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1. - 16. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 7.

Although human contamination of the

uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. Earth’s atmosphere ---- long before the
Industrial Revolution, air pollution ---- a
major problem until the 18th and 19th
1. The ---- of sunlight into electricity is centuries.
possible through the use of solar panels.
A) inversion A) has existed / would not be
B) conversion B) would exist / had not been
C) refinement C) exists / has not been
D) rotation D) would have existed / would not have been
E) compression E) existed / was not
2. Microorganisms are of ---- value to the 8. The average surface temperature of Earth ---
Earth’s ecology, disintegrating animal and - roughly 15° centigrade, but over the last
plant remains and turning them into simpler century, this average ---- by about 0.6°
substances. centigrade.
A) consecutive A) has been / was rising
B) disputable B) would be / rises
C) controversial C) used to be / would have risen
D) resistant D) had been / had risen
E) incalculable E) is / has risen
3. When two or more atoms ----, they form a 9. According to some scientists, the global
molecule. population, which currently ---- at about 6
billion, ---- 13 billion by the year 2050.
A) depart
B) eradicate A) stands / will have surpassed
C) combine B) will stand / will surpass
D) correlate C) stood / would surpass
E) withdraw D) has stood / surpassed
E) is standing / has surpassed
4. Cars, coal-generated electric power, and
even cement factories ---- affect the 10. If humans ---- at the speed of light, it ----
environment, causing many serious them about eight minutes to reach the Sun.
problems that threaten animal and plant life.
A) have travelled / took
A) adversely B) could travel / would take
B) commercially C) travel / would have taken
C) conscientiously D) will travel / takes
D) privately E) would travel / has taken
E) adequately
11. Since prehistoric times, man has recognized
5. A sardine monitoring system was ---- in the influence ---- heredity and has applied
order to prevent over-fishing. its principles ---- the improvement of
cultivated crops and domestic animals.
A) found out
B) set up A) with / off
C) put in B) by / under
D) taken place C) on / from
E) made over D) of / to
E) at / within
6. His comments ---- a very lively debate on the
origin of ocean crust. 12. The most useful geothermal resources are
hot water and steam trapped in subsurface
A) put up with formations or reservoirs and having
B) fell into temperatures ranging ---- 80° ---- 350°
C) handed over centigrade.
D) gave rise to
E) figured out A) from / to
B) between / of
C) among / at
D) within / over
E) under / off

13. The remarkable feature of gases is ---- they 17. - 21. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
appear to have no structure at all. numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya
da ifadeyi bulunuz.
A) if
B) that
C) when Japan is home to almost half the world’s industrial
D) why robots. Only a few decades ago, when robots (I) ----
E) whether for the first time, they were used for less
sophisticated tasks, (II) ---- humans were
14. ---- ancient peoples in several parts of the considered essential for manual precision tasks.
world built pyramids, it was the Egyptians This, however, changed with (III) ---- in robot
who constructed the tallest and most technology. Today, robots are used in dirty,
famous of them. dangerous, and inaccessible tasks as well as in (IV)
---- requiring precision. Today, robots are an
A) Unless indispensable part (V) ---- industrial Japan.
B) Now that
C) Although 17. I
D) Once
E) As if A) have been introduced
B) had been introduced
15. Aridisols are dry, desert-like soils that have C) were introduced
low organic content ---- are sparsely D) would have been introduced
vegetated by drought- or salt-tolerant E) would be introduced
18. II
A) so far as
B) so that A) so long as
C) as B) whether
D) so C) in case
E) and D) while
E) so that
16. The Alps have been an area of transit trade
since ancient times ---- they offer important 19. III
pathways between central and southern
Europe. A) advances
B) conclusions
A) so that C) destinations
B) because D) devices
C) as if E) burdens
D) whereas
E) whether 20. IV

