap Plots

ECD vs Run Depth Plot


Use the ECD vs Run Depth plot to analyze the equivalent circulating
density (ECD) in the annulus, and the standpipe pressure when the
bottom of the string is at the running depths specified in the Common
section of the Analysis Settings tab. The Y-axis is the running depth and
indicates the depth of the bottom of the string. For example, assume you
input in the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab that you want
to display results every 500 feet between 10,000 and 12,000 feet
measured depth. The analysis will be performed at 500 foot increments
within the depth range you specified while assuming the bottom of the
string is at that depth increment. The results at the incremental depths
will be displayed on this plot.

If you want to analyze ECD at the total depth, you could include the total
depth in the running depth range, or you could use the ECD vs Depth
plot. Be aware that the ECD vs Depth plot displays results assuming the
bottom of the string is at the String Depth specified on the String tab.
See “ECD vs Depth Plot” on page 2-46.

ECD is calculated based on the rheological method specified in the


Fluids tab. The shoe setting depth is retrieved from the Hole tab. Pore
pressure and fracture gradient data are input on the Subsurface tab.

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Circulating Pressure vs Run Depth Plot


Use the Circulating Pressure vs Run Depth plot to analyze the
circulating pressure in the annulus, and the standpipe pressure when the
bottom of the string is at the running depths specified in the Common
section of the Analysis Settings tab. The Y-axis is the running depth and
indicates the depth of the bottom of the string. For example, assume you
input in the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab that you want
to display results every 500 feet between 10,000 and 12,000 feet
measured depth. The analysis will be performed at 500 foot increments
within the depth range you specified while assuming the bottom of the
string is at that depth increment. The results at the incremental depths
will be displayed on this plot.

If you want to analyze pressure at the total depth, you could include the
total depth in the running depth range, or you could use the Circulation
Pressure vs Depth plot. Be aware that the Circulation vs Depth plot
displays results assuming the bottom of the string is at the String depth
specified on the String tab.

Pressures are calculated based on the rheological method specified in


the Fluids tab. The shoe setting depth is retrieved from the Hole tab.
Pore pressure and fracture gradient data are input on the Subsurface tab.

The Maximum Pump/Surface Working Pressure displayed on this


plot is the lesser of the Rated working pressure or the Max pump
pressure.

The Rated working pressure is input on the Rig tab.

The Maximum Pump Pressure can be input in the Hydraulics section


of the Analysis Settings tab, or you can use the Max discharge pressure
specified for the active pump as specified on the Rig tab. If more than
one pump is marked active on the Rig tab, the smallest Max discharge
pressure specified for any active pump will be used.

Bit Optimization Plots

Bit Power/Area Plot


Use the Bit Power/Area plot to determine the power per area through the
bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow area (TFA). The bit
power per area is calculated by first determining the pressure loss
through the bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological
model selected on the Fluid tab, and assume the total system pressure

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the Rig tab.
Based on the total system pressure loss, as well as the string, fluid, and
hole section information, the pressure loss at the bit is calculated. TFA
can be calculated when the pressure loss at the bit and the flow rate are
known. The impact force at the bit can be determined from the TFA
calculation.

This plot displays:

• The pump rate from zero up to the flow rate resulting in parasitic
pressure losses equal to 100 percent of the total system pressure
loss. (Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)

• The flow rate, and TFA required to maximize the bit power per
area.

Hover the cursor over any


point along the Power per
Area curve. Annotations
display the Power per Area
(Y axis), pump rate (X axis)
and TFA (Curve value)
corresponding to that point
on the curve.

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Bit Impact Force Plot


Use the Bit Impact Force plot to determine the impact force of the fluid
through the bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow area (TFA).

The impact force is calculated by first determining the pressure loss


through the bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological
model selected on the Fluid tab, and assume the total system pressure
loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the Rig tab.
Based on the total system pressure loss, as well as the string, fluid, and
hole section information, the pressure loss at the bit is calculated. TFA
can be calculated when the pressure loss at the bit and the flow rate are
known. The impact force at the bit can be determined from the TFA
calculation.

This plot displays:

• The pump rate from zero up to the flow rate resulting in parasitic
pressure losses equal to 100 percent of the total system pressure
loss. (Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)

• The flow rate, and TFA required to maximize the bit impact
force.

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Bit Pressure Loss Plot


Use the Bit Pressure Loss plot to determine the pressure loss through
the bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow area (TFA).
Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological model selected
on the Fluid tab, and assume the total system pressure loss is equal to
the maximum pump pressure entered on the Rig tab. Based on the total
system pressure loss, as well as the string, fluid, and hole section
information, the pressure loss at the bit is calculated. TFA can be
calculated when the pressure loss at the bit and the flow rate are known.

This plot displays:

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

• The pump rate from zero up to the flow rate resulting in parasitic
pressure losses equal to 100 percent of the total system pressure
loss. (Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)
On this particular plot, the combined pressure loss through the
bit plus the parasitic pressure loss should equal the total system
pressure loss.

• The bit and parasitic pressure loss for the range flow rates
outlined above.

Bit Nozzle Velocity Plot


Use the Bit Nozzle Velocity plot to determine the velocity of the fluid
through the bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow area (TFA).

The bit velocity is calculated by first determining the pressure loss


through the bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological
model selected on the Fluid tab, and assume the total system pressure
loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the Rig tab.
Based on the total system pressure loss, as well as the string, fluid, and
hole section information, the pressure loss at the bit is calculated. TFA
can be calculated when the pressure loss at the bit and the flow rate are
known. The velocity at the bit can be determined from the TFA
calculation.

This plot displays:

• The pump rate from zero up to the flow rate resulting in parasitic
pressure losses equal to 100 percent of the total system pressure
loss. (Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)

• The velocity of the fluid through the bit for a range of flow rates
and varied total flow area (TFA).

Steady State Swab/Surge Plots

ECD vs Trip Time Open Ended


Use the ECD vs Trip Time Open Ended plot to determine the
equivalent circulating density (ECD) expected for trip speeds ranging
from zero to 200 seconds per stand while tripping in (surge) or tripping
out (swab) with an open-ended string.

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Because the string is open-ended, you can specify a Pump rate through
the string using the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab. If
you specify a Pump rate greater than zero, the ECD will include the
effects of this flow rate.

This plot displays the ECD at total depth (TD) (as provided on the Hole
tab), at the casing shoe (as provided on the Hole tab), and at the bit as
the bit is tripped in or out of the hole at various trip speeds. If the bit is
at TD, the curves overlay and may appear to be missing from the plot.

Stand length is specified in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis


Settings tab.

ECD vs Trip Time Close Ended


Use the ECD vs Trip Time Close Ended plot to determine the
equivalent circulating density (ECD) expected for trip speeds ranging
from zero to 200 seconds per stand while tripping in (surge) or tripping
out (swab) with an closed-ended string.

Because the string is closed-ended, you cannot specify a Pump rate


through the string.

This plot displays the ECD at total depth (TD) (as provided on the Hole
tab), at the casing shoe (as provided on the Hole tab), and at the bit as
the bit is tripped in or out of the hole at various trip speeds. If the bit is
at TD, the curves overlay and may appear to be missing from the plot.

Stand length is specified in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis


Settings tab.

ECD vs Run Depth Open Ended


Use the ECD vs Run Depth Open Ended plot to determine the
equivalent circulating density (ECD) expected for trip speeds per stand
while tripping in (surge) or tripping out (swab) with an open-ended
string. This plot performs the analysis with the bit at multiple depths as
specified in the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab.

Because the string is open-ended, you can specify a Pump rate through
the string using the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab. If
you specify a Pump rate greater than zero, the ECD will include the
effects of this flow rate.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

This plot displays the ECD at total depth (TD) (as provided on the Hole
tab), at the casing shoe (as provided on the Hole tab), and at the bit as
the bit is tripped in or out of the hole at various trip speeds using the
depth range specified in the Common section of the Analysis
Settings tab. If the bit is at TD, the curves overlay and may appear to be
missing from the plot. Use the ECD at selector at the top of the plot to
select what you want to view.

Stand length is specified in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis


Settings tab.

ECD vs Run Depth Close Ended


Use the ECD vs Run Depth Closed Ended plot to determine the
equivalent circulating density (ECD) expected for trip speeds per stand
while tripping in (surge) or tripping out (swab) with an closed-ended
string. This plot performs the analysis with the bit at multiple depths as
specified in the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab.

Because the string is closed-ended, you cannot specify a Pump rate


through the string.

This plot displays the ECD at total depth (TD) (as provided on the Hole
tab), at the casing shoe (as provided on the Hole tab), and at the bit as
the bit is tripped in or out of the hole at various trip speeds using the
depth range specified in the Common section of the Analysis
Settings tab. If the bit is at TD, the curves overlay and may appear to be
missing from the plot. Use the ECD at selector at the top of the plot to
select what you want to view.

Stand length is specified in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis


Settings tab.

Swab/Surge Trip Schedule


Use the Swab/Surge Trip Schedule to view the minimum allowable
trip time per stand of pipe without exceeding the pressure change (trip
margin) specified in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings
tab. Depending on the situation, there may be one or more trip speeds
for all stands.

Moving a work string is accompanied by a displacement of the mud in


the hole that can result in pressure changes. Depending on the direction
of the string movement, and the resulting mud displacement, these
changes may add to the pressure exerted by the mud. If the pipe

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

movement is downward, this may result in a surge pressure. If the pipe


movement is upward, this may result in a swab pressure. These pressure
changes may impair the stability of the hole through removal of the filter
cake or may result in a blowout by dropping below the pore pressure, or
may cause lost circulation by exceeding the fracture pressure and
fracturing the formation.

If you specify a high value for the allowable trip margin, it is possible
that the minimum time per stand (10 seconds) will not exceed the
allowable trip margin. In that case, the trip schedule will indicate that all
stands can be tripped at the minimum time per stand.

Conversely, if you specify a small allowable trip margin, it is possible


that even at the maximum time per stand (200 seconds) the allowable
trip margin will be exceeded. In this situation, the trip schedule will
indicate that all stands should be tripped at the maximum time per stand
(200 seconds).

Other Plots

Hydraulics Summary
Use the Hydraulics Summary to view key hydraulics information.

The slider located at the top of the Hydraulics Summary allows you to
quickly see what flow rate is necessary for hole cleaning given the
pumping and pressure loss restraints in your system.

The slider displays the following important information

• Minimum flow rate for hole cleaning - The minimum flow rate
for hole cleaning is derived from the Minimum Flow Rate vs
Depth plot. (“Minimum Flow Rate vs Depth Plot” on page 2-
44.) Any booster pump in riser section will be considered in the
determination of this flow rate. On the slider, all flow rates less
than the Minimum flow rate for hole cleaning will be within
the red section of the slider.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

• Maximum flow rate for critical velocity - The maximum flow


rate for critical velocity is derived from the Critical Pump Rate
vs Depth plot. (“Critical Pump Rate vs Depth Plot” on page 2-
46.) This flow rate is the maximum flow rate in the open hole
section that does not cause turbulent flow. Reduced flow rates,
such as those around stabilizers where the annular area narrows,
are ignored. Therefore, this flow rate occurs where the longest
section of consistent cross-sectional area between the string and
the formation exists. The slider will be yellow between the
Maximum flow rate for critical velocity and the lesser of either
the Maximum flow rate for system pressure loss limit or the
Maximum pump rate.

• Maximum pump rate - The maximum pump rate is based on


information in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings
tab. On the slider, all flow rates greater than the lesser of either
the Maximum pump rate or the Maximum flow rate for
system pressure loss limit will be within the red section of the
slider.

• Maximum flow rate for system pressure loss limit - This flow
rate is derived from the Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate plot.
(“Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate Plot” on page 2-45.) This is the
maximum flow rate that is greater than the Minimum flow rate
for hole cleaning, BUT less than the flow rate calculated using
the lesser of either maximum pump pressure or the maximum
rated pressure. The maximum pump pressure is specified in the
Pumping Constraints section of the Hydraulics Analysis
Options panel on the Analysis Settings tab. The maximum
rated pressure is specified in the Circulating System section of
the Rig tab. On the slider, all flow rates greater than the lesser of
either the Maximum pump rate or the Maximum flow rate for
system pressure loss limit will be within the red section of the
slider.

For the example below, assume the Minimum flow rate for hole
cleaning is 617 gpm. The Maximum flow rate for system pressure
loss limit is 810 gpm because it meets the following criteria:

• The flow rate is greater than the Minimum flow rate for hole
cleaning.

• Maximum flow rate for system pressure loss is calculated


using the lesser of the Maximum Pump Pressure or the
Maximum Rated Pressure. In this example, notice the
Maximum Pump Pressure is less than the Maximum Rated

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Pressure. Therefore, the Maximum flow rate for system


pressure loss is the flow rate that results from the Maximum
Pump Pressure.

Note: In the example below, some flow rates causing the Maximum
Pump Pressure to be exceeded are ignored because they are less than
the Minimum flow rate for hole cleaning.

Temperature Profile Plot


Use the Temperature Profile plot to view the geothermal, string, and
annular temperatures.

Using the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab, you must
check the Include mud temperature effects box and specify a Time of
circulation to view this plot.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Supporting Information and Calculations

The calculations and information contained in this section provide


details pertaining to many of the steps previously presented during the
descriptions of the analysis mode methodologies. These calculations
and information are presented in alphabetical order using the calculation
or topic name.

If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 2-97 for additional sources
of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.

Backreaming Rate (Maximum) Calculation (API units)

 Qc 
 ------ d pi 
R br = R max  ---------------------
 Qc 
 ------ – Q m
 d pi 

Where:
Rbr = Maximum backreaming rate
Rmax = Maximum rate of penetration
Qc = Critical flow rate
dpi = Drill pipe inside diameter
Qm = Mud flow rate

Bingham Plastic Rheology Calculations (API units)

Shear Stress - Shear Rate Model


τ = τ o + Kγ
Where:

τ = Shear stress
τ0 = Yield point
κ = Consistency factor
γ = Shear rate

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Average Velocity in Pipe

V ap =  ---  --------
4 Q -
 π  2 
dbi

Where:
Vap = Average fluid velocity for pipe
Q = Fluid flow rate
dbi = Inside pipe diameter

Average Velocity in Annulus

4  Q 
V aa =  ---  ---------------------
 π  2
d h – dbo 
2

Where:

Vaa = Average fluid velocity for annulus


Q = Fluid flow rate
dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter

Apparent Viscosity for Annulus

2 2
 d h – d bo
μ paa = μ p + ( 62.674773 )τ o ( d h – d bo )  ---------------------
 Q 

Where:

μpaa = Apparent viscosity for annulus


μp = Plastic viscosity
τo = Yield point
Q = Fluid flow rate
dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Apparent Viscosity for Pipe

3
= μ p + 62.674773 ( τ o )  --------
d bi 
μ pap -
 Q 

Where:

μpap = Apparent viscosity for pipe


μp = Plastic viscosity
Q = Fluid flow rate
το = Yield point
dbi = Pipe inside diameter

Modified Reynolds Number for Annulus

Q
R a = 1, 895.2796ρ ( d h – d bo ) ---------------------------------------
2 2
-
μ paa ( d h – d bo )

Where:
Ra = Modified Reynolds number for annulus
ρ = Fluid density
μpaa = Apparent viscosity for annulus
Q = Fluid flow rate
dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter

Modified Reynolds Number for Pipe

R p = 1, 895.2796ρ  ------------------
Q
μ pap d bi

Where:
Rp = Modified Reynolds number for pipe
ρ = Fluid density
μpap = Apparent viscosity for pipe

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Q = Fluid flow rate


dbi = Pipe inside diameter

Pressure Loss in Annulus


If Ra > 2,000 then:
0.75 0.25 1.75
0.0012084581 ( ρ ) ( μ p ) ( Q )L s
P loss = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
1.25 2 2 1.75
( d h – d bo ) ( d h – d bo )

If laminar flow, then:

τo  0.0008488263μ p Q 
P loss = 0.053333333  ------------------- +  ----------------------------------------------------------- Ls
 d h – d bo 
{ d h – d bo } { d h – d bo }
2 2 2

Where:

Ploss = Pressure loss in pipe or annulus


ρ = Fluid density
μp = Plastic viscosity
Q = Fluid flow rate
dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter
το = Yield Point
Ls = Section length of pipe or annulus

Pressure Loss in Pipe


If Rp > 2000, then:

0.75 0.25 1.75


0.0012084581 ( ρ ) ( μ p ) ( Q )L s
P loss = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.75
-
d bi

If laminar flow, then:

τo  0.0008488263μ p Q
P loss = 0.053333333  ------ +  --------------------------------------------
- L s
d bi  d bi
4

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Where:

Ploss = Pressure loss in pipe or annulus


ρ = Fluid density
μp = Plastic viscosity
Q = Fluid flow rate
dbi = Pipe inside diameter
το = Yield Point
Ls = Section length of pipe or annulus

Critical Velocity and Flow in Annulus

2
ρ ( d h – d bo )
+ 1.066 ( τ o )  ----- --------------------------
2
( 2000 + μ p ) + R c μp
 g c 2R c
V ca = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ρ
2 ( d h – d bo ) -----
gc

π
Q ca = Vca  --- ( d h – d bo )
2
 4

Where:

Vca = Critical velocity in annulus


μp = Plastic viscosity
ρ = Fluid density
Qca = Critical flow rate in annulus
dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter
το = Yield point
gc = Gravitational constant
Rc = Critical Reynolds number (modified Reynolds number
for pipe = 2000)

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Critical Velocity and Flow in Pipe

2
ρ  d bi 
+ 1.066τ o  -----  ---------
2
( 2000 + μ p ) + Rc μp
g c  2R c
V cp = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ρ
2d bi  -----
 g c

π
Q cp = V cp  --- d bi
2
 4

Where:
Vcp = Critical velocity in pipe
μp = Plastic viscosity
ρ = Fluid density
Qcp = Critical flow rate in pipe
Rc = Critical Reynolds number (modified Reynolds number
for pipe = 2000)
dbi = Pipe inside diameter
το = Yield point
gc = Gravitational constant

Bit Hydraulic Power (API units)


Bit Hydraulic Power can be used to select nozzle sizes for optimal
hydraulics. Bit Hydraulic Power is not necessarily maximized when
operating the pump at the maximum pump horsepower. Bit Hydraulic
Power is calculated using the following equation:
QP loss
P bitHP = ----------------
1714

Where:

Pbit HP = Bit hydraulic power


Ploss = Pressure loss across bit nozzles
Q = Fluid flow rate

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Bit Pressure Loss Calculations (API units)


Bit Pressure Loss represents the pressure loss through the bit, and is
calculated as follows.

