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Hand-held tools with non-metallic cases are called double-insulated.

This classification includes areas of grain handling and processing plants, starch plants,
sugar-pulverizing plants, malting plants, hay-grinding plants, coal pulverizing plants,
areas where metal dusts and powders are produced or processed, and other similar
locations that contain dust-producing machinery and equipment.

This classification includes locations where dust accumulations might form on or in the
vicinity of electric equipment, but where dangerous concentrations of suspended dust
would not be likely.

Electrically safe work condition

A state in which an electrical conductor or circuit part has been disconnected from
energized parts, locked/tagged in accordance with established standards, tested to ensure
the absence of voltage, and grounded if determined to be necessary.

This classification includes ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or vapors that are
likely to exist under normal operating conditions, and ignitable concentrations of
flammable gases or vapors that may frequently exist because of repair or maintenance
operations or because of leakage.

Flash Protection Boundary

When an arc flash hazard exists, a flash protection boundary is an approach limit at a
distance from a prospective arc source within which a person could receive a second-
degree burn if an electrical arc flash were to occur.

Limited Shock Boundary

An approach limit at a distance from an exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit
part within which a shock hazard exists.

Equipment or circuits that are de-energized are rendered inoperative by attaching locks
and/or tags at all points where such equipment or circuits could be energized.

Prohibited Shock Boundary

An approach limit at a distance from an exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit
part within which performing work is considered the same as making contact with the
electrical conductor or circuit part.

Qualified Person
A person who is familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment and the
hazards involved.
Restricted Shock Boundary
An approach limit at a distance from an exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit
part within which there is an increased risk of shock, due to electrical arc-over combined
with inadvertent movement, for personnel working in close proximity to the energized
electrical conductor or circuit part.

OSHA’s electrical standards address electrical workplace hazards. Employees working
on, near, or around electricity may be exposed to dangers such as, electric shock,
electrocution, burns, fires, and explosions. The objective of the standard is to minimize
the potential hazard by specifying design characteristics of safety when installing and
using electrical equipment and systems.

Electricity-The Dangers
The following are some of the dangers associated with electricity:

 More than five workers are electrocuted every week.

 Electricity causes 12 percent of young worker deaths in the workplace.

 It takes very little current flow to cause harm to a person who comes in direct
contact with an electrical circuit.

 There is a significant risk of fires due to electrical malfunctions.

Electricity poses a danger to all workers because even a small amount of current can
contribute to many different types of hazards. The resulting uncontrolled electricity can
be summed up by the phrase BE SAFE.

 Burns
 Electrocution
 Shock
 Arc Flash/Arc Blast
 Fire
 Explosion

Workers can BE SAFE by recognizing, avoiding, and protecting against these electrical
Burns are the most common shock-related injury. The severity of an electrical burn is
usually dependent on voltage, amperage, and resistance. The extent of the damage caused
by an electrical burn can be hard to determine because often tissues underneath the skin
are affected even if there is minimal cosmetic damage.

Burns from electricity can be classified into three types:

1. Electrical
2. Arc/Flash
3. Thermal Contact

Electrocution is the term for death due to electric shock. Often, electrocution occurs when
the victim is exposed to a lethal amount of electricity, but even a relatively small amount
of current has the potential to stop the heart.

When someone comes into contact with flowing electricity, he or she often becomes part
of the electrical circuit. If there is sufficient current to overcome the resistance of the
body, the current will enter at the point of contact and travel through the person along a
path of least resistance until it can leave the body.

Shocks can range from minor to fatal and can cause burns, damage to organs, or
interruption of the heartbeat.

Arc Flash/Arc Blast

An arc flash is the sudden release of electrical energy through the air between two points.
This occurs when a high-voltage gap exists, and there is a breakdown between
conductors. Arc flashes give off intense light and heat that can cause burns. Flashes have
been recorded with temperatures as high as 35,000°F.

An arc blast occurs in the same way as an arc flash, but pressure waves are created by
rapidly heated air, causing a blast.

Many electrical fires result from faulty wiring or outlets, but cords, plugs, and switches
have also been known to cause fires. A spark from any of these sources can ignite nearby
flammable material. The resulting fire can potentially be electrically energized and
should be extinguished with a Class C extinguisher. This class of extinguishers uses non-
conductive extinguishing agents like carbon dioxide and dry chemicals to reduce risk of
shock to the user.

Electricity can ignite explosive material in the air. Employees should be aware of the
presence of combustible materials in the air through effective hazard communication.

Safety Tips
Electrical Safety Tips
 Never operate electrical equipment while you are standing in water.

 Never repair electrical cords or equipment unless you are qualified and authorized
to do so.