A) most
B) those
C) whose
D) which
E) them

21. V

A) for
B) at
C) in
D) among
E) of

22. - 26. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada 27. - 38. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
da ifadeyi bulunuz.
27. ---- if it has erupted one or more times in
The health risks of artificial feeding of infants in the history.
industrialized world are now (I) ----. Breast-fed
infants receive protection (II) ---- many illnesses A) All volcanoes are formed by the
including gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, and accumulation of magma
otitis media, and have a lower risk of a topic disease B) Scientists try to predict volcanic eruptions
and insulin-dependent diabetes in childhood, (III) ---- by observing various events
women who breast-feed may have less risk of some C) Volcanic eruptions can cause serious
cancers and hip fractures in later life. In addition to human, economic, and environmental
the health benefits, there are also significant cost catastrophes
implications. The United States Department of D) Some volcanic features on earth do not
Agriculture has estimated that a minimum of $3.6 look like volcanoes
billion per year (IV) ---- if breast-feeding rates were E) Scientists generally consider a volcano
increased from current levels to (V) ---- active
recommended by the United States Surgeon
General. 28. While heavy drinking is known to reduce
lifespan, ----.
22. I
A) alcoholics develop a greater tolerance for
A) well-connected alcohol
B) well-preserved B) alcoholism is becoming increasingly
C) well-established common in the modern world
D) well-built C) ethanol is the type of alcohol used in
E) well-kept drinks like beer, wine, and brandy
D) genetic, psychological, and social factors
23. II influence the development of alcoholism
E) a moderate consumption of alcohol can
A) about reduce the risk of heart disease
B) towards
C) to 29. ---- because they have been found to harm
D) against human health.
E) for
A) Some forms of plastic used in bottles have
been banned
24. III B) The use of plastics and other synthetic
materials in medicine is on the rise
A) as if C) Recyclable plastic bottles are widely used
B) since in food industry
C) while D) Certain types of plastic are more suitable
D) as though for recycling than some others
E) even if E) Researchers are trying to develop a new
type of plastic good for the environment
25. IV
30. Since there is limited room in most deep sea
A) could save exploration boats, ----.
B) were to be saved
C) should save A) it has become increasingly easy to identify
D) would be saved various marine species
E) has been saved B) most marine biologists are trained to
chase off sharks
26. V C) amateur divers are advised to carry extra
oxygen tubes with them
A) those D) the coral reefs attract thousands of divers
B) what every year
C) whose E) the divers on board have to use the
D) which available space efficiently
E) them

31. Though its manufacture, sale, and servicing 35. Debates arise over which voting technology
have become key elements of industrial is the most accurate and least susceptible
economies, ----. to tampering ----.

A) the automobile changed the world during A) that could easily have been prevented
the 20th century, particularly in the United B) whenever national elections are held
States and other industrialized nations C) whether it is plausible for the majority or
B) the automobile has brought noise and air not
pollution, and car accidents rank among D) until balloting security is jeopardized
the leading causes of death and injury E) as if all votes have been counted
throughout the world
C) automobiles are valued by size, style, 36. Coal burning is responsible for 40 per cent
number of doors, and intended use, and of the 30 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide ----
they take different names in accordance .
with their purpose
D) the automobile is indispensable for A) though it poses a huge threat to most
mobility and job opportunities, offering a organisms
solution to the problem of unemployment B) as if it were one of the major factors
in the early 20th century causing global warming
E) various systems supply the engine with C) that is emitted by human activity every
fuel, cool it during operation, lubricate its year
moving parts, and remove the exhaust D) since we are all aware of the dangers of
gases it creates climate change
E) whereby plants and some animal species
32. Unless governments take action to control interact
population growth, ----.
37. Quantum theory is the most useful scientific
A) a great majority of our environmental theory ever devised, ----.
problems will be solved
B) population control can be possible through A) since it is impossible to know everything
strict policies about the world
C) the natural resources in the world will B) provided that theorists are perplexed by its
soon become insufficient equations
D) sustainability policies were formulated by C) even though understanding it could bring
developed countries new scientific insights
E) thousands starved to death in the poorer D) while physicists found evidence that a
parts of the world single photon of light was capable of
being in two places at the same time
33. Air pollution results mainly from human E) whereas some scientists choose simply to
activity, ----. ignore most of its uses

A) but natural phenomena like volcanic 38. Genetic information is encoded and
eruptions also cause it transmitted from generation to generation in
B) though humans play a major role in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ----.
contamination of the environment
C) in case there are a variety of pollutants A) but this process contributed to the great
causing it variation of traits that we see in nature
D) while it is a very common problem in many B) which is a coiled molecule organized into
parts of the world structures called chromosomes
E) since great progress has been made in C) now that members of the same species
methods to prevent it inherited different forms of a gene
D) whereas some of these theories remained
34. Robotics engineers are now producing in favour for several decades
robots that mimic the gestures of real E) whose offspring receive a mixture of
people ----. genetic information from both parents