2
ρvf
ΔP lossbit = ---------------2
2g c Cd

Where:

ΔPlossbit = Pressure loss through the bit


ρ = Fluid density
gc = Gravitational constant
vf = Fluid velocity
Cd = Nozzle coefficient, 0.95

Derivations for Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0-Sec Gel, and Fann
Data Calculations (API units)

Derive Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0-Sec Gel from Fann Data

μ p = θ 600 – θ 300

τ o = 2θ 300 – θ 600

τz = θ3

Where:

μp = Plastic viscosity
τz = Fluid density
τ0 = Yield point
τz = 0 second gel
θ300 = Fan dial reading at 300 rpm

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θ600 = Fan dial reading at 600 rpm


θ3 = Fan dial reading at 3 rpm

Derive Fann Data from Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0-Sec Gel
θ 300 = μ p + τ o

θ 600 = 2μ p + τ 0

θ3 = τz

Where:

μp = Plastic viscosity
τ0 = Yield point
τz = 0 second gel
θ300 = Fan dial reading at 300 rpm
θ600 = Fan dial reading at 600 rpm
θ3 = Fan dial reading at 3 rpm

ECD Calculations (API units)


ph + pf
ρ ECD = -----------------------------
0.052 ( D tvd )

p h = 0.052 ( ρD tvd )

Δp as
 -----------
pf =   ΔLas ΔDtvd

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Where:

ρECD = Equivalent circulating density


ρ = Fluid density
ph = Hydrostatic pressure change to ECD point
pf = Frictional pressure change to ECD point
Dtvd = True vertical depth at point of interest
ΔDtvd = Difference in true vertical depth at point of interest
ΔPpas = Change in pressure per length along the annulus
section. This is a function of the selected pressure
loss model
ΔLpas = Change in annular length corresponding to Δpas.
This is a function of the selected pressure loss
model

Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Fluid Physical Properties


Temperature and pressure influence both the density and the viscosity of
the base fluid of drilling muds. Applied pressure compresses the fluid
and so increases density. Temperature causes the fluid to expand and so
reduces density. The influence of temperature and pressure on rheology
is more complex. Generally, temperature will thin the base fluid and
pressure will increase viscosity. The pressure dependence of viscosity is
higher for organic-phase fluids.

The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software uses general-purpose


routines that should be sufficiently accurate for determining trends at the
planning phase of a well. for a more accurate representation of true
downhole pressure, it is recommended that you use fluid-specific
routines and software available from the mud service company
supplying the fluid.

Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Density


The routines used in DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software are
based on a simplified method reported by Sorelle et al (SPE 11118). The
solid phase is assumed incompressible, and temperature pressure
compensation is applied only to the base fluid. For simplicity of user
input, the following assumptions are also made:

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Water-Based Mud
Base fluid is assumed pure water with no dissolved salt

Oil-Based Mud
Base fluid is assumed 100% diesel with no emulsified water phase.

Synthetic Fluid
Based on the selected base fluid and the specified oil/water ratio.

Low-Gravity Solids
The mud is assumed to contain a maximum LGS content of 15% by
volume (sg = 2.6)

High-Gravity Solids
Any solids loading above 15% LGS is assumed to be barite (sg = 4.2)

Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Rheology


The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software treats the temperature
and pressure dependence of viscosity in a manner similar to the
WELLCAT™ software. The viscosity of the mud is assumed to mirror
the behavior of the base fluid with temperature and pressure. Different
routines are used for water-based mud and oil-based mud. The
temperature and pressure correction factors are applied directly to
individual Fann dial readings. This follows the “Relative Dial Reading”
approach proposed by Hemphill (SPE 35330). However, for simplicity
the correction factors are assumed to be independent of shear rate.

The correlations are adapted from the following sources:

Water-Based Mud
Max Annis Reference

Oil-Based Mud
Combe and Whitmore (This assumes the base fluid is diesel oil.)

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Solution Method
For fluids, both flowing and shut in, temperature effects rheology
handles six conditions.

• Conduction

• Forced convection

• Free convection

• Radiation

• Combined free and forced convection

• Turbulent forced convection

The main source for the conduction and forced convection correlations
is the standard textbook material summarized in Chapman. Free
convection in the annuli is based on the work of Dropkin and
Somerscales. Radiation correlations are from Willhite. “Rheology
Thermal Effects” on page 2-98.

The numerical solution process consists of the following two principal


steps:

• The reduction of the differential equations of energy and


momentum conservation to algebraic equations

• The solution of these algebraic equations subject to the


appropriate boundary conditions.

Development of Algebraic Equations


In the wellbore, the heat balance technique is used to derive the
coefficients. This method starts with the integral energy equation.
Appropriate choices for the heat fluxes are made (either film
coefficients for flow or conduction for solids) and the integration
performed. The alternative method would be to start with the differential
energy equation and apply finite difference techniques. The Heat
Balance method was chosen because of the variety of heat transfer
models necessary to simulate wellbore heat transfer. Alternatively,
finite difference techniques are used to generate coefficients in the
formation. Both formulations allow arbitrary variation in radial and
vertical grid spacing.

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The following heat transfer effects are used in the above formulation:

Flowing fluids
• Vertical-free and forced convection

• Vertical and radial heat conduction

Wellbore
• Vertical and radial heat conduction

• Natural convection in annuli

• Radiation in annuli

Formation
• Vertical and radial heat conduction

The momentum equations are reduced to algebraic form by a form of the


method of weighted residuals called the Subdomain method. This
method first assumes a solution to the equation in the form of an
algebraic expression with unknown coefficients. Solving for the
unknown coefficients minimizes the average error between the assumed
solution and the actual solution over the interval of integration. It is
assumed that the temperature and pressure vary linearly along the
control volume length and that all other properties remain constant at
their initial values. These assumptions imply that the unknown
coefficient is the exit pressure. The momentum equations are treated as
quasi steady state in the sense that the temperature dependence is
transient, but neither mass accumulation nor wave propagation is
considered.

Generalized Herschel-Bulkley Rheology Calculation (API units)


The Generalized Herschel-Bulkley rheological model should be used
when drilling with foam because it is more accurate calculating
pressures when using foamed fluids.

This model encompasses the conventional Newtonian, Bingham Plastic,


Casson, and Herschel-Bulkley models. The model is parametric in form
and is given in dimensionless form below.

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τ - m
 ------- τz m μh γ n
=  -------- +  --------
 τ ref  τ ref  τ ref

Where:

τ = Viscometric shear stress


τref = Reference fluid shear stress
μh = Finite high-shear limiting viscosity
γ = Viscometric shear rate
τz = Zero shear stress
m = Shear stress exponent
n = Shear rate exponent

Herschel-Bulkley Rheology Calculations (API units)


First, calculate shear rates and shear stress based on Fann data. Curve fit
the shear rates and shear stresses to the Herschel-Bulkley equation
shown below.
n
τ = τ o + Kγ

Where:

τ = Shear stress
τo = Yield point
Κ = Consistency index
γ = Shear rate
n = Flow behavior index

Hole Cleaning Methodology and Calculations


The Hole Cleaning model is based on a mathematical model that
predicts the critical (minimum) annular velocities/flow rates required to
remove or prevent a formation of cuttings beds during a directional
drilling operation. This is based on the analysis of forces acting on the
cuttings and its associated dimensional groups. The model can be used
to predict the critical (minimum) flow rate required to remove or prevent
the formation of stationary cuttings. This model has been validated with
extensive experimental data and field data.

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By using this model, the effects of all the major drilling variables on
hole cleaning have been evaluated and the results show excellent
agreement between the model predictions and all experimental and field
results.

The variables considered for hole cleaning analysis include

• Cuttings density
• Cuttings load (ROP)
• Cuttings shape
• Cuttings size
• Wellpath
• Drill pipe rotation rate
• Drill pipe size
• Flow regime
• Hole size
• Mud density
• Mud rheology
• Mud velocity (flow rate)
• Pipe eccentricity

Calculations and equation coefficients to describe the interrelationship


of these variables were derived from extensive experimental testing.

Calculate n, Κ, τo and Reynold’s Number

( 3.32 ) ( log 10 ) ( τ o + 2μ p )
n = ------------------------------------------------------------
( τ0 + μp )

( μp + τo )
K = ----------------------
511

n
τ o = ( 5.11K )

(2 – n) n
ρvaa ( d h – d bo )
R a = ----------------------------------------------
 2--- G K
 3 pl

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Where:
n = Flow behavior index
vaa = Average fluid velocity for annulus
Κ = Consistency factor
τo = Yield point
μp = Plastic viscosity
dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter
Gpl = Power law geometry factor
Ra Reynolds number

Concentrations Based on Rate of Penetration (ROP) in Flow Channel

2
 Rd b 
 ------------
 1471
C o = -------------------------------
2
 Rd b 
 ------------ + Q m
 1471

Where:

Co = Cuttings feed concentration


R = Rate of penetration
db = Bit diameter
Qm = Volumetric mud flow rate

Fluid Velocity Based on Open Flow Channel

24.5Q m
v aa = ------------------
2
-
2
d h – d bo

Where:

vaa = Average fluid velocity for annulus


dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter

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Qm = Volumetric mud flow rate

Coefficient of Drag Around Sphere


If Re < 225 then:

22
C d = ----------
Ra

Else:

C d = 1.5

Where:

Re = Particle Reynolds number


Cd = Drag coefficient
Ra = Reynolds number

Mud Carrying Capacity

dc
4g c  ------ ( ρ c – ρ )
 12
Cm = ----------------------------------------
3ρC d

Where:

Cm = Mud carrying capacity


dc = Cuttings diameter
gc = Gravitational constant
ρc = Cuttings density
ρ = Fluid density
Cd = Drag coefficient

Slip Velocity
If vaa < 53.0 then:

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v s = 0.00516v aa + 3.0006

Else:

v s = 0.02554 ( v aa – 53.0 ) + 3.28

Where:

vaa = Average velocity in the annulus


vs = Slip velocity

Settling Velocity in Mud

1
1 + bn ----------------------------
-
2 – b(2 – n)
4  g c { dc } { ρ c – ρ }
U sv =  ---  ------------------------------------------------
-
 3  1–b

aKρ c

Where:
Usv = Settling velocity
gc = Gravitational constant
dc = Cuttings diameter
b = 1 – 0.33n
n = Flow behavior index
ρc = Cuttings density
ρ = Flow density
K = Consistency factor
a = 42.9 – 23.9n

Angle of Inclination Correction Factor

1.33  5- 0.66


C a = [ sin ( 1.33α ) ] ----
 d h

C s = 1.286 – 1.04d c

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Where:
Ca = Angle of inclination correction factor.
Cs = Cuttings size correction factor.
dh = Annulus diameter.
dc = Cuttings diameter.
α = Wellbore angle.

Mud Weight Correction Factor


If ρ < 7.7 then:
C m = 1.0

Else:

C m = 1.0 – 0.0333 ( ρ – 7.7 )

Where:

Cm = Mud carrying capacity


ρ = Fluid density

Critical Wall Shear Stress

b---
1+ b 2 2n
τ cw = ag c ( sin α ) ( ρ c – ρ )d c ρ -------------------------------
2n – 2b + bn

Where:
τcw = Critical wall shear stress
ρ = Fluid density
ρc = Cuttings density
α = Wellbore angle
gc = Gravitational constant
dc = Cuttings diameter
n = Flow behavior index
b = 1.732
a = – 0.744

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Critical Pressure Gradient

2τ cw
p gc = -------------------------------
-
 r o 2
r c 1 – ----
 r c

Where:

pgc = Critical frictional pressure gradient


τcw = Critical wall shear stress
ro = Radius where shear stress = 0
rc = Radius of wellbore or casing

Total Cross Sectional Area of the Annulus without Cuttings Bed

2 2
π  d h – d bo
A c =  ---  -------------------
 4  144 

Where:

Ac = Cross sectional area of annulus


dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter

Dimensionless Flow Rate

1
----------------------------b b
 -----------------------
n  2 – (2 – n) ----------------------------b
 2 ( 1 + 2n )  rp 2 rp 2 – (2 – n)
Πg b = Π 8  ------------------------  1 –  ---- 1 –  ----
 rc   r c
 a  1--- 
  b 

Where:

Πgb = Dimensionless flow rate


n = Flow behavior index
a = 16
b = 1

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rp = Radius of drill pipe


rc = Radius of wellbore or casing

Critical Flow Rate

b
1---  -----------
1 - ----------------------------
-
( 2 – n)
b  b+n 
2 – b
2 ρg c b r c
Q cb = r c ------------------------------- Πg b
 -----------
1 -
 b – 1

Where:

Qcb = Critical flow rate for bed to develop


Κ = Consistency factor
ρ Fluid density
n = Flow behavior index
b = Coefficient
rc = Radius of wellbore or casing
gc = Gravitational constant
Πgb = Dimensionless flow rate

Correction Factor for Cuttings Concentration

C bed = 0.97 – 0.00231μ pa

Where:

Cbed = Corrections factor for cuttings concentration


μpa = Apparent viscosity

Cuttings Concentration for Stationary Bed by Volume

Qm
C bconc = C bed  1 – --------- ( 1 – ϕ b )100
 Q cb

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Where:

Cbconc Cuttings concentration for stationary bed, by


volume
Cbed = Corrections factor for cuttings concentration
Qm = Volumetric mud flow rate
Qcb = Critical flow rate
φb = Bed porosity

Bit Impact Force (API units)


Impact force is a parameter that can be used to select nozzle sizes for
optimal hydraulics. Impact force is calculated using the following
equation:

ρ
F impact =  ----- v f Q
 g c

Where:

Fimpact = Bit impact force


ρ = Fluid density
gc = Gravitational constant
vf = Velocity through the bit
Q = Circulation rate

Nozzle Velocity (API units)


Nozzle velocity is not necessarily the maximum velocity that can be
achieved through the bit. Nozzle velocity is a parameter that can be used
to select nozzle sizes for optimal hydraulics. Velocity is calculated using
the following equation.