 Have a qualified electrician inspect electrical equipment that has gotten wet
before energizing it.

 If working in damp locations, inspect electric cords and equipment to ensure that
they are in good condition and free of defects, and use a ground-fault circuit
interrupter (GFCI).

 Always use caution when working near electricity.

Safety Tips – Overhead and Buried Lines

 Assume that all overhead wires are energized at lethal voltages. Never assume
that a wire is safe to touch even if it is down or appears to be insulated.

 Never touch a fallen overhead power line. Call the electric utility company to
report fallen electrical lines.
 Stay at least 10 feet (3 meters) away from overhead wires during cleanup and
other activities. If working at heights or handling long objects, survey the area
before starting work for the presence of overhead wires.

 If an overhead wire falls across your vehicle while you are driving, stay inside the
vehicle. If the engine stalls, do not leave your vehicle. Warn people not to touch
the vehicle or the wire. Call or ask someone to call the local electric utility
company and emergency services.

Safety Tips – Cords and Wires

 Check tools for the required operating voltage before use.

 Match the voltage needs of the tool to the AWG of the cord when using an
extension cord.

 Avoid damaging or straining cords and wires.

 Never use a tool with a damaged cord.

 Only use tools with cords marked for hard or extra-hard use

Electricity - How It Works

Electrical current is the flow of electrons from a voltage source and back to the source. It
requires a source of voltage, a circuit path through a conductor, and a load that uses the
current flow as work.

Electrical Injuries
The following are the main types of electrical injuries:
Direct and indirect

The following are considered to be direct electrical injuries-
*electrocution(death due to electrical shock)
*Electrical shock and related sympotoms resulting form it(e.g bone fractures,neurological
disorder, etc )
*arc flash/blast (usually resulting in burns concussion injuries etc)
The following are considered to be indirect electrical injuries-
*back injuries
*cuts to the hands

Electrical Shock
An electrical shock is received when electrical current passes through the body. You will
get an electrical shock if parts of your body complete an electrical circuit by:

 Touching an exposed energized circuit with one part of your body and a grounded
point with another part of your body.

 Contacting two different energized conductors at the same time.

Shock Severity
The severity of the shock depends on:

 The path of current through the body.

 The amount of current flowing through the body (amps).

 The duration of the shocking current through the body.

 The amount of moisture on the skin.

 The gender of the victim.

Dangers of Electrical Shock

Low voltage does not necessarily mean low hazard. Review the levels of current and
severity of shock they cause below.

 Below 1 mA - Not perceptible;

 1 mA - Faint tingle;
 5 mA - Slight shock; not painful; strong involuntary reactions;
 6-25 mA (women) - Painful shock; loss of muscular control;
 9-30 mA (men) - Freezing shock (cannot let go);
 50-150 mA - Death possible; severe shock; very painful;
 1,000-4,300 mA - Death likely; heart functions interrupted; nerve damage occurs;
 10,000 mA - Death probable; severe burns; cardiac arrest;
(mA = milliamperes; 1,000 milliamperes = 1 amp;)

A Common Shock
Do not underestimate the effects of a shock from a relatively low amount of voltage. For
instance, most residential outlets in the United States carry 120 volts. The resistance from
hand-to-hand of a person in working attire who is perspiring slightly is 1000 ohms. In an
average residential construction environment, a worker who receives a shock from an
outlet would be exposed to 120 mA of electricity. The result would be an extremely
painful shock that could cause respiratory arrest, severe muscular contractions, and
possible death.

A Shock to the Heart

Shocks are dangerous because even a small amount of current can be fatal. If your heart
is exposed to a current of 75 mA or more, the shock can cause ventricular fibrillation.
Ventricular fibrillation is a condition that causes your heart to begin beating very rapidly.
This uncoordinated movement in the heart makes it unable to pump blood effectively.
Without proper blood flow, the brain doesn't receive oxygen and dies within a matter of
minutes. A defibrillator, a machine that delivers another shock, is the most effective way
to jolt the heart back into its normal rhythm.

Muscle Paralysis
The victim's body sustains more damage as the duration of a shock increases.
Unfortunately, a current of 10 mA or above can cause muscle paralysis. A "freezing
shock" can paralyze the victim, making him unlikely to be able to let go of energized
tools or equipment.

Burns and Arc Flash

Burns are the most common shock-related injury. Approximately 10 persons per day
receive electrical burns severe enough to require treatment at special burn hospitals. This
does not include those treated at local hospitals. Burns can occur when you touch
exposed energized electrical wiring or equipment. Many burns occur as a result of arc
flash. Burns typically occur on the hands, although other parts of the body may be
affected, and are very serious injuries that require immediate attention. In the case of arc
flash, additional internal injuries may occur with the burns as a result of the concussion
force produced by the explosion from the arc flash. The heat produced by an arc flash is
four times hotter than the surface of the sun.
Electric shock can also cause indirect injuries. Workers in elevated locations who
experience a shock can fall, resulting in serious injury or death.

