Well Engineering
Release 5000.1.13
Software Training Manual
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DecisionSpace® Well Engineering
Release 5000.1.13 Software Training
Manual
Torque & Drag Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Why use torque and drag models? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Software Torque Drag Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
What is Friction?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Normal Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Coefficient of Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Stress and Strain Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Elastic Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Plastic Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Yield Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Tensile Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Analyze String Tension Using the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Software . 139
Effective Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Maximum Allowable Hook Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Margin of Overpull (MOP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Rig Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Why is buckling a problem? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Buckling Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Sinusoidal Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Helical Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Lockup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Analyzing Buckling Using the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering Software . . . . 151
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
Bending Stress Magnification Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146
Hybrid Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146
Sheave Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146
Side Force Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146
Stiff String Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Bingham Plastic Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Coiled Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Hole Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Herschel Bulkley Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Optimization Well Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Power Law Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Rheology Thermal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Surge Swab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Transient Pressure Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Pipe and Borehole Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Frictional Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Pressure and Temperature Fluid Property Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Overview
With all of the advances in drilling techniques and technology, and with
the increasingly challenging wells that are drilled, the use of engineering
torque and drag software has become commonplace. The
DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software is used as a predictive tool
to determine if drilling and completing a well is even possible. The
software can be used to determine which strings will give the greatest
chance of successfully reaching total depth and completing the well, and
to model the forces that the string will endure while downhole.
Drillers rely upon surface values such as hook load, surface torque, and
surface pressure readings to understand what happens downhole. Even
with downhole tools that send information back to the surface, the
majority of drillers have very little information about what is happening
downhole. Torque and drag modeling allows us to see the forces within
the string below the surface to provide drilling and completions
engineers a much better understanding of how to plan their operations.
As with an iceberg, what can be seen above the surface gives only a
small part of the whole picture.
The Torque Drag analysis includes both soft string and stiff string
models. The soft string model is based on Dawson’s cable model. In this
model, the work string is treated as an extendable cable with zero
bending stiffness.
The stiff string model includes the increased side forces from stiff
tubulars in curved hole, as well as the reduced side forces from pipe wall
clearance.
Overview
Drill strings are subjected to forces of tension, torsion, and bending
when drilling a well. Designing a string to accommodate these forces
requires knowledge of the physical properties of the pipe.
Bit Mandrel
Casing MWD
Fish Stabilizer
Hanger Tubing
*If the component you need is not listed, you can select Unknown as the
Section Type field of the String tab, and define the properties of the
component using the component details.
The following example of the Schematic tab displays a drill string, and
the hole geometry the drill string is run in.
Drill collars are available in many sizes and weights. Drill collar outside
diameters range from 2 7/8” to 12”, with an inside diameter range of 1”
to 4”. Drill collars are made from a variety of materials which impacts
the stiffness and weight of the drill collar.
Drill collars are predominately round like drill pipe. However, some
drill collars are triangular or square. The shape of the drill collar can
affect the stiffness as well.
• Nonmagnetic
• Flex
• Spiral
• Costly
Integral blade stabilizers are machined from one piece of bar stock. This
makes the stabilizer more durable, but also more expensive.
Straight blades:
Spiral blades:
• Less torque because the blades stay in contact with the formation
longer. As a result, a spiral blade stabilizer doesn’t move around in
the hole like a straight blade stabilizer would.
• The righthand spiral helps move the cuttings up the hole. A left
hand spiral would have the opposite effect.
Component properties are defined for each string component using the
Details section located below the spreadsheet section of the String tab.
Spreadsheet section of
the String tab
Highlight, or click a cell in
the row containing the
component you want to edit
the details of. The Details
section(s) for the selected
component will be
displayed.
Component Catalogs
Catalogs are used as a selection list to design a casing, tubing, liner or
drillstring. Catalogs are not associated with a Design or Case. A number
of readonly system catalogs are distributed with the DecisionSpace®
Well Engineering software.
Use the Catalog Editor tool that ships with the Engineer’s Desktop™
to edit, or create catalogs. You can add to existing catalogs, create
additional catalogs, and share catalogs with other people. Custom
catalogs are useful because the catalog content can be customized to the
available pipes or other drilling products. Catalogs can be locked to
prevent changes. Refer to the Catalog Editor software Online help for
more information.
String Libraries
A Library is a tool used to store a fluid or string for future use. Once a
fluid/string is stored in a Library, it can be retrieved (imported) for use
within a case or used to quickly and easily create a new fluid/sting based
on the retrieved fluid/string. You can use the Library to store
commonly used fluids and strings.
• Fluid Library Each fluid entry in the library includes all the data
required to define that fluid, such as rheological model, density, gel
strength, etc. Imported fluids can be edited the data as desired.
Note
• Nominal size/diameter
• Nominal weight
• Grade
• Connection
• Class
When selecting the drill pipe from a catalog, use the following dialog.
This dialog appears automatically when you select Drill Pipe from the
Section Type dropdown list in the String tab spreadsheet. The columns
in this dialog uniquely identify a drill pipe in the catalog. Additional
information pertaining to that particular drill pipe will be visible in the
Details section of the String tab.
To select the drill pipe you want, select one item from each column of
data. As you make selections, the remaining options changed depending
on previous selections.
Once you make your selections, the information will be visible in the
Details section as shown below.
Nominal diameter
Approximate weight
includes the weight of
the pipe body,
including the upsets
and tool joints. It is not Grade
the nominal weight.
Connection
Class
2 3/8” 4” 5 1/2”
2 7/8” 4 1/2” 6 5/8”
3 1/2” 5”
The following are a few of the issues to consider when selecting the drill
pipe size:
• The drill pipe with the tool joints must fit inside the diameter of the
hole, or the inside diameter of casing
• Plain end weight is the weight of the pipe body without tool joints.
Each nominal size of drill pipe has at least 2 nominal weights. Refer to
API RP 7G.
Typically a higher weight pipe is stronger, but it will also be heavier and
tension loads may become an issue. Usually the pipe grade will be
adjusted for increased strength rather than increasing the weight.
• IF  Internal Flush
• FH  Full Hole
• XH  Extra Hole
• SH  Slim Hole
• NC  Numbered Connection
Use the Drill Pipe section of the String tab to specify the Service Class
abbreviation and remaining wall thickness that you want to use. API
recommendations are listed below.
P > 80%
Grooves are cut into the tool joint so that the grade can be easily
identified.
Four commonly used grades are listed below, but there are many
proprietary grades as well. The number after the letter is the yield stress
in thousands of psi, and the number in parenthesis is the number of
grooves used to identify the grade.
• E75 (0)
• X95 (1)
• G105 (2)
• S135 (3)
• IU (Internal Upset)  All the extra metal is on the inside of the pipe.
• IEU (Internal and External Upset)  The extra metal is on both the
inside and the outside of the pipe.
Friction
What is Friction?
Friction, put simply, is the resistance created as two objects in contact
attempt to move past each other. In a well environment the string is
moved in contact with the wellbore. The string is made up of drill pipe,
casing and various tools moving across the well surfaces, which consist
of casing and rock formations. The various types of string components
are run into, pulled out of, and rotated against the wellbore.
Movement in the well generates two types of friction: drag and torque.
Axial (up and down) movement creates drag. Rotational movement
creates torque. Drag makes it more difficult to push the string down or
pull it up out of the hole. Torque makes it more difficult for the rig to
turn, or rotate, the string.
Normal Force
The normal force is the force of one object pushing against another
object. Imagine pushing a simple wooden chair across the floor. It would
not be too difficult to push the empty chair across the floor because it
weighs only a few pounds. Now, imagine pushing the chair across the
floor with a person sitting in it. The force against the floor increases
when the person sits in it making it much more difficult to push the chair
across the floor.
In a vertical section, the weight of the object will pull it down, resulting
in little or no side force against the wall.
In a horizontal section, the object’s weight will pull it down. The result
is a large side force against the wall which will be equal to the buoyed
weight of the object.
Normal force and side force are effectively the same thing. Using the
DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software, you can view this force
using the Side Force output available on the Torque & Drag ribbon.
Coefficient of Friction
The coefficient of friction is a measure of the resistance of two objects
moving against each other. Think about sliding an ice cube across a
glass table top. Not only are the glass and the ice cube both smooth, but
the ice will lubricate the contact surface, making it even easier for the
ice to slide across the glass. On the other hand, it is very difficult to slide
sand paper across wood. The ice/glass coefficient of friction is low and
the sand paper/wood coefficient of friction is high.
The down hole drilling environment is more complex than this simple
example, and there are a many other parameters that contribute to torque
and drag. Example include:
• Fluid lubricity
• Formation types
• Wellbore instability
• Tortuosity
• Stabilizers
Use the Hole tab to input friction factors for cased and open hole
sections.
Calculating Drag
vt
Fdrag = μFN 
v r
Where:
2 2
vr = vt + va
Where:
vt = Trip speed
vr = Resultant speed
va = Angular speed
One of the functions of the drill pipe is to rotate the bit at the bottom of
the string. This rotation will cause torsional stress as the well is drilled.
Friction and other downhole conditions will increase the torque required
to rotate the string. The torsional strength of the pipe becomes critical
when:
• Reaming
• Fishing/stuck pipe
Although the tensional strength of the tool joint is normally higher than
the strength of the pipe, the torsional strength of the tool joints are lower
than the pipe strength. The torque applied to the drill string should not
exceed the tool joint makeup torque.
The torsion in a
particular
component in the
string should not
exceed the
makeup torque for
the component.
• Thread Galling
• OverTorqued Connections
• Box Swelling
Thread galling occurs when the threads are damaged and results in
costly recutting the connections. Overtorqued connections that are
made up to a higher ftlb of torque downhole than their maximum
makeup torque can be difficult to break (unscrew) on the rig floor. In
extreme cases, the rig crew has had to cut the pipe because they were
unable to break the connections when coming out of the hole.
Box swelling occurs when the pin end of a connection screws in past the
point at which it is properly seated in the box. The pin end of the upper
joint acts like a wedge driving into the box, or upper end, of the joint
below. This causes the box to swell as the upper joint penetrates into the
bottom joint further than it was designed to. Since the shoulders of the
connections are the sealing point that keep fluids inside the pipe and in
the annulus separate, box swelling can interfere with the seal and lead to
a washout.
Calculating Torque
va
T = rμF N 
vr
Where:
T = Torque
μ = Coefficient of friction (friction factor)
r = Radius of component
va = Angular speed
vr = Resultant speed
FN = Normal force
Radius of Rotation
The radius about which rotational friction occurs factors into the amount
of torque generated. This is either the outside diameter (OD) of the
casing/tubing if the connection is flush, or the tool joint if it is raised past
the OD of the tube. For drill pipe with welded tool joints, the connection
OD determines the radius of rotation.
The larger the radius of the string component, the greater the effective
length of travel. The larger the OD of the string component is, the more
effort it takes for each rotation. Below the circumferences of a small and
large circle are shown, which represents the distance traveled for a small
and large OD component with each rotation.
Where:
va = Angular speed
vr = Resultant speed
vt = Trip speed
Analyzing Torque
In the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software, the torque limit,
or makeup torque curves displayed on the Torque and the Torque
Point outputs is pulled from the specified for the component
makeup torque on the String tab.
Tension
One of the main functions of the drill string is to transmit, support, and
raise large loads. Supporting the necessary loads causes tensile stress in
the pipe.
Elastic Range
If a drill pipe is stretched, it will initially experience a region of elastic
deformation. In this region, the drill pipe will return to its original shape
if the stretching load is removed. In this region, the drill pipe can be
stretched like a rubber band. The drill pipe will stretch and then return
to its original size and shape after the load is removed. In this region, the
relation between stress (load) and strain is proportional.
The elastic range does not continue without limit. If the stretching
continues past the region of elastic deformation, it moves into a region
of plastic deformation. The maximum stress the pipe can take without
assuming permanent deformation is called the elastic limit.
Plastic Range
After the elastic limit is exceeded, the pipe will not return to its original
shape after the load is removed. In the plastic deformation region, the
pipe will remain elongated after the stretching force is removed. In the
plastic range, the relationship between the stress and strain are no longer
proportional. In this region, the pipe becomes stronger and a higher
stress needs to be applied to further deform the pipe.
Yield Strength
Steel yield strength is commonly defined as the point where a
measurable deviation of 0.2% has occurred in the steel.
Design is based on
percentage of the yield
strengh.
Tensile Strength
Yield strength should not be confused with tensile strength. Tensile
strength is the greatest tensile stress the steel can withstand without
breaking. By contrast, yield strength is the point at which the material
has deformed plastically under stress such that when the stress is
removed, the material is unable to return to its original shape.
Tension failures generally occur while pulling on stuck drill pipe. As the
pull exceeds the yield strength, the metal distorts with a characteristic
thinning in the weakest area of the drill pipe (or the smallest cross
sectional area_. If the pull is increased and exceeds the tensile strength,
the drillstring will part. Such failures will normally occur near the top of
the drillstring, because the top of the string is subjected to the upward
pulling force as well as the downward weight of the drillstring.
Effective Tension
Tension Limit
based on
minimum yield
strength
specified for
each component
on the String
tab.
If the effective
tension curve for
an operation
exceeds the
tension limit
curve, the string
is in danger of
parting at that
point.
If the tripping out operation curve crosses the maximum weight yield
curve, the string is in danger of parting. The maximum weight yield for
a run measured depth is the minimum yield strength specified for any
string component that will be in the well when the bottom of the string
is at the corresponding run measured depth. Minimum yield strength is
specified on the String panel of the String tab.
Drill strings weigh less in weighted fluids than in air due to buoyancy.
Calculating the hook load uses the buoyed weight of the string.
Rig Capacity
When considering the maximum weight of the drill string, the hook load
is not the only limiting factor. The rig capacity must also be considered.
The hoisting system of a rig is comprised of the following parts.
The crown block bears the load applied at the hook and its function is to
reduce the wire rope tension required to pull the tubular material used to
drill the well.
The traveling block located below the crown block and mounted to the
hook.
The hook consists of an upper section, fixed to the traveling block, and
a lower section, which is the actual hook.
Fatigue
The Endurance Limit is the greatest stress level where a fatigue failure
does not occur. A fatigue failure within the predictable period in the life
of the pipe will occur at a stress levels above the endurance limit. The
following factors affect the endurance limit of the pipe:
• Surface finish  The type of surface finish can affect the endurance
limit.
Pipe Burst
Pipe burst occurs when the internal pressure is greater than the external
pressure. Differential pressure required to produce burst has been
calculated for various sizes, grades, and classes of pipe. Refer to API
RP7G, or the pipe manufacturer for details. Safety factors are used in the
design to provide a safety margin. Pipe burst is considered during Well
Control analysis using the WELLPLAN™ software.
Pipe Collapse
Pipe collapse occurs when the external pressure is higher than the
internal pressure. Differential pressure required to produce collapse has
been calculated for various sizes, grades, and classes of pipe. Refer to
API RP7G, or the pipe manufacturer for details. Safety factors are used
in the design to provide a safety margin. Pipe collapse is considered
when using the Flotation Optimization output. See“Flotation
Optimization Plot” on page 1 93
Buckling
Buckling Types
There are three types of buckling:
• Sinusoidal
• Helical
• Lockup
Sinusoidal Buckling
The first is sinusoidal, which is a wavy, snakelike buckling. This sets in
along a large section of the string and will gradually increase in intensity
(the severity of the bend). Sinusoidal buckling is something that should
be avoided, but does not pose a significant problem.
Helical Buckling
Helical buckling occurs after sinusoidal buckling has already set in and
even more compressive force is added to the string. Helical buckling
occurs suddenly in a small section of the string and propagates further
along the string as additional compressive force is added. Since a
helically buckled string section is coiled, it exerts an additional force
against the wall of the hole. Any weight slacked off through a helically
buckled section of the string will add to this compressive force against
the wall of the hole, decreasing the amount of weight that will pass
through to the nonbuckled section of the string below. This is where the
weight is lost.
Lockup
No additional surface slackoff weight gets to the bit.
The following String Position plot uses the soft string model, although
the plot can also be calculated using the stiff string model. The buckling
legend is displayed if buckling occurs. Use the dropdown lists at the top
of the output to select the operation and to select the type of information
you want to view on the plot.
In this example,
sinusoidal buckling
occurs first, in the
lowest portion of the
buckled section. The
sinusoidal buckling is
followed by helical
buckling, and a return to
sinusoidal buckling.
Roadmap Plots are unique because they are used to predict the
measured weights and torques, at the surface or a specified distance
from the bottom of the string, when the bottom of the workstring is at a
range of wellbore depths. The calculations performed for this analysis
are similar to those used in many other outputs, except that the
calculations are performed assuming the bottom of the workstring is at
multiple depths instead of one depth.
On the Torque & Drag ribbon, the plots and tables with similar
functionality are grouped in categories in the ribbon as follows:
• Fixed Depth Plots
• Stress Plots
• Roadmap Plots
• Other
• Summary
The displayed in
the plot legend,
indicates that you
should carefully review
the associated data as
there may be a
problem.Hover the
cursor over the to
display additional
information.
The Rotating On Bottom and Slide Drilling curves exceed the buckling limit,
indicating the string may buckle.
• Curve indicating the tension limit for the string component at the
corresponding measured depth. If an operation curve crosses the
Tension Limit curve, the string is in danger of parting at that point.
Hover the cursor over the curve to display a tool tip indicating the
string component at that depth. The Minimum yield strength for
the component is specified in the Mechanical Details section of the
String tab.
This plot includes a curve indicating the Rig Capacity if you have
checked Block rating and specified the block rating on the Rig tab.
Torque Plot
The Torque plot displays the torque in the string for the operations
enabled on the Operations tab. Data is included for the measured depths
from the surface to the String Depth specified on the String tab.
• Curve indicating the makeup torque limit for the string component
at the corresponding measured depth. If an operation curve crosses
the Torque Limit curve, the tool joints for the string are liable to
overtorque or break at that point. Hover the cursor over the curve
to display a tool tip indicating the string component at that depth.
Note
The makeup torque is derated for tension and will therefore change with
String Depth.
Side force is the normal force acting perpendicular to the string. This
particular plot displays the side force per unit length, not at a single
point. This length is called the Contact Force Normalization Length.
Specify the Contact force normalization length at the top of the plot.
Usually this length is set to equal the length of a joint of pipe.
Hover the cursor over the curve to display a tool tip indicating the string
component at that depth.
Fatigue Plot
The Fatigue plot displays the string fatigue ratio in the string for the
operations enabled on the Operations tab. The string fatigue ratio is the
calculated bending and buckling stress divided by the fatigue endurance
limit of the pipe.
Hover the cursor over a curve to display a tool tip indicating the string
component at that depth.
when the Use Stiff String analysis mode is checked in the Torque &
Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.
Normally in a straight inclined hole with pipe in tension, the pipe will be
on the low side due to gravity. At the kickoff point of a build the pipe
will be on the high side of the hole due to tension. In helical buckling,
the pipe will zigzag between the high and low side.
Only when there is azimuth turn or sinusoidal buckling will the pipe
move left or right of the center. In sinusoidal buckling the pipe will
snake left and right of the center but not reach the clearance limit.
This String Clearance plot shows the same information in graph and
tabular format as the visual information shown on the Deviated
Schematic output available on the General Outputs tab.
Stress Plots
For inner string analysis, the Tripping In Stress plot displays the
stresses in the outer string only. The outer string is defined using the
String tab.
Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.
• Hoop
• Radial
• Torsion
• Shear
• Axial
• Buckling
• Bending
• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)
For inner string analysis, the Tripping Out Stress plot displays the
stresses in the outer string only. The outer string is defined using the
String tab.
Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.
• Hoop
• Radial
• Torsion
• Shear
• Axial
• Buckling
• Bending
• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)
For riserless operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.
Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.
• Hoop
• Radial
• Torsion
• Shear
• Axial
• Buckling
• Bending
• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)
Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.