Q
v n = --------------------
2.96A bit

Where:

vn = Nozzle velocity

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Abit = Total flow area of bit (TFA)


Q = Circulation rate

Power Law Rheology Model (API units)

Rheological Equation

n
τ = Kγ

Where:

τ = Shear stress on walls


Κ = Consistency factor
γ = Shear rate
n = Flow behavior index

Flow Behavior Index

 θN 
n = 3.32192809 log  --------2
 θ N1

Where:

n = Flow behavior index


θΝ2 = Fann dial readings corresponding to Fann speed N2
θΝ1 = Fann dial readings corresponding to Fann speed N1

Consistency Factor

510θ N
K = ------------------------n-
( 1.703N )

Where:

K = Consistency factor
θΝ = Fann dial readings corresponding to Fann speed N

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N = Fann rpm
n = Flow behavior index

Average Velocity in Pipe

v ap =  ---  --------
4 Q -
 π  2 
d pi

Where:

vap = Average velocity in pipe


Q = Fluid flow rate
dpi = Pipe inside diameter

Average Velocity in Annulus

v aa =  ---  -----------------------
4 Q -
π d –d 2  2
h po

Where:

vaa = Average velocity in annulus


Q = Fluid flow rate
dh = Annulus diameter
dpo = Pipe outside diameter

Geometry Factor for Annulus

( 2n + 1 ) n n – 1
G a = -------------------- 8
2n

Where:
Ga = Geometry factor for annulus
n = Flow behavior index

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Geometry Factor for Pipe

( 3n + 1 ) n n – 1
G p = -------------------- 8
4n

Where:
Gp = Geometry factor for pipe
n = Flow behavior index

Reynolds Number for Pipe

(2 – n) n
ρv ap d pi
R p = -------------------------------
gc Gp K

Where:

Rp = Reynolds number for pipe


ρ = Fluid density
vap = Average fluid velocity for pipe
dpi = Pipe inside diameter
gc = Gravitational constant
Gp = Geometry factor for pipe
n = Flow behavior index
K = Consistency factor

Reynolds Number for Annulus

(2 – n) n
ρv aa ( d h – d po )
R a = ---------------------------------------------------
g c  --- Ga K
2
3
Where:

Ra = Reynolds number for annulus


ρ = Fluid density
vaa = Average fluid velocity for annulus

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dpo = Pipe outside diameter


dh = Annulus diameter
gc = Gravitational constant
Ga = Geometry factor for annulus
n = Flow behavior index
K = Consistency factor

Critical Reynolds Numbers

R l = 3470 – 1370n

R t = 4270 – 1370n

Where:

Rl = Reynolds number at laminar flow boundary


Rt = Reynolds number at turbulent flow boundary
n = Flow behavior index

Friction Factor for Pipe


Laminar flow:
16
f p = ------
Rp

Transition flow:
log ( n ) + 3.93
a = ---------------------------------
50

1.75 – log ( n )
b = --------------------------------
7

( Rp – Rl )  a 
f p =  ------ + ----------------------  ------b –  ------
16 16
Rl 800  Rt  Rl

Turbulent flow:

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log ( n ) + 3.93
a = ---------------------------------
50

1.75 – log ( n )
b = --------------------------------
7

a
f p = --------
R pb

Where:

fp = Friction factor for pipe


Rp = Reynolds number for pipe
n = Flow behavior index
a = Constant
b = Constant
Rl = Reynolds number at laminar flow boundary
Rt = Reynolds number at turbulent flow boundary

Friction Factor for Annulus


Laminar flow:
24
f a = ------
Ra

Transition flow:
log ( n ) + 3.93
a = ---------------------------------
50

1.75 – log ( n )
b = --------------------------------
7

( Ra – Rl )  a 
f a =  ------ + ----------------------  ------b –  ------
24 24
Rl 800  Rt  Rl

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Turbulent flow:
log ( n ) + 3.93
a = ---------------------------------
50

1.75 – log ( n )
b = --------------------------------
7

a
f a = --------
R ab

Where:
fa = Friction factor for annulus in laminar flow
Ra = Reynolds number for annulus in laminar flow
n = Flow behavior index
a = Constant
b = Constant
Rl = Reynolds number at laminar flow boundary
Ra = Reynolds number for annulus
Rt = Reynolds number at turbulent flow boundary

Pressure Loss in Pipe

ρ 2
P lossp = ----- vp f p L s  ------
2
gc  d pi

Where:

Plossp = Pressure loss in pipe


ρ = Fluid density
fp = Friction factor for pipe
Ls = Annulus section length
vp = Average fluid velocity for pipe
dpi = Pipe inside diameter
gc = Gravitational constant

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Pressure Loss in Annulus

ρ 2
P lossa = ----- v a f a L s  -------------------
2
gc  d h – d po

Where:
Plossa = Pressure loss in annulus
ρ = Fluid density
fa = Friction factor for annulus
gc = Gravitational constant
Ls = Annulus section length
va = Average fluid velocity for annulus
dpo = Pipe outside diameter
dh = Annulus diameter

Pressure to Break Gel Calculation (API units)


The pressure to break the gel is calculated using the following equation.
L
p gel = 4τ g  -----c
di

Where:

pgel = Pressure to break gel


τg = Static gel strength
Lc = Length of drill string component
di = Inside diameter

Pump Power Calculations (API units)


If you are using more than one pump, the maximum pump power should
be calculated as follows.

P hp P minp
p maxhp =  ---------------------
P maxp
-

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Where:

Pmaxhp = Maximum pump horsepower for the system


Php = Pump horsepower
Pminp = Minimum pump pressure of all maximum pump
discharge pressure for pumps active in the system
and the surface equipment
Pmaxp = Maximum pump pressure rating for each pump

Shear Rate and Shear Stress Calculations

Shear Stress

τ = ( 0.01065 )θ

Where:

τ = Shear stress
θ = Fann dial reading

Shear Rate

γ = ( 1.70333 )r

Where:
γ = Shear rate
r = RPM

Specific Gravities of Common Materials

Material Specific Density of Dry Sacked


Gravity Materials (lbs/ft3)

Anhydrite 2.98 60

Attapulgite 2.5 - 2.7 60

Barite 4.2 – 4.4 135

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Material Specific Density of Dry Sacked


Gravity Materials (lbs/ft3)

Bentonite 2.5 – 2.7 60

Calcite 2.7 - 2.9

Cement Class 3.15


(A,C,D,E & G)

Clay 2.7 - 2.8

CMC 1.6 40

Diesel Oil 0.84

Dolomite 2.86

Galena 6.95

Gypsum 2.35

Haematite 5.26

Halite 2.03

Lignite 1.6 30 - 35

Lignosulfonate 1.5 35

Lime 2.3 - 2.4 31

Limestone 2.71

Mica 2.6 - 3.2 25

Oil 0.8 (avg)

Quartz Sand 2.65 100

Salt (CaCl2) 2.15 50 - 55

Salt (NaCl) 2.16 71

Salt Water 1.03 – 1.2

Sandstone 2.65

Siderite 3.96

Soda Ash 1.55 58

Starch 1.5 15 - 20

Walnut Shells 1.28 48

Water 1

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Swab/Surge Calculations (API units)


The Swab/Surge model calculates the annulus pressures caused by the
annular drilling fluid flow induced due to the movement of the string.
During tripping operations, the pressures throughout the well will
increase or decrease depending on whether the work string is being
lowered or raised.

A pressure increase due to a downward pipe movement is called a surge


pressure, whereas the pressure increase due to an upward pipe
movement is called a swab pressure.

The swab/surge calculations do not model fluid wave propagation or


consider gel strength of the mud.
L st
v t = ------
tt

Where:

vt = Trip velocity
Lst = Stand length
tt = Trip time

If the pipe is closed, then:

Q p = 0.0

Where:

Qp = Pipe flow rate

If the pipe is open and the pumps are off, then:

A po
A r = ---------------------
A po + A a

Q p = v t ( A pc – A po )A r

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Where:

Ar = Ratio of pipe open area to combined pipe and annulus


open area
Apo = Pipe open area
Aa = Annular area
Qp = Pipe flow rate
Apc = Pipe closed area
vt Trip velocity

If there is a surge situation, then is Qp negative (up the string).

If there is a swab situation, then Qp is positive (down the string).

If the pipe is open and the pumps are on, then:

Qp = Q

Where:

Qp = Pipe flow rate


Q = Pump flow rate

The flow rate induced by the pipe movement is:

Q i = v t A pc

Where:

Qi = Flow rate induced by pipe movement


vt = Trip velocity
Apc = Pipe closed area

If there is a surge situation, then Qi is positive (up the annulus).

If there is a swab situation, then Qi is negative (down the annulus).

Qa = Qi + Qp

Where:

Qa = Annular flow rate

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Qi = Flow rate induced by pipe movement


Qp = Pipe flow rate

The annular flow rate, Qa , is then used to perform frictional pressure


loss calculations to determine the annulus pressure profile.

If the first component is a bit, then:

A po = A bit

π 2
A pc = --- d bo
4

Where:

Apo = Pipe open area


Abit = Bit total flow area, TFA
Apc = Pipe closed area
dbo = Bit diameter

If the first component is not a bit, then:


π 2
A po = --- d bi
4

π 2
A pc = --- d bo
4

Where:

Apo = Pipe open area


Apc = Pipe closed area
dbi = Component outside area
dbo = Bit diameter

Tool Joint Pressure Loss Calculations (API units)


Annular tool joint pressure loss is calculated using the appropriate
pressure loss calculation pertaining to the rheology model in use, and the
outside diameter and length of the tool joint.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

2
ρκ tj v f
Δp tj = ---------------
2
Where:

Δptj = Tool joint pressure loss


ρ = Fluid density
κtj = Tool joint loss coefficient as a function of the
Reynolds number in the pipe body
vf = Fluid velocity in the pipe

If Rp < 1000 then:

κ tj = 0.0

Where:

κtj = Tool joint loss coefficient as a function of the Reynolds


number in the pipe body
Rp = Reynolds number for the pipe

If
1000 < R p ≤ 3000

κ tj = ( 1.91 ) log ( R p ) – 5.64

Where:

κtj = Tool joint loss coefficient as a function of the Reynolds


number in the pipe body
Rp = Reynolds number for the pipe

If
3000 < R p ≤ 13000

κ tj = 4.66 – ( 1.05 log R p )

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Where:

κtj = Tool joint loss coefficient as a function of the Reynolds


number in the pipe body
Rp = Reynolds number for the pipe

If
R p > 13000

κ tj = 0.33

Where:
κtj = Tool joint loss coefficient as a function of the Reynolds
number in the pipe body
Rp = Reynolds number for the pipe

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

References

General
Lubinski, A., et. al., “Transient Pressure Surges Due to Pipe Movement
in an Oil Well”, Revue de L’Institut Francais du Petrole, May – June
1977.

White, F. M., “Fluid Mechanics”, McGraw Hill, Inc., 1979.

Wilkinson, W.L., “Non-Newtonian Fluids”, Pergamon Press, 1960.

Bingham Plastic Model


Bourgoyne, A. T., Chenevert, M. E., Millheim, K. K., Young Jr., F. S.
“Applied Drilling Engineering”, SPE Textbook Series: Volume 2.

Coiled Tubing
McCann, R. C., and Islas, C. G. “Frictional Pressure Loss during
Turbulent Flow in Coiled Tubing.” SPE 36345.

Hole Cleaning
Clark, R. K., Bickham, K. L. “A Mechanistic Model for Cuttings
Transport.” SPE paper 28306 presented at the SPE 69th Annual
Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, September 25–28.

Luo, Yuejin and P. A. Bern, BP Research Centre; and D. B.Chambers,


BP Exploration Co. Ltd. “Flow-Rate Predictions for Cleaning Deviated
Wells.” IADC/SPE 23884.

Luo, Yuejin, P. A. Bern, D. B.Chambers, BP Exploration. “Simple


Charts to Determine Hole Cleaning Requirements in Deviated Wells.”
IADC/SPE 27486.

Peden, J. M., Heriot-Watt U., Yuejin Luo. “Settling Velocity of Various


Shaped Particles in Drilling and Fracturing Fluids.” SPE/IADC 16243.

DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Release 5000.1.13 Software Training Manual 2-97


Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Rabia, H. Rig Hydraulics. Entrac Software: Newcastle, England (1989):


Chapter 5.

Herschel Bulkley Model


“The YPL Rheology Model.” BPA Research Note PRN9303,
93085ART0027.

“Improved Hydraulic Models or Flow in Pipe and Annuli Using the


YPL Rheology Model.” BPA Bluebook Report F93-P-12,
93026ART0243.

Optimization Well Site


Scott, K.F., "A New Approach to Drilling Hydraulics", Petroleum
Engineer, Sept. 1972.

Power Law Model


Milheim, Keith K., Amoco Production Co.; Said Sahin Tulga, DRD
Corp. “Simulation of the Wellbore Hydraulics While Drilling, Including
the Effects of Fluid Influxes and Losses and Pipe Washouts.” SPE
11057 (1982).

Schuh, F., Engineering Essentials of Modern Drilling, Energy


Publications Division of HBJ.

Rheology Thermal Effects


Annis, M. R. Journal of Petroleum Technology, August 1967.

Chapman, A. J., Heat Transfer. McMillan Press. 1967.

Combs, G. D. and Whitmire, L. D. Oil & Gas Journal, 30 September


1968.

Dropkin, E. and Omerscales, S. “Heat transfer by Natural Convection by


Fluid Confined by Parallel Plates.” ASME, February 1965.

Hiller, K. H. Journal of Petroleum Technology, July 1963.

Sorelle, J. Ardiolin, Bukley. “Mathematical Field Model Predicts


Downhole Density Changes in Static Drilling Fluids.” SPE 11118.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

Wilhite G. P. “Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Stem and Hot water


Injection Wells.” Journal of Petroleum Technology, May 1967.

Surge Swab
Burkhardt, J. A. “Wellbore Pressure Surges Produced in Pipe
Movement.” Journal of Petroleum Technology, June 1961.

Clark, E. H. Jr. “Bottom-Hole Pressure Surges While Running Pipe.”


Petroleum Engineering, January 1955.

Fontenot, J. E., Clark R. K. “An Improved Method for Calculating Swab


and Surge Pressures and Circulating Pressures in a Drilling Well.” SPE
4521 (1974).

Schuh, F. J. “Computer Makes Surge-Pressure Calculations Useful.” Oil


& Gas Journal, 3 August 1964.

Tool Joint Pressure Loss


Denison, Pressure Losses Inside Tool Joints Can Alter Drilling
Hydraulics", E.B., Oil & Gas Journal, Sept. 26, 1977, pg. 66.

Milheim, Keith, Amoco Production Co., Tulga, Sahin, DRD


Corporation, Tulsa, OK., “Simulation of the Wellbore Hydraulics While
Drilling, Including the Effects of Fluid Influxes and Losses and Pipe
Washouts”, SPE 11057, 1982.

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Chapter 2: Hydraulics Analysis

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Chapter 3
Swab & Surge Analysis

Overview

The Swab & Surge module is a transient pressure model that can be
used for pressure analysis throughout the wellbore; substantial pressure
changes can be seen by the wellbore due to tripping pipe in and out of
the wellbore. When running pipe into the hole, the downward pressures
(surge) can result in fracturing the formation or in lost circulation.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

When pulling pipe out of the hole, the upward pressures (swab) can
result in an influx of formation fluids into the wellbore.

Surge is based on a fully dynamic analysis of fluid flow and pipe


motion. The Swab & Surge analysis solves the full balance of mass and
balance of momentum for pipe flow and annulus flow.Please refer to
“Supporting Information and Calculations” on page 3-29 and
“References” on page 3-43 in this chapter for more information.

Surge solutions consider the compressibility of the fluids, the elasticity


of the system, and the dynamic motions of pipes and fluids. Also
considered are surge pressures related to fluid column length below the
moving pipe, compressibility of the formation, and axial elasticity of the
moving string. In-hole fluid properties are adjusted to reflect the effects
of pressure and temperature on the fluids.

Surge uses the wellbore, fluid, wellpath, workstring, and other


parameters specified on the tabs on the left side. On the right hand side
of the application, there are Analysis Settings inputs for Common and
Swab & Surge; such as active fluid, pump rate, depth of interest, and

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

calculation options. The analysis results can be displayed with multiple


plots, tables, and reports.

What’s the difference between Steady-State and Transient Model


(Analysis)?
The calculation of steady-state surge pressures is much easier and faster
than the calculation of transient surge pressures; details on this can be
found in the Hydraulics Analysis chapter of this manual. The transient
pressure model included in the Swab & Surge module has several
features that a steady state model does not have. These features include:

Compressibility: A transient model accounts for the compressibility


and expansion of the wellbore and fluids.

Storage: Fluids entering the well do not necessarily mean that fluids are
exiting the well. For example, when viscous forces are extremely high,
the surge pressure will be more related to the water compression and
wellbore expansion than the steady state frictional pressure drop would
indicate.

Elasticity: Because the drillstring can deform, the bit speed is not
necessarily the draw works speed. For high yield points, pipe elasticity
reduces swab pressures to an important degree.

Inertia: Fluid movement may be started or stopped. Therefore, positive


and negative pressures may be developed in the same pipe movement.
For high mud weights, fluid inertia results in higher swab pressures.

When Should I use the Transient Surge Model (Analysis)?


Under what circumstances are the more complex transient pressure
calculations justified? Generally, more accurate estimates for surge
pressures are required when there is a small margin for error. Some
specific operations when Surge is useful include:

• Tripping drill strings in deep hot holes, especially while drilling


below liners

• Running long casing strings, especially those with low clearance

• Running liners, especially for larger sizes run in holes with minimal
clearance

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

• Analyzing pressure surges due to pipe movement during cementing


of long strings and liners, especially where high pressure gas zones
could be effected by surge pressures

• Optimizing the selection of drilling fluid densities and pipe motions


for wells with narrow margins between pore pressure and fracture
gradients

The following examples illustrate the advantage a transient surge model


can offer.

Example 1: Assume that the wellbore pressure is close to the fracture


pressure at one point in the open hole section. In other sections of the
well there is a healthy margin relative to the pore pressure. Using a
steady state model, surge pressures would clearly need to be controlled
to prevent fracture, but the swab pressures would not be a consideration.
Transient analysis of swab pressures would show that rebound pressures
at the end of the swab could exceed the fracture pressure and cause
unexpected lost returns.