Electrical shocks, fires, or falls result from the following hazards:

 Exposed electrical parts

 Overhead power lines
 Inadequate wiring
 Defective insulation
 Improper grounding
 Overloaded circuits
 Wet conditions
 Damaged tools and equipment
 Improper personal protective equipment (PPE)

Electrical Hazards and How to Control Them

Electrical accidents are caused by a combination of the following three factors:

1. Unsafe equipment and/or installation

2. Workplaces made unsafe by the environment

3. Unsafe work practices

Exposed Electrical Parts

Live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more must be guarded against
accidental contact by cabinets or other forms of enclosures, or by any of the following

 By location in a room, vault, or similar enclosure that is accessible only to

qualified persons.
 By partitions or screens so arranged that only qualified persons will have access
to the space within reach of the live parts. Any openings in such partitions or
screens shall be so sized and located that persons are not likely to come into
accidental contact with the live parts or to bring conducting objects into contact
with them.
 By location on a balcony, gallery, or platform so elevated and arranged as to
exclude unqualified persons.
 By elevation of eight feet or more above the floor or other working surface and so
installed as to exclude unqualified persons.

Conductors Entering Boxes, Cabinets, or

Conductors entering boxes, cabinets, or fittings must be protected from abrasion.
Openings through which conductors enter must be effectively closed. Unused openings in
cabinets, boxes, and fittings also must be effectively closed.


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corrosive , cutaneous , degrees Celsius(centrigrade) , degrees Fahrenheit , density ,
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evaporation evaporation rate , explosion proof federal register fire point first aid ,
flammable limits flammable liquid flammable range flash point flash protection
boundary fume gage pressure gas gram HEPA filter (high efficiency particulate air filter )
IARC IDLH ignition source ignition temperature impervious inches of mercury column
inches of water column incompartible ingestion inhalation insoluble irritant latent period
LC50 LD50 limited shoch boundary liter(l) lockout/tagout lower explosive limit (LEL)
Malignant metastasis meter micron(micrometer,m) milligram (mg) miligrams per cubic
meter(mg/m3) ,milliliter (ml) millimeter of mercury(mmHg) mists MSDS MSHA
mucous membranes NFPA niosh NTP nuisance dust OSHA oxidizer oxygen deficiency
oxygen-enriched atmosphere particulate matter PEL personal protective equipment (PPE)
pH polymerization ppm prohibited shock boundary psi qualified person RCRA
reactivity(chemical) respirable size particulates respirator(approved) respiratoy system
restricted shock boundary route of entry SARA SCBA sensitizer short-term exposure
Covers and Canopies
All pull boxes, junction boxes, and fittings shall be provided with covers. If metal covers
are used, they shall be grounded. In energized installations each outlet box shall have a
cover, faceplate, or fixture canopy. Covers of outlet boxes having holes through which
flexible cord pendants pass shall be provided with bushings designed for the purpose or
shall have smooth, well rounded surfaces on which the cords may bear.
limit(STEL) solubility in water solvent sorbent specific gravity stability synergism
systemic threshold threshold limit valve (TLV)

Electrocution is a fatal risk,but burns and falls are also hazards. Maintain a safe distance
from all power lines.

Hazard - Overhead Power Lines

Overhead power lines usually are not insulated; some examples of equipment that can
contact power lines are:

 Cranes
 Ladders
 Scaffolds
 Backhoes
 Scissors lifts
 Raised dump truck beds
 Aluminum paint rollers

Overhead and buried power lines are especially hazardous because they carry extremely
high voltage. Fatal electrocution is the main risk, but burns and falls from elevation are
also hazards. Using tools and equipment that can contact power lines increases the risk.

Control - Overhead Power Lines

Power lines hazards can be avoided if the following precautions are taken:

 A safe distance from power lines is maintained.

 Warning signs are posted.
 Flagged warning lines are used to mark safe distances.
 If possible, the utility company has de-energized and visibly grounded the power
 Power lines are assumed to be energized.
 Wood or fiberglass ladders, not metal ladders, are used.
 Ladders and equipment are retracted before moving.
 Special training and personal protective equipment is provided to power line

Maintaining a Safe Distance

As the voltage of a power line increases, the distance you should maintain from the line
also increases. The minimum distance that you or your equipment should be from a line
carrying less than 50 kV is 10 feet.