• Hoop
• Radial
• Torsion
• Shear
• Axial
• Buckling
• Bending
• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)
Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.
• Hoop
• Radial
• Torsion
• Shear
• Axial
• Buckling
• Bending
• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)
For riserless operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.
Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.
To display data on this plot, the Rotating Off Bottom operation must
be enabled on the Operations tab.
• Hoop
• Radial
• Torsion
• Shear
• Axial
• Buckling
• Bending
• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)
For riserless operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.
Data is included for the measured depths from the surface to the String
Depth specified on the String tab.
To display data on this plot, the Rotating Off Bottom operation must
be enabled on the Operations tab.
• Hoop
• Radial
• Torsion
• Shear
• Axial
• Buckling
• Bending
• Stress Limit (the material yield strength that the Von Mises stress
should not exceed)
Tripping In Details
The Tripping In Details table displays load and stretch data for the
tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling, and torque are
displayed.
Use the Show dropdown list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:
• All rows
When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show dropdown list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.
Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.
Table Columns
Measured Depth  This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.
90% Yield Stress  An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.
Distance From Bit  Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.
Axial Force Pressure Area  The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1110.
Axial Force Buoyancy  The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.
Contact Force  This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.
Bending Stress  This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1131.
Von Mises Ratio  This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.
Use the Show dropdown list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:
• All rows
When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show dropdown list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.
Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.
Table Columns
Measured Depth  This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.
90% Yield Stress  An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.
Distance From Bit  Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.
Axial Force Pressure Area  The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1110.
Axial Force Buoyancy  The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.
Contact Force  This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.
Bending Stress  This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1131.
Von Mises Ratio  This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.
Use the Show dropdown list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:
• All rows
When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show dropdown list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.
Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.
For riserless operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.
Table Columns
Measured Depth  This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.
90% Yield Stress  An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.
Distance From Bit  Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.
Axial Force Pressure Area  The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1110.
Axial Force Buoyancy  The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.
Contact Force  This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.
Bending Stress  This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1131.
Von Mises Ratio  This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.
Use the Show dropdown list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:
• All rows
When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show dropdown list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.
Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.
Table Columns
Measured Depth  This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.
90% Yield Stress  An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.
Distance From Bit  Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.
Axial Force Pressure Area  The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1110.
Axial Force Buoyancy  The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.
Contact Force  This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.
Bending Stress  This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1131.
Von Mises Ratio  This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.
Backreaming Details
The Backreaming Details table displays load and stretch data for the
tripping in operation. Any failures due to stress, buckling, and torque are
displayed.
Use the Show dropdown list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:
• All rows
When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show dropdown list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.
Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.
Table Columns
Measured Depth  This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.
90% Yield Stress  An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.
Distance From Bit  Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.
Axial Force Pressure Area  The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1110.
Axial Force Buoyancy  The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.
Contact Force  This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.
Bending Stress  This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1131.
Von Mises Ratio  This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.
Use the Show dropdown list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:
• All rows
When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show dropdown list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.
Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.
For riserless operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.
Table Columns
Measured Depth  This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.
90% Yield Stress  An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.
Distance From Bit  Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.
Axial Force Pressure Area  The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1110.
Axial Force Buoyancy  The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.
Contact Force  This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
Bending Stress  This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1131.
Von Mises Ratio  This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.
Use the Show dropdown list to indicate which rows you want to display
in the table. You can choose to display:
• All rows
When viewing rows exceeding buckling, stress, or torque limits, you can
check the box located to the right of the Show dropdown list to display
only columns associated with the failure you are interested in.
Use the load data schematic (located to the left of the load data table) to
view where limits are exceeded, or where buckling occurs along the
string. Click on a failure area in the Schematic, and the associated rows
will be displayed in the table.
For riserless operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results
for any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.
Table Columns
Measured Depth  This is the measured depth where the base of the
component listed in the Component Type column is located.
90% Yield Stress  An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.
Distance From Bit  Indicates how far the top of the component is from
the bit, or base of the string.
Axial Force Pressure Area  The axial force in the string at the
component depth as calculated by the pressure area method. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1110.
Axial Force Buoyancy  The axial force in the string at the component
depth as calculated by the buoyancy method. See “Buoyancy Method
(used to determine buckling)” on page 1107. The axial buckling force
is compared to the critical buckling force. If the string buoyancy is
negative (in compression) and greater than the critical buckling force,
that element of the string is assumed to be buckled. Look for an in the
Sinusoidal Buckling, Helical Buckling, or Lockup columns to
determine which mode of buckling has occurred.
Contact Force  This is the force that is oriented normal to the string at
the component depth. This force is reported as total force over a
specified length of the string. Increased contact force results in higher
stresses. The soft string model will be used unless you check the Use
stiff string box on the Analysis Settings tab. If you are using the soft
string model, the string is assumed to be contacting the wellbore over its
entire length in a deviated section of the wellbore. In this situation, the
contact force cannot be used to determine the force at a point of contact
because the software does not determine whether the string is contacting
at a point or over a certain length.
Bending Stress  This is the stress caused by the wellbore curvature. See
“Stress” on page 1131.
Von Mises Ratio  This is the ratio of the Von Mises stress to the yield
strength of the component. As this ration approaches 1.0, the component
is approaching plastic failure.
Roadmap Plots
For inner string analysis, the hook load is the combined load from both
the inner and outer strings.
Using the plot, you can determine the load that will fail the string, but
you will not be able to determine what component failed in the string.
To display the hook load at the surface, click Surface. This option is
located at the top of the plot.
To display the hook load at a desired point, select the Use POI check
box. Then on the Schematic tab, click and drag it to the desired point
on the string displayed. The selected depth and component type will be
displayed on both the plot and the Schematic tab.
Note
• When using the plot to view results at a specified point of interest, this
plot displays the tension in the string at the point of interest.
• If the Surface option is selected, this title of this plot is Hook Load at
Surface and the plot displays the hook load at the surface when the
bottom of the string is at the Run Measured Depth as indicated on the Y
axis.
To display the torque at the surface, click Surface. This option is located
at the top of the plot.
To display the torque at a particular distance from total depth (TD), click
below the Surface option, and specify the distance from TD that you are
interested in.
To display Torque at a desired point, select the Use POI check box.
Then on the Schematic tab, click and drag it to the desired point on
the string displayed. The selected depth and component type will be
displayed on both the plot and the Schematic tab.
• Actual torque if actual load data has been entered in the Torque &
Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.
Other
The Flotation Optimization plot displays the effects of the air column
length on the minimum hook load, and maximum torque. Using the plot,
you can determine the optimum the length of the air column required for
the casing/liner to reach a specific depth. Specify the depth using the
String depth field on the String tab. This output is only available for
tripping in operations. Use the Operations to enable the tripping in
operation.
Use the left Yaxis to read the minimum hook load required to push the
casing/liner into the wellbore, and the right Yaxis to read the maximum
torque for any air column length (Xaxis). When the minimum hook
load is negative, the air column is not long enough to trip the casing/liner
into the wellbore. As the length of the air column increases, the
minimum hook load increases until it reaches zero. At this point
additional air column length no longer affects the minimum hook load.
When the Use button is clicked, the optimized air column length is
added to the Air column length field. This field can be found in the
Torque and Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.
Note
The Use button is inactive unless the Use fluid column gradient box is
checked in the Torque and Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.
Note
• If you specify (on the String tab) a collapse resistance greater than the
calculated (as formulated in API Bulletin 5C3) collapse resistance, the
collapse safety factor will default to the calculated collapse safety factor
for a more conservative analysis.
• The analysis will take a long time to calculate if the Use stiff string box
is checked on the Torque & Drag section of the Analysis Settings tab.
• The analysis uses a 100 ft step size when determining the length of the air
column.
Summary
Note
For riserless operations, the side force entered in the Torque and Drag
section of the Analysis Settings tab is not used when calculating results for
any rotating on or rotating off bottom operations.
Table Columns
Operation  This is the operation for each row of the table. Only
operations checked on the Operations tab will be displayed in this table.
90% Yield Stress  An in this column indicates that 90% of the yield
stress of the component has been exceeded.
Total Stretch  This is the total amount of stretch for the associated
operation. See “Stretch (API units)” on page 1135.
Rotary Table Torque  This is the total torque expected at the rotary
table for the associated operation.
Axial Stress = 0  This is the point in the string where the axial stress
equals zero. The pressure area method is used for this calculation. See
“Pressure Area Method (used to calculate stress)” on page 1110.
Surface Neutral Point  Below this point in the string the buoyed
weight equals the weightonbit (WOB). Buckling cannot occur above
this point. See “Buoyed Weight (API units)” on page 1111.
Analysis Settings
The analysis options in the Analysis Settings tab are divided into the
following sections:
• Torque & Drag: The analysis options in this section pertain to one
or more of the Torque & Drag outputs you currently have in the
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require a Torque & Drag parameter, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.
• Swab & Surge: The analysis options in this section pertain to one
or more of the Swab & Surge outputs you currently have in the
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require Swab & Surge parameters, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require UB Hydraulics parameters, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.
The actual load data consists of rows or information with one row per
measured depth. You can record data for any measured depth. It may be
useful to record this information just inside the casing shoe, or at total
depth just prior to setting casing. It is not necessary to specify all values
for each row. However, the measured depth must always be specified,
and must always increase. The trip in and trip out measured weights, and
rotating off bottom torque values are required to calibrate the coefficient
of friction. Other values are input for plotting actual load data on
applicable plots.
Friction Calibration
Coefficients of friction along the wellbore can be calculated from actual
data collected while drilling. This provides a means of calibrating the
model against actual field results. To calibrate coefficients of friction,
you must collect a series of weights and torques at the wellsite. Some of
this data is obtained with the string inside the casing shoe, and other
information is obtained in the open hole section. When gathering actual
field data, it is best if friction reduction devices are not being used. Over
the sections where the devices are used, the effects of the friction
devices must include the calibrated friction factors.
You must calculate the coefficient of friction in the cased hole section
first, then the open hole. This is required because data recorded in the
open hole section includes the combined effects of friction between the
string and the casing as well as the friction between the string and the
open hole. Therefore, the coefficient of friction for the cased hole must
be determined before that of the open hole.
The reliability of the data collected is important. Spurious values for any
weight may prevent calculating a solution or may result in an inaccurate
solution. It is important that the drillstring is completely inside the
casing shoe when you are recording weights for calculating the
coefficient of friction inside the casing. It is also important that the string
is not reciprocated while recording rotating weights, and vice versa. You
may not want to rely on one set of data, but make a decision based on a
number of weight readings taken at different depths inside the casing
and in the open hole section.
Block weight
Specify the weight of the traveling assembly. This is the weight
indicator reading when the pipe is in the slips.
BSMF is applied to the calculated bending stresses when you mark the
Use Bending Stress Magnification check box on the Analysis Settings
tab. Refer to “Bending Stress Magnification Factor” on page 1 145 for
more information.
Maximum Overpull
Specify the percentage of yield you want to maintain while calculating
the maximum overpull. Maximum overpull is the margin of extra weight
above the static hook load the string can handle when pulling out of hole
before the specified percentage of yield is exceeded.
Fluid Column
Use this option to specify surface pressure, and multiple, or different
fluid densities in the string and/or annulus. If you are not applying
pressure at the surface, and you are using one fluid in the string and
annulus, enter the fluid information on the Fluids tab.
How does Fluid Flow Change the Forces and Stresses on the
Workstring?
Fluid flow changes the forces and stresses on the work string in three
ways.
• Forces and stresses in the drill string are caused by the differential
between the pipe and annulus fluid pressures from the hydraulic
system, including bit and MWD / motor pressures losses.
• Fluid shear forces act on the work string as a result of shear stresses
caused by the frictional flow in the pipe and annulus.
Wellhead Details
For riserless operation, you can either specify the side force at the
wellhead, or calculate it. If you want the software to calculate the side
force at the wellhead it will be calculated using the Soft String model.
The side force is based on the string position using a catenary profile and
the specified offset from wellhead and angle at wellhead. The software
calculates the side force using a static mode. Therefore, the calculated
side force may differ from the actual side force.
If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 1 145 for additional
sources of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.
Both methods predict the same measured weight at the surface because
there is no hydrostatic force acting at the surface. Below the surface, the
axial force calculated using each method will be different.
In this simple case, the distance from the bottom of the string up to the
neutral point can be calculated by dividing the supporting force at the
bottom (specifically, the weight on bit) by the weight of the string per
unit length. In other words, the weight of the string below the neutral
point is equal to the supporting force.
The pressure area method computes the axial forces in the work string
by calculating all the forces acting on the work string, and solving for
the neutral point using the principle of equilibrium. Using this method,
the axial force and axial stress is exactly zero at the neutral point.
Using the buoyancy method, the axial force at the neutral point is not
zero. The axial force and stress is equal to the hydrostatic pressure at the
depth of the neutral point. Because hydrostatic pressure alone will never
cause a pipe to buckle, the buoyancy method is used to determine if and
when buckling occurs.
Fbsf = pe Ae – pi Ai
Where:
pe = pa + ( ga Dtvd )
Where:
pe = External pressure
pa = Annular surface pressure
ga = Annular pressure gradient
Dtvd = True vertical depth
pi = ps + ( gs Dtvd )
Where:
pi = Internal pressure
ps = String surface pressure
gs = String pressure gradient
Dtvd = True vertical depth
The constraints 0.95 and 0.5 are used to assume 95% of the component length is
body and 5% is tool joint.
π 2 2
A e =  ( 0.95d bo + 0.05d jo )
4
Where:
Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body
π 2 2
A i =  ( 0.95d bi + 0.05d ji )
4
Where:
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
dji = Inside diameter of tool joint
π 2
Ae =  d bo
4
Where:
Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body
π 2
Ai =  d bi
4
Where:
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Outside diameter of body
Where:
Where:
Wfluid = Weight per foot of displaced fluid
The constraints 0.95, and 0.5 are used to assume 95% of the component length is
body, and 5% is tool joint.
π 2 2
A e =  ( 0.95d bo + 0.05d jo )
4
Where:
Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body
djo = Outside diameter of tool joint
π 2 2
A i =  ( 0.95d bi + 0.05d ji )
4
Where:
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
dji = Inside diameter of tool joint
π 2
A i =  d bi
4
Where:
Ae = External area
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
dbo = Outside diameter of body
EIW
F b > 2 c
rcl
Where:
2 2 2 2
W c = 2 ( ( Wt sin θ + Fc ε′ ) + Fc sin θ ε ′ )
Where:
Wc = Contact load
Wt = Tubular weight in mud
sinθ = Inclination
Fc = Compressive axial force
ε' = Wellbore direction (azimuth)
Once the pipe is in the helical buckling mode, the axial force can be
reduced to 1.4 times the sinusoidal buckling force, and the helical mode
will be maintained. If the axial force falls below 1.4 times the sinusoidal
buckling force, the pipe will fall out of the helix into a sinusoidal
buckling mode. This is the "unloading" scenario.
In the figure, in Stage 1 the compressive load is increased from the force
required for sinusoidal buckling to the threshold force where the pipe
snaps into a helical buckled state. This is the "loading" force. Stages 2
and 3 represent the reduction of the compressive load to another
threshold force to snap out from helical buckled into a sinusoidal
buckled state. This is the "unloading" force.
Loading Model
F h = 2.828427F s
Where:
Unloading Model
F h = 1.414213F s
Where:
Fh = Compression force to induce onset of helical buckling
Fs = Compression force to induce onset of sinusoidal
buckling
vt
Fdrag = μFN 
vr
2 2
vr = vt + va
Where:
Another force, the drag force, is also acting on the segment. The drag
force always acts in the opposite direction of motion. The segment does
not slide down the inclined plane because of the drag force. The
magnitude of the drag force depends on the normal force, and the
coefficient of friction between the inclined plane, and the segment. The
coefficient of friction is a means to define the friction between the
wellbore wall and the work string.
Fatigue Calculations
DecisionSpace Well Engineering torque and drag analysis includes
fatigue analysis because it is a primary cause of drilling tubular failure.
A fatigue failure is caused by cyclic bending stresses when the pipe is
run in holes with doglegs. The source of fatigue failure is micro fractures
between the crystal structures of the material caused in the construction
of the material. These cracks are widened by successive stress reversals
(tensile/compressive) in the body of the cylinder.
Bending stresses are caused by pipe running through curved hole. In this
situation, one side of the pipe is in tension, and the other side is in
compression. Bending stresses are maximum at the outside of the pipe
body, and undergo a simple harmonic motion as the pipe rotates.
Non externally upset tubulars, like collars and casing, will have
maximum concentration of bending stress at the tool joint.
F ay = σ my A eff
Where:
Fay = Axial yield force
σmy = Minimum yield stress
Aeff = Effective sectional area
Where:
Else:
σ fl = σ fel ( compression )
Where:
( σ bend + σ buckle )
R f = 
σ fl
Where:
Rf = Fatigue ratio
σbend = Bending stress corrected by the bending stress
magnification factor
σbuckle = Buckling stress
σfl = Fatigue limit
A eff = A e – A i
Where:
Aeff = Effective sectional area
Αe = External area of the pipe, heavy weight, or collar
component
Αi = Internal area of the pipe, heavy weight, or collar
component
External area of the pipe, heavy weight, or collar component. The constraints 0.95
and 0.05 are used to assume 95% of the component length is body and 5% is tool
joint.
π 2 2
A e =  ( 0.95d bo + 0.05d jo )
4
π 2 2
A i =  ( 0.95d bi + 0.05d ji )
4
Where:
Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body
djo = Outside diameter of tool joint
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
dji = Inside diameter of tool joint
π 2
A i =  d bi
4
Where:
Ae = External area
dbo = Outside diameter of body
Ai = Internal area
dbi = Inside diameter of body
Compare the Cyclic Stress Against the Derated Fatigue Endurance Limit
Fatigue ratio is the combined bending and buckling stress divided by the
fatigue endurance limit. Some judgment is required in using the fatigue
endurance limit (FEL), because the limit is normally determined for a
number of cycles of pipe rotation. The number of cycles for the fatigue
endurance limit is approximately taken at 107 rotations. This is the level
of cyclic stress beyond which the material is immune to fatigue failure.
This is normally equivalent to the pipe drilling for 1000,000 feet at 60
ft/hr while rotating at 100 rpm. The relationship between fatigue stress
(S) and number of cycles to failure (N) is known as the SN curve. The
following plot is an idealized SN curve for G105 pipe that has a yield
of 105 Kpsi, and a fatigue endurance limit of 30 Kpsi.
You can observe from this plot that a pipe may yield at a lower number
of cycles at an intermediate stress between the fatigue endurance limit
and the tensile stress limit.
d co = d bo + d bi ( 1 – c )
Where:
Sheave Friction
Sheave friction corrections will be applied to all measured weight
calculations if you check the 'Use sheave friction correction' box on the
Analysis Settings tab.
n ( Es – 1 ) ( Whr + Wblock )
Wir = 
E s 1 – n
1
Es
n ( 1 – E s ) ( Whl + Wblock )
W ie = 
n