Example 2: If the bit is nearing the casing setting depth, the wellbore
pressure will be close to both the fracture pressure (top of the open hole)
and the pore pressure (bottom of the open hole).Surge pressures when
tripping in should be maintained below the fracture pressure and above
the pore pressures. In this case, there is little margin for error, so the
most accurate calculation is needed.

Example 3: Running low clearance liners has the potential to generate


large surge pressures because of the high pressure drop in the narrow
annulus between the liner and wellbore. In this case, the transient model
helps by including an effect not considered in a steady-state
calculations: the elasticity of the work string. Steady state models
usually assume that the liner moves at the same speed as the draw works.
In this case, the resistance to movement may be so high that the liner
doesn’t move at all, at least not initially. As the fluid flow develops
transiently, the liner will slowly descend, almost independent of the
draw works speed.

Why Use Swab & Surge and Reciprocation Analysis?


This analysis can be useful for well planning operations when swab and
surge pressures need to be controlled; as well problems occur related to
these pressures. It can also be useful for critical well designs when other
swab and surge pressure-calculation methods are not sufficiently
accurate.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Some specific operations when Swab & Surge analysis is useful


include:

• Optimizing the selection of drilling fluid densities and pipe motions


for wells with narrow margins between pore pressure and fracture
gradients

• Evaluating differential fill equipment

• Evaluating pressure surges induced by vessel motions while drilling


or running casing from a floating rig

With this module, users can quickly analyze swab, surge and
reciprocation operations to obtain the following, including but not
limited to:

• An optimized trip schedule, bounded by the pore pressure and


fracture pressure gradients

• Determine whether swab, surge and reciprocation pressures seen in


the hole are within the defined operational limits

• Analyze transient pressure responses downhole and at the surface

Note:

Supporting calculations and references for additional reading are included at


the end of this chapter.

This section will familiarize you with all aspects of the Swab & Surge
module including:

• Defining operating parameters

• Defining Swab & Surge operations

• Defining reciprocation operations

• Analyzing Swab & Surge plot results

• Analyzing reciprocation plot results

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Design Considerations

In the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software, there are many


parameters that are used for the Swab & Surge analysis. Some of the
many factors that must be considered for swab and surge analysis are
listed below and are covered in more detail in this chapter:

• Wellbore characteristics

• String Design

• Fluid Properties

• Operational Parameters

Wellbore Characteristics
Formation properties help determine how the drilled hole will respond
to differential downhole pressures, in this case caused by tripping in and
out of the hole. Using the trajectory and the fracture pressure and pore
pressure gradients in this analysis provides limits to the maximum
pressure allowable without fracturing the rock and minimum allowable
pore pressure without an influx of formation fluids.

Specify Wellpath in the Software


Using the Wellpath Editor tab , define the wellbore’s trajectory in
addition to adding a tortuosity effect, a roughness factor, to offer a more
realistic wellpath.

Define Formation Characteristics in the Software


Using the Subsurface tab, specify the formation properties such as
formation tops, lithology, Elastic Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio. The
Elastic Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio are used to calculate the
compressibility of the formation. When formation tops are entered,

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

values of 2 X 106 psi for Elastic Modulus, and 0.3 for Poisson’s Ratio
are used as default unless otherwise specified.

If formation tops are not entered, the same defaulted values are used for
Elastic Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio; they are just not shown. It is
common not to have this information available; the default values are
sufficient in most cases.

In the situations where you have information regarding the elastic


properties of the wellbore material, you can input those values in this
dialog in order to obtain a more accurate analysis. For most formations,
the Elastic Modulus ranges between 1 X 106 and 2 X 106 psi and
Poisson’s Ratio ranges between 0.2 and 0.3. This dialog allows you to
use a Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio specific for each formation.

Define Geothermal Gradient in the Software


Use the Subsurface tab to define the geothermal gradient by specifying
basic formation temperature data. The well temperature at true vertical
depth can be specified, or it can be calculated from a specified gradient.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

The geothermal gradient model assumes that the drilling fluid


temperature is the same as the surrounding formation.

Additional temperature points can be input to add temperatures in order


to characterize a non-linear formation or seawater temperature profile.
These temperatures must be entered as a function of true vertical depth;
intermediate temperatures are linearly interpolated between defined
points.

Specify Pore Pressure Gradient in the Software


Define the pore pressure gradient by entering, copying or importing the
pore pressure profile as a function of true vertical depth using the
Subsurface tab. You may enter either pressure (psi) or equivalent mud
weight (ppg) for a vertical depth and the other value will be calculated
based on the vertical depth. You may enter several rows of data to define
multiple pore pressure gradients.

Specify Fracture Pressure Gradient in the Software


Define the fracture pressure gradient by entering, copying or importing
the fracture pressure profile as a function of true vertical depth using the
Subsurface tab. You may enter either pressure (psi) or equivalent mud
weight (ppg) for a vertical depth and the other value will be calculated
based on the vertical depth. You may enter several rows of data to define
multiple pore pressure gradients.

String Design
Drill strings are subjected to forces of tension, torsion, and bending
when drilling a well. Designing a string to accommodate these forces
requires knowledge of the physical properties of the pipe.

Defining a String in the Software


A workstring is defined by using the String Editor tab ; a string can
be imported or entered by selecting each component from the catalog
and defining its parameters. In addition to selecting string components,
you can specify the use of standoff devices and then select the type of
friction reducing device that you want to model.

Please refer to “Drill String Design” on page 1-4 in the ”Torque & Drag
Analysis” chapter for more information on the drill string design.

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Define Annulus Eccentricity in the Software


An eccentric annulus ratio is defined by specifying the displacement
from the centerline divided by the radial clearance outside the moving
pipe; it needs to be defined for every annular section

Please note that annulus eccentricity can only be used if the Herschel-
Buckley rheological model is chosen on the Fluid Editor tab .

Fluid Properties
Fluids are used in all operations where swab and surge pressures are
possible; and therefore they need to be defined in the software to
properly analyze swab and surge operations.

Define Fluids in the Software


Using the Fluid Editor tab , several fluid types can be defined; the
types include mud, gas, cement and spacer. When creating a fluid, the
fluid details are defined. This is described in more detail in the
”Hydraulics Analysis” section of this manual.

Operational Parameters

Defining Pipe Acceleration/Deceleration in the Software


The increase and decrease in the rate of change of velocity in which pipe
is tripped in and out of the hole is directly related to the swab and surge
pressures seen downhole. This needs to be defined for both swab, surge
and reciprocation operations.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Defining Reciprocation Specific Parameters in the Software


For reciprocation analysis, the reciprocation length and rate must be
defined in addition to pipe acceleration and pipe deceleration.

Please note that if the reciprocation length defined in the Operational


Parameters tab exceeds that of the String Depth, which is defined in
the String Editor tab , the software will prompt you to adjust
accordingly.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Analysis Settings

The Analysis Settings tab is used to configure the analysis options


pertaining to the outputs you have added to the Output Area. Be aware
that the available settings for all selected outputs are displayed, and not
just those for the active output that you are currently viewing.

The analysis options in the Analysis Settings tab are divided into
sections corresponding to the ribbon names. For example, options in the
Swab & Surge Analysis Settings pertain to outputs on the Swab &
Surge ribbon.

The Common section is an exception. Common analysis options are not


specific to one type of analysis (i.e. Swab & Surge, or Torque &
Drag). For example, the Active Fluid specified will be used for any
module specific outputs in the Output Area that require a fluid.

If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that require the
options in a particular section, the section will not be displayed on the
Analysis Settings tab.

Swab & Surge Options on the Analysis Settings Tab


This section provides information about analysis options pertaining to
Swab & Surge outputs.
Specify the
circulation or
displacement fluid
Specify the pump to us in the
rate used for the analysis. The
analysis; this field drop-down list
must have a value, contains the fluids
even if that value is defined in the
0. Fluid Editor tab.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

The low clearance analysis is an analysis


model that tightly couples the fluid forces with
the axial forces. The low clearance analysis
can take a considerable amount of time to
calculate. Therefore, when you use this
analysis option, it is recommended that you
analyze one to two operations at a time.

When this check box is selected, the software


includes the Geothermal Gradient data in the
calculations, thus greatly increasing the time
to view the plot results.

Reciprocation Options on Analysis Tab


Similar to the Swab & Surge options, the analysis parameters for
Reciprocation allows the entry for a String Depth, with the two
calculation methods previously mentioned. In addition to this, Depth of
Interest is a parameter used for the Reciprocation Pressure Transient
plot.
The Depth of Interest input is only necessary
for the Pressure Transient plots, and will
therefore be used in the corresponding
calculation. Please note that if this plot is open
(not necessarily active) in conjunction with any
other plot, this input will still appear. Image
displays the Analysis Settings for the
Reciprocation Pressure Transient plot.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Swab & Surge and Reciprocation Outputs

Swab & Surge Tab and Ribbon


The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has many outputs
available on the Swab & Surge and Reciprocation ribbon. Most of the
outputs provide you the results at the surface when the string is at the
String Depth specified in the String Editor tab.

The outputs depict swab and surge pressures throughout the wellbore
caused by moving pipe in and out of the wellbore.

Swab & Surge Plots

Optimized Trip Schedule


This plot displays the pressures originated during the trip of the string
(in and out) for the optimum tripping speeds at all depths in the open
hole section such that the swab and/or surge pressures are within the
limits of the formation’s pore and fracture pressures. This plot helps
determine the allowable trip speeds at the relative depths, such that
down hole pressures do not go below the pore pressure (causing a kick)

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

or exceed the fracture pressure (causing the formation to fracture or a


loss fluid situation).

Please note that the Tripping Out (Swab) and/or the Tripping In
(Surge) boxes must be selected in the Operational Parameters tab in
order to be reflected on the plot; if they are not and a Swab & Surge plot
is selected, the software will give a message prompting what needs to be
changed and where to change it as shown below:

In addition to the Trip Speed, the frequency and period to trip one pipe
stand can be shown at any point in the open hole. This plot is based on
the optimized trip speed for every run depth; trip speed is optimized by

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

calculating the fastest speeds for which swab and surge pressure do not
exceed the input constraints for fracture pressures and pore pressures
(which are defined in the Subsurface tab); if these pressures are
exceeded, the trip speed is reduced until the limits are satisfied.

Optimized Trip Pressure


This plot displays the swab and surge pressures originated while
tripping the string at the optimum tripping speeds in relation to the
formation’s pore and fracture pressures at all depths within the open
hole section.
The annotations are displayed on the plot by clicking this icon.

The plot
data can be
displayed
as a table
by clicking
this icon.

This plot uses the trip speeds determined on the Optimized Trip
Schedule. It displays the pressures at depths relative to the user defined
pore pressure and fracture pressure gradients.

Pressure Transient
This plot displays transient pressure responses, due to pipe and fluid
movement, at multiple defined depths including: String Depth, Depth
of Interest, Previous Casing Shoe, and Well Total Depth at the

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

defined moving pipe speed. These pressure responses are shown in


relation to the formation’s pore and fracture pressures.

Curves flatten as the


initial fluid movement
dampens; this is the
“steady-state”
pressure.
Click and drag
this icon to
change the
Depth of
Interest; the
plot will
automatically
re-calculate
accordingly.

The x-axis is representative of the


time it takes to trip one stand of pipe.
Pressure fluctuations due to initial
pipe movement.

The pressure fluctuations on the left side of the plot display the sloshing
and damping effects on the pressure behavior. This behavior is caused
by the acceleration and deceleration of the pipe as the pipe motion
begins and ends. As an example, during a Tripping In (Surge)
operation, the fluid will begin to compress. As a result, the pressure will
increase. Eventually the fluid will begin to flow from the annulus, and
the pressure will decrease. This cycle will continue until the pressure
fluctuations dampen as a result of the friction in the fluid. As this occurs,
the curve flattens as it reaches a “steady-state” pressure. The relatively
constant pressure continues until the pipe motion begins to stop. As the
motion stops, the fluid continues to flow from the annulus, and therefore
the pressure will decrease. Some pressure fluctuations will occur as the
pipe and fluid motion ceases. The reverse of this explanation holds for a
Tripping Out (Swab) operation.

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When this plot is selected, the Analysis Settings change to reflect the
inputs specific for this plot:
The String Depth and
Depth of Interest can
be entered here or on
the Schematic.
Regardless of where it
is entered, the
Schematic, plot and
Analysis Settings will
automatically update
accordingly.

Hook Load vs Trip Time


This plot displays the changing hook load while tripping the string one
stand of pipe. This plot can be used to analyze the effects of one or more
moving pipe speeds at one or more String Depths, by freezing lines on

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

the plot and then editing the moving pipe speed input on the Analysis
Settings.

For surge operations, tripping in has a negative The rate of change in


change in hook load; whereas in swab hook load decreases
operations, tripping has a positive change in as you near the end
hook load. of the stand.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Surface Results
This plot displays the standpipe pressure or block speed related to the
time it takes move the string one stand of pipe for Swab & Surge
operations at a defined String Depth and moving pipe speed.
From this drop down, the plot will show either
Standpipe Pressure or Block Speed.

The standpipe
pressure will
be zero unless
you are
circulating.

On the block speed curve, the slope of the curve at the beginning and at
the end of the time interval is due to pipe acceleration and deceleration.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Annulus Return Flow Rate


This plot displays the return flow rate over the time interval required to
move the string one stand of pipe for Swab & Surge operations at a
defined String Depth and moving pipe speed.

This plot can be used to analyze the effects on annulus flow rate of one
or more moving pipe speeds and at one or more String Depths.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

String Depth
This plot displays depth of the string (bottom of casing or liner) over the
time interval required to move the string one stand of pipe at a defined
String Depth and moving pipe speed. The depth changes slightly
because it represents the depth of the pipe as it moves one stand length.

Reciprocation Plots

Cement Job Definition


This is an interactive schematic that can be used to depict the final state
of the modeled fluid placement in the well after a cement job. The fluid
profile defined here will be used by the reciprocation operation for the
related Swab & Surge analysis. If fluid placement is not defined using
the schematic, the active fluid will be used as default.

The fluids that appear on the left hand side are defined in the Fluid
Editor tab. Once a new fluid is defined in the Fluid Editor tab, it will

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

automatically be added to the fluids to choose from, in the Cement Job


Definition tab.

If selected, this
adds a plug to
the bottom of
the string or
float collar. It
will be located
at the top
measured
depth of the
float collar.

Simply click and drag the fluid and drop it on the corresponding area of
the schematic. In order to depict a fluid column that does not fill the
entire annulus or string, an initial fluid must be placed in the annulus
and/or string from the Fluid Palette list.

Note:

Display changes made to the schematic in PROFILE™, will be reflected in the


DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Pressure Transient
This plot displays transient pressure responses, due to pipe and fluid
movement, during reciprocation operations at multiple depths
including: String Depth, Depth of Interest, Previous Casing Shoe,
and Total Depth. Pressures on this plot can be shown in relation to the
formation’s pore and fracture pressures.

String Depth is defaulted for depth depicted on the plot, select this drop-down
to change the depth for the plot analysis.

Spikes in the reciprocation


curve indicate the pressure
changes resulting from the
strokes.

Click and drag


this icon to
change the
Depth of
Interest; the
plot will
automatically
re-calculate
accordingly. The x-axis is representative of the
time it takes to trip one stand of pipe.

The overall shape of the curve displays the pressure fluctuations


resulting from each stroke. (Note that if you are optimizing trip time, the
strokes per minute could be adjusted.) Imposed on the overall curve
shape are some “wiggles” or smaller fluctuations in pressure as the
curve follows the general sine wave pattern. These “wiggles” are caused
by the transient pressure changes as the fluid is opposing the motion of
the string.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Hook Load vs Reciprocation Time


This plot displays the changing hook load at a defined String Depth
while reciprocating the string the specified reciprocation length and rate.
This plot can be used to analyze the effects of one or more reciprocation
lengths and rates at one or more String Depths.

Peaks correspond
to strokes. The
upward string
motion results in
positive hook load
and the downward
string motion is
represented by
negative hook
load.

Surface Results
This plot displays the standpipe pressure or block speed versus the time
required to reciprocate the string the specified reciprocation length and

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

rate at a defined String Depth. Reciprocation parameters are defined in


Operational Parameters.

From this drop-down, the plot will show either


Stand Pipe Pressure or Block Speed.

During
reciprocation,
pressure
fluctuations
(spikes) are the
depiction of
strokes and a zero
standpipe
pressure means
you are not
circulating.

Annulus Return Flow Rate


This plot displays the return flowrate over time interval required to
move the string the Reciprocation Length and Reciprocation Rate at

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

the defined String Depth. The input parameters are defined in


Operational Parameters and String tabs.

This shows a delay of the reciprocation


operations and the effect it has on annulus
return flowrate, when you are circulating.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

String Depth
This plot displays depth of the string (bottom of casing or liner) over the
time interval required to complete one reciprocation cycle at the defined
Reciprocation Length and Reciprocation Rate.