Minimum Power Line Clearance Distances

Voltage (kV) Minimum Clearance (feet)
Up to 50 10
Over 50 to 200 15
Over 200 to 350 20
Over 350 to 500 25
Over 500 to 750 35
Over 750 to 1000 45
Over 1000 Established by line owner or other qualified person

Using an alumininum ladder to clean gutters-unsafe

Operating a crane in an open field-safe

Being within 10 feet of an overhead power line-unsafe

Using a hand saw on a piece of plywood-safe

Standing on a fiberglass ladder-safe

Trimming tree limbs near a power line-unsafe

Overhead power lines are especially hazardous because they carry extremely high

Hazard - Inadequate Wiring

A wire that is too small for the current is a hazard. If a portable tool with an extension
cord has a wire too small for the tool:
 The tool will draw more current than the cord can handle, causing overheating
and a possible fire without tripping the circuit breaker.

 The circuit breaker could be the right size for the circuit but not for the smaller-
wire extension cord.

Control - Inadequate Wiring

Use the Correct Wire
The following are the important points to consider when using wires:

 The wire used depends on the operation, building materials, electrical load, and
environmental factors.

 Use fixed cords rather than flexible cords.

 Use the correct extension cord.

The OSHA standard requires flexible cords to be designed for hard or extra-hard usage.
These ratings are to be indelibly marked at approximately every 24" (National Electric
Code Article 400.6) of the cord. Because deterioration occurs more rapidly in cords,
which are not rugged enough for construction conditions, the NEC and OSHA have
specified the types of cords to use in a construction environment. This rule designates the
types of cords that must be used for various applications, including portable tools,
appliances, and temporary and portable lights. The cords are designated HARD and

Choosing the Right Cord

Extension cords need to be heavy enough to carry the electrical load of the tools that they
are attached to. If the cord is not appropriate for the tool you are using, the extra voltage
can damage the tool or cause the cord to overheat. This kind of mistake can lead to an
electrical fire. A long extension cord can also drop voltage as the current travels through
the cord. Check the rating on the extension cord and match it to the current of the tool
you are using.
American Wire Gauge
Ampacity is the maximum amount of electrical current a conductor can sustain. This
amount is measured in amps. (Watts divided by volts is equal to amps, in case the tag on
your tools has you confused.) The American Wire Gauge system is a standardized system
for wire sizing and ampacity.

Understanding AWG
To effectively choose the correct wire gauge for a tool, it is necessary to understand how
the size of a wire affects its ampacity. The amount of current a wire can safely carry
increases as the number of the wire size decreases. This is because the diameter and area
of the wire are larger as the AWG number goes down. Note in the following table how
the area of the wire increases as the size of the wire gets lower.

AWG Copper Wire Sizes

Size Diameter Area Ampacity (Wire with 60°C
(AWG) (mils) (circular insulation)
14 AWG 64.1 4109 20
12 AWG 80.8 6529 25
10 AWG 101.9 10,384 30
8 AWG 128.5 16,512 40

Matching Ratings
Before plugging in a tool, make sure that you have read the operators manual for that
tool. All workers should be aware of the proper operating procedures, safety features, and
the required wire size (at varying lengths) for the equipment they use. Once you know
what AWG wire size is required, check the UL label on the extension cord you intend to
use to make sure that it has the correct rating and is properly grounded. Your employer
has a responsibility to make sure that you are provided with all of the supplies you will
need to safely run an electrical device, including PPE and appropriate cords.

Matching Ratings
Before plugging in a tool, make sure that you have read the operators manual for that
tool. All workers should be aware of the proper operating procedures, safety features, and
the required wire size (at varying lengths) for the equipment they use. Once you know
what AWG wire size is required, check the UL label on the extension cord you intend to
use to make sure that it has the correct rating and is properly grounded. Your employer
has a responsibility to make sure that you are provided with all of the supplies you will
need to safely run an electrical device, including PPE and appropriate cords.

Flexible cords must be properly rated to power tools safety .Always match the cord’s
rating to that of the tool.

Hazard - Defective Cords and Wires

Extension cords may have damaged insulation. Sometimes, the insulation inside of an
electrical tool or appliance is damaged. When insulation is damaged, exposed metal parts
may become energized if a live wire inside touches them. Electric hand tools that are old,
damaged, or misused may have damaged insulation inside. If you touch damaged power
tools or other equipment, you will receive a shock. You are more likely to receive a shock
if the tool is not grounded or double-insulated.

Hazard - Damaged Cords

Cords can be damaged as a result of:

 Aging
 Door or window edges
 Staples or fastenings
 Abrasion from adjacent materials
 Activity in the area

Hazard - Damaged Cords (Continued)

Improper use of cords can also cause shocks, burns, or fire.