Es ( 1 – Es )
Where:
n ( Es – 1 ) ( Whr + Wblock )
Wir = 
E s 1 – n
1
Es
n ( 1 – E s ) ( Whl + Wblock )
W ie = 
n

Es ( 1 – Es )
Where:
The soft string model is based on Dawson’s cable model, or soft string
model. As the name implies, in this model the work string (such as
drillstring or casing, and so forth) is considered to be a flexible cable or
string with no associated bending stiffness. Since there is no bending
stiffness, there is no standoff between the BHA and the wellbore wall
due to stabilizers or other upsets.
The stiff string model uses the mathematical finite element analysis to
determine the forces acting on the string. This model considers the
tubular stiffness and the tubular jointtohole wall clearance. The model
modifies the stiffness for compressive forces. Like the soft string model,
it calculates single point weight concentrations so determining the
contact force per unit area is not possible.
The analysis of each element involves analyzing the nodes defining the
end points of each element. The detailed analysis of each node involves
creating a local mesh of 10 to 20 elements around the node. Each
element is given the same dimensions and properties as the
corresponding full drill string portion.
If the node length exceeds the maximum columnbuckling load for the
section, the node is further broken into fractional lengths to keep each
section below the buckling threshold. This is why the analysis may take
considerably longer when large compressive loads are applied.
This short section is solved by solving each individual junction node for
moments and forces, then displacing it to a point of zero force. If this
position is beyond the hole wall, a restorative force is applied to keep it
in the hole. This process is repeated for each node in the short beam until
they reach their “relaxed” state.
The stiff string produces slightly different results when run “top down”
or “bottom up.” The difference is explained because the direction of
analysis is reversed. The length of beam selected for each stiff analysis
has been selected to optimize speed while maintaining reliable
consistent results.
M = End Moment
Fv = End Force
I
P
Fv
M1 M2
W
F1 F2
L
Hybrid Model
In the traditional softstring and stiffstring torque and drag model, the
drillstring shape is taken as the wellbore shape, which is commonly
determined by the minimum curvature method. This method assumes
that wellbore shape forces the bending moment to be discontinuous at
survey points, and the discontinuity is a defect normally dealt with by
neglecting the bending moment component in the calculation. This
neglect decreases the efficacy to predict lockup in short radius
deviation wellbores.
These extra degrees of freedom address the neglect for the bending
moment discontinuity; for now bending moment can be continuously
resolved at each tool joint. Further, experimental studies of actual
drillstrings have shown the potential to develop contact forces for lateral
buckling that are significantly larger than predicted by smoothpipe
The critical inclination angle is calculated, and then used to select the
buckling model as described in the following equations.
1
1.94
2 W tm 3
 ( r cl ) 
–1
θ c = sin
2 EI
Where:
Where:
Where:
Stress
In DecisionSpace Well Engineering, many stress calculations are
performed using the following equations. These calculations include the
effect of:
2 2 2 2 2
( σ r – σ h ) + ( σ a – σ r ) + ( σ h – σ a ) + 6σ s + 6σ t
σ VM = 

2
Where:
σr = Radial stress
σh = Hoop stress
σa = Axial stress
σs = Transverse shear stress
σt = Torsional stress
Note
The Von Mises stress is calculated on the inside and outside of the pipe wall. The
maximum stress calculated for these two locations is reported in the analysis results.
Radial Stress
σ ro = – p e
σ ri = – p i
Where:
2F N
σ so = σ si = 
Ac
Where:
Hoop Stress
2 2 2
[ 2 ( r i ) ( p i ) – ( r i + ro ) ( p e ) ]
σ ho = 
2 2