A) which might be another form of body

B) when someone points towards himself
C) as if communicating with others were easy
D) as this makes them appear much more
E) until other problems have been overcome

39. - 46. sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümleye 41. Today’s scientists are able to generate
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi, Türkçe genetically modified animals with new traits,
cümleye anlamca en yakın İngilizce cümleyi such as the ability to resist disease, and
bulunuz. they use cloning techniques to reproduce
these genetically modified animals.
39. Before the development of quantum theory, A) Günümüzde, hastalıklara direnç
physicists assumed that measuring any göstermek gibi yeni özellikleri olan
physical quantity as accurately as desired genetiği değiştirilmiş hayvanlar üretebilen
was possible, provided that perfect bilim adamları, bu hayvanları klonlama
equipment and perfect conditions were teknikleri kullanarak çoğaltabilmektedir.
present. B) Günümüz bilim adamları, hastalıklara
direnç gösterme yeteneği gibi yeni
A) İlk önce kuantum kuramını geliştiren özellikleri olan genetiği değiştirilmiş
fizikçiler, daha sonra herhangi bir fiziksel hayvanlar üretebilmekte ve bu genetiği
niceliğin ancak kusursuz araçlar ve değiştirilmiş hayvanları çoğaltmak için
kusursuz koşullar var olduğu takdirde klonlama teknikleri kullanmaktadırlar.
ölçülebileceğini kanıtladılar. C) Günümüz bilim adamlarının amacı,
B) Kuantum kuramını geliştiren fizikçiler, hastalıklara direnç göstermek gibi yeni
kusursuz araçlar ve kusursuz koşullar var özellikleri olan genetiği değiştirilmiş
olduğu takdirde, herhangi bir fiziksel hayvanlar üretmek ve bu genetiği
niceliğin istenilen düzeyde bir doğrulukla değiştirilmiş hayvanları çoğaltmak için
ölçülebileceğini varsayıyorlar. klonlama teknikleri kullanmaktır.
C) Kusursuz araçlar ve kusursuz koşullar D) Günümüz bilim adamlarının, hastalıklara
sağlandığı takdirde, herhangi bir fiziksel direnç göstermek gibi yeni özellikleri olan
niceliğin istenilen düzeyde bir doğrulukla genetiği değiştirilmiş hayvanlar üretmenin
ölçülebileceğini savunan fizikçiler, yanı sıra, genetiği değiştirilmiş hayvanları
kuantum kuramını geliştirmişlerdir. klonlama teknikleri kullanarak çoğalttıkları
D) Kuantum kuramı sayesinde, fizikçiler, bilinmektedir.
kusursuz araçlar ve kusursuz koşullar var E) Günümüz bilim adamları, gerek
olduğu takdirde, herhangi bir fiziksel hastalıklara direnç göstermek gibi yeni
niceliğin istenilen ölçüde bir doğrulukla özellikleri olan hayvanlar üretebilmekte,
ölçülemeyeceği varsayımını çürüttüler. gerekse genetiği değiştirilmiş diğer bazı
E) Kuantum kuramının geliştirilmesinden hayvanları klonlama teknikleri kullanarak
önce, fizikçiler, kusursuz araçlar ve çoğaltabilmektedirler.
kusursuz koşullar var olduğu takdirde,
herhangi bir fiziksel niceliği, istenilen 42. Trabzon's Ayasofya Church, which serves
ölçüde doğru olarak ölçmenin mümkün as a museum today, was constructed in the
olabileceğini varsayıyorlardı. time of Manuel Comnenos I (1238-1263), one
of the kings of the Trabzon Empire.
40. The ethanol in biofuels forms through the
fermentation of starch and, in principle, any A) Günümüzde müze olarak varlığını
source of starch can be used for this sürdüren Trabzon Ayasofya Kilisesini inşa
purpose. ettiren, Trabzon İmparatorluğu
krallarından 1. Manuel Comnenos\' tur
A) Biyoyakıtlardaki etanol, nişastanın (1238-1263).
mayalanmasıyla oluşur ve ilke olarak, B) Trabzon İmparatorluğu krallarından 1.
herhangi bir nişasta kaynağı bu amaç için Manuel Comnenos (1238-1263)
kullanılabilir. tarafından inşa ettirilen Trabzon Ayasofya
B) Biyoyakıtlardaki nişastanın Kilisesi bugün varlığını müze olarak
mayalanmasıyla oluşan etanol, ilke olarak, sürdürmektedir.
herhangi bir nişasta kaynağı olarak C) Trabzon Ayasofya Kilisesi, Trabzon
kullanılabilir. İmparatorluğu krallarından 1. Manuel
C) Her ne kadar biyoyakıtlardaki etanol Comnenos (1238-1263) zamanında inşa
nişastanın mayalanmasıyla oluşsa da, ilke edilmiştir ve günümüzde müzeye
olarak, çeşitli nişasta kaynakları bu amaç dönüştürülmüştür.
için kullanılabilir. D) Günümüzde müze olarak hizmet veren
D) İlke olarak, biyoyakıtlardaki etanolün, Trabzon Ayasofya Kilisesi, Trabzon
nişastanın mayalanmasıyla oluşmasına İmparatorluğu krallarından 1. Manuel
karşın, herhangi bir nişasta kaynağı bu Comnenos (1238-1263) zamanında inşa
amaç için kullanılabilir. edilmiştir.
E) İlke olarak, herhangi bir nişasta E) Trabzon imparatorluğu kralı 1. Manuel
kaynağının aynı amaç için kullanılabilir Comnenos (1238-1263) zamanında inşa
olmasına karşın, biyoyakıtlardaki edilmiş olan Trabzon Ayasofya Kilisesi
etanolün, nişastanın mayalanmasıyla günümüzde müze olarak hizmet
oluşması gerekir. vermektedir.