The normal wear and tear on extension and flexible cords at your site can loosen or
expose wires, creating hazardous conditions. Cords that are not of the three-wire type, not
designed for hard-usage, or that have been modified, increase your risk of contacting
electrical current.

Control - Cords and Wires

The following requirements apply to the use of cords and wires:
 Live wires should be insulated.
 Cords should be checked before use.
 Only cords that are three-wire type should be used.
 Only cords marked for hard or extra-hard usage should be used(Designated by "S"
at the beginning of the cord type. SJ indicates junior hard usage.)
 Only cords, connection devices, and fittings equipped with strain relief should be
 Cords should be removed by pulling on the plugs, not on the cords.
 Cords not marked for hard or extra-hard use, or which have been modified, must
be taken out of service immediately.

Tools,damaged cords and electricity can be a deadly combination.

Exposed parts
-restricted room or platform
-put eight feet or more above the floor
-screens that prevent contact

Power lines
-stay at least ten feet away
-use wood or fiberglass ladders instead of metal ladders
-never touch if downed

Cords and wires

-remove by pulling on the plug
-strain relief
-marked for hard or extra hard usage

Permissible Use of Flexible Cords

Flexible cords and cables must be protected from damage!

DO NOT use flexible wiring where frequent inspection would be difficult or where
damage would be likely.

Flexible cords must not be:

 Run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors.

 Run through doorways, windows, or similar openings (unless physically

 Hidden in walls, ceilings, floors, conduit, or other raceways.

Arc Flash Hazard

Think of arc flash as a short circuit through the air.

In an arc flash incident, a large amount of concentrated radiant energy explodes outward
from electrical equipment, creating pressure waves that can damage a person's hearing, a
high intensity flash that can damage eyesight and a superheated ball of gas that can
severely burn a workers body and melt metal.

Origination of Arc Flash Energy

An arc flash, and its resulting release of energy, can only occur if an arc between two
differences of potential occurs.

A difference of potential (voltage reading) exists between any two phase conductors, or
any phase conductor and a grounded part (grounded systems only).

Characteristics of an Arc Flash

When an arc occurs, current that is available from the source of electrical energy passes
from one conductor to the other conductor at the point of the arc fault.

Arc flashes can be hot enough to melt metal , Always be extremely careful with live
electricity and use all appropriate PPE

Incident Energy
Because the travel of current is not contained within a conductor, but travels through free
air, the effects of the energy are not contained.
This energy is referred to as "incident energy."

Incident Energy (Continued)

The amount of incident energy that is exerted outward at the point of an arc fault is
primarily dependent on two factors:

 The available bolted fault current at the secondary side of the transformer
supplying the circuit

 The characteristics of the circuit breakers between the transformer and the point
of arc

Electrical shock –electrical current passes through the body to complete an electrical

Incident energy- current travels through free air , and the effect of the energy are not

Electrical current – flow of electrons from a voltage source and back to the source

Factors causing electrical accidents – unsafe equipment , unsafe workplace , and unsafe
work practices.

Arc flash incident – concentrated radiant energy explodes outward from electrical
equipment , creating pressure waves.

Electrical hazard-shock , burn , electrocution , fire

-class B hard hat, non conductive gloves , ASTM rated boots.

The main dangers of electricity are easy to remember using the acronym BE SAFE:
Burns, Electrocution, Shock, Arc Flash/Arc Blast, Fire, and Explosion. Any of these
events can cause severe injury and death.

Burns are the most common electrical injury. Arc flash burns can be so severe that they
also cause internal injuries due to the concussive force produced by the explosion from
the arc flash.

Even a relatively small amount of current can cause damage to the heart.

Workers in elevated locations who experience a shock can fall, resulting in serious injury
or death.

Summary (Continued)
An arc flash is the sudden release of electrical energy through the air between two points.
Arc flashes with temperatures as high as 35,000°F have been recorded.

Be extremely cautious when working near overhead power lines, whether on ladders or in
vehicles such as cranes. Assume all lines are energized and maintain a safe distance at all

Electrical cords must be three-wire and must be rated for hard or extra-hard usage. Cords
must be checked often for wear and damage. The objective of the related standard is to
minimize the potential hazard by specifying design characteristics of safety when
installing and using electrical equipment and systems.

Lesson 2: Electrical Hazards—Other

Preventive Measures
Lesson Focus
In this lesson, you will learn to:

 Describe how to prevent electrical hazards using grounding and other work-safe

 Indicate how to wear personal protective equipment to prevent injuries from

Grounding creates a low-resistance path from a tool to the earth to disperse unwanted

When a short or lightning occurs, energy flows to the ground, protecting you from
electrical shock, injury, and death.