( ro – r i )
2 2 2
[ ( r i + r o ) ( p i ) – 2ro p e ]
σ hi = 
2 2

(ro – r i )
Where:
Torsional Stress
12ro T
σ to = 
J
12r i T
σ ti = 
J
Where:
Bending Stress
ro EδB BSMF
σ bendo = 
68, 754.9
ri EδB BSMF
σ bendi = 
68, 754.9
Where:
Buckling Stress
This is calculated only if buckling occurs.
( r o ) ( rcl ) Fapa
σ bucko = 
2I
( – r i ) ( rcl ) Fapa
σ bucki = 
2I
Where:
σbucko = Buckling stress outside the pipe wall
σbucki = Buckling stress inside the pipe wall
ro = Outside pipe radius, as modified by pipe class
ri = Inside pipe radius
rcl = Maximum distance from string to wellbore wall
F apa
σ ao =  + σ bendo + σ bucko
Ac
F apa
σ ai =  + σ bendi + σ bucki
Ac
Where:
Total Stretch
Where:
Fapa L c ΔFapa L c
ΔL Hlaw =  + 
Ac E 2A c E
Where:
2 2
rcl Fapa L c rcl ΔFapa L c
ΔL buck =  + 
4EI 8EI
Where:
Lc = Length of component
E = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
I = Moment of Inertia
2 2
( – v )L c d bo d bo
ΔL balloon  ρ mi – 
=  ρ ma L c + 2 p s – ρ ma 
d bi d bi
2
d bo
E  – 1
d bi
Where:
ΔL temp = αL c ΔT
Where:
Tortuosity
Wellbore tortuosity is a measure of the random meandering that occur
in a well during drilling operations.
In both the design case and the operational case, the degree of tortuosity
is a factor on the overall loading (both torque and drag) on a particular
work string. The “smoother” the well, the smaller the frictional effects.
va
T = rμF N 
vr
2 2
vr = v t + va
Where:
T = Torque
μ = Coefficient of friction (friction factor)
r = Radius of component
va = Angular speed
vr = Resultant speed
vt = trip speed
FN = Normal force
Another force, the drag force, is also acting on the segment. The drag
force always acts in the opposite direction of motion. The segment does
not slide down the inclined plane because of the drag force. The
magnitude of the drag force depends on the normal force, and the
coefficient of friction between the inclined plane, and the segment. The
coefficient of friction is a means to define the friction between the
wellbore wall and the work string.
E
G = 
2 + 2v
Where:
Note
The constraints 0.95, and 0.5 are used to assume 95% of the component length is
body, and 5% is tool joint.
π 4 4
J b =  ( d bo – dbi )
32
π 4 4
J j =  ( d jo – d ji )
32
Jb J j
J = 
0.95J b + 0.05J j
Where:
J = Polar Moment of Inertia
Jb = Polar Moment of Inertia for the body of components
with tool joints
dbo = Body outside diameter
dbi = Body inside diameter
dji = Joint inside diameter
djo = Joint outside diameter
Jj = Polar moment of inertia for the joint of components
with tool joints
Jb = Polar moment of inertia for the body of components
with tool joints
π 4 4
J =  ( d bo – d bi )
32
Where:
2 2
πΔp loss ( d h – d p )d p
ΔF vd = 
4 ( dh – dp )
Where:
The shear rate in the annulus due to pipe rotation is computed using the
following equation.
4π 
N
60
γ = 
2 1 1
d p 2 – 2
d p d h
Where:
Given the shear rate, the shear stress is computed directly from the
viscosity equations for the fluid type. The 479 in the equations below is
a conversion from Centipoise to equivalent lb/100 ft2
Bingham Plastic
μp γ
τ = τ o + 
479
Where:
Power Law
n
Kγ
τ = 
479
Where:
Herschel Bulkley
2
Kγ
τ = τ z + 
479
Where:
Given the shear stress at the pipe wall (in lb/100 ft2), the torque on the
pipe is computed from the surface area of the pipe and the torsional
radius.
dp 2
τ2πL d 
24
ΔT = 
100
Where:
In the case of rotational torque the forces are equal and opposite between
the pipe and the hole, although we are interested in the torque on the pipe
and not the reaction from the hole.
References
General
“The Neutral Zones in Drill Pipe and Casing and Their Significance in
Relation to Buckling and Collapse”, Klinkenberg, A., Royal Dutch
Shell Group, South Western Division of Production, Beaumont, Texas,
March 1951.
Buckling
“A Buckling Criterion for Constant Curvature Wellbores”, Mitchell, R.,
Landmark Graphics, SPE 52901.
Fatigue
“Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials”, by
Richard W.Herzberg, 3rd Edition 1989, Wiley.
Hybrid Model
“Drillstring Analysis with a Discrete TorqueDrag Model”, Mitchell,
Robert F., Halliburton, Bjorset, Arve, and Grindhaug, Gaute, Statoil.
Sheave Friction
“The Determination of True Hook and Line Tension Under Dynamic
Conditions”, by Luke & JuvkamWold, IADC/SPE 23859.
Overview
The flow rate and pressure drop requirements of downhole tools must
also be met for components such as:
• Mud pulse telemetry systems  must transmit data through the fluid
column
Rheology
Rheology is the study of the flow (of fluids) and deformation (of solids)
of matter. Most drilling fluids are dispersions or emulsions with
complex rheologies. Basic fluid rheology concepts are required to
understand the flow behavior of nonNewtonian fluids. Shear rate and
shear stress play an important role in describing fluid rheology.
Rheology is studied by measuring the shear stress imposed on fluids at
varying shear rates.
Shear stress is the force per unit area required to sustain fluid flow. Shear
stress is the resistance, or drag force opposing the movement.
The relationship of shear stress to shear rate defines the flow behavior
of the fluid, or the viscosity of the fluid. If the ratio of shear rate to shear
stress is linear, the fluid is Newtonian. If the ratio is not linear, then the
fluid is called NonNewtonian. NonNewtonian fluids can be further
classified as “Shearthickening” (dilatent), or “Shearthinning”
(PseudoPlastic).
Drilling fluids are classified into two major groups: Newtonian and non
Newtonian fluids.
• Newtonian fluids such as water and light oil are fluids whose
behavior can be described by the term viscosity.
• Bingham Plastic
• Power Law
• Herschel Bulkley
• Newtonian
Bingham Plastic
In the Bingham Plastic model, the deformation takes place after a
minimum value of shear stress is exceeded, and the minimum value is
termed as the yield stress or yield point. Beyond this, the relationship
between shear stress and shear rate is linear. Note that more than one
parameter is needed to describe fully the flow behavior of the fluid. See
“Bingham Plastic Rheology Calculations (API units)” on page 262.
τ = τ o + Kγ
Power Law
In the Power Law model, the value of n indicates the degree of the non
Newtonian behavior of the fluid. Note that more than one parameter is
needed to describe fully the flow behavior of the fluid. See “Power Law
Rheology Model (API units)” on page 283.
n
τ = Kγ
Herschel Bulkley
n
τ = τ o + Kγ
The shear stress (Fann reading) is modeled as a Zero Shear Yield Value
( τ o ) plus a power law term. For n = 1, the YPL reduces to the Bingham
Plastic model, where the Plastic Viscosity PV = K and the Bingham
The rheology of drilling muds (oil and water based) and cements may be
modeled accurately as YPL fluids.
The τ o parameter is the zeroshear yield value and has been shown to
correlate well to the tendency of weighted muds to "dynamically sag"
under flowing conditions. τo should not be confused with or compared
to the standard yield point (YP) calculated from 600 and 300 rpm Fann
data.
Newtonian
The shear stress of a Newtonian fluid is directly proportional to the shear
rate. Water is an example of a Newtonian fluid.
Types of Flow
Fluid flow can be categorized using the following flow regimes:
The Critical Velocity is the fluid velocity when the flow changes from
the laminar to the turbulent regime.
Hole Cleaning
There are many factors that affect hole cleaning, such as:
• Flow rate
• Rheological properties
• Fluid density
• Hole angle
• Hole eccentricity
• Increased Drag
• Stuck pipe
Flow Rate
The flow rate is very important to avoid hole cleaning issues. The
minimum flow rate is the rate that will clean the wellbore for a specified
rate of penetration, rotary speed, pump rate, bed porosity, cuttings
diameter, and density.
If there is a bed height forming, the total cuttings volume will begin to
become greater than the suspended cuttings volume in that portion of the
wellbore. Also, you will notice that the bed height begins to form when
the minimum flow rate to avoid bed formation for a section of the well
is greater than the flow rate specified on the Analysis Settings tab. In
order to avoid the formation of a cuttings bed in that portion of the well,
you must increase the specified flow rate to a rate greater than the
Rheological Properties
Rheological properties, such as the yield point and K, determine the
thickness of the fluid, and therefore have an effect on the ability of the
fluid to keep the cuttings suspended in the fluid.
Fluid Density
Increasing fluid density will increase buoyancy, and can help lift
cuttings off the low side of the wellbore into the areas with higher flow
rates. Cuttings in higher flow areas are more easily removed from the
wellbore. Drilling fluid “sweeps” are specific fluids designed to
transport cuttings that cannot be removed by ordinary drilling fluid
circulation, and can be effective in high angle sections.
Hole Angle
The hole angle must be considered for hole cleaning. In vertical hole
sections, the flow around the string is uniform. In high angle hole
sections, there is uneven flow. The string may be laying in the wellbore.
Cuttings may fall towards the low side of the hole and develop into a
cuttings bed.
Note:
Hole Eccentricity
Hole eccentricity refers to where the string is in regards to the center of
the wellbore. Normally eccentricity is expressed as a percentage. A
string is considered 100% eccentric when it is lying on against the side
of the wellbore. On the other hand, a string is considered concentric (0%
eccentricity) when it is centered in the wellbore. Eccentricity has a
significant effect on annular pressure drop.
Pressure Loss
The total pressure necessary to push the drilling fluid through the system
can generally be read on the gauge near the standpipe or the pump. The
total pressure required is the sum of the pressure losses through each
part of the entire system. The entire system includes the surface
equipment, drill string, bit, and annulus. The active mud pumps, as
specified on the Rig tab, must have the required pressure and power.
You can use the Component Pressure Losses pie chart to determine the
pressure losses for each component of the drill string and in the annulus.
Annular Velocity
Annular Velocity can be used to determine the flow regime and critical
velocity for each section in the annulus for a range of flow rates. Critical
velocity is the velocity resulting from the critical flow rate.
For the Power Law and Bingham Plastic rheology models, the critical
flow rate is the flow rate required to produce a Reynold’s number
greater than the critical Reynold’s number for laminar flow. The
Reynold’s number is dependent on mud properties, the velocity the mud
is traveling, and on the effective diameter of the work string or annulus
the mud is flowing through. Based on the calculated Reynold’s number
and the rheological model you are using, it is possible to determine the
flow regime of the mud. For regimes where the Reynold’s number lies
between the critical values for laminar and turbulent flow, a state of
transitional flow exists.
Note that when an annular velocity curve crosses the critical velocity
curve, then the flow regime for that annulus section moves from laminar
to either transitional or turbulent flow.
Bit Optimization
The available power for cleaning the bottom of the well is the pressure
at the bit multiplied by the flow rate. Therefore, ideally it is desirable to
have most of the pressure loss at the bit and little pressure loss elsewhere
in the system. Bit jet velocity is the velocity of the drilling fluid as it goes
through the bit nozzles.
The total flow area (TFA) is the summation of the nozzle areas used for
fluid flow through the bit. Consider all nozzles when calculating TFA.
ECD
As drilling fluid is circulated through the wellbore, the circulating
pressure must be greater than the friction losses in the string and bit, the
hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the annulus, and the friction losses in
the annulus. The equivalent circulating density (ECD) is the pressure
required to overcome the total friction losses in the annulus, and the
hydrostatic pressure of the fluid.
Commonly ECD is calculated at the last casing shoe. The ECD of the
mud is the mud weight that would exert the circulating pressures under
static conditions at the specified depth.
Tripping Schedule
The Swab/Surge Trip Schedule assists with determining the rate to trip
in or out of the hole without exceeding a pressure change (Maximum
Delta  P) you specify in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis
Settings tab. The surge or swab pressure changes in the well can be
calculated with or without flow through an openended workstring or
without flow through a closedended workstring. You must specify the
length of a stand of drill pipe or casing, and the Maximum Delta  P for
both surge and swab. The Maximum Delta  P is the maximum change
in ECD at the bit or casing shoe that you are willing to accept.
Specifying a large value allows faster tripping speeds, whereas a low
value only allows slower tripping speeds.
Drilling Fluids
The Fluids tab is used to define drilling fluids by specifying the basic
characteristics of the fluid. A Case may have more than one associated
fluid or gas, but only one fluid and one gas can be active at a time.
If a fluid or gas is used in multiple Cases within the same Wellbore, any
changes to the fluid or gas will be applied in all Cases where it is used.
For example, assume fluid 'A' is used in multiple Cases, and all cases are
associated with the same Wellbore. If any changes are made to fluid 'A',
in any of the Cases, the change will be applied to all Cases using the
fluid "A".
• Brine
• Diesel
• ESCAID110
• LVT200
• XP07
• Accolade
• Water
The complexity of the waterbased fluid ranges from fresh or salt water
with little additive, to more complex fluids with many additives such as:
• Weighting agents
• Viscosifiers
Water based mud usually falls into one of the following classes:
• Saltwater Systems
Compressibility data for diesel (base fluid) and water (base type) are
assigned internally within the software, and you will not be able to view
or edit the compressibility data for these fluids.
Oil based muds can use diesel, mineral, or ester oil. For a mud to be
termed a true oil based mud, the water must make up no more than 5%
of the content. Greater than 5% water and the mud is termed an Invert
Emulsion. Oil based muds are used to:
• Temperature stability
Compressibility data for diesel (base fluid) and water (base type) are
assigned internally within the software, and you will not be able to view
or edit the compressibility data for these fluids. See “Compressibility
Data” on page 223..
Synthetic fluids share many of the same properties as oil based muds,
but may offer a more environmentally sensitive options for some
applications such as offshore drilling.
Compressibility Data
The Compressibility Data section of the Fluids tab is only displayed
when the Mud base type is Synthetic or Oil (and Base fluid is not
Diesel). Default compressibility data will automatically be assigned
although you can change it.
Compressibility data for diesel (base fluid) and water (base type) are
assigned internally within the software, and you will not be able to view
or edit the compressibility data for these fluids.
Oil content  Specify the volume percentage of oil in the fluid. For
example, assume the total volume is 120 with 80 oil, and 40 water. In
this example, the volume of oil is 80/120 or approximately 67% and the
volume of water is 40/120 or approximately 33%. The oilwater ratio is
80/40.
Salt content  Specify the weight percentage of any type of salt in the
fluid.
Rheology Test
The Rheology Test section of the Fluids tab is used to select the
rheology model, enter rheology test data (Fann readings or rheology
parameters) and select a rheology test (Reference) to use in the analysis.
Rheology Model
Select the rheology model you want to use. The options are:
• Newtonian
• Bingham Plastic
• Power Law
• Herschel Bulkley
Rheology or Fann
Click associated with Rheology or Fann to indicate how you will
be defining the fluid properties.
Rheology Parameters:
The rheology parameters required vary depending on the selected
rheology model.
Yield point  (all rheology models except Newtonian) Specify the yield
point of the fluid you are describing. Yield point is a measure of the
cohesive forces between fluid particles that cause resistance to flow.
Yield point can also be derived from the Fluid plot located at the bottom
of the Fluids tab. (Yield point is the intercept of the curve with the Y
axis.)
n'  (Power Law) Specify the flow behavior index and indicates the
degree of the nonNewtonian behavior of the fluid.
Fann Data:
The number of required Fann readings vary depending on the rheology
model selected. You must supply Fann readings for those speeds
displayed by default. When using Herschel Bulkley models, at least 3
Fann readings are required (2 at high shear rate and 1 at low shear rate,
e.g., 600,300 & 3). When using Generalized Herschel Bulkley models,
4 Fann readings are required. In general, the more Fann readings you
provide will result in better fluid property modeling.
Speed  Specify the rotational speed (rpm) of the Fann viscometer when
the corresponding dial reading was recorded. Enter as many data points
as possible.
Dial  Specify the dial reading for the corresponding rotational speed of
the Fann viscometer.
Torque Drag analysis will use the rheology test data marked by clicking
associated with the test in the Reference column, and multiple
rheology tests will not be used.
Fluid Plot
The Fluid Plot is used to determine which rheological model to use for
approximating fluid behavior. If the data points form a straighter line on
a loglog plot, use the Power Law model. If the data points form a
straighter line on a Cartesian plot, use the Bingham Plastic model.
Shear rates and shear stresses are calculated directly from the Fann data
specified. Shear rate and shear stress data points can be used to
determine the yield point and plastic viscosity, and the equation
coefficients n (flow behavior index) and K (consistency index). These
properties are used in pressure loss calculations.
Circulating System
Notice the Torque Rating is displayed in the image of the Torque plot
below.
Notice the torque for three of the operations exceeds
the Torque Limit specified on the Rig tab. The
indicates there may be an issue requiring further
investigation. Hover your mouse pointer over and a
tool tip with additional information is displayed.
Circulating System
If you choose to calculate the surface pressure loss, you can base the
calculations on one of four IADC configurations, or you can create a
custom rotary or coiled tubing configuration. If you select one of the
IADC  Select the configuration you want to use from the list. The
length and inside diameter of the components included in the
configuration are listed. You cannot edit this information.
Mud Pit
Use the Mud Pit section of the Rig tab to specify the average inlet
temperature of the mud, or calculate it based on mud pit and
environmental data. The mud inlet temperature is used to determine the
string internal temperature profile used in hydraulics analysis.
Surface mud volume: Specify the actual volume of the drilling fluid in
all mud pits combined.
Air Temperature: Input the temperature of the air near the mud pits.
This temperature is used when calculating the inlet mud temperature.
Wind Speed: Input the wind speed near the mud pits. The wind speed
is used when calculating the inlet mud temperature.
Initial mud pit temperature: Specify the initial mud temperature in the
pits.
Mud Pumps
Define the working parameters of all available (active and inactive)
pumps, including the volume per stroke, maximum speed, maximum
discharge pressure, and horsepower. Only active pumps are used in the
analysis.
Volume per stroke  Specify the volume of fluid the pump can displace
per stroke.
Maximum speed  Specify the maximum speed that the pump can
operate.
Analysis Settings
The analysis options in the Analysis Settings tab are divided into the
following sections:
• Torque & Drag: The analysis options in this section pertain to one
or more of the Torque & Drag outputs you currently have in the
Output Area. If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that
require a Torque & Drag parameter, this section will not be visible
on the Analysis Settings tab.
Pump Rates
Use this section to specify a range of pump rates to use for the:
• Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate Plot (See “Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate
Plot” on page 245.)
Note
These plots will not use the Pump Rate specified in the Common Analysis
section of the Analysis Settings tab even if it is visible in the tab. (It may be
visible because another plot in the Output Area requires a single pump rate).
The minimum and maximum rates define the range of rates where the
analysis will be performed. Within a range, additional rates (evenly
spaced within the defined range) will be analyzed. Although the step
size field is not used in the analysis, you must enter a value greater than
0.
Pumping Constraints
Use this section to specify the maximum pump pressure, power, and
allowable rate. You can manually enter these values, or you can default
them based on data input on the Circulating System panel of the
Rig tab.
4. Specify the combined Max. allowable rate for all active pumps.
(Add together all maximum pump rates for all active pumps.)
Bed porosity  Specify the porosity of the cuttings bed on the low side
of the hole. A typical estimate is 36%.
Rotary speed  Specify the rate of pipe rotation. This model is based on
the fact that rotating pipe reduces the eccentricity (even in a deviated
well), which alters velocity distribution. When velocity is increased on
the narrow side, hole cleaning is improved. A similar effect also occurs
when you increase the rotation, because this action drags cuttings from
the low side of the annulus to the high side. This model is based on a
Note
Include roughness
Select this check box and enter pipe and annulus values to specify
pipe/annulus roughness. Roughness affects friction pressure losses in
turbulent flow only. The nominal value of surface roughness for new
steel pipe is 0.0018 inches. Old or corroded pipe can have values up to
.0072 inches. This factor is more important in deep wells using old
tubulars. If the predicted surface pressure is consistently low, increasing
pipe roughness can increase your calculated pump pressures by several
hundred psi. The effect of wall roughness is usually not important for
equivalent circulating density (ECD), since the annulus is almost always
in laminar flow for the wellbore dimensions and flow rates encountered
in most drilling. This option is only enabled when the HerschelBulkley
fluid rheology is selected as the wellbore fluid model on the Fluids tab.
Gel Strength
Specify the pressure to break the gel for various gel strengths.
Hydraulics Outputs
Roadmap Plots are unique because they are used to predict the
equivalent circulating densities (ECD) and pressures at the surface or a
specified distance from the bottom of the string, when the bottom of the
workstring is at a range of wellbore depths. The calculations performed
for this analysis are similar to those used in many other outputs, except
that the calculations are performed assuming the bottom of the
workstring is at multiple depths instead of one depth.
On the Hydraulics ribbon, the plots and tables with similar functionality
are grouped in categories in the ribbon as follows:
• Hole Cleaning Plots
• Roadmap Plots
• Other
For any distance along the string, use this plot to determine the:
This plot uses the pump rate specified in the Common section of the
Analysis Settings tab.
You cannot use this plot to determine pressure loss results from static or
dynamic losses.
This plot uses the pump rate specified in the Common section of the
Analysis Settings tab.
Pump rates greater than the critical flow rate at any depth indicates the
flow regime is moving out of laminar flow and into transitional or
turbulent flow.
This plot displays the calculated annular velocity in the annulus as well
as the critical velocity. When the annular velocity exceeds the critical
velocity, the flow regime for that section of the annulus at the associated
pump rate moves from laminar to either transitional or turbulent flow.
You can view the data as a function of measured depth (MD) or true
vertical depth (TVD). Use the MD/TVD dropdown selector located in
the topright corner of the plot tab to select the depth measurement.
Flow Regime
Use the Flow Regime output to view the annular flow regime (laminar,
transitional, turbulent), pressure loss, average velocity, Reynolds
Number, and critical pump rate for all sections in the wellbore. This plot
does not consider tool joints, or standoff devices when calculating the
critical velocity. The number of rows presented in the table vary
depending on the analysis options selected in the Hydraulics section of
the Analysis Settings tab. Results are always displayed at the mudline
and at the top of the flow.
Green Transitional
Yellow Turbulent
Table Columns
Measured Depth  The measured depth at the top of the section.
Hole OD  The diameter of the hole section as input on the Hole tab.
• For the Power Law and Bingham Plastic rheology models: The
critical pump rate is the flow rate required to produce a
Reynold’s number greater than the critical Reynold’s number for
laminar flow. Based on the calculated Reynold’s number and the
rheology model you are using, it is possible to determine the
flow regime of the mud. For regimes where the Reynold’s
number lies between the critical values for laminar and turbulent
flow, a state of transitional flow exists. See “Power Law
Rheology Model (API units)” on page 283. See “Bingham
Plastic Rheology Calculations (API units)” on page 262.
Note: Annular sections or string components with zero (0) power loss
will not be displayed.
Note: Annular sections or string components with zero (0) power loss
will not be displayed.
Roadmap Plots
If you want to analyze ECD at the total depth, you could include the total
depth in the running depth range, or you could use the ECD vs Depth
plot. Be aware that the ECD vs Depth plot displays results assuming the
bottom of the string is at the String Depth specified on the String tab.
See “ECD vs Depth Plot” on page 246.
If you want to analyze pressure at the total depth, you could include the
total depth in the running depth range, or you could use the Circulation
Pressure vs Depth plot. Be aware that the Circulation vs Depth plot
displays results assuming the bottom of the string is at the String depth
specified on the String tab.
loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the Rig tab.
Based on the total system pressure loss, as well as the string, fluid, and
hole section information, the pressure loss at the bit is calculated. TFA
can be calculated when the pressure loss at the bit and the flow rate are
known. The impact force at the bit can be determined from the TFA
calculation.
• The pump rate from zero up to the flow rate resulting in parasitic
pressure losses equal to 100 percent of the total system pressure
loss. (Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)
• The flow rate, and TFA required to maximize the bit power per
area.
• The pump rate from zero up to the flow rate resulting in parasitic
pressure losses equal to 100 percent of the total system pressure
loss. (Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)
• The flow rate, and TFA required to maximize the bit impact
force.
• The pump rate from zero up to the flow rate resulting in parasitic
pressure losses equal to 100 percent of the total system pressure
loss. (Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)
On this particular plot, the combined pressure loss through the
bit plus the parasitic pressure loss should equal the total system
pressure loss.
• The bit and parasitic pressure loss for the range flow rates
outlined above.
• The pump rate from zero up to the flow rate resulting in parasitic
pressure losses equal to 100 percent of the total system pressure
loss. (Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)
• The velocity of the fluid through the bit for a range of flow rates
and varied total flow area (TFA).
Because the string is openended, you can specify a Pump rate through
the string using the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab. If
you specify a Pump rate greater than zero, the ECD will include the
effects of this flow rate.
This plot displays the ECD at total depth (TD) (as provided on the Hole
tab), at the casing shoe (as provided on the Hole tab), and at the bit as
the bit is tripped in or out of the hole at various trip speeds. If the bit is
at TD, the curves overlay and may appear to be missing from the plot.
This plot displays the ECD at total depth (TD) (as provided on the Hole
tab), at the casing shoe (as provided on the Hole tab), and at the bit as
the bit is tripped in or out of the hole at various trip speeds. If the bit is
at TD, the curves overlay and may appear to be missing from the plot.
Because the string is openended, you can specify a Pump rate through
the string using the Common section of the Analysis Settings tab. If
you specify a Pump rate greater than zero, the ECD will include the
effects of this flow rate.
This plot displays the ECD at total depth (TD) (as provided on the Hole
tab), at the casing shoe (as provided on the Hole tab), and at the bit as
the bit is tripped in or out of the hole at various trip speeds using the
depth range specified in the Common section of the Analysis
Settings tab. If the bit is at TD, the curves overlay and may appear to be
missing from the plot. Use the ECD at selector at the top of the plot to
select what you want to view.
This plot displays the ECD at total depth (TD) (as provided on the Hole
tab), at the casing shoe (as provided on the Hole tab), and at the bit as
the bit is tripped in or out of the hole at various trip speeds using the
depth range specified in the Common section of the Analysis
Settings tab. If the bit is at TD, the curves overlay and may appear to be
missing from the plot. Use the ECD at selector at the top of the plot to
select what you want to view.
If you specify a high value for the allowable trip margin, it is possible
that the minimum time per stand (10 seconds) will not exceed the
allowable trip margin. In that case, the trip schedule will indicate that all
stands can be tripped at the minimum time per stand.
Other Plots
Hydraulics Summary
Use the Hydraulics Summary to view key hydraulics information.
The slider located at the top of the Hydraulics Summary allows you to
quickly see what flow rate is necessary for hole cleaning given the
pumping and pressure loss restraints in your system.
• Minimum flow rate for hole cleaning  The minimum flow rate
for hole cleaning is derived from the Minimum Flow Rate vs
Depth plot. (“Minimum Flow Rate vs Depth Plot” on page 2
44.) Any booster pump in riser section will be considered in the
determination of this flow rate. On the slider, all flow rates less
than the Minimum flow rate for hole cleaning will be within
the red section of the slider.
• Maximum flow rate for system pressure loss limit  This flow
rate is derived from the Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate plot.
(“Pressure Loss vs Pump Rate Plot” on page 245.) This is the
maximum flow rate that is greater than the Minimum flow rate
for hole cleaning, BUT less than the flow rate calculated using
the lesser of either maximum pump pressure or the maximum
rated pressure. The maximum pump pressure is specified in the
Pumping Constraints section of the Hydraulics Analysis
Options panel on the Analysis Settings tab. The maximum
rated pressure is specified in the Circulating System section of
the Rig tab. On the slider, all flow rates greater than the lesser of
either the Maximum pump rate or the Maximum flow rate for
system pressure loss limit will be within the red section of the
slider.
For the example below, assume the Minimum flow rate for hole
cleaning is 617 gpm. The Maximum flow rate for system pressure
loss limit is 810 gpm because it meets the following criteria:
• The flow rate is greater than the Minimum flow rate for hole
cleaning.
Note: In the example below, some flow rates causing the Maximum
Pump Pressure to be exceeded are ignored because they are less than
the Minimum flow rate for hole cleaning.
Using the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab, you must
check the Include mud temperature effects box and specify a Time of
circulation to view this plot.
If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 297 for additional sources
of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.
Qc
 d pi
R br = R max 
Qc
 – Q m
d pi
Where:
Rbr = Maximum backreaming rate
Rmax = Maximum rate of penetration
Qc = Critical flow rate
dpi = Drill pipe inside diameter
Qm = Mud flow rate
τ = Shear stress
τ0 = Yield point
κ = Consistency factor
γ = Shear rate
V ap =  
4 Q 
π 2
dbi
Where:
Vap = Average fluid velocity for pipe
Q = Fluid flow rate
dbi = Inside pipe diameter
4 Q
V aa =  
π 2
d h – dbo
2
Where:
2 2
d h – d bo
μ paa = μ p + ( 62.674773 )τ o ( d h – d bo ) 
Q
Where:
3
= μ p + 62.674773 ( τ o ) 
d bi
μ pap 
Q
Where:
Q
R a = 1, 895.2796ρ ( d h – d bo ) 
2 2