43. Vücut bağışıklığı zayıf olan insanlar 45. Bilgisayarlar artan yararlarıyla yaşamı
genellikle kansere daha yatkındırlar ve bu kolaylaştırsalar da, kullanımları daha yaygın
da bağışıklık sisteminin en azından bazı hâle geldikçe, onları kötüye kullanma
kanser türlerine karşı koruyucu rol olasılığı da artmaktadır.
oynadığını gösteren bir gerçektir.
A) Despite the fact that computer misuse is
A) Because the body\'s immune system growing as computer use becomes more
plays a protective role against at least widespread, no one can deny that
some forms of cancer, people with computers make life easier with their
immune deficiencies are unusually increasing efficacy.
susceptible to cancer. B) It is true that as computer use becomes
B) People with immune deficiencies are often more widespread, the possibility of misuse
usually susceptible to cancer, and this is a also grows, but the fact that computers
fact suggesting that the immune system make life easier with their increasing
plays a protective role against at least efficacy remains.
some forms of cancer. C) Although computers make life easier with
C) That the immune system plays a their increasing efficacy, as they become
protective role against certain forms of more widespread, the possibility of their
cancer is suggested by the fact that misuse also grows.
cancer is more widespread among people D) Even if computers made life easier with
with immune deficiencies. their increasing efficacy, as computer use
D) Since people having immune deficiencies became more widespread, the possibility
are usually extremely susceptible to of its misuse also grew.
cancer, it is suggested that the immune E) Computers make life easier with their
system guards the body against at least increasing efficacy; as a result, as
some forms of cancer. computer use becomes more widespread,
E) Often people with immune deficiencies are the possibility of misuse also broadens.
unusually susceptible to cancer and this is
supported by the fact that the immune 46. Bir barajın inşası başlamadan önce,
system is able to protect the body against mühendisler, barajın ağırlığını kaldırmaya
at least some forms of cancer. yetecek kadar güçlü bir temel
sağlayacağından emin olmak için, önerilen
44. Nanoteknoloji alanında çalışan bilim bölgenin jeolojik yapısını incelerler.
insanlarını bekleyen en büyük güçlüklerden
biri, arzu edilen bir nano yapı inşa A) In order for the construction of a dam to
edebilmek ve bu yapıyı, çıplak gözle begin, the proposed site should first be
görülebilen işlevsel bir sistemle surveyed by geological engineers so that
bütünleştirebilmektir. they can make sure the foundation of the
proposed site will be strong enough to
A) Scientists working in the field of support the weight of the dam.
nanotechnology are yet to make a desired B) Before the construction of a dam begins,
nanostructure and then to integrate it with engineers survey the geology of the
a functional system visible to the naked proposed site to make sure that it will
eye. provide a foundation strong enough to
B) Making a desired nanostructure and support the weight of the dam.
integrating it into a functional system C) Before they start constructing a dam,
visible to the naked eye is the biggest geologists and engineers must survey the
difficulty that scientists working in the field proposed site, as its foundations may not
of nanotechnology are faced with. be strong enough to support the weight of
C) One of the biggest challenges awaiting the dam.
scientists working in the field of D) Prior to the construction of a dam, the
nanotechnology is to be able to make a geology of the proposed site should be
desired nanostructure and then integrate it surveyed by engineers, as they want to
with a functional system that is visible to make sure that it has a strong foundation
the naked eye. capable of supporting the weight of the
D) One of the major challenges that scientists dam.
working in the field of nanotechnology E) By the time the construction of a dam
have to face is how to make a desired begins, engineers must have surveyed the
nanostructure without integrating it into a geological features of the proposed area,
functional system visible to the naked eye. in case its foundations are not strong
E) To make a desired nanostructure without enough to support the weight of the dam.
having to integrate it with a system visible
to the naked eye is one of the biggest
challenges that awaits scientists working
in the field of nanotechnology.