Analyzing Results Using Reports


Another way to view results is to generate a report by going to the Home
tab and selecting the Report option; the report will be displayed in the
EDM™ Report Manager.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

The report will include a title page, table of contents and all data related
to the case’s open plots/tables and schematic. Related to the plots, they
will appear in the report exactly the same as you see it in the application,
reflecting any annotations, frozen/hidden lines, etc.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Supporting Information and Calculations

The material contained in this section is intended to provide you more


detailed information and calculations pertaining to many of the steps
presented during the descriptions of the analysis mode methodologies.

If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 3-43 for additional sources
of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.

Methodology
The surge calculations are divided into two regions: the interval from the
surface to the end of the pipe and the interval from the end of the pipe to
bottomhole. In the upper region, pipe pressures are coupled to annulus
pressures through the radial elasticity of the pipe. The interpolated
method of characteristics is used to solve the fluid flow and pipe
dynamics for these “Coupled Pipe-Annulus” and “Pipe-To-
Bottomhole” regions. The fluid flow and pipe velocity equations are
solved subject to the boundary conditions given below.

The maximum time step allowed is the minimum grid spacing divided
by the sonic velocity. For a drill string near bottomhole, the minimum
gird spacing will be the distance off bottom. In order to avoid very small
time-step sizes for surges near bottomhole, a “near bottomhole” element
has been defined for this special case that neglects inertia.

Many of the mass equations have terms that relate the flow cross-
sectional area to the fluid pressures. For instance, in the “Coupled Pipe-
Annulus” region, increasing tubing pressure increases the tubing cross-
sectional area and decreases the annulus cross-sectional area.Expansion
of the pipe cross-sectional area is governed by “thick-wall” pipe elastic
solutions.

Pressure and Temperature Behavior of Water Based Muds


Temperature and pressure behavior of water-based muds is very
complex and dependent on mud composition and chemistry. There are
two water-based mud models in Surge. The simplest water-based mud
model used by Surge is the results from Annis combined with a
comprehensive water viscosity correlation.

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The more generalized water-based mud model uses Alderman,


Gavignet, Guillot, and Maitland to provide a pressure-temperature
correlation for user-supplied viscometer data as well as an improved
model for low shear-rate flow. The fluid model is based on the Casson
equation for non-Newtonian fluids.

Viscosity Correlations of Oil Based Muds


Temperature and pressure behavior of oil-based muds is equally
complex and dependent on mud composition and chemistry. As for
water-based muds, there are two oil-based mud models in Surge. For the
simplest model, viscosity correlations for oil-based muds are based on
the work of Combs and Whitmire.

The more generalized oil-based mud model uses Houwen and Geehan
for improved pressure-temperature correlation to viscometer data, as
well as an improved model for low shear-rate flow. The fluid model is
based on the Casson equation for non-Newtonian fluids.

Surge Analysis

Two Analysis Regions


The dynamic surge analysis considers two distinct regions:

• Coupled-pipe/annulus region

• Pipe-to-bottomhole region

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

These two regions are visible in the following image:

The Coupled-Pipe/Annulus Region Features:


• The full balance of mass and balance of momentum for pipe and
annulus flow are solved.

• Pipe and annulus pressures are coupled through the pipe elasticity.
Annulus pressures caused by pipe pressures may be significant.

• Longitudinal pipe elasticity and fluid viscous forces determine pipe


displacement. Referring to the following picture, we can see that
the velocity of the pipe end is not necessarily equal to the velocity

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

imposed at the surface. Therefore, the block speed does not


necessarily equal the speed of the bit.

• Frictional pressure drop is solved for laminar flow in an annulus


with a moving pipe for power-law fluids. Turbulent-flow frictional
pressure drop uses the Dodge and Metzner friction factor for
power-law fluids.

• Fluid properties vary as a function of pressure and


temperature.Plastic viscosity and yield point can vary significantly
with temperature.

• Formation elasticity, pipe elasticity and cement elasticity are all


considered in determining the composite elastic response of the
wellbore. For the case of a pipe cemented to the formation, use of
only the pipe elasticity will not give conservative surge pressures.

The Pipe-To-Bottomhole Region Features:


• Balance of mass and balance of momentum for the pipe-to-
bottomhole flow are solved.

• Frictional pressure drop is solved for laminar flow in the pipe-to-


bottomhole region for power-law fluids. Turbulent flow frictional
pressure drop uses the Dodge and Metzner friction factor for
power-law fluids.

• Fluid properties vary as a function of pressure and temperature.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

• Formation elasticity, pipe elasticity and cement elasticity are all


considered in determining the composite elastic response of the
wellbore.

Connecting the Coupled-Pipe/Annulus and the Pipe-to-


Bottomhole Regions
The two regions are connected through a comprehensive set of force and
displacement compatibility relations.

• The elastic force in the moving pipe is equal to the pressure below
the pipe times the pipe-end area. This means that a sufficiently high
pressure below the pipe could retard the pipe motion.

• Mass-flow balances are calculated for flow through the pipe nozzle,
the annulus return area and into the pipe bottomhole region. The
surge force and displacement and compatibility relations are
illustrated in the following image.

• Pressure drops are calculated through the pipe nozzle and annulus
return area on the basis of cross-sectional area changes with
appropriate discharge coefficients.

• Boundary conditions for floats were chosen to allow one-way flow


through the float. Fluid is allowed to flow out of the float, otherwise
the float is treated as a closed pipe.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

• Surface boundary conditions set the fluid pressures in the tube and
the annulus to atmospheric pressure. The bottomhole boundary
condition assumes a rigid floor, which requires a zero fluid velocity.

Open Annulus Calculations

Mass Balance
The Mass Balance consists of three parts:

• Expansion of the hole caused by internal fluid pressure (dA/dP).

• Compression of the fluid resulting from the changes in fluid


pressure.

• Influx (or outflux) of the fluid.

Hole expansion is a impacted by the elastic response of the formation


and any casing cemented between the fluid and the formation. The fluid
volume change is given by the bulk modulus, K. For drilling muds, K is
a function of the composition, pressure, and temperature of the mud. K
is the reciprocal of the compressibility.

 1 dA 1  dP 1 ∂
 +  + q=0
 A dP K  dt A ∂z

Momentum Balance
This equation consists of four parts. The left side of the equation
represents acceleration of the fluid. The acceleration of the fluid equals
the sum of the forces on the fluid. The forces on the fluid are represented
by the three terms on the right side of the equation. The first fluid force
term represents the pressure or viscous force. The middle term on the
right side is the drag and is a function of the fluid velocity. The final term
is the gravitational force.

ρ d ∂P
q=− + h(q ) + ρg cos Θ
A dt ∂z

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Where:

A = Cross section area


P = Pressure
K = Fluid bulk modulus
q = Fluid volume flow rate
ρ = Fluid density
h = Frictional pressure drop
g = Gravitational constant
Θ = Angle of inclination of annulus from vertical

Coupled Pipe Annulus Calculations


Four partial differential equations define this region. These balance
equations are similar to the equations for the Open Annulus. However,
there are two important differences.

• In the balance of mass equations, an extra term is added to account


for the pressures both inside and outside of the pipe. For example,
increased annulus pressure can decrease the cross-sectional area
inside the pipe and increased pipe pressure can increase the cross-
sectional area because of pipe elastic deformation.

• The second major difference is the effect of pipe speed on the


frictional pressure drop in the annulus as given by the frictional
pressure drop term.

Pipe Flow

Mass Balance

 1 dA1 1  dP1  1 dA1  dP2 1 ∂


 +  +   + q1 = 0
 A1 dP1 K 1  dt  A1 dP2  dt A1 ∂z

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Momentum Balance

ρ1 d ∂P1
q1 = − + h(q1 − A1v3 ) + ρ1 g cos Θ
A1 dt ∂z

Annulus Flow

Mass Balance

 ρ1 dA2  dP1  1 dA2 1  dP2 1 ∂


  +  +  + q2 = 0
 A2 dP1  dt  A2 dP2 K 2  dt A2 ∂z

Momentum Balance

ρ2 d ∂P2
q2 = − + h2 (q 2 , v3 ) + ρ 2 g cos Θ
A2 dt ∂z

Pipe Motion
The following equation is the balance of momentum for the pipe. The
pipe inertia is represented by the left side of the equation. The first term
of the right side is the longitudinal elasticity of the pipe (using Young’s
modulus, E). The second and third items provide the hoop-stress effect
(increased inside pressure shortens the pipe and increased outside
pressure lengthens the pipe). The final three terms define the effect of
viscous drag on the pipe. Variations in fluid velocity, relative to the pipe
velocity, inside the pipe and in the annulus affect the shear stress at the
pipe.

Momentum Balance

d2 ∂ 2 v3 ∂ dP1 ∂ dP2 d d d
ρ3 v3 = E + f1 + f2 + f 3 q1 + f 4 q 2 + f 5 v3
dt 2
∂z 2 ∂ z dt ∂z dt dt dt dt

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Where:

A1 = Pipe flow area


K1 = Pipe fluid bulk modulus
P1 = Pipe fluid pressure
q1 = Pipe fluid volume flow rate
h = Pipe frictional pressure drop
ρ1 = Pipe fluid density

A2 = Annulus flow area


Κ2 = Annulus fluid bulk modulus
P2 = Annulus fluid pressure
q2 = Annulus fluid volume flow rate
h2 = Annulus frictional pressure drop
ρ2 = Annulus fluid density

Ε = Pipe elastic modulus


v3 = Pipe velocity
ρ3 = Pipe density
f1, f2 = Hoop strain coefficients
f3, f4, f5 = Fluid shear stress coefficients
g = Gravitational constant
Θ = Angle of inclination

Closed Tolerance
The dynamic surge fluid pressures and velocities are determined by
solving two coupled partial differential equations, the balance of mass
and the balance of momentum

Balance of Mass

 1 dA 1  dp ∂v
 A dp + K  dt + ∂z = 0 A-1
 

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

The balance of mass consists of three effects: the expansion of the hole
due to internal fluid pressure, the compression of the fluid due to
changes in fluid pressure, and the influx or outflux of the fluid. The
expansion of the hole is governed by the elastic response of the
formation and any casing cemented between the fluid and the formation.
The fluid volume change is given by the bulk modulus K. For drilling
muds, K varies as a function of composition, pressure, and temperature.
The reciprocal of the bulk modulus is called the compressibility.

Balance of Momentum

dv ∂p
ρ = − + F( v) A-2
dt ∂z

The balance of momentum equation consists of three terms. The first


term in equation (A-2) represents the inertia of the fluid, i.e. the
acceleration of the fluid (left side of equation A-2) equals the sum of the
forces on the fluid (right side of equation A-2). The last two terms are
the forces on the fluid. The first of these terms is the pressure gradient.
The second is the drag on the fluid due to frictional or viscous forces.
The drag is a function of the type of fluid and the velocity of the fluid
and is given by the function F. Gravity terms have been left out for
simplicity. The hydrostatic pressure due to gravity can be added directly
to the dynamic solution to get the total pressure.

For the open hole below the moving pipe, the fluid motion is governed
by:

1 0 0 C vz 0
0 ρ 1 0 vt F A-3
=
a 1 0 0 p z Dv / Dt
0 0 a 1 p t Dp / Dt

where the first two equations are (A-1) and (A-2) from above with C
equal to the wellbore-fluid compressibility, and the last two equations
describe the variation of p and v along the characteristic curve = x ± at,
where a is the acoustic velocity. The capital D derivatives indicate
differentiation along the characteristic curve. Subscripts here denote
partial derivatives, e.g. vz = δv/δz. This system of equations is over
determined, which requires:

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

1 0 0 C
0 ρ 1 0 A-4
det =0
a 1 0 0
0 0 a 1

Evaluating the determinant (A-4) defines the acoustic velocity:

1
a=± A-5
ρC

The condition that (A-3) has a solution requires:

1 0 0 0
0 ρ 1 F A-6
det =0
a 1 0 Dv / Dt
0 0 a Dp / Dt

The resulting differential equations along the characteristic curve are:

Dp Dv A-7
± ρa = ±aF
Dt Dt

Equation (A-7) can be solved by integrating along the characteristic:

Δp ± ρ a Δv = ±a  F dt A-8

The difficulty in evaluating equation (A-8) is that the integral is along


the characteristic and we do not know the values of the fluid velocity
along the characteristic. To better explain what this means, we will solve
equation (A-8) without the frictional pressure drop term F. There are a
series of grid points, xk, separated by distance aΔt. We have a wave

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

moving in the positive x direction form point xk-1 and a wave moving in
the negative x direction from point xk+1.

On the positive characteristic:

Δ p + ρ a Δ v = ( p kt + Δ t − p kt −1 ) + ρ a ( v kt + Δ t − v kt −1 ) = 0 A-9

while along the negative characteristic:

Δ p − ρ a Δ v = ( p kt + Δ t − p kt +1 ) − ρ a ( v kt + Δ t − v kt +1 ) = 0 A-10

where the superscripts indicate the time of the pressures and velocities,
and the subscripts indicate the grid positions. If we solve equations A-9
and A-10 simultaneously:

p kt + Δ t = 12 [p kt +1 + p kt −1 + ρ a ( v kt −1 − v kt +1 )]
A-11
v kt + Δ t = 12 [ v kt +1 + v kt −1 + (p kt +1 − p kt −1 ) / ρa ]

While we have the value of the function p±ρav along the characteristic
from t to t+Δt, we do not know the value of either p or v until we solve
at the intersection of two characteristic curves.

One solution has been to assume that the frictional pressure drop does
not vary much along the characteristic curve, so we can hold it constant.
Equation (A-8) takes this form, using this assumption:

Δp k + ρ a Δv k = aF( v kt −1 ) Δt
A-12
Δp k − ρ a Δv k = −aF( v kt +1 ) Δt

This method works well as long as the frictional pressure drop term is
small relative to the dynamic force terms, in other words, if the system
is under-damped. This means that the right hand side of equation (A-12)
is small relative to the right hand side of equation (A-11). If the
frictional pressure drop term is large relative to the right hand side term
of equation (A-11), then we say that the system is over-damped. The
solution proposed in equation (A-12) is disastrous for an over-damped

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

system. For instance, if the velocity changes direction along the


characteristic curve, then the friction term is both too large and of the
wrong sign in equation (A-12). This sort of error propagates throughout
the solution system, causing dramatic instabilities. The water hammer
literature recognizes this problem, called line-packing. Solution, is to
make the friction term depend on the velocity at the point of calculation:

Δp k + ρ a Δv k = aF( v kt + Δt ) Δt A-13
t + Δt
Δp k − ρ a Δv k = −aF( v k ) Δt

Typically, they choose a friction factor form for F:

f A-14
F( v) = − 12 ρvv
Dh

This results in a quadratic equation solution for equation (A-13),


assuming f stays relatively constant.

If we want to include both the initial and final values of the friction term,
we need to assume something about the variation of F along the
characteristic curve. If we assume that F varies roughly linearly along
the curve, then equation (A-8) takes the form:

Δp k + ρ a Δv k = 12 a[F( v kt + Δt ) + F( v kt −1 )] Δt A-15
t + Δt
Δp k − ρ a Δv k = − a[F( v 1
2 k ) + F( v t
k +1 )]Δt

If we assume that the velocity varies linearly along the curve, we need a
more complex formulation, since F is assumed to be non-linear in
velocity (e.g.: non-Newtonian fluid and turbulent flow). On possibility
is a three-point integration formula:

Δp k + ρ a Δv k = 14 a[F( v kt + Δt ) + 2F(~
v ) + F( v kt −1 )] Δt
~v = 1 ( v t + Δt + v t ) A-16
2 k k −1

Δp k − ρ a Δv k = − 14 a[F( v kt + Δt ) + 2F( v̂) + F( v kt +1 )]Δt


v̂ = 12 ( v kt + Δt + v kt +1 )

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

in practice, equation (A-15) works well enough, especially with some


attention paid to meshing the problem. Most errors in (A-15) can be
resolved by using a finer mesh. Notice, also, that equations (A-15) or
(A-16) all must be solved numerically for any realistic function F.

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

References

Transient Pressure Surge


Mitchell, R. F. “Dynamic Surge/Swab Pressure Predictions.”, SPE
Drilling Engineering, September 1988, (pages 325-333).

Lal, Manohar. “Surge and Swab Modeling for Dynamic Pressures and
Safe Trip Velocities.” Proceedings, 1983 IADC/SPE Drilling
Conference, New Orleans (427-433).

Lubinski, A., Hsu, F. H., and Nolte, K. G. “Transient Pressure Surges


Due to Pipe Movement in an Oil Well.” Fevue de l’Inst. Franc. Du Pet.,
May — June 1977 (307-347).

Wylie, E. Benjamin, and Streeter, Victor L. Fluid Transients, Corrected


Edition (1983). FEB Press, Ann Arbor, Mich., (1982).

Validation
Rudolf, R.L., Suryanarayana, P.V.R., Mobil E&P Technical Center,
“Field Validation of Swab Effects While Tripping-In the Hole on Deep,
High Temperature Wells “, SPE 39395.

Samuel, G.R., Sunthankar, A., McColpin, G., Landmark Graphics,


Bern, P., BPAmoco, Flynn,T., Sperry Sun, “Field Validation of
Transient Swab/Surge Response with PWD Data”, SPE 67717.