μ paa ( d h – d bo )
Where:
Ra = Modified Reynolds number for annulus
ρ = Fluid density
μpaa = Apparent viscosity for annulus
Q = Fluid flow rate
dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter
R p = 1, 895.2796ρ 
Q
μ pap d bi
Where:
Rp = Modified Reynolds number for pipe
ρ = Fluid density
μpap = Apparent viscosity for pipe
τo 0.0008488263μ p Q
P loss = 0.053333333  +  Ls
d h – d bo
{ d h – d bo } { d h – d bo }
2 2 2
Where:
τo 0.0008488263μ p Q
P loss = 0.053333333  + 
 L s
d bi d bi
4
Where:
2
ρ ( d h – d bo )
+ 1.066 ( τ o )  
2
( 2000 + μ p ) + R c μp
g c 2R c
V ca = 
ρ
2 ( d h – d bo ) 
gc
π
Q ca = Vca  ( d h – d bo )
2
4
Where:
2
ρ d bi
+ 1.066τ o  
2
( 2000 + μ p ) + Rc μp
g c 2R c
V cp = 
ρ
2d bi 
g c
π
Q cp = V cp  d bi
2
4
Where:
Vcp = Critical velocity in pipe
μp = Plastic viscosity
ρ = Fluid density
Qcp = Critical flow rate in pipe
Rc = Critical Reynolds number (modified Reynolds number
for pipe = 2000)
dbi = Pipe inside diameter
το = Yield point
gc = Gravitational constant
Where:
2
ρvf
ΔP lossbit = 2
2g c Cd
Where:
Derivations for Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0Sec Gel, and Fann
Data Calculations (API units)
Derive Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0Sec Gel from Fann Data
μ p = θ 600 – θ 300
τ o = 2θ 300 – θ 600
τz = θ3
Where:
μp = Plastic viscosity
τz = Fluid density
τ0 = Yield point
τz = 0 second gel
θ300 = Fan dial reading at 300 rpm
Derive Fann Data from Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point, and 0Sec Gel
θ 300 = μ p + τ o
θ 600 = 2μ p + τ 0
θ3 = τz
Where:
μp = Plastic viscosity
τ0 = Yield point
τz = 0 second gel
θ300 = Fan dial reading at 300 rpm
θ600 = Fan dial reading at 600 rpm
θ3 = Fan dial reading at 3 rpm
p h = 0.052 ( ρD tvd )
Δp as

pf = ΔLas ΔDtvd
Where:
WaterBased Mud
Base fluid is assumed pure water with no dissolved salt
OilBased Mud
Base fluid is assumed 100% diesel with no emulsified water phase.
Synthetic Fluid
Based on the selected base fluid and the specified oil/water ratio.
LowGravity Solids
The mud is assumed to contain a maximum LGS content of 15% by
volume (sg = 2.6)
HighGravity Solids
Any solids loading above 15% LGS is assumed to be barite (sg = 4.2)
WaterBased Mud
Max Annis Reference
OilBased Mud
Combe and Whitmore (This assumes the base fluid is diesel oil.)
Solution Method
For fluids, both flowing and shut in, temperature effects rheology
handles six conditions.
• Conduction
• Forced convection
• Free convection
• Radiation
The main source for the conduction and forced convection correlations
is the standard textbook material summarized in Chapman. Free
convection in the annuli is based on the work of Dropkin and
Somerscales. Radiation correlations are from Willhite. “Rheology
Thermal Effects” on page 298.
The following heat transfer effects are used in the above formulation:
Flowing fluids
• Verticalfree and forced convection
Wellbore
• Vertical and radial heat conduction
• Radiation in annuli
Formation
• Vertical and radial heat conduction
τ  m
 τz m μh γ n
=  + 
τ ref τ ref τ ref
Where:
Where:
τ = Shear stress
τo = Yield point
Κ = Consistency index
γ = Shear rate
n = Flow behavior index
By using this model, the effects of all the major drilling variables on
hole cleaning have been evaluated and the results show excellent
agreement between the model predictions and all experimental and field
results.
• Cuttings density
• Cuttings load (ROP)
• Cuttings shape
• Cuttings size
• Wellpath
• Drill pipe rotation rate
• Drill pipe size
• Flow regime
• Hole size
• Mud density
• Mud rheology
• Mud velocity (flow rate)
• Pipe eccentricity
( 3.32 ) ( log 10 ) ( τ o + 2μ p )
n = 
( τ0 + μp )
( μp + τo )
K = 
511
n
τ o = ( 5.11K )
(2 – n) n
ρvaa ( d h – d bo )
R a = 
2 G K
3 pl
Where:
n = Flow behavior index
vaa = Average fluid velocity for annulus
Κ = Consistency factor
τo = Yield point
μp = Plastic viscosity
dh = Annulus diameter
dbo = Pipe outside diameter
Gpl = Power law geometry factor
Ra Reynolds number
2
Rd b

1471
C o = 
2
Rd b
 + Q m
1471
Where:
24.5Q m
v aa = 
2

2
d h – d bo
Where:
22
C d = 
Ra
Else:
C d = 1.5
Where:
dc
4g c  ( ρ c – ρ )
12
Cm = 
3ρC d
Where:
Slip Velocity
If vaa < 53.0 then:
v s = 0.00516v aa + 3.0006
Else:
Where:
1
1 + bn 

2 – b(2 – n)
4 g c { dc } { ρ c – ρ }
U sv =  

3 1–b
aKρ c
Where:
Usv = Settling velocity
gc = Gravitational constant
dc = Cuttings diameter
b = 1 – 0.33n
n = Flow behavior index
ρc = Cuttings density
ρ = Flow density
K = Consistency factor
a = 42.9 – 23.9n
C s = 1.286 – 1.04d c
Where:
Ca = Angle of inclination correction factor.
Cs = Cuttings size correction factor.
dh = Annulus diameter.
dc = Cuttings diameter.
α = Wellbore angle.
Else:
Where:
b
1+ b 2 2n
τ cw = ag c ( sin α ) ( ρ c – ρ )d c ρ 
2n – 2b + bn
Where:
τcw = Critical wall shear stress
ρ = Fluid density
ρc = Cuttings density
α = Wellbore angle
gc = Gravitational constant
dc = Cuttings diameter
n = Flow behavior index
b = 1.732
a = – 0.744
2τ cw
p gc = 

r o 2
r c 1 – 
r c
Where:
2 2
π d h – d bo
A c =  
4 144
Where:
1
b b

n 2 – (2 – n) b
2 ( 1 + 2n ) rp 2 rp 2 – (2 – n)
Πg b = Π 8  1 –  1 – 
rc r c
a 1
b
Where:
b
1 
1  