Hazard-Improper Grounding
Tools plugged into improperly grounded circuits may become energized. There also may
be occurrences of broken wires or plugs on the extension cord.

Control-Ground Tools and Equipment

The following should be taken into consideration when working with tools and

 Properly ground power supply systems, electrical circuits, and electrical


 Frequently inspect electrical systems to ensure that the path to ground is


 Inspect electrical equipment before use.

 Don’t remove ground prongs from tools or extension cords.

 Ground exposed metal parts of equipment.

Grounding creates a low resistance path from a tool to the earth to disperse unwanted
current , properly ground power-supply systems, electrical circuits, and electrical

Control-Using a GFCI (Ground-Fault Circuit

A GFCI performs the following functions:
 Protects you from shock.

 Detects differences in current as small as 5 mA between the black and white


 Shuts off electricity in 1/40th of a second if a ground fault is detected.

Control-Assured Equipment Grounding

Conductor Program (AEGCP)
An employer must use either ground fault circuit interrupters or an assured equipment
grounding conductor to protect employees on construction sites.

The AEGCP on construction sites must cover:

 All cord sets.

 Receptacles not part of a building or structure.

 Equipment connected by plug and cord available for use by the employer.

Control-Assured Equipment Grounding

Conductor Program (AEGCP) (Continued)
Program requirements include:

 Specific procedures adopted by the employer (in writing and available for

 A competent person designated by the employer to implement the program.

 Daily visual inspection for damage of equipment connected by cords and plugs
before use.

Click "More About" for more information.

With an inspection , all electrical systems should be inspected frequently to ensure that
the path to ground is continuous.

Hazard-Overloaded Circuits
Too many devices plugged into a circuit can result in heated wires and possibly fire.

Wire insulation melting can cause arcing and fire in the area where the overload exists,
even inside a wall.

Control - Electrical Protective Devices

Electrical protective devices automatically open a circuit if excess current from overload
or ground-fault is detected, resulting in the shutting off of electricity.

Electrical protective devices include GFCIs, fuses, and circuit breakers.

Please click each term for more information:

 Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)

 Fuses

 Circuit Breakers

De-energies a circuit in 1/40th of a second when a current to ground exceeds a

predetermined value –GFCIs

Currents can be reset under certain abnormal circuit conditions , such as those of a short
circuit –CBs

Circuit-opening fusible part is heated and severed by the passage of overcurrent through
that part –fuses

Detects differences in current as small as 5 mA between the black and white wires –

Opens and closes a circuit without damage to the device when properly applied within its
rating –CBs

Power Tool Requirements

Power tools must:

 Be grounded through a 3-wire cord with one wire going to ground OR be double

 Be double-insulated or be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer.

Tool Safety Tips

The following are some safety tips to consider when using tools:

 Use gloves and appropriate footwear when using tools.

 Store tools in a dry place when not in use.
 Don’t use tools in wet/damp conditions.
 Keep working areas well lit.
 Ensure that tools are not a tripping hazard.
 Don’t carry a tool by the cord.
 Don’t yank the cord to disconnect the tool from the electrical source.
 Keep cords away from heat, oil and sharp edges.
 Disconnect tools when not in use and when changing accessories such as, blades
and bits.
 Remove damage tools from use.

Click "Noteworthy" for more information.

Preventing Electrical Hazards-Tools

The following measures should be taken to prevent electrical hazards associated with the
use of tools:

 Inspect tools before use.

 Use the right tool correctly.

 Protect your tools.

 Use double insulated tools.

Temporary Lights
Temporary lights should be protected from contact and damage, and they should not be
suspended by cords unless designed to do so.

By checking the tool always inspect power tools before using them

Clues that Electrical Hazards Exist

The following are some clues that can help you in determining whether an electrical
hazard exists:

 When there are tripped circuit breakers or blown fuses.

 When tools, wires, cords, connections, or junction boxes are warmed.

 When a GFCI shuts off a circuit.

 When there is a worn or frayed insulation around a wire or a connection.

Click "Noteworthy" for more information.

Locking Out and Tagging Out of Circuits

The following steps must be performed when locking out and tagging out circuits:

 Apply locks to the power source after de-energizing.

 Verify circuit is de-energized by testing with known functioning meters.
 Tag deactivated controls and power sources.
 Tag de-energized equipment and circuits at all points where they can be
 Tags must identify equipment or circuits being worked on.

Use an electric stone cutter in a dry, well-lit place,disconnect the drill when you are
changing bits.