Pipe and Borehole Expansion


Timoshenko, S. P., and Goodier, J. N., “Theory of Elasticity”, McGraw-
Hill Book Company, New York, 1951.

Frictional Pressure Drop


Savins, F. J. “Generalized Newton (Pseudo-plastic) Flow in Stationary
Pipes and Annuli.” Pet. Trans. AIME (1958).

Dodge, D.W., and Metzner, A. B. “Turbulent Flow of Non-Newtonian


Systems,” AIChEJ (June 1959).

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Chapter 3: Swab & Surge Analysis

Fontenot, J. E., and Clark, R. E.: “An Improved Method for Calculating
Swab and Surge Pressures and Calculating Pressures in a Drilling Well,
“Society of Petroleum Engineering, October 1974 (451-462).

Schuh, F. J. “Computer Makes Surge-Pressure Calculations Useful.” Oil


and Gas Journal, August 1964 (96).

Pressure and Temperature Fluid Property Dependence


Annis, Max R. “High Temperature Flow Properties of Water-Base
Drilling Fluids.” J. Pet. Tech., August 1967.

Alderman, N. J., Gavignet, A., Guillot, D., and Maitland, G. C.: “High
Temperature, High Pressure Rheology of Water-Based Muds,” SPE
18035, 63rd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the SPE.,
Houston, (1988 (187-196).

Combs, G. D., and Whitmire, L. D. “Capillary Viscometer Simulates


Bottom Hole Conditions.” Oil and Gas Journal, September 30, 1968
(108-113).

Houwen, O. H. and Geehan, T.:”Rheology of Oil-Based Muds.”


SPE15416, 61st Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the
SPE, New Orleans (1986).

Uner, D., Ozgen, C., and Tosun, I. “Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in an


Eccentric Annulus” SPEDE, September 1989 (269-272).

Johancsik, C. A., Friesen, D. B., and Dawson, R. “Torque and Drag in


Directional Wells — Prediction and Measurement.” J. Pet. Tech., June
1984 (987-992).

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Chapter 4
Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Overview

With the increased use of Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) and Managed


Pressure Drilling (MPD) to improve circulation, ROP, reduce formation
damage, and stuck pipe events it becomes critical to properly model
multi-phase fluid flow to optimize liquid pump and gas injection rates
and control bottom hole and surface pressures.

Using industry well known engineering calculations, the


DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software Underbalanced Hydraulics
module provides a set of comprehensive analytical tools to determine
the feasibility and optimal parameters for operations where more than
one fluid is mixed, including the injection of gases, and/or continuous
formation influx, to effectively control the pressures of the entire
system. This analysis considers the effect of wellbore geometries and
deviation, string components dimensions, temperature effects, fluid
properties, and formation cutting transportation.

With this module, operators can quickly determine pressure, ECD,


velocity and cutting transport ratio profiles and other relevant hydraulic
calculations for multi-phase fluid circulation operations.

What is Underbalanced Drilling?

P reservoir > P bottomhole

P bottomhole = P hydrostatic + P friction + P choke

When drilling underbalanced, the pressure exerted on a exposed


formation in the wellbore is less than the internal fluid pressure of the
formation. To reduce the pressure the drilling fluid exerts on a
formation, sometimes air, gas, foam, etc is added to the drilling fluid.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

When drilling underbalanced, there is less formation damage due to


drilling fluid invasion or filter cake development. This can help to
improve the well productivity as well as reduce drilling problems.

During underbalanced drilling, it is likely there will be production from


zones with sufficient permeability and porosity. This production will
need to be controlled and handled safely.

The hydraulic pressure exerted on the formation can be maintained


below the formation pressure by:

• Flow drilling - The well flows naturally because the fluid is


designed to exert less pressure than the formation.

• Standpipe injection - Commonly used as it does not require changes


to casing design. However, some downhole tools may not function
correctly when subjected to over 15% gas.

• Micro-annulus or Parasite Injection - Gas is injected into the


annulus by using a concentric string, or by injecting gas using
coiled tubing attached to the outside of a casing string. Because gas
is not injected down the drillstring, conventional tools function
properly.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Design Considerations

Some of the many factors that must be considered for underbalanced


drilling are listed below. Those factors considered or investigated using
the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software are covered in more
detail in this chapter.

• Bottom hole pressure

• Fluids and gases used

• Injection methods

• Flow regimes and multi-phase flow models

• Formation influx

• Hole cleaning

• Motor performance

• Surface equipment

• Wellbore stability

• Environment

Bottom Hole Pressure


When drilling underbalanced, the initial target bottom hole pressure is
normally 200 to 300 psi less than the reservoir pressure. The target
pressure may change as the design process progresses, and influx and
drilling parameters are better defined.

You can use the UB Pressure Profile output (available on the UB


Hydraulics ribbon) to determine the pressure in the annulus relative to
the pore and fracture pressure. This output can be used to determine how

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

the bottom hole pressure is influenced by increased gas injection rate,


formation influx, increase fluid pump rate, and other parameters.

Using the UB Pressure


Profile output, you can
determine if the bottom hole
pressure is less than the
pore pressure.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

You can also use the UB Summary to review the bottom hole pressure,
as well as other key information at various pump and gas injection rates.

Fluids and Gases

Rheology
All underbalanced hydraulics analysis uses the Newtonian model. For
more information about rheology, refer to “Rheology” on page 2-2 of
the ”Hydraulics Analysis” chapter.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Newtonian
The shear stress of a Newtonian fluid is directly proportional to the shear
rate. Water is a Newtonian fluid.

Defining Drilling Fluids in the Software


This topic is covered in detail in the ”Hydraulics Analysis” chapter of
this manual.

Defining Gases in the Software


All outputs on the UB Hydraulics ribbon require the use of one (active)
gas. The Fluid tab is used to define gases, cement, spacer, as well as
fluids, by specifying the basic characteristics of the gas. Create a gas
mixture by clicking the on the Fluids tab.

As previously mentioned, all UB Hydraulics outputs require fluids use


the Newtonian Rheology model.

When a gas is created, you can specify the gas properties, or select a
gas with predefined properties from the catalog.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Click to define a gas.

Click to import a fluid or


Click fluid name gas from the Library.
to view or edit
fluid details.

You can define the gas


properties, or you can select a
gas from the catalog. Gases
selected from the catalog will
The total have properties already
percentage of the defined.
gas mixture must
equal 100%.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Check User Defined to


specify the gas properties.

Click Select from Catalog to


select predefined gases from a
catalog. The properties for the
selected gas(es) will
automatically populate the Gas
Details section of the Fluids
tab..

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Using the Gas Catalog, select the gas composition and the percentage
of each gas in the mixture. The total percentage must be 100%.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

If you have defined more than one fluid or gas using the Fluids tab, use
the Analysis Settings tab to select the active fluid and/or gas you want
to use in the analysis.

The Active Fluid and Active Gas


will be used in the analysis.

Multi-Phase Flow and Flow Patterns


UB Hydraulics outputs consider steady-state, multiphase flow.
Multiphase flow is characterized by several flow patterns to reflect the
considerable variation in flow through the well. Many parameters affect
the flow, including buoyancy, turbulence, inertia, and surface tension,
flow rates, pipe diameter, inclination angle, and fluid properties.

The variation in pressure gradient with the flow pattern is especially


important. Thus the ability to predict flow pattern as a function of the
flow parameters is of primary concern. Because of the continuous

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

changes in pressure, temperature and mass transfer between the 2


phases, the flow patterns at the bottom of the wellbore can vary
significantly from those at the wellhead.

The flow pattern is determined from a flow map, which is typically


expressed as a function of the superficial velocities. Flow maps can vary
depending on pipe inclination. The following is a hypothetical flow
map.

There are several different methods for generating the flow map. The
DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software allows you to select
between five Flow models, including:

• Beggs-Brill

• Duns-Ros

• Gray

• Hasan Kabir

• Hagedorn-Brown

Each of the above authors developed a different model using different


correlations. The flow maps are functions of many variables, such as:

• Gas and liquid viscosities

• Pipe diameter and roughness

• Surface tension

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

• Gas and liquid densities

• Inclination angle

Flow Patterns
Multiphase flow can be characterized using several flow patterns that
describe the separation of the phases. A disperse flow pattern is one
where one phase is distributed (i.e. bubbles) within another phase. On
the other hand, a segregated flow pattern is one where each phase flows
in separate streams. There are degrees of phase separation between
disperse and segregated resulting in several flow patterns.

Flow patterns differ for horizontal and vertical pipe flow. For horizontal
flow, the phases (gas and liquid) tend to separate due to differences in
density. This makes the heavier phase (liquid) tend to accumulate at the
bottom of the pipe. When the flow occurs in a pipe inclined at some
angle other than vertical or horizontal, the flow patterns take other
forms.

The following flow patterns apply to one or more of the flow models
available in the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software.

• Segregated flow: Gas phase flow is separate from liquid phase.


Annular flow is an example.

• Bubble flow: Gas bubbles are dispersed through the liquid


phase. Because of buoyancy, more bubbles will be concentrated
in the upper portion of the pipe. If gas bubbles are uniformly
distributed, the pattern is referred to as dispersed bubble flow.

• Plug flow: Large bullet shaped gas bubbles separate liquid


portions.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

• Annular flow: The liquid phase moves as an annular film on the


pipe walls while gas flows in the center.

• Slug flow: Waves of liquid phase touch the top of the pipe.

• Intermittent flow: The flow of one phase is intermittently


interrupted by another.

• Transition flow: Occurs at the boundaries between flow


patterns in a flow map. It is the transition from one phase to
another phase.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

The UB Flow Pattern (available on the UB Hydraulics ribbon)


displays annulus and string pressure for a specified liquid and gas flow
rate. This table allows you to determine the flow pattern/regime for all
annular and string cross-sectional areas.

Notice that different colors indicate


different flow patterns. Click on a section
of the string. The flow pattern type, and
depth interval is displayed in a tool tip.

The Flow Pattern Annulus Info schematic on the left side of the table
displays the circulation medium (normal mud, aerated mud, etc.) based
on the Gas Injection Rate and Pump Rate under the current wellbore
conditions. (Both rates are specified on the Analysis Settings tab.)

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Hole Cleaning
The UB Cuttings Transport Ratio plot, available on the UB
Hydraulics ribbon, displays the ratio of cuttings velocity to the mean
annular velocity. It is a good measurement of the cutting carrying
capacity of the drilling fluid.

• Positive means cuttings are being carried up the hole

• Negative means cuttings are settling down and may require more
fluid velocity or a better flow design

Notice the Cuttings Transport Ratio changes when


the tubular geometry changed.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

To use this output, you must have the Include cuttings loading box
checked in the UB Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab.
When the Include cuttings loading box is checked:

• Cuttings density and rate of penetration affect all the UBD


calculations (pressure/ ECD, hole cleaning, operating envelop,
etc.).

• The rate of penetration is used to initialize the cutting mass rate at


the bottom hole, but it does not count into the slope at bottom.

• Cutting density is used to initialize the mixture (cutting, liquid, gas)


in each calculation segment. The major calculation then begins
(calculating pressure, liquid and gas velocity, friction factor,
Reynolds number, flow pattern).

• The Cutting velocity, which takes in account the cutting diameter is


calculated last. Therefore, the cutting density does not affect
pressure, it only affect cuttings transport ratio and cutting velocity.
In the velocity calculation, only one of the following are used for
the pressure calculation: Cuttings velocity curve, no Mixture
velocity, or liquid velocity.

• The mixture velocity (composed of liquid and gas) is used to


calculated pressure. The cutting velocity does not contribute to the
pressure calculation. Therefore, the UBD mixture velocity factors
in the liquid and gas, and not the cuttings.

Annular Velocity
Sufficient velocity is important for effective hole cleaning. The liquid
phase is primarily responsible for cuttings transport. The velocities of
each phase are normally different. As the gas phase expands, there is a
decrease in pressure and an increase in gas volumetric flow rate. For
upward flow, the less dense, more compressible, less viscous gas phase
tends to flow at a higher velocity than the liquid phase. This is known as
slippage. For downward flow, the liquid often flows faster than the gas.
If there were no slippage, the gas and liquid phases would flow at the
mixture velocity.

Use the UB Annular Velocity Profile output (available on the UB


Hydraulics ribbon) to view the gas, liquid, cuttings, and mixture
annular velocities. Be aware that the algorithm for calculating cuttings

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

velocity assumes a vertical, or near vertical wellbore. Therefore, results


for deviated wellbore sections may not be accurate.

Liquid Holdup
The slippage of the gas past the liquid results in larger liquid volumes.
Liquid holdup can be defined as the fraction of a pipe cross section or
volume increment that is occupied by the liquid phase.

It is important to know the liquid holdup because some tools (i.e.


motors) will not function properly with high concentrations of gas
(greater than 15% for example). It may be necessary to use parasitic or
concentric annular injection instead of standpipe injection if the liquid
holdup is too low.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Use the UB Liquid Holdup output available on the UB Hydraulics


ribbon to assist you with determining if you have enough liquid for
cuttings transport and for proper tool functionality.

Circulating System
The rig and circulating system information requirements for
underbalanced hydraulics analysis is similar to conventional hydraulics

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

except for the requirement of return surface line (blooie) length and
inside diameter.

Specify the length and inside


diameter of the line running
from the rotating control
device to the choke.

Formation Influx
During drilling the hydrostatic pressure might be less than formation
pressure either intentionally (UBD) or naturally. This might cause an
influx of formation fluids and they need to be monitored.

One of the advantages of UBD is that it increases the rate of penetration.


However, influx of gas, water or oil can occur as a result of low BHP.
This influx will change the existing UB system, which in turn will
change the pressure profile inside the drill pipe as well as in the annulus.
Sometimes the underbalanced condition may be partially self-supported
by the influx.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Each formation entered must have a different TVD.

Select the Use formation


influx data check box to
consider that you are
producing while drilling.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Analysis Settings

The Analysis Settings tab is used to configure the analysis options


pertaining to the outputs you have added to the Output Area. Be aware
that the available settings for all selected outputs are displayed, and not
just those for the active output that you are currently viewing.

The analysis options in the Analysis Settings tab are divided into
sections corresponding to the ribbon names. For example, options in the
Torque & Drag section pertain to outputs on the Torque & Drag
ribbon.

The Common section is an exception. Common analysis options are not


specific to one type of analysis (i.e. Torque & Drag, or Hydraulics).
For example, the Pump rate specified will be used for any Torque &
Drag or Hydraulics outputs in the Output Area that require a pump
rate.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that require the
options in a particular section, the section will not be displayed on the
Analysis Settings tab.

UB Hydraulics Analysis Options on Analysis Settings Tab


This section provides information about analysis options pertaining to
UB Hydraulics Outputs. If you do not have an output selected that
requires a specific analysis option, it will not be displayed in the
Analysis Settings tab.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Injection Data

Active gas
Specify the gas which will be used in the analysis. Only one gas can be
selected at a time. The drop-down list of gases are based on those
defined using the Fluids tab.

Gas injection rate


Specify the gas injection rate.

Injection Temperature
Specify gas injection temperature.

Use parasite strings


Parasite strings are typically used to introduce gas into the circulating
liquid stream using a flow path external to the workstring. This option is
typically used to reduce or eliminate the injection of gas down the
drillstring when the required gas injection rate would cause drillstring
tools to not function properly.

Select the Use parasite strings check box to indicate gas injection using
a parasitic string. In the table that appears, specify the injection depth,
injection rate, and injection gas. The drop-down list of gases are based
on those defined using the Fluids tab.

Pressure Loss

Additional BHA pressure loss


Use this field to input any bottom hole assembly pressure losses for use
in the analysis. UB Hydraulics outputs do not use pressure losses input
on the String tab.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Calculation Options

Flow Model
Select the multi-phase flow model to use in the analysis from the
following options:

• Beggs-Brill - based on air-water flow experiments; recognizes both


slippage phenomena and flow regimes; applies to all inclination
angles

• Duns-Ros - laboratory study measuring the slip velocity (from


which the holdup pressure can be calculated) and friction factor for
the possible flows regimes in multiphase flow (Bubble, Slug, Mist,
Transition); recognizes both slippage phenomena and flow regimes

• Gray - vertical flow for gas condensate wells; originally derived


from a vertical gas condensate wells; very sensible to the
Temperature

• Hagedorn-Brown - combination of 2 correlations: Hagedorn -


Brown for slug flow and Griffith, bubble flow; was obtained from
field data for pipes sizes ranging from 1-4 in OD and consider the
silppage effect; applies only to vertical wells

• Hasan-Kabir - based on hydrodynamic conditions and experiment


observations; applies to flow in annuli of inclination up to 80
grades

Gas law
Select how to determine gas deviation from the following two options:

Engineering - uses the factor Z to describe how a gas deviate from an


ideal gas

Virial - uses the Taylor expansion series to describe how a gas deviate
from an ideal gas

Pipe roughness (inside)


Specify the pipe roughness

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Include choke pressure


Select this check box and specify the choke pressure to include back
pressure in the analysis.