( 2 – n)
b b+n
2 – b
2 ρg c b r c
Q cb = r c  Πg b

1 
b – 1
Kρ
Where:
Where:
Qm
C bconc = C bed 1 –  ( 1 – ϕ b )100
Q cb
Where:
ρ
F impact =  v f Q
g c
Where:
Q
v n = 
2.96A bit
Where:
vn = Nozzle velocity
Rheological Equation
n
τ = Kγ
Where:
θN
n = 3.32192809 log 2
θ N1
Where:
Consistency Factor
510θ N
K = n
( 1.703N )
Where:
K = Consistency factor
θΝ = Fann dial readings corresponding to Fann speed N
N = Fann rpm
n = Flow behavior index
v ap =  
4 Q 
π 2
d pi
Where:
v aa =  
4 Q 
π d –d 2 2
h po
Where:
( 2n + 1 ) n n – 1
G a =  8
2n
Where:
Ga = Geometry factor for annulus
n = Flow behavior index
( 3n + 1 ) n n – 1
G p =  8
4n
Where:
Gp = Geometry factor for pipe
n = Flow behavior index
(2 – n) n
ρv ap d pi
R p = 
gc Gp K
Where:
(2 – n) n
ρv aa ( d h – d po )
R a = 
g c  Ga K
2
3
Where:
R l = 3470 – 1370n
R t = 4270 – 1370n
Where:
Transition flow:
log ( n ) + 3.93
a = 
50
1.75 – log ( n )
b = 
7
( Rp – Rl ) a
f p =  +  b – 
16 16
Rl 800 Rt Rl
Turbulent flow:
log ( n ) + 3.93
a = 
50
1.75 – log ( n )
b = 
7
a
f p = 
R pb
Where:
Transition flow:
log ( n ) + 3.93
a = 
50
1.75 – log ( n )
b = 
7
( Ra – Rl ) a
f a =  +  b – 
24 24
Rl 800 Rt Rl
Turbulent flow:
log ( n ) + 3.93
a = 
50
1.75 – log ( n )
b = 
7
a
f a = 
R ab
Where:
fa = Friction factor for annulus in laminar flow
Ra = Reynolds number for annulus in laminar flow
n = Flow behavior index
a = Constant
b = Constant
Rl = Reynolds number at laminar flow boundary
Ra = Reynolds number for annulus
Rt = Reynolds number at turbulent flow boundary
ρ 2
P lossp =  vp f p L s 
2
gc d pi
Where:
ρ 2
P lossa =  v a f a L s 
2
gc d h – d po
Where:
Plossa = Pressure loss in annulus
ρ = Fluid density
fa = Friction factor for annulus
gc = Gravitational constant
Ls = Annulus section length
va = Average fluid velocity for annulus
dpo = Pipe outside diameter
dh = Annulus diameter
Where:
P hp P minp
p maxhp = 
P maxp