Yank the cord to unplug a nail gun from the electrical outlet , carry a sander by the cord ,
put a finger on the power switch as you carry a plugged-in saw

Safety-Related Work Practices

To protect workers from electrical shock:

 Use barriers and guards to prevent passage through areas of exposed energized
 Pre-plan work, post hazard warnings, and use protective measures.
 Keep working spaces and walkways clear of cords.
 Use special insulated tools when working on fuses with energized terminals.
 Don’t use worn or frayed cords and cables.
 Don’t fasten extension cords with staples, hang the cords from nails, or suspend
the cords using wire.

Click on the following numbers to learn more.

Employers must not allow employees to work near live parts of electrical circuits, unless
the employees are protected by one of the following means:

 De-energizing and grounding the parts.

 Guarding the part by insulation.
 Any other effective means.

In work areas where the exact location of underground electrical power lines is unknown,
employees using jack hammers, bars, or other hand tools that may contact the lines must
be protected by insulating gloves, aprons, or other protective clothing that will provide
equivalent electrical protection.

Flexible cords must be connected to devices and fittings so that strain relief is provided
which will prevent pull from being directly transmitted to joints or terminal screws.

Equipment or circuits that are de-energized must be rendered inoperative and must have
tags attached at all points where the equipment or circuits could be energized.

Safety-Related Work Practices (Continued)

As appropriate, the employer shall ensure that all wiring components and utilization
equipment in hazardous locations are maintained in a dust-tight, dust-ignition-proof, or
explosion-proof condition. There shall be no loose or missing screws, gaskets, threaded
connections, seals, or other impairments to a tight condition.

Avoiding Wet Conditions

The following are important points to consider in avoiding wet conditions:

 If you touch a live wire or other electrical component while standing in even a
small puddle of water you’ll get a shock.
 Damaged insulation, equipment, or tools can expose you to live electrical parts.
 Improperly grounded metal switch plates and ceiling lights are especially
hazardous in wet conditions.
 Wet clothing, high humidity, and perspiration increase your chances of being

Energized Work
Working on or Near Live parts
Energized work must be put into an electrically safe work condition or it must be

To justifty energized work, an employer must demonstrate that de-energizing introduces

additional or increased hazards, or is infeasible due to equipment design or operational

Energized Work (Continued)

Work on circuits with voltages less than 50 volts may be performed in an energized state
if there is no exposure to electrical burns or explosion risks due to arcs.

Examples of Increased or Additional Hazards

(Justification to Work on Energized Circuits)
 Interruption of life support equipment
 Deactivation of emergency alarm systems

 Shutdown of hazardous location ventilation equipment

 Performing diagnostics and testing during startup or troubleshooting that can only
be done in an energized state

 Working on circuits that are part of a continuous process that would otherwise
require the entire process to be shut down

Energized Electrical Work Permit

If justification for energized work is demonstrated, then the work can be performed only
by written permit

Elements of an Energized Electrical Work

 Description and location of the circuit and the equipment involved
 Justification for energized work
 List of the safe work practices to be applied
 Results of a shock hazard analysis
 Determination of the shock protection boundaries as noted in NFPA 70E Table
130.2 (C)
 Results of an arc flash analysis
 The flash protection boundary
 Required PPE
 Means used to restrict entry of qualified personnel into the work area
 Completion of a job briefing, including a discussion of job specific hazards
 Authorized and signed energized work approval

Exemptions to Work Permit

Work that is performed on or near live parts by qualified persons and related to tasks such
as testing, troubleshooting, and voltage measuring does not require an energized
electrical work permit as long as the appropriate safe work practices and required PPE are

Approach Boundaries to Energized Parts

There are two types of personnel approach boundaries to consider when working on or
near energized parts:

1. Shock Protection Boundaries

 Limited
 Restricted
 Prohibited

2. Flash Protection Boundary

Click "Note" for more information.

Any personnel working on energized parts must have training on the requirements of
NFPA 70E. Please complete the additional training program on this code prior to working
on energized parts.

Preventing Electrical Hazards - PPE

When it is necessary to handle or come close to wires with a potential live electrical
charge, it is essential to use proper insulating personal protective equipment (PPE) to
protect employees from contact with the hazardous electrical energy.

Use the following measures for preventing electrical hazards:

 Proper foot protection (not tennis shoes)

 Rubber insulating gloves, hoods, sleeves, matting, and blankets
 Hard hat (insulated - nonconductive)

Safety Shoes
Safety shoes should be nonconductive and should protect your feet from completing an
electrical circuit to ground. Safety shoes can protect against open circuits of up to 600
volts in dry conditions. These shoes should be used with other insulating equipment and
in connection with active precautions to reduce or eliminate the potential for providing a
path for hazardous electrical energy.

Hard Hats
Specific types of hard hats are needed when performing electrical work.
A “Class E” electrical/utility type hard hat protects against falling objects and high-
voltage shocks and burns.

Click "Note" for more information.