Include cuttings loading


Select this check box to include cuttings in the analysis. You must
specify cuttings diameter and density as well as rate of penetration.

Be aware that the UB Hydraulics analysis does not use the cuttings
information input in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings
tab. Therefore, the cuttings density does not affect pressure, it only
affect cuttings transport ratio and cutting velocity.

When include cuttings loading check box is selected:

• Cuttings density and rate of penetration affect all the UB


Hydraulics calculations (pressure/ ECD, hole cleaning,
operating envelop, etc.).
• The rate of penetration is used to initialize the cutting mass rate
at the bottom hole, but it does not count into the slope at bottom.
• Cutting density is used to initialize the mixture (cutting, liquid,
gas) in each calculation segment. The major calculation then
begins (calculating pressure, liquid and gas velocity, friction
factor, Reynolds number, flow pattern).
• The cutting velocity, which takes in account the cutting diameter
is calculated last. Therefore, the cutting density does not affect
pressure, it only affect cuttings transport ratio and cutting
velocity. In the velocity calculation, only one of the following
are used for the pressure calculation: Cuttings velocity curve, no
Mixture velocity, or liquid velocity.
• The mixture velocity (composed of liquid and gas) is used to
calculated pressure. The Cutting velocity does not contribute to
the pressure calculation. Therefore, the UBD mixture velocity
factors in the liquid and gas, and not the cuttings.

Pressure at Bottom Hole

Reservoir pressure
Input a known bottom-hole reservoir pressure for underbalanced
condition monitoring.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

If the Calculated check box is selected, the reservoir pressure is


calculated based on wellpath, and pore pressure.If these values are not
setup properly, reservoir pressure may not be calculated.

Target pressure
Input a desired bottom-hole target pressure to maintain an
underbalanced drilling condition.

Operation Envelope Parameters

Liquid injection rate (gpm)


The liquid injection range is entered by the user. The application then
divides the range equally into five liquid flow rate calculations.

Gas injection rate (scfm)


Specify the minimum and maximum gas injection rate.

Motor Eq liquid rate (gpm)


This is the equivalent liquid volume of the gas and liquid mixture (multi-
phase fluid) coming out from the mud motor

If no mud motor is defined on the string editor, the Minimum and


Maximum mud motor equivalent liquid box will be grayed out on the
analysis settings, and no operating envelope area can be defined.

When a mud motor is defined on the string editor, then based on the
minimum and maximum equivalent liquid rates entered in the analysis
settings, the solutions which result in bottom-hole pressure units are
found on the operating envelope.

Min vertical annulus velocity


Input a desired vertical annulus velocity for hole-cleaning throughout
the wellbore, the calculation will resolve a bottom-hole pressure
solution as part of the envelope boundary. The algorithm for calculating
Minimum vertical annulus velocity is based on an assumption of a
vertical or near vertical wellbore. Results for highly deviated sections of
the wellbore may not be accurate. If additional gas injection is affixed

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

through parasitic string, bottom-hole pressure may become too low for
the application to resolve a valid calculation for the operating envelope.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Underbalanced Hydraulics Outputs

UB Hydraulics Tab and Ribbon


The DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software has many outputs
available on the UB Hydraulics ribbon. Most of the outputs provide you
the results at the surface when the string is at the String Depth specified
on the String tab.

Underbalanced Plots
Underbalanced refers to the amount of pressure exerted on a formation
exposed in a wellbore below the internal fluid pressure of that
formation. If sufficient porosity and permeability exists, formation
fluids enter the wellbore. Drilling rate typically increases as
underbalanced condition is approached.

UB Operating Envelope
The Operating Envelope plot defines the set of limitations within which
the underbalanced drilling system can perform safely and effectively.
Picking any combination of parameters within the envelope ensures an
executable set without inflicting an overbalanced drilling condition.

The liquid injection range is entered by the user. The application then
divides the range equally into five liquid flow rate calculations. These
flow rate calculations, resolve into five pressure profiles along the gas
injection range (the x-axis). The behavior of the five pressure profiles
resolved from the liquid/gas injection ranges are governed by the
frictional effect of the multi-phase fluid flowing through the wellbore.

For a typical multi-phase fluid injection into the underbalanced drilling


ecosystem, the combined result of internal gas-liquid phase interaction
translates into 3 dominant zones: Hydrostatic, Transitional, and
Frictional. The application designates color gradients for these different
zones on the background of this plot:.

Blue = Hydrostatically dominated zone

Gradient between blue and red = Transitional zone

Red = Frictionally dominated zone

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In the Hydrostatically dominated zone, increasing the gas injection rate


decreases the resulting bottom-hole pressure. When the gas injection
rate reaches the point where frictional effect dominates the fluid
behavior, bottom-hole pressure begins to increase as more gas is
injected.

When the slope of the liquid injection rate reaches 0, the transitional
point is marked for that particular liquid injection rate Since the
transitional point of each liquid injection rate can be on a different gas
injection rate coordinate (across the x-axis), an average of the five points
is taken and +/- 10% of this average is used to define the transitional
zone across the Gas injection rate.

In this zone, the gas injection rate yields little or no effect on bottom-
hole pressure: consequently, setting a preferred condition for ease in
well control while drilling. When the gas injection rate is increased
beyond the transitional zone, frictional effect induces rising bottom-hole
pressure. A zone dominated by frictional effects is generally not
preferred in underbalanced drilling, due to disorderly behavior of the
multi-phase fluid, the strain it exerts on the surface equipment in order
to achieve the gas injection rate, and worst of all, possible decrease in
production rate while flowing.

The mud motor equivalent liquid rate entered by the user, along with
minimum vertical annulus velocity, sets the left and right boundaries of
the operating envelope. During the calculation, this newly entered data
is mapped into the Gas Injection Rate and Bottom Hole Pressure
units. The results may intersect the five Gas/Liquid Injection rate

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

curves, resulting in the entire boundary condition for the operating


envelope.

The existence of an operating envelope indicates


there are feasible designs. Select any combination of
parameters within the envelope for feasible
underbalanced hydraulics.

The liquid injection


rate range
specified in the
Operation
Envelope
Parameters
section of the
Analysis Settings
tab is divided into
five increments.
Each increment is
represented by a
curve.

Typically the left and right boundaries of the In the hydrostatically dominate zone (blue
envelope are based on minimum and maximum background) the bottom hole pressure
gas injection rates as specified in the Operation decreases as gas injection increases. As
Envelope Parameters section of the Analysis more gas is injected, there may be a
Settings tab. transition to the frictionally dominate zone
(red background) where injecting more
gas may increase bottom hole pressure.

User can input a desired bottom-hole “Target Pressure” to maintain an


underbalanced drilling condition.

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By performing sufficient analyses of the parameters above and


translating into bottom-hole pressure units, the operating envelope plot
for underbalanced drilling can be defined. This envelope can be used
for equipment limit detection, frictional environment monitoring, and
provide a selection basis for underbalanced drilling parameters.

UB Min. Oxygen for Combustion


The UB Minimum Oxygen for Combustion output, also known as
Limiting Oxygen Concentration, is defined as the amount below which
combustion is not possible. Costs can be reduced by the replacement of
nitrogen injection with normal air, or de-oxygenated air or vitiated air
(oxygen/nitrogen air mixture) but this practice increases the potential for
flammable or explosive mixtures to be present in the wellbore and
surface piping during underbalanced drilling.

Safe operational ranges of oxygen-containing drilling mud mixtures can


be determined in the flammability of the mixtures is known.

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UB Pressure Profile Plot


Use the UB Pressure Profile plot to determine if you are underbalanced
through the open hole. This plot displays the wellbore pressure in the
annulus relative to the pore pressure and fracture gradient.

Because the annulus pressure is


less than the pore pressure, it is
underbalanced.

UB Mixture Density
Mixture Density represents the gas-liquid fluid density in the annulus
and string, is impacted by the depth, temperature, pressure, wellbore

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configuration, and friction. These elements compound the equivalent


circulating density.

Notice it is underbalanced. The ECD in the


annulus is less than the pore pressure.

UB Liquid Holdup
Liquid holdup is defined at the fraction of a pipe cross section or volume
increment that is occupied by the liquid phase. The values range from 0
(total gas) to 1 (total liquid). This phenomenon takes place in multiphase
systems because the gas and liquid phases are not flowing with the same
velocity.

Through a pipe, when gas and liquid are flowing

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

• downward: the liquid will flow faster than the gas due to its
higher density

• upward: the gas will flow faster than the liquid resulting in liquid
holdup

An analysis of the liquid holdup profile on a multiphase flow model can


aid in assessing the effectiveness of the gas lift. For any specific case the
liquid holdup fraction decreases as the gas injection increases. The
relationship between the gas and liquid rate must be managed to provide
sufficient liquid holdup in the annulus to transport cuttings while
keeping BHP below the target pressure.

This output can be used to determine if the gas concentration may be too
high for downhole tools to properly function. Some of these tools need
to operate with a minimum equivalent liquid rate. Normally the
maximum gas content is 15%.

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In this example, some downhole


tools may not function properly as
there is over 35% gas.

UB Annular Velocity Profile


It is important to make sure we have adequate velocity for cuttings
transport and are satisfactory on the required flow rate through the
downhole motor. Use the UB Annular Velocity Profile output to
determine the velocity of the gas, liquid, mixture and cuttings.

The liquid phase is primarily responsible for cuttings transport while the
gas phase increases the liquid velocity. The algorithm for calculating
cuttings velocity is based on an assumption of a vertical (or near

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

vertical) wellbore. Results for deviated sections of the wellbore may not
be accurate.

UB Cuttings Transport Ratio


Cuttings transport ratio is defined as the cuttings velocity divided by the
mean annular velocity. For positive cuttings transport ratios, cuttings
will be transported to the surface with more or less transport efficiency.
For negative cuttings transport ratios, cuttings will accumulate and

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

become concentrated in the annulus. It is a good measurement of the


carrying capacity of the drilling fluid.

In this example, the


ratio is always positive
indicating cuttings are
carried up the hole.

UB Gas Deviation Factor

The gas deviation factor Z is a measure of the divergence of the fluid


behavior from the ideal gas law. Also known as the Compression
Factor is the ratio of the molar volume of a gas to the molar volume of
an ideal gas at the same temperature and pressure. It is a useful
thermodynamic property for modifying the ideal gas law to account
for the real gas behavior. In general, deviation from ideal behavior
becomes more significant the closer a gas is to a phase change, the
lower the temperature or the larger the pressure. Compressibility

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

factor values are usually obtained by calculation from equations of


state (EOS), such as the viral equation which take compound specific
empirical constants as input. For a gas that is a mixture of two or more
pure gases (air or natural gas, for example), a gas composition is
required before compressibility can be calculated.

UB Fanning Friction Factor


The Fanning friction factor for gas–liquid is defined in term of the
mixture velocity and density. All published correlations for predicting

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

two-phase flowing pressure losses account for irreversible energy losses


due to wall shear stress through a Fanning Friction Factor.

UB Flow Pattern
The UB Flow Pattern table displays the annulus and string pressure for
a specified liquid and gas flow rate. This table allows you to determine
the flow pattern/regime for all annular and string cross-sectional areas.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

The schematic on the left side of the table shows the circulation medium
(normal mud, aerated mud, etc.) based on the Gas Injection Rate and
Pump Rate under the current wellbore conditions.

Hover cursor over


the mud to display
pattern and other
information
pertaining to that
depth.

Each pattern
is displayed
in a unique
color.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

The following patterns are available, depending on the currently


selected Multi-Phase Flow model:

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UB Summary
This plot displays a summary of key underbalanced information.

The Pump Rate and Gas


Injection Rate sliders can
be used to easily find a
combination that provides
the desired bottom hole
pressure results, as well as
to investigate other
important underbalanced
drilling variables.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Supporting Information and Calculations

The calculations and information contained in this section provide


details pertaining to correlations used.

If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 4-73 for additional sources
of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.

Beggs-Brill Correlation 1973 (SI units)


The correlations described in this topic use SI units. The pressure drop
calculated from these correlations has to be converted to English Units
before being used.
This empirical correlation was developed from air/water two-phase flow
experiments. It applies to pipes of all inclination angles.

V M = V SL + V SG

Where:
VM = Mixture velocity
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity

V SL
H ns = ------------------------
V SL + V SG

Where:
Hns = No-slip holdup
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

2
VM
N FR = ----------
gd

Where:
NFR = Froude mixture number
VM = Mixture velocity
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit

ρL
N LV = V SL  --------- 0.25
 g σ L

Where:
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension

0.302
L 1 = 316 Hns

– 2.4684
L 2 = 0.0009252 H ns

– 1.4516
L 3 = 0.1 H ns

– 6.738
L 4 = 0.5 H ns

Determine the flow pattern using the following limits.


Transition:
H ns ≥ 0.01

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and
L 2 < N FR ≤ L 3

Intermediate:
0.01 ≤ H ns < 0.4

and
L 3 < N FR ≤ L 1

Or
H ns ≥ 0.4

and
L 3 < N FR ≤ L 4

Distributed:

H ns < 0.4

and
N FR ≥ L 1

OR
H ns ≥ 0.4

and
N FR > L 4

b
aHns
H h = -----------
c
-
NFR

Where:
Hns = No-slip holdup
NFR = Froude Mixture Number

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

and where a, b, and c are determined for each flow pattern from the
following table:

Flow Pattern a b c
Segregated 0.98 0.4846 0.0868
Intermittent 0.845 0.5351 0.0173
Distributed 1.065 0.5824 0.0609

e f g
C = ( 1 – H ns ) ln ( dHns NLV NFR )

Where:
Hns = No-slip holdup
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
NFR = Froude mixture number

and where d, e, f, and g are determined for each flow condition from the
following table:

Flow Pattern d e f g
Segregated uphill 0.011 -3.768 3.539 -1.614
Intermittent uphill 2.96 0.305 -0.4473 0.0978
Distributed uphill No correction, C = 0, ψ = 1
All flow patterns 4.70 -0.3692 0.1244 -0.5056
downhill

3
ψ = 1 + C [ sin ( 1.8θ ) – 0.333sin ( 1.8θ ) ]

Where:
C = Inclination correction factor coefficient
θ = Deviation from the horizontal axis

HL = Hh ψ

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Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
Hh = Horizontal holdup
ψ = Liquid holdup inclination correction factor

H L = aH L1 + ( 1 – a ) H L2

such that
L 3 – N FR
a = ---------------------
L3 – L2

Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
HL1 = Liquid holdup, calculated assuming flow is segregated
HL2 = Liquid holdup, assuming flow is intermittent

f tp
- = eJ
-----
f ns

Where
ln ( y )
J = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2
-
4
– 0.0523 + 3.182 ln ( y ) – 0.8725 [ ln ( y ) ] + 0.01853 [ ln ( y ) ]

and
ftp = Two-phase friction factor
fns = No-slip holdup friction factor
eJ = 2.718, the base of natural logarithms

H ns
y = --------2
HL

Where:
Hns = No-slip holdup
HL = Liquid holdup

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

( N Re ) ns = ρ ns V M  -------
d
 μ ns

Where:
(NRe)ns = No-slip Reynolds number
HL = Liquid holdup
ρns = No-slip average of density
VM = Mixture velocity
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit

The frictional pressure gradient is:


2
 dP f tp ρ ns VM
------- = ---------------------
 dx  f 2d

Where:
P = Inlet pressure along a pipe or annulus
ftp = Two-phase friction factor
ρns = No-slip average of density
VM = Mixture velocity
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit

Hagedorn-Brown Correlation 1977 (SI units)


The correlations described in this topic use SI units. The pressure drop
calculated from these correlations has to be converted to English units
before being used.
The correlation used here is actually a combination of two correlations:
Hagedorn-Brown correlation for slug flow and Griffith correlation for
bubble flow. They apply only to vertical wells.
Check the flow regime to determine whether to continue with the
Hagedorn-Brown correlation or proceed to the Griffith correlation for
bubble flow.
2
0.2218 ( V SL + V SG )
A = 1.071 – -------------------------------------------------
da
----------------
0.3048

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Where:
A = Flow regime factor for check slug flow and bubble
flow
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
da = Annuli diameter

If A < 0.13, then A = 0.13


V SG
B = ------------------------
V SL + V SG

Where:
B = Flow regime factor for check slug flow and bubble
flow
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity

If B-A is positive or has a value of zero, continue with the Hagedorn-


Brown correlation. If B-A is negative, proceed with the Griffith
correlation.