Where:
Shear Stress
τ = ( 0.01065 )θ
Where:
τ = Shear stress
θ = Fann dial reading
Shear Rate
γ = ( 1.70333 )r
Where:
γ = Shear rate
r = RPM
Anhydrite 2.98 60
CMC 1.6 40
Dolomite 2.86
Galena 6.95
Gypsum 2.35
Haematite 5.26
Halite 2.03
Lignite 1.6 30  35
Lignosulfonate 1.5 35
Limestone 2.71
Sandstone 2.65
Siderite 3.96
Starch 1.5 15  20
Water 1
Where:
vt = Trip velocity
Lst = Stand length
tt = Trip time
Q p = 0.0
Where:
A po
A r = 
A po + A a
Q p = v t ( A pc – A po )A r
Where:
Qp = Q
Where:
Q i = v t A pc
Where:
Qa = Qi + Qp
Where:
A po = A bit
π 2
A pc =  d bo
4
Where:
π 2
A pc =  d bo
4
Where:
2
ρκ tj v f
Δp tj = 
2
Where:
κ tj = 0.0
Where:
If
1000 < R p ≤ 3000
Where:
If
3000 < R p ≤ 13000
Where:
If
R p > 13000
κ tj = 0.33
Where:
κtj = Tool joint loss coefficient as a function of the Reynolds
number in the pipe body
Rp = Reynolds number for the pipe
References
General
Lubinski, A., et. al., “Transient Pressure Surges Due to Pipe Movement
in an Oil Well”, Revue de L’Institut Francais du Petrole, May – June
1977.
Coiled Tubing
McCann, R. C., and Islas, C. G. “Frictional Pressure Loss during
Turbulent Flow in Coiled Tubing.” SPE 36345.
Hole Cleaning
Clark, R. K., Bickham, K. L. “A Mechanistic Model for Cuttings
Transport.” SPE paper 28306 presented at the SPE 69th Annual
Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, September 25–28.
Surge Swab
Burkhardt, J. A. “Wellbore Pressure Surges Produced in Pipe
Movement.” Journal of Petroleum Technology, June 1961.
Overview
The Swab & Surge module is a transient pressure model that can be
used for pressure analysis throughout the wellbore; substantial pressure
changes can be seen by the wellbore due to tripping pipe in and out of
the wellbore. When running pipe into the hole, the downward pressures
(surge) can result in fracturing the formation or in lost circulation.
When pulling pipe out of the hole, the upward pressures (swab) can
result in an influx of formation fluids into the wellbore.
Storage: Fluids entering the well do not necessarily mean that fluids are
exiting the well. For example, when viscous forces are extremely high,
the surge pressure will be more related to the water compression and
wellbore expansion than the steady state frictional pressure drop would
indicate.
Elasticity: Because the drillstring can deform, the bit speed is not
necessarily the draw works speed. For high yield points, pipe elasticity
reduces swab pressures to an important degree.
• Running liners, especially for larger sizes run in holes with minimal
clearance
Example 2: If the bit is nearing the casing setting depth, the wellbore
pressure will be close to both the fracture pressure (top of the open hole)
and the pore pressure (bottom of the open hole).Surge pressures when
tripping in should be maintained below the fracture pressure and above
the pore pressures. In this case, there is little margin for error, so the
most accurate calculation is needed.
With this module, users can quickly analyze swab, surge and
reciprocation operations to obtain the following, including but not
limited to:
Note:
This section will familiarize you with all aspects of the Swab & Surge
module including:
Design Considerations
• Wellbore characteristics
• String Design
• Fluid Properties
• Operational Parameters
Wellbore Characteristics
Formation properties help determine how the drilled hole will respond
to differential downhole pressures, in this case caused by tripping in and
out of the hole. Using the trajectory and the fracture pressure and pore
pressure gradients in this analysis provides limits to the maximum
pressure allowable without fracturing the rock and minimum allowable
pore pressure without an influx of formation fluids.
values of 2 X 106 psi for Elastic Modulus, and 0.3 for Poisson’s Ratio
are used as default unless otherwise specified.
If formation tops are not entered, the same defaulted values are used for
Elastic Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio; they are just not shown. It is
common not to have this information available; the default values are
sufficient in most cases.
String Design
Drill strings are subjected to forces of tension, torsion, and bending
when drilling a well. Designing a string to accommodate these forces
requires knowledge of the physical properties of the pipe.
Please refer to “Drill String Design” on page 14 in the ”Torque & Drag
Analysis” chapter for more information on the drill string design.
Please note that annulus eccentricity can only be used if the Herschel
Buckley rheological model is chosen on the Fluid Editor tab .
Fluid Properties
Fluids are used in all operations where swab and surge pressures are
possible; and therefore they need to be defined in the software to
properly analyze swab and surge operations.
Operational Parameters
Analysis Settings
The analysis options in the Analysis Settings tab are divided into
sections corresponding to the ribbon names. For example, options in the
Swab & Surge Analysis Settings pertain to outputs on the Swab &
Surge ribbon.
If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that require the
options in a particular section, the section will not be displayed on the
Analysis Settings tab.
The outputs depict swab and surge pressures throughout the wellbore
caused by moving pipe in and out of the wellbore.
Please note that the Tripping Out (Swab) and/or the Tripping In
(Surge) boxes must be selected in the Operational Parameters tab in
order to be reflected on the plot; if they are not and a Swab & Surge plot
is selected, the software will give a message prompting what needs to be
changed and where to change it as shown below:
In addition to the Trip Speed, the frequency and period to trip one pipe
stand can be shown at any point in the open hole. This plot is based on
the optimized trip speed for every run depth; trip speed is optimized by
calculating the fastest speeds for which swab and surge pressure do not
exceed the input constraints for fracture pressures and pore pressures
(which are defined in the Subsurface tab); if these pressures are
exceeded, the trip speed is reduced until the limits are satisfied.
The plot
data can be
displayed
as a table
by clicking
this icon.
This plot uses the trip speeds determined on the Optimized Trip
Schedule. It displays the pressures at depths relative to the user defined
pore pressure and fracture pressure gradients.
Pressure Transient
This plot displays transient pressure responses, due to pipe and fluid
movement, at multiple defined depths including: String Depth, Depth
of Interest, Previous Casing Shoe, and Well Total Depth at the
The pressure fluctuations on the left side of the plot display the sloshing
and damping effects on the pressure behavior. This behavior is caused
by the acceleration and deceleration of the pipe as the pipe motion
begins and ends. As an example, during a Tripping In (Surge)
operation, the fluid will begin to compress. As a result, the pressure will
increase. Eventually the fluid will begin to flow from the annulus, and
the pressure will decrease. This cycle will continue until the pressure
fluctuations dampen as a result of the friction in the fluid. As this occurs,
the curve flattens as it reaches a “steadystate” pressure. The relatively
constant pressure continues until the pipe motion begins to stop. As the
motion stops, the fluid continues to flow from the annulus, and therefore
the pressure will decrease. Some pressure fluctuations will occur as the
pipe and fluid motion ceases. The reverse of this explanation holds for a
Tripping Out (Swab) operation.
When this plot is selected, the Analysis Settings change to reflect the
inputs specific for this plot:
The String Depth and
Depth of Interest can
be entered here or on
the Schematic.
Regardless of where it
is entered, the
Schematic, plot and
Analysis Settings will
automatically update
accordingly.
the plot and then editing the moving pipe speed input on the Analysis
Settings.
Surface Results
This plot displays the standpipe pressure or block speed related to the
time it takes move the string one stand of pipe for Swab & Surge
operations at a defined String Depth and moving pipe speed.
From this drop down, the plot will show either
Standpipe Pressure or Block Speed.
The standpipe
pressure will
be zero unless
you are
circulating.
On the block speed curve, the slope of the curve at the beginning and at
the end of the time interval is due to pipe acceleration and deceleration.
This plot can be used to analyze the effects on annulus flow rate of one
or more moving pipe speeds and at one or more String Depths.
String Depth
This plot displays depth of the string (bottom of casing or liner) over the
time interval required to move the string one stand of pipe at a defined
String Depth and moving pipe speed. The depth changes slightly
because it represents the depth of the pipe as it moves one stand length.
Reciprocation Plots
The fluids that appear on the left hand side are defined in the Fluid
Editor tab. Once a new fluid is defined in the Fluid Editor tab, it will
If selected, this
adds a plug to
the bottom of
the string or
float collar. It
will be located
at the top
measured
depth of the
float collar.
Simply click and drag the fluid and drop it on the corresponding area of
the schematic. In order to depict a fluid column that does not fill the
entire annulus or string, an initial fluid must be placed in the annulus
and/or string from the Fluid Palette list.
Note:
Pressure Transient
This plot displays transient pressure responses, due to pipe and fluid
movement, during reciprocation operations at multiple depths
including: String Depth, Depth of Interest, Previous Casing Shoe,
and Total Depth. Pressures on this plot can be shown in relation to the
formation’s pore and fracture pressures.
String Depth is defaulted for depth depicted on the plot, select this dropdown
to change the depth for the plot analysis.
Peaks correspond
to strokes. The
upward string
motion results in
positive hook load
and the downward
string motion is
represented by
negative hook
load.
Surface Results
This plot displays the standpipe pressure or block speed versus the time
required to reciprocate the string the specified reciprocation length and
During
reciprocation,
pressure
fluctuations
(spikes) are the
depiction of
strokes and a zero
standpipe
pressure means
you are not
circulating.
String Depth
This plot displays depth of the string (bottom of casing or liner) over the
time interval required to complete one reciprocation cycle at the defined
Reciprocation Length and Reciprocation Rate.
The report will include a title page, table of contents and all data related
to the case’s open plots/tables and schematic. Related to the plots, they
will appear in the report exactly the same as you see it in the application,
reflecting any annotations, frozen/hidden lines, etc.
If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 343 for additional sources
of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.
Methodology
The surge calculations are divided into two regions: the interval from the
surface to the end of the pipe and the interval from the end of the pipe to
bottomhole. In the upper region, pipe pressures are coupled to annulus
pressures through the radial elasticity of the pipe. The interpolated
method of characteristics is used to solve the fluid flow and pipe
dynamics for these “Coupled PipeAnnulus” and “PipeTo
Bottomhole” regions. The fluid flow and pipe velocity equations are
solved subject to the boundary conditions given below.
The maximum time step allowed is the minimum grid spacing divided
by the sonic velocity. For a drill string near bottomhole, the minimum
gird spacing will be the distance off bottom. In order to avoid very small
timestep sizes for surges near bottomhole, a “near bottomhole” element
has been defined for this special case that neglects inertia.
Many of the mass equations have terms that relate the flow cross
sectional area to the fluid pressures. For instance, in the “Coupled Pipe
Annulus” region, increasing tubing pressure increases the tubing cross
sectional area and decreases the annulus crosssectional area.Expansion
of the pipe crosssectional area is governed by “thickwall” pipe elastic
solutions.
The more generalized oilbased mud model uses Houwen and Geehan
for improved pressuretemperature correlation to viscometer data, as
well as an improved model for low shearrate flow. The fluid model is
based on the Casson equation for nonNewtonian fluids.
Surge Analysis
• Coupledpipe/annulus region
• Pipetobottomhole region
• Pipe and annulus pressures are coupled through the pipe elasticity.
Annulus pressures caused by pipe pressures may be significant.
• The elastic force in the moving pipe is equal to the pressure below
the pipe times the pipeend area. This means that a sufficiently high
pressure below the pipe could retard the pipe motion.
• Massflow balances are calculated for flow through the pipe nozzle,
the annulus return area and into the pipe bottomhole region. The
surge force and displacement and compatibility relations are
illustrated in the following image.
• Pressure drops are calculated through the pipe nozzle and annulus
return area on the basis of crosssectional area changes with
appropriate discharge coefficients.
• Surface boundary conditions set the fluid pressures in the tube and
the annulus to atmospheric pressure. The bottomhole boundary
condition assumes a rigid floor, which requires a zero fluid velocity.
Mass Balance
The Mass Balance consists of three parts:
1 dA 1 dP 1 ∂
+ + q=0
A dP K dt A ∂z
Momentum Balance
This equation consists of four parts. The left side of the equation
represents acceleration of the fluid. The acceleration of the fluid equals
the sum of the forces on the fluid. The forces on the fluid are represented
by the three terms on the right side of the equation. The first fluid force
term represents the pressure or viscous force. The middle term on the
right side is the drag and is a function of the fluid velocity. The final term
is the gravitational force.
ρ d ∂P
q=− + h(q ) + ρg cos Θ
A dt ∂z
Where:
Pipe Flow
Mass Balance
Momentum Balance
ρ1 d ∂P1
q1 = − + h(q1 − A1v3 ) + ρ1 g cos Θ
A1 dt ∂z
Annulus Flow
Mass Balance
Momentum Balance
ρ2 d ∂P2
q2 = − + h2 (q 2 , v3 ) + ρ 2 g cos Θ
A2 dt ∂z
Pipe Motion
The following equation is the balance of momentum for the pipe. The
pipe inertia is represented by the left side of the equation. The first term
of the right side is the longitudinal elasticity of the pipe (using Young’s
modulus, E). The second and third items provide the hoopstress effect
(increased inside pressure shortens the pipe and increased outside
pressure lengthens the pipe). The final three terms define the effect of
viscous drag on the pipe. Variations in fluid velocity, relative to the pipe
velocity, inside the pipe and in the annulus affect the shear stress at the
pipe.
Momentum Balance
d2 ∂ 2 v3 ∂ dP1 ∂ dP2 d d d
ρ3 v3 = E + f1 + f2 + f 3 q1 + f 4 q 2 + f 5 v3
dt 2
∂z 2 ∂ z dt ∂z dt dt dt dt
Where:
Closed Tolerance
The dynamic surge fluid pressures and velocities are determined by
solving two coupled partial differential equations, the balance of mass
and the balance of momentum
Balance of Mass
1 dA 1 dp ∂v
A dp + K dt + ∂z = 0 A1
The balance of mass consists of three effects: the expansion of the hole
due to internal fluid pressure, the compression of the fluid due to
changes in fluid pressure, and the influx or outflux of the fluid. The
expansion of the hole is governed by the elastic response of the
formation and any casing cemented between the fluid and the formation.
The fluid volume change is given by the bulk modulus K. For drilling
muds, K varies as a function of composition, pressure, and temperature.
The reciprocal of the bulk modulus is called the compressibility.
Balance of Momentum
dv ∂p
ρ = − + F( v) A2
dt ∂z
For the open hole below the moving pipe, the fluid motion is governed
by:
1 0 0 C vz 0
0 ρ 1 0 vt F A3
=
a 1 0 0 p z Dv / Dt
0 0 a 1 p t Dp / Dt
where the first two equations are (A1) and (A2) from above with C
equal to the wellborefluid compressibility, and the last two equations
describe the variation of p and v along the characteristic curve = x ± at,
where a is the acoustic velocity. The capital D derivatives indicate
differentiation along the characteristic curve. Subscripts here denote
partial derivatives, e.g. vz = δv/δz. This system of equations is over
determined, which requires:
1 0 0 C
0 ρ 1 0 A4
det =0
a 1 0 0
0 0 a 1
1
a=± A5
ρC
1 0 0 0
0 ρ 1 F A6
det =0
a 1 0 Dv / Dt
0 0 a Dp / Dt
Dp Dv A7
± ρa = ±aF
Dt Dt
Δp ± ρ a Δv = ±a F dt A8
moving in the positive x direction form point xk1 and a wave moving in
the negative x direction from point xk+1.
Δ p + ρ a Δ v = ( p kt + Δ t − p kt −1 ) + ρ a ( v kt + Δ t − v kt −1 ) = 0 A9
Δ p − ρ a Δ v = ( p kt + Δ t − p kt +1 ) − ρ a ( v kt + Δ t − v kt +1 ) = 0 A10
where the superscripts indicate the time of the pressures and velocities,
and the subscripts indicate the grid positions. If we solve equations A9
and A10 simultaneously:
p kt + Δ t = 12 [p kt +1 + p kt −1 + ρ a ( v kt −1 − v kt +1 )]
A11
v kt + Δ t = 12 [ v kt +1 + v kt −1 + (p kt +1 − p kt −1 ) / ρa ]
While we have the value of the function p±ρav along the characteristic
from t to t+Δt, we do not know the value of either p or v until we solve
at the intersection of two characteristic curves.
One solution has been to assume that the frictional pressure drop does
not vary much along the characteristic curve, so we can hold it constant.
Equation (A8) takes this form, using this assumption:
Δp k + ρ a Δv k = aF( v kt −1 ) Δt
A12
Δp k − ρ a Δv k = −aF( v kt +1 ) Δt
This method works well as long as the frictional pressure drop term is
small relative to the dynamic force terms, in other words, if the system
is underdamped. This means that the right hand side of equation (A12)
is small relative to the right hand side of equation (A11). If the
frictional pressure drop term is large relative to the right hand side term
of equation (A11), then we say that the system is overdamped. The
solution proposed in equation (A12) is disastrous for an overdamped
Δp k + ρ a Δv k = aF( v kt + Δt ) Δt A13
t + Δt
Δp k − ρ a Δv k = −aF( v k ) Δt
f A14
F( v) = − 12 ρvv
Dh
If we want to include both the initial and final values of the friction term,
we need to assume something about the variation of F along the
characteristic curve. If we assume that F varies roughly linearly along
the curve, then equation (A8) takes the form:
Δp k + ρ a Δv k = 12 a[F( v kt + Δt ) + F( v kt −1 )] Δt A15
t + Δt
Δp k − ρ a Δv k = − a[F( v 1
2 k ) + F( v t
k +1 )]Δt
If we assume that the velocity varies linearly along the curve, we need a
more complex formulation, since F is assumed to be nonlinear in
velocity (e.g.: nonNewtonian fluid and turbulent flow). On possibility
is a threepoint integration formula:
Δp k + ρ a Δv k = 14 a[F( v kt + Δt ) + 2F(~
v ) + F( v kt −1 )] Δt
~v = 1 ( v t + Δt + v t ) A16
2 k k −1
References
Lal, Manohar. “Surge and Swab Modeling for Dynamic Pressures and
Safe Trip Velocities.” Proceedings, 1983 IADC/SPE Drilling
Conference, New Orleans (427433).
Validation
Rudolf, R.L., Suryanarayana, P.V.R., Mobil E&P Technical Center,
“Field Validation of Swab Effects While TrippingIn the Hole on Deep,
High Temperature Wells “, SPE 39395.
Fontenot, J. E., and Clark, R. E.: “An Improved Method for Calculating
Swab and Surge Pressures and Calculating Pressures in a Drilling Well,
“Society of Petroleum Engineering, October 1974 (451462).
Alderman, N. J., Gavignet, A., Guillot, D., and Maitland, G. C.: “High
Temperature, High Pressure Rheology of WaterBased Muds,” SPE
18035, 63rd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the SPE.,
Houston, (1988 (187196).
Overview
Design Considerations
• Injection methods
• Formation influx
• Hole cleaning
• Motor performance
• Surface equipment
• Wellbore stability
• Environment
You can also use the UB Summary to review the bottom hole pressure,
as well as other key information at various pump and gas injection rates.
Rheology
All underbalanced hydraulics analysis uses the Newtonian model. For
more information about rheology, refer to “Rheology” on page 22 of
the ”Hydraulics Analysis” chapter.
Newtonian
The shear stress of a Newtonian fluid is directly proportional to the shear
rate. Water is a Newtonian fluid.
When a gas is created, you can specify the gas properties, or select a
gas with predefined properties from the catalog.
Using the Gas Catalog, select the gas composition and the percentage
of each gas in the mixture. The total percentage must be 100%.
If you have defined more than one fluid or gas using the Fluids tab, use
the Analysis Settings tab to select the active fluid and/or gas you want
to use in the analysis.
There are several different methods for generating the flow map. The
DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software allows you to select
between five Flow models, including:
• BeggsBrill
• DunsRos
• Gray
• Hasan Kabir
• HagedornBrown
• Surface tension
• Inclination angle
Flow Patterns
Multiphase flow can be characterized using several flow patterns that
describe the separation of the phases. A disperse flow pattern is one
where one phase is distributed (i.e. bubbles) within another phase. On
the other hand, a segregated flow pattern is one where each phase flows
in separate streams. There are degrees of phase separation between
disperse and segregated resulting in several flow patterns.
Flow patterns differ for horizontal and vertical pipe flow. For horizontal
flow, the phases (gas and liquid) tend to separate due to differences in
density. This makes the heavier phase (liquid) tend to accumulate at the
bottom of the pipe. When the flow occurs in a pipe inclined at some
angle other than vertical or horizontal, the flow patterns take other
forms.
The following flow patterns apply to one or more of the flow models
available in the DecisionSpace® Well Engineering software.
• Slug flow: Waves of liquid phase touch the top of the pipe.
The Flow Pattern Annulus Info schematic on the left side of the table
displays the circulation medium (normal mud, aerated mud, etc.) based
on the Gas Injection Rate and Pump Rate under the current wellbore
conditions. (Both rates are specified on the Analysis Settings tab.)
Hole Cleaning
The UB Cuttings Transport Ratio plot, available on the UB
Hydraulics ribbon, displays the ratio of cuttings velocity to the mean
annular velocity. It is a good measurement of the cutting carrying
capacity of the drilling fluid.
• Negative means cuttings are settling down and may require more
fluid velocity or a better flow design
To use this output, you must have the Include cuttings loading box
checked in the UB Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings tab.
When the Include cuttings loading box is checked:
Annular Velocity
Sufficient velocity is important for effective hole cleaning. The liquid
phase is primarily responsible for cuttings transport. The velocities of
each phase are normally different. As the gas phase expands, there is a
decrease in pressure and an increase in gas volumetric flow rate. For
upward flow, the less dense, more compressible, less viscous gas phase
tends to flow at a higher velocity than the liquid phase. This is known as
slippage. For downward flow, the liquid often flows faster than the gas.
If there were no slippage, the gas and liquid phases would flow at the
mixture velocity.
Liquid Holdup
The slippage of the gas past the liquid results in larger liquid volumes.
Liquid holdup can be defined as the fraction of a pipe cross section or
volume increment that is occupied by the liquid phase.
Circulating System
The rig and circulating system information requirements for
underbalanced hydraulics analysis is similar to conventional hydraulics
except for the requirement of return surface line (blooie) length and
inside diameter.
Formation Influx
During drilling the hydrostatic pressure might be less than formation
pressure either intentionally (UBD) or naturally. This might cause an
influx of formation fluids and they need to be monitored.
Analysis Settings
The analysis options in the Analysis Settings tab are divided into
sections corresponding to the ribbon names. For example, options in the
Torque & Drag section pertain to outputs on the Torque & Drag
ribbon.
If you do not have any outputs in the Output Area that require the
options in a particular section, the section will not be displayed on the
Analysis Settings tab.
Injection Data
Active gas
Specify the gas which will be used in the analysis. Only one gas can be
selected at a time. The dropdown list of gases are based on those
defined using the Fluids tab.
Injection Temperature
Specify gas injection temperature.
Select the Use parasite strings check box to indicate gas injection using
a parasitic string. In the table that appears, specify the injection depth,
injection rate, and injection gas. The dropdown list of gases are based
on those defined using the Fluids tab.
Pressure Loss
Calculation Options
Flow Model
Select the multiphase flow model to use in the analysis from the
following options:
Gas law
Select how to determine gas deviation from the following two options:
Virial  uses the Taylor expansion series to describe how a gas deviate
from an ideal gas
Be aware that the UB Hydraulics analysis does not use the cuttings
information input in the Hydraulics section of the Analysis Settings
tab. Therefore, the cuttings density does not affect pressure, it only
affect cuttings transport ratio and cutting velocity.
Reservoir pressure
Input a known bottomhole reservoir pressure for underbalanced
condition monitoring.
Target pressure
Input a desired bottomhole target pressure to maintain an
underbalanced drilling condition.
When a mud motor is defined on the string editor, then based on the
minimum and maximum equivalent liquid rates entered in the analysis
settings, the solutions which result in bottomhole pressure units are
found on the operating envelope.
through parasitic string, bottomhole pressure may become too low for
the application to resolve a valid calculation for the operating envelope.
Underbalanced Plots
Underbalanced refers to the amount of pressure exerted on a formation
exposed in a wellbore below the internal fluid pressure of that
formation. If sufficient porosity and permeability exists, formation
fluids enter the wellbore. Drilling rate typically increases as
underbalanced condition is approached.
UB Operating Envelope
The Operating Envelope plot defines the set of limitations within which
the underbalanced drilling system can perform safely and effectively.
Picking any combination of parameters within the envelope ensures an
executable set without inflicting an overbalanced drilling condition.
The liquid injection range is entered by the user. The application then
divides the range equally into five liquid flow rate calculations. These
flow rate calculations, resolve into five pressure profiles along the gas
injection range (the xaxis). The behavior of the five pressure profiles
resolved from the liquid/gas injection ranges are governed by the
frictional effect of the multiphase fluid flowing through the wellbore.
When the slope of the liquid injection rate reaches 0, the transitional
point is marked for that particular liquid injection rate Since the
transitional point of each liquid injection rate can be on a different gas
injection rate coordinate (across the xaxis), an average of the five points
is taken and +/ 10% of this average is used to define the transitional
zone across the Gas injection rate.
In this zone, the gas injection rate yields little or no effect on bottom
hole pressure: consequently, setting a preferred condition for ease in
well control while drilling. When the gas injection rate is increased
beyond the transitional zone, frictional effect induces rising bottomhole
pressure. A zone dominated by frictional effects is generally not
preferred in underbalanced drilling, due to disorderly behavior of the
multiphase fluid, the strain it exerts on the surface equipment in order
to achieve the gas injection rate, and worst of all, possible decrease in
production rate while flowing.
The mud motor equivalent liquid rate entered by the user, along with
minimum vertical annulus velocity, sets the left and right boundaries of
the operating envelope. During the calculation, this newly entered data
is mapped into the Gas Injection Rate and Bottom Hole Pressure
units. The results may intersect the five Gas/Liquid Injection rate
Typically the left and right boundaries of the In the hydrostatically dominate zone (blue
envelope are based on minimum and maximum background) the bottom hole pressure
gas injection rates as specified in the Operation decreases as gas injection increases. As
Envelope Parameters section of the Analysis more gas is injected, there may be a
Settings tab. transition to the frictionally dominate zone
(red background) where injecting more
gas may increase bottom hole pressure.
UB Mixture Density
Mixture Density represents the gasliquid fluid density in the annulus
and string, is impacted by the depth, temperature, pressure, wellbore
UB Liquid Holdup
Liquid holdup is defined at the fraction of a pipe cross section or volume
increment that is occupied by the liquid phase. The values range from 0
(total gas) to 1 (total liquid). This phenomenon takes place in multiphase
systems because the gas and liquid phases are not flowing with the same
velocity.
• downward: the liquid will flow faster than the gas due to its
higher density
• upward: the gas will flow faster than the liquid resulting in liquid
holdup
This output can be used to determine if the gas concentration may be too
high for downhole tools to properly function. Some of these tools need
to operate with a minimum equivalent liquid rate. Normally the
maximum gas content is 15%.
The liquid phase is primarily responsible for cuttings transport while the
gas phase increases the liquid velocity. The algorithm for calculating
cuttings velocity is based on an assumption of a vertical (or near
vertical) wellbore. Results for deviated sections of the wellbore may not
be accurate.
UB Flow Pattern
The UB Flow Pattern table displays the annulus and string pressure for
a specified liquid and gas flow rate. This table allows you to determine
the flow pattern/regime for all annular and string crosssectional areas.
The schematic on the left side of the table shows the circulation medium
(normal mud, aerated mud, etc.) based on the Gas Injection Rate and
Pump Rate under the current wellbore conditions.
Each pattern
is displayed
in a unique
color.
UB Summary
This plot displays a summary of key underbalanced information.
If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 473 for additional sources
of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.
V M = V SL + V SG
Where:
VM = Mixture velocity
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
V SL
H ns = 
V SL + V SG
Where:
Hns = Noslip holdup
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
2
VM
N FR = 
gd
Where:
NFR = Froude mixture number
VM = Mixture velocity
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
ρL
N LV = V SL  0.25
g σ L
Where:
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
0.302
L 1 = 316 Hns
– 2.4684
L 2 = 0.0009252 H ns
– 1.4516
L 3 = 0.1 H ns
– 6.738
L 4 = 0.5 H ns
and
L 2 < N FR ≤ L 3
Intermediate:
0.01 ≤ H ns < 0.4
and
L 3 < N FR ≤ L 1
Or
H ns ≥ 0.4
and
L 3 < N FR ≤ L 4
Distributed:
H ns < 0.4
and
N FR ≥ L 1
OR
H ns ≥ 0.4
and
N FR > L 4
b
aHns
H h = 
c