Wearing a hard hat will protect your head up to 20,000 volts.

Basis for Determining Personal Protective

Equipment for Work within a Flash
Protection Boundary
When it is determined that work must be performed within a Flash Protection Boundary,
the flash hazard analysis must determine, and the employer must document, the incident
energy exposure of the worker in cal/cm2.

Type of PPE for Arc Flash Protection

Flame-resistant (FR) clothing and PPE must be used by anyone crossing any part of her
or his body into the Flash Protection Boundary as based on the incident energy


Arc flash –flame resistant clothing

Both-class E electrical hardhat , insulating gloves
Power line – fall protection equipment

Train employees working with electric equipment in safe work practices, including:

 De-energizing electric equipment before inspecting or repairing.

 Using cords, cables, and electric tools that are in good repair.

 Lockout / tagout recognition and procedures.

 Using appropriate protective equipment.

De-Energizing Electrical Equipment

Accidental or unexpected starting of electrical equipment can cause injury or death.
Before any inspections or repairs are made, the current must be turned off at the switch
box and the switch padlocked in the "OFF" position. At the same time, the switch or
controls of the machine, or other equipment being locked out of service, must be tagged
securely to show which equipment or circuits are being worked on.

Employees should be trained in, and familiar with, the safety-related work practices that
pertain to their respective job assignments.

Batteries and Battery Charging

Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well-
ventilated rooms and shall be arranged so as to prevent the escape of fumes, gases, or
electrolyte spray into other areas. Click on the highlighted parts of Section 1926.441(a)
and (b) to learn more.

Ventilation shall be provided to ensure diffusion of the gases from the battery and to
prevent the accumulation of an explosive mixture.
Racks and trays shall be substantial and shall be treated to make them resistant to the
Floors shall be of acid resistant construction unless protected from acid accumulations.
Face shields, aprons, and rubber gloves shall be provided for workers handling acids or
Facilities for quick drenching of the eyes and body shall be provided within 25 feet (7.62
m) of battery handling areas.

Facilities shall be provided for flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte and for fire

1926.441(b) Charging*
Battery charging installations shall be located in areas designated for that purpose.

Charging apparatus shall be protected from damage by trucks.

When batteries are being charged, the vent caps shall be kept in place to avoid electrolyte
spray. Vent caps shall be maintained in functioning condition.

*Section title is not clickable.

Energized electrical work permit-energized work must be done because de-energizing

would be risked

Flame-resistant clothing and Class E hardhat- joe may encounter falling objects and high
voltages when he is within the flash protection boundary

Rubber insulating gloves and hoods-lisa will have to work near wires with a potential live
electrical charge

Lockout/tagout –jose will be inspecting and repairing electrical equipement

Special insulated tools- steve will be working on fuses with energized terminals .

Tools and equipment must be properly grounded in order to be used safely.

Too many devices plugged into a circuit can result in overheated wires and possibly fire.

Inspect and protect all power tools, and use appropriate personal protective equipment
(PPE) when using them.
Use barriers and hazard warnings to prevent unnecessary exposure to energized

If justification for work on energized circuits is demonstrated, then the work can be
performed only by written permit. However, work on circuits with voltages less than 50
volts may be performed while the circuit is in an energized state provided there is no
exposure to risk of electrical burns or explosion due to arcs.

Summary (Continued)
When you must handle or come close to wires with a potential live electrical charge, it is
essential that you use proper insulating PPE to protect yourself from contact with the
hazardous electrical energy. Appropriate PPE includes nonconductive safety shoes;
rubber insulating gloves, hood, and sleeves; and a Class E electrical/utility hardhat. When
you are working within a Flash Protection Boundary, you must also wear flame-resistant

Training employees in safe electrical work practices is one of the best ways to prevent
injuries. Training in lockout/tagout procedures, cord and tool safety, and appropriate PPE
will help keep hazards to a minimum.

o justify energized work, an employer must demonstrate that de-energizing would introduce additional
or increased hazards or that de-energizing is infeasible due to equipment design or operational
limitations. De-energizing circuits that power life-support equipment is an example of introducing
additional or increased hazards.

GFCI is the right answer because others cannot shut down electricity immediately.

When an assured equipment grounding conductor program is used to protect employees on

construction sites, daily visual inspection for damage of equipment connected by cords and plugs
before use must be conducted by a competent person. The color code divides the inspection system
into subsequent quarters designated by white, green, red, and orange.

personal protective equipment (PPE)

Module Complete!
Congratulations on completing this module. You will now be assessed on the things you
have learned. You will have 3 attempts to pass this exam with a score of 70% or greater.

Please take the time to review this content before continuing by using the Table of
Contents found in the lower left corner of your course window.