Griffith Correlation

VM VM 2 V SG
H L = 1 – 0.5 1 + ------- – 1 + ------- – 4 ---------
VS VS VS

Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
VM = Mixture velocity
VS = Superficial velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Hagedorn-Brown Correlation
1⁄4
g
N L = μ L -----------3-
ρL σL

Where:
NL = Ros liquid viscosity number
μL = Liquid viscosity
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
ρL = Total liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension

2 3
0.0019 + 0.0322 N L – 0.6642 N L + 4.9951 NL
CN L = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2
-
3
1 – 10.0147 N L + 33.8696 N L + 277.2817 N L

Where:
CNL = Viscosity number coefficient
ΝL = Ros liquid viscosity number

1---
ρL 4
N LV = V SL  ---------
 g σ L

Where:
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension

1---
ρL 4
N GV = V SG  ---------
 g σ L

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Where:
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension

N LV  P  0.1  CN L
φ = -------------
- ----------
0.575  14.7
-----------
 ND 
N GV

Where:
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
CNL = Viscosity number coefficient
ND = Gray diameter number

2 1⁄2
HL 0.0047 + 1123.32φ + 729489.64φ
------- = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ψ 1 + 1097.1566φ + 722153.97φ
2

Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
ψ = Liquid holdup inclination correction factor

Secondary correction factor correlating parameter


0.38
N GV N L
φ = ----------------------
2.14
ND

Where:
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
NL = Ros liquid viscosity number
ND = Gray diameter number

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2 3
1.0886 – 69.9473φ + 2334.3497φ – 12896.683φ
Ψ = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 3
1 – 53.4401φ + 1517.9369φ – 8419.8115φ

Where:

ψ = Liquid holdup inclination correction factor

Liquid holdup

HL
H L = ------- ψ
ψ

Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
ψ = Liquid holdup inclination correction factor

Frictional pressure gradient

2
 dP 2 f ρ ns VM ρns
------- = --------------------
- -------
 dx  f da ρs

Where:
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
f = Fanning friction factor
ρns = No-slip average of density
ρs = Slip average of density
VM = Mixture velocity
da = Annuli diameter

Hasan-Kabir Correlation 1977 (SI Units)


The correlations described in this topic use SI units. The pressure drop
calculated from these correlations has to be converted to English units
before being used.

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

This correlation is a recent development in multiphase flow technology.


It was established, based on hydrodynamic conditions and experiment
observations. It applies to flow in annuli of inclination up to 80”.
Flow pattern identification
The flow occurs in four different patterns, depending on the superficial
velocities and properties. The figure below shows a typical flow regime
map for well bores.

Boundary A: transition from bubbly flow to slug or churn flow

V SG = ( 0.429 V SL + 0.357 V S ) sin θ

Where:
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VS = Superficial velocity
θ = Deviation from horizontal axis

1---
g σL ( ρL – ρG ) 4
V s = 1.53 --------------------------------
2
-
ρL

Where:
VS = Superficial velocity
ρL = Total liquid density

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

ρG = Gas density
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)

Boundary B: transition from bubbly or slug flow to dispersed


bubble

3 – 0.4
V SG σL 0.6 2 fV M
d = 0.725 + 4.15 --------
- ------ ---------------
VM ρL da

Where:
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VM = Mixture velocity
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
f = Fanning friction factor
da = Annuli diameter

0.4σ L
d c = 2 --------------------------
-
( ρL – ρG ) g

Where:
dc = The maximum stable diameter of the dispersed phase
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)

When d less than or equal to dc and when superficial gas velocity stays
on the left of Boundary C, the flow is in dispersed bubble.
Boundary C: transition from slug to dispersed bubble

V SG = 1.083 V SL + 0.52 V s

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Where:
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VS = Superficial velocity

Boundary D: transition from slug to annular flow

g σL ( ρL – ρG ) 0.25
V SG = 3.1 --------------------------------
2
-
ρG

Where:
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)

Liquid holdup calculation


For bubbly or dispersed bubble flow
V SG
H L = 1 – ---------------------------
1.2 V M + V s

Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VM = Mixture velocity
VS = Superficial velocity

For slug or churn flow

1.2 gd o ( ρ L – ρ G )
V TB = [ 0.345 + 0.1 d t ] sin θ ( 1 + cos θ ) --------------------------------
ρL

Where:
VTB = Taylor bubble rise velocity

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

dt = Ratio of inner diameter to outer diameter


do = Outer diameter
ρL = Liquid density
ρG = Gas density
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
θ = Deviation from horizontal axis

di
d t = -----
do

Where:
dt = Ratio of inner diameter to outer diameter
do = Outer diameter
di = Inner diameter

V SG
H TB = 1 – -------------------------------
1.2 V M + V TB

Where:
HTB = Taylor bubble holdup
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VM = Mixture velocity
VTB = Taylor bubble rise velocity

For annular flow

V SG ρ G
f m = --------------------------------------
V SL ρ L + V SG ρ G

Where:
fm = Friction induced by gas
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VS = Superficial velocity

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

VSL = Superficial liquid velocity


ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density

1 – fm 0.9 ρG μL 0.1
x = -------------- ------ ------
fm ρL μG

Where:
fm = Friction induced by gas
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density
μL = Liquid viscosity
μG = Gas viscosity

1
H L = 1 – --------------------------------
-
0.8 0.378
(1 + x )

Where:
HL = Liquid holdup

Frictional pressure gradient calculation


For bubble, slug, or dispersed bubble flow
ρL VM da
N Re = -------------------
μL

Where:
NRe = Reynolds number
ρL = Total liquid density
VM = Mixture velocity
da = Annuli diameter
μL = Liquid viscosity

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

0.046-
f m = ------------
0.2
N Re

Where:
fm = Friction induced by gas
NRe = Reynolds number

ρ M = H L ρ L + ( 1 – H L )ρ G

Where:
ρM = Mixture density
HL = Liquid holdup
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density

2
dP 2 f m ρM VM
------- = ------------------------
dx f da

Where:
fm = Fiction induced by gas
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
VM = Mixture velocity
da = Annuli diameter
ρM = Mixture density
f = Fanning friction factor

For annular flow

ρG
------
ρ
V SGC = V SG μ G ----------L-
θL

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If
–4
V SGC < 4 × 10

Then
4 2.86
E = 0.0055 ( 10 V SGC )

If
–4
V SGC ≥ 4 × 10

Then
–4
E = 0.857 log ( 10 V SGC ) – 0.2

Where:
VSGC = Critical superficial gas velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
μG = Gas viscosity
ρG = Gas density
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
E = The fraction of flowing liquid entrained in the gas
core

Duns and Ros Correlation (Sixth World Petroleum Congress 1963 (SI
units)
The correlations described in this topic use SI units. The pressure drop
calculated from these correlations has to be converted to English units
before being used.
The Duns and Ros correlation is a result of an extensive laboratory study
in which liquid holdup and pressure gradients were measured.
Correlations were developed for slip velocity (from which holdup can
be calculated) and friction factor for each of three flow regimes.

1---
4
g
N L = μ L --------------3-
ρL σL

Where:
NL = Ros liquid viscosity number

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g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)


μL = Liquid viscosity
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρL = Total liquid density

1---
ρL 4
N LV = V SL --------
-
g σL

Where:
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
ρL = Total liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s)

1---
ρL 4
N GV = V SG --------
-
g σL

Where:
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
ρL = Total liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s)


N D = d --------L-
σL

Where:
ND = Gray diameter number
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
ρL = Total liquid density

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

σL = Liquid surface tension


g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)

Slip factor
1. Bubble flow
N GV 2
s = F 1 + F 2 N LV + F ′ 3 -------------------
1 + N LV

Where:
s = Slip factor
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
NGV = Ros gas velocity number

F1 and F2 are found in the figure below.

F4
F ′ 3 = F 3 – -------
ND

Where:
ND = Gray diameter number

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F3 and F4 are found in the figure below.

For annular flow Nd is based on the wetted perimeter. Thus


d = (dc + dt)
F1, F2, F3, and F4 against Viscosity Number NL (After Ros)
2. Slug flow
0.982 ′
( N GV ) +F6
s = ( 1 + F 5 ) --------------------------------------
2
-
( 1 + F 7 N LV )

Where:
s = Slip factor
F'6 = Figure below
F5 = Figure below
F7 = Figure below
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number

F5, F6, and F7 can be found in the figure below, where,


F ′ 6 = 0.29 N D + F 6

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

F5, F6, and F7 against viscosity number L (After Ros)


3. Mist flow
S=0
Therefore,
1
H L = -------------------
V SG
1 + ---------
V SL

Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity

Friction gradient according to the flow region


1. For bubble and slug flow

dP f bs ρ L V SL V M
------- = -----------------------------
dx f 2 gc d

Where:
f2
F bs = ( f 1 ) ----
f3
and
fbs = Friction ratio for bubble and slug flow
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VM = Mixture velocity
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
gc = Gravitational constant (32.174) lb ft/lbf.s2
ρL = Liquid density
f1 = Figure
f2 = Figure
f3 = Figure

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The abscissa must be determined in the figure below; it is:


V SG
R = ---------
V SL

R-
f 3 = 1 + f 1 -----
50
Where:
R = Superficial liquid/gas ratio
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Mixture gas velocity
f1 = Figure
f3 = Figure

2. For mist flow


In this region, the friction term is based on the gas phase only. Thus:
2
dP f ρ G VSG
------- = ---------------------
dx f 2 gc d

Where:
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
f = Fanning friction factor
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
gc = Gravitational constant (32.174) lb ft/lbf.s2
ρG = Gas density

Since there is no slip, the friction factor is given in a Moody diagram,


but as a function of a Reynolds number of the gas.
ρ G V SG d
N Re = --------------------
μG

Where:
NRe = Reynolds number
ρG = Gas density
VSG = Superficial gas velocity

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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit


μG = Gas viscosity

Duns and Ros noted that the wall roughness for mist flow is affected by
the film of liquid on the wall of the pipe. The ripples of the wall film
cause a drag on the gas. This process is governed by a form of the Weber
number.
ρ G VSG2 ε
N we = -------------------
σL
Where:
Nwe = Weber number
ρG = Gas density
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
σL = Liquid surface tension
ε = Pipe wall relative roughness

The aforementioned process is also affected by liquid viscosity. This


influence was accounted for by making Nwe a function of a
dimensionless number containing liquid viscosity.
2
μL
N μ = ---------------
ρL σL ε

Where:
Nμ = Liquid viscosity number
μL = Liquid viscosity
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρL = Total liquid density
ε = Pipe wall relative roughness

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The functional relationship is shown in the figure below, where the


coordinates are Nwe versus NweNμ.

The value of roughness may be very small but ε/d never becomes
smaller than the value for the pipe itself. At the transition zone to slug
flow, ε/d may approach 0.5. Between these limits, ε/d can be obtained
from the following equations.
Mist flow film thickness
N we N μ > 0.005

Such that

--ε- = ----------------------L-
0.0749σ
d 2
ρ V d G SG

And
N we N μ > 0.005

Such that

--ε- = ----------------------L- ( N we N μ ) 0.302


0.3713σ
d 2
ρ G V SG d

Where:
Nwe = Weber number
Nμ = Liquid viscosity number
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρG = Gas density
ε = Pipe wall relative roughness
VSG = Superficial gas velocity

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Values of f for the mist flow regime may be found for ε/d > 0.005 from
the following.

ε 1.73
f = -----------------------------------------2- + 0.067  ---
1
 d
4 log 10  -------------
0.27ε
 d 
Where:
f = Fanning friction factor
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
ε = Pipe wall relative roughness

As the wave height on the pipe walls increases, the actual area through
which the gas can flow is decreased, since the diameter open to flow of
gas is d - ε. Duns and Ros suggested that the prediction of friction loss
could be refined by substitution of d - ε and
2
VSG d
------------------
2
(d – ε)

for VSG
throughout the calculation of friction gradient. In this case, the
determination of roughness, ε, is iterative.
In the transition zone between slug flow and mist flow, Duns and Ros
suggested linear interpolation between the flow regime boundaries, Ls
and Lm, to obtain the pressure gradient. This means that when Ngv falls
between Ls and Lm, pressure gradients must be calculated using both the
slug flow correlations and the mist flow correlations. The pressure
gradient in the transition zone is then calculated from

------- = A  dP
dP ------- + B  -------
dP
dx  dx  slug  dx  mist

Where:
L m – L GV
A = ----------------------
Lm – Ls

and
L GV – L s
B = --------------------- = 1 – A
Lm – Ls

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and
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
A = Flow regime factor
B = Flow regime factor
Lm = Length of mist flow
Ls = Length of liquid flow
LGV =

Increased accuracy was claimed if the gas density used in the mist flow
pressure gradient calculation was modified to
ρ G N GV
ρG′ = ----------------
-
Lm

Where
ρG = Gas density calculated at the given conditions of
pressure and temperature
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
Lm = Length of mist flow

This modification accounts for some of the liquid entrained in the gas.

Gray Correlations 1974 (SI units)


The correlations described in this topic use SI units. The pressure drop
calculated from these correlations has to be converted to English units
before being used.
A vertical flow correlation for gas condensate wells was developed by
H. E. Gray. It is included in the vertical flow package in the computer
program described in API 14b for sizing subsurface safety valves.
This program uses a pressure balance with a tern, ξ, the gas volume
fraction obtained from a fit of a few condensate data systems to build a
simplified empirical model of a retrograde phenomenon requiring only
specific gravity, pressure, temperature data for input.

2 2
g f tp G G 1
dP = ----- [ ξρ G + ( 1 – ξ )ρ L ] dh + -------------------- dh + ------ d ------
gc 2 g c d ρ mf g ρm

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Where ξ, the gas volume fraction, is:


 205 B 
1 – exp  – 2.314 N V  1 + --------- 
 Np  

ξ = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R+1

B = 0.0814 1 – 0.0554 ln  1 + -------------


730 R
 R + 1

and
2 2
ρM VSM
N V = ------------------------------
g σ ( ρL – ρG )

2
g ( ρL – ρG ) d
ND = --------------------------------
σ

V So + V SW
R = -------------------------
V SG

and
ξ = Gas volume fraction
ρG = Gas density
ρL = Liquid density
G = Mass velocity
ftp = Two-phase friction factor
gc = Gravitational constant (32.174) lb.ft/lbf.s2
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
B = Flow regime factor
R = Superficial liquid/gas ratio
ρM = Mixture density
VSM = Superficial gas/liquid mixture velocity
σ = Gray’s mixture surface tension
ND = Gray diameter number
VSo = Superficial hydrocarbon condensate velocity
VSW = Superficial water velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity

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The following indicates data ranges over which the Gray correlation was
developed. Any calculations beyond the following acceptable
guidelines should be viewed with caution.
• Flow velocities below 50 fps
• Tubing sizes below 3.5 inches
• Condensate production 50 bbl/MMscf
• Water production 5 bbl/MMscf

The program was compared to 108 sets of well data. The results were
found superior to dry-gas well predictions. The Gray correlation can be
used to evaluate gas condensate wells by generating tubing performance
J curves and comparing them to reservoir performance. Although the
above restrictions should be considered, several calculations made with
up to 300 bbl/MMscf indicated less than a 10% error compared to data.

Influx Modeling
One of the advantages of foam drilling is low BHP, which increases the
rate of penetration. However, influxes of gas, water, or oil can occur as
a result of low BHP. These influxes will change the existing foal system,
resulting in a change in the pressure profile inside the drill pipe as well
as in the annulus.
Total liquid density may be calculated from rates and densities of
injected liquid and those of water/oil influxes.
N

ρ L = ρo f o +  ρi fi
i=1

Where:
ρL = Liquid density
ρo = Density of inlet drilling fluid
fo = Below
ρi = Density of water/oil influx
fi = Below

Weighted portion of inlet drilling fluid


qo
f o = -------------------------
N
qo +  qi
i=1

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Where:
fo = Above
qo = Inlet drilling fluid injection rate
qi = Water/oil influx rate

Weighted portion of water/oil influx


qi
f i = -------------------------
N
qo +  qi
i=1

Where:
fi = See above equation
qo = Inlet drilling fluid injection rate
qi = Water/oil influx rate

The final liquid viscosity can be calculated in a similar fashion.


Molecular weight of the mixture of injected gas and influx gas can be
calculated using weighting factors similar to those used for calculating
density and viscosity.
N

M G = M Go f o +  MGi fi
i=1

m Go
f o = -----------------------------------
N
m Go +  mGi
i=1

m Gi
f i = -----------------------------------
N
m Go +  mGi
i=1
Where:
fo = See above equations
fi = See above equations
MGo = Molecular weight of inlet gas

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MGi = Molecular weight of influx gas

Equations of state for gas and upward annular foam flow should use
these adjusted parameters for annular position above the influx points.

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References

Bourgoyne, A.T., Jr., et al., 1986: Applied Drilling Engineering,


Richardson, Texas, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Mitchell, B.J., 1969: Viscosity of Foam, Ph.D. dissertation, University


of Oklahoma.

Bayer, A.H., Millhone, R.S. and Foote, R.W., 1972: Flow Behavior of
Foam as a Well Circulating Fluid, SPE 3986, presented at the SPE 47th
Annual Fall Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, October 2–5.

Sanghani, V. and Ikoku, C.U., 1983: Rheology of Foam and Its


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Bayer, A.H., Millhone, R.S. and Foote, R.W., 1972: Flow Behavior of
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Chapter 4: Underbalanced Hydraulics Analysis

Barnea, D., 1987: A Unified Model for Predicting Flow-Pattern


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Caetano, E.F., Shoham, O., and Brill, J.P., 1992: Upward Vertical Two-
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