NFR
Where:
Hns = Noslip holdup
NFR = Froude Mixture Number
and where a, b, and c are determined for each flow pattern from the
following table:
Flow Pattern a b c
Segregated 0.98 0.4846 0.0868
Intermittent 0.845 0.5351 0.0173
Distributed 1.065 0.5824 0.0609
e f g
C = ( 1 – H ns ) ln ( dHns NLV NFR )
Where:
Hns = Noslip holdup
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
NFR = Froude mixture number
and where d, e, f, and g are determined for each flow condition from the
following table:
Flow Pattern d e f g
Segregated uphill 0.011 3.768 3.539 1.614
Intermittent uphill 2.96 0.305 0.4473 0.0978
Distributed uphill No correction, C = 0, ψ = 1
All flow patterns 4.70 0.3692 0.1244 0.5056
downhill
3
ψ = 1 + C [ sin ( 1.8θ ) – 0.333sin ( 1.8θ ) ]
Where:
C = Inclination correction factor coefficient
θ = Deviation from the horizontal axis
HL = Hh ψ
Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
Hh = Horizontal holdup
ψ = Liquid holdup inclination correction factor
H L = aH L1 + ( 1 – a ) H L2
such that
L 3 – N FR
a = 
L3 – L2
Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
HL1 = Liquid holdup, calculated assuming flow is segregated
HL2 = Liquid holdup, assuming flow is intermittent
f tp
 = eJ

f ns
Where
ln ( y )
J = 
2

4
– 0.0523 + 3.182 ln ( y ) – 0.8725 [ ln ( y ) ] + 0.01853 [ ln ( y ) ]
and
ftp = Twophase friction factor
fns = Noslip holdup friction factor
eJ = 2.718, the base of natural logarithms
H ns
y = 2
HL
Where:
Hns = Noslip holdup
HL = Liquid holdup
( N Re ) ns = ρ ns V M 
d
μ ns
Where:
(NRe)ns = Noslip Reynolds number
HL = Liquid holdup
ρns = Noslip average of density
VM = Mixture velocity
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
Where:
P = Inlet pressure along a pipe or annulus
ftp = Twophase friction factor
ρns = Noslip average of density
VM = Mixture velocity
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
Where:
A = Flow regime factor for check slug flow and bubble
flow
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
da = Annuli diameter
Where:
B = Flow regime factor for check slug flow and bubble
flow
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
Griffith Correlation
VM VM 2 V SG
H L = 1 – 0.5 1 +  – 1 +  – 4 
VS VS VS
Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
VM = Mixture velocity
VS = Superficial velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
HagedornBrown Correlation
1⁄4
g
N L = μ L 3
ρL σL
Where:
NL = Ros liquid viscosity number
μL = Liquid viscosity
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
ρL = Total liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
2 3
0.0019 + 0.0322 N L – 0.6642 N L + 4.9951 NL
CN L = 
2

3
1 – 10.0147 N L + 33.8696 N L + 277.2817 N L
Where:
CNL = Viscosity number coefficient
ΝL = Ros liquid viscosity number
1
ρL 4
N LV = V SL 
g σ L
Where:
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
1
ρL 4
N GV = V SG 
g σ L
Where:
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
N LV P 0.1 CN L
φ = 
 
0.575 14.7

ND
N GV
Where:
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
CNL = Viscosity number coefficient
ND = Gray diameter number
2 1⁄2
HL 0.0047 + 1123.32φ + 729489.64φ
 = 
Ψ 1 + 1097.1566φ + 722153.97φ
2
Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
ψ = Liquid holdup inclination correction factor
Where:
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
NL = Ros liquid viscosity number
ND = Gray diameter number
2 3
1.0886 – 69.9473φ + 2334.3497φ – 12896.683φ
Ψ = 
2 3
1 – 53.4401φ + 1517.9369φ – 8419.8115φ
Where:
Liquid holdup
HL
H L =  ψ
ψ
Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
ψ = Liquid holdup inclination correction factor
2
dP 2 f ρ ns VM ρns
 = 
 
dx f da ρs
Where:
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
f = Fanning friction factor
ρns = Noslip average of density
ρs = Slip average of density
VM = Mixture velocity
da = Annuli diameter
Where:
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VS = Superficial velocity
θ = Deviation from horizontal axis
1
g σL ( ρL – ρG ) 4
V s = 1.53 
2

ρL
Where:
VS = Superficial velocity
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
3 – 0.4
V SG σL 0.6 2 fV M
d = 0.725 + 4.15 
  
VM ρL da
Where:
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VM = Mixture velocity
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
f = Fanning friction factor
da = Annuli diameter
0.4σ L
d c = 2 

( ρL – ρG ) g
Where:
dc = The maximum stable diameter of the dispersed phase
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
When d less than or equal to dc and when superficial gas velocity stays
on the left of Boundary C, the flow is in dispersed bubble.
Boundary C: transition from slug to dispersed bubble
V SG = 1.083 V SL + 0.52 V s
Where:
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VS = Superficial velocity
g σL ( ρL – ρG ) 0.25
V SG = 3.1 
2

ρG
Where:
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VM = Mixture velocity
VS = Superficial velocity
1.2 gd o ( ρ L – ρ G )
V TB = [ 0.345 + 0.1 d t ] sin θ ( 1 + cos θ ) 
ρL
Where:
VTB = Taylor bubble rise velocity
di
d t = 
do
Where:
dt = Ratio of inner diameter to outer diameter
do = Outer diameter
di = Inner diameter
V SG
H TB = 1 – 
1.2 V M + V TB
Where:
HTB = Taylor bubble holdup
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VM = Mixture velocity
VTB = Taylor bubble rise velocity
V SG ρ G
f m = 
V SL ρ L + V SG ρ G
Where:
fm = Friction induced by gas
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VS = Superficial velocity
1 – fm 0.9 ρG μL 0.1
x =   
fm ρL μG
Where:
fm = Friction induced by gas
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density
μL = Liquid viscosity
μG = Gas viscosity
1
H L = 1 – 

0.8 0.378
(1 + x )
Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
Where:
NRe = Reynolds number
ρL = Total liquid density
VM = Mixture velocity
da = Annuli diameter
μL = Liquid viscosity
0.046
f m = 
0.2
N Re
Where:
fm = Friction induced by gas
NRe = Reynolds number
ρ M = H L ρ L + ( 1 – H L )ρ G
Where:
ρM = Mixture density
HL = Liquid holdup
ρL = Total liquid density
ρG = Gas density
2
dP 2 f m ρM VM
 = 
dx f da
Where:
fm = Fiction induced by gas
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
VM = Mixture velocity
da = Annuli diameter
ρM = Mixture density
f = Fanning friction factor
ρG

ρ
V SGC = V SG μ G L
θL
If
–4
V SGC < 4 × 10
Then
4 2.86
E = 0.0055 ( 10 V SGC )
If
–4
V SGC ≥ 4 × 10
Then
–4
E = 0.857 log ( 10 V SGC ) – 0.2
Where:
VSGC = Critical superficial gas velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
μG = Gas viscosity
ρG = Gas density
ρL = Liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
E = The fraction of flowing liquid entrained in the gas
core
Duns and Ros Correlation (Sixth World Petroleum Congress 1963 (SI
units)
The correlations described in this topic use SI units. The pressure drop
calculated from these correlations has to be converted to English units
before being used.
The Duns and Ros correlation is a result of an extensive laboratory study
in which liquid holdup and pressure gradients were measured.
Correlations were developed for slip velocity (from which holdup can
be calculated) and friction factor for each of three flow regimes.
1
4
g
N L = μ L 3
ρL σL
Where:
NL = Ros liquid viscosity number
1
ρL 4
N LV = V SL 

g σL
Where:
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
ρL = Total liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s)
1
ρL 4
N GV = V SG 

g σL
Where:
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
ρL = Total liquid density
σL = Liquid surface tension
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s)
gρ
N D = d L
σL
Where:
ND = Gray diameter number
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
ρL = Total liquid density
Slip factor
1. Bubble flow
N GV 2
s = F 1 + F 2 N LV + F ′ 3 
1 + N LV
Where:
s = Slip factor
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
F4
F ′ 3 = F 3 – 
ND
Where:
ND = Gray diameter number
Where:
s = Slip factor
F'6 = Figure below
F5 = Figure below
F7 = Figure below
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
NLV = Ros liquid velocity number
Where:
HL = Liquid holdup
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
dP f bs ρ L V SL V M
 = 
dx f 2 gc d
Where:
f2
F bs = ( f 1 ) 
f3
and
fbs = Friction ratio for bubble and slug flow
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VM = Mixture velocity
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
gc = Gravitational constant (32.174) lb ft/lbf.s2
ρL = Liquid density
f1 = Figure
f2 = Figure
f3 = Figure
R
f 3 = 1 + f 1 
50
Where:
R = Superficial liquid/gas ratio
VSL = Superficial liquid velocity
VSG = Mixture gas velocity
f1 = Figure
f3 = Figure
Where:
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
f = Fanning friction factor
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
gc = Gravitational constant (32.174) lb ft/lbf.s2
ρG = Gas density
Where:
NRe = Reynolds number
ρG = Gas density
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
Duns and Ros noted that the wall roughness for mist flow is affected by
the film of liquid on the wall of the pipe. The ripples of the wall film
cause a drag on the gas. This process is governed by a form of the Weber
number.
ρ G VSG2 ε
N we = 
σL
Where:
Nwe = Weber number
ρG = Gas density
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
σL = Liquid surface tension
ε = Pipe wall relative roughness
Where:
Nμ = Liquid viscosity number
μL = Liquid viscosity
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρL = Total liquid density
ε = Pipe wall relative roughness
The value of roughness may be very small but ε/d never becomes
smaller than the value for the pipe itself. At the transition zone to slug
flow, ε/d may approach 0.5. Between these limits, ε/d can be obtained
from the following equations.
Mist flow film thickness
N we N μ > 0.005
Such that
ε = L
0.0749σ
d 2
ρ V d G SG
And
N we N μ > 0.005
Such that
Where:
Nwe = Weber number
Nμ = Liquid viscosity number
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
σL = Liquid surface tension
ρG = Gas density
ε = Pipe wall relative roughness
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
Values of f for the mist flow regime may be found for ε/d > 0.005 from
the following.
ε 1.73
f = 2 + 0.067 
1
d
4 log 10 
0.27ε
d
Where:
f = Fanning friction factor
d = Equivalent ID of flow conduit
ε = Pipe wall relative roughness
As the wave height on the pipe walls increases, the actual area through
which the gas can flow is decreased, since the diameter open to flow of
gas is d  ε. Duns and Ros suggested that the prediction of friction loss
could be refined by substitution of d  ε and
2
VSG d

2
(d – ε)
for VSG
throughout the calculation of friction gradient. In this case, the
determination of roughness, ε, is iterative.
In the transition zone between slug flow and mist flow, Duns and Ros
suggested linear interpolation between the flow regime boundaries, Ls
and Lm, to obtain the pressure gradient. This means that when Ngv falls
between Ls and Lm, pressure gradients must be calculated using both the
slug flow correlations and the mist flow correlations. The pressure
gradient in the transition zone is then calculated from
 = A dP
dP  + B 
dP
dx dx slug dx mist
Where:
L m – L GV
A = 
Lm – Ls
and
L GV – L s
B =  = 1 – A
Lm – Ls
and
P = Inlet pressure along pipe or annulus
A = Flow regime factor
B = Flow regime factor
Lm = Length of mist flow
Ls = Length of liquid flow
LGV =
Increased accuracy was claimed if the gas density used in the mist flow
pressure gradient calculation was modified to
ρ G N GV
ρG′ = 

Lm
Where
ρG = Gas density calculated at the given conditions of
pressure and temperature
NGV = Ros gas velocity number
Lm = Length of mist flow
This modification accounts for some of the liquid entrained in the gas.
2 2
g f tp G G 1
dP =  [ ξρ G + ( 1 – ξ )ρ L ] dh +  dh +  d 
gc 2 g c d ρ mf g ρm
and
2 2
ρM VSM
N V = 
g σ ( ρL – ρG )
2
g ( ρL – ρG ) d
ND = 
σ
V So + V SW
R = 
V SG
and
ξ = Gas volume fraction
ρG = Gas density
ρL = Liquid density
G = Mass velocity
ftp = Twophase friction factor
gc = Gravitational constant (32.174) lb.ft/lbf.s2
g = Gravitational constant (ft/s2)
B = Flow regime factor
R = Superficial liquid/gas ratio
ρM = Mixture density
VSM = Superficial gas/liquid mixture velocity
σ = Gray’s mixture surface tension
ND = Gray diameter number
VSo = Superficial hydrocarbon condensate velocity
VSW = Superficial water velocity
VSG = Superficial gas velocity
The following indicates data ranges over which the Gray correlation was
developed. Any calculations beyond the following acceptable
guidelines should be viewed with caution.
• Flow velocities below 50 fps
• Tubing sizes below 3.5 inches
• Condensate production 50 bbl/MMscf
• Water production 5 bbl/MMscf
The program was compared to 108 sets of well data. The results were
found superior to drygas well predictions. The Gray correlation can be
used to evaluate gas condensate wells by generating tubing performance
J curves and comparing them to reservoir performance. Although the
above restrictions should be considered, several calculations made with
up to 300 bbl/MMscf indicated less than a 10% error compared to data.
Influx Modeling
One of the advantages of foam drilling is low BHP, which increases the
rate of penetration. However, influxes of gas, water, or oil can occur as
a result of low BHP. These influxes will change the existing foal system,
resulting in a change in the pressure profile inside the drill pipe as well
as in the annulus.
Total liquid density may be calculated from rates and densities of
injected liquid and those of water/oil influxes.
N
ρ L = ρo f o + ρi fi
i=1
Where:
ρL = Liquid density
ρo = Density of inlet drilling fluid
fo = Below
ρi = Density of water/oil influx
fi = Below
Where:
fo = Above
qo = Inlet drilling fluid injection rate
qi = Water/oil influx rate
Where:
fi = See above equation
qo = Inlet drilling fluid injection rate
qi = Water/oil influx rate
M G = M Go f o + MGi fi
i=1
m Go
f o = 
N
m Go + mGi
i=1
m Gi
f i = 
N
m Go + mGi
i=1
Where:
fo = See above equations
fi = See above equations
MGo = Molecular weight of inlet gas
Equations of state for gas and upward annular foam flow should use
these adjusted parameters for annular position above the influx points.
References
Bayer, A.H., Millhone, R.S. and Foote, R.W., 1972: Flow Behavior of
Foam as a Well Circulating Fluid, SPE 3986, presented at the SPE 47th
Annual Fall Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, October 2–5.
Bayer, A.H., Millhone, R.S. and Foote, R.W., 1972: Flow Behavior of
Foam as a Well Circulating Fluid, SPE 3986, presented at the SPE 47th
Annual Fall Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, October 2–5.
Lord, D.L., 1981: Analysis of Dynamic and Static Foam Behavior, JPT,
January.
Grovier, G.W. and Aziz, K., 1987: The Flow of Complex Mixtures in
Pipes, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.
Angel, R.R., 1957: Volume Requirements for Air and Gas Drilling, T.P.
4679 Transaction, Vol. 210, SPE of AIME, pg. 325–330. SPE
00009445.pdf
Dubler, A.E. and Hubbard, M.C., 1975: A Model for GasLiquid Slug
Flow in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Tubes, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund.
Govier, G.W., and Onser, M.M., 1962: The Horizontal Pipeline Flow of
Air Water Mixtures, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 40.93.
Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M. and Poling, B.P., 1987: The Properties of
Gases and Liquids, 4th Edition, McGrawHill, New York, NY.
Zucrow, M.J. and Hoffmure, J.D., 1976: Gas Dynamics, John Wiley and
Sons. Inc., New York
L. Zhou, R.M. Ahmed, S.Z. Miska, N.E. Takach, M. Yu, M.B. Pickell,
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