47. - 50. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 49. The passage makes it clear that animals that
cevaplayınız. are active at night ----.

A) follow and catch insects and moths by

It is to a plant’s advantage to be visually attractive to using their sense of hearing and smell
a specific pollinator so that those animals will seek B) have a strong sense of vision, which helps
out and concentrate on that particular plant during them to find food more easily
their search for nectar. This keeps pollen from being C) see things that are invisible to other
spread to other plant species, where pollination animals with the help of their ultraviolet
won’t take place. Flowers appeal to their pollinators’ vision
sensory systems by using signals such as alluring D) rely on powerful scents to attract other
odours or colours. Flowers pollinated by nocturnal animals
animals like bats and moths, which rely more on E) are attracted mostly to flowers with dull
hearing than smell and sight, usually have dull colours but strong scents
colours but powerful scents. Flowers pollinated by
daytime animals like birds and bees, however, rely 50. The passage is mainly concerned with ----.
on a range of colours. Birds see a spectrum
somewhat similar to ours but are especially A) the significance of plants in the food chain
receptive to red, so blossoms pollinated by them B) the question of why birds and insects
tend to be red or orange. Bees, on the other hand, have common traits
see a different spectrum composed of yellow, blue, C) how colour and smell play a major role in
green, and ultraviolet. Flowers pollinated by bees, plant pollination
hence, tend to be in those colours and usually have D) the kinds of nocturnal animals that are
special markings that are visible only in ultraviolet. active in pollination
Like runway lights, these markings guide insects to E) the process of pollination that takes place
the right place to land and find nectar, and in the in the plant world
process, pollinate the plant.

47. According to the passage, birds ----.

A) see a colour spectrum that is identical to

B) are attracted to plants that have red or
orange blossoms
C) can see dull colours much better than
bees and other insects
D) play a little part in pollination
E) and bees are far more sensitive to colours
than insects

48. It can be understood from the passage that

special markings on some flowers ----.

A) enable nocturnal animals to pollinate

B) repel insects with ultraviolet vision
C) help certain pollinators to find the right
spot to land
D) are often misleading to the pollinators
E) can be seen by both birds and humans

51. - 54. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 53. One can understand from the passage that
cevaplayınız. the newly-developed film ----.

A) can only be applied to specially-designed

Solar panels turn the sunlight into energy when the solar panels
sun shines directly on them, but as soon as the B) is about a hundred times as thick as
sunlight decreases, so does efficiency. A new human hair
antireflective film coating could help panels collect C) helps panels to reflect a greater amount of
sunshine at 96 per cent efficiency from nearly any sunlight
angle. The newly-developed film consists of seven D) works best with funnel-shaped photo
layers of nanoscopic silicon and titanium-oxide rods voltaic panels
arranged in increasing densities, with the topmost E) has a layered structure, arranged in an
nearly as porous as air. This funnel-like structure ascending order of density
captures light from almost every direction and
focuses it onto the photo voltaic panel while also 54. According to the passage, the panels
inhibiting reflection. The film, which is about one currently in use ----.
hundredth as thick as a human hair, could easily be
applied to any solar panel and would help collect 20 A) can be made to work much more
per cent more light while eliminating the need for the efficiently with the help of the newly-
expensive hardware usually used to rotate solar developed film
panels as the sun moves. Before the new film can B) can capture enough light owing to their
be marketed, the nanoscientists who developed the structure, which is as porous as air
film must find a way to protect the outermost layers C) lose much of their efficiency as a result of
from wind and heat, a process that might take continuous exposure to wind and heat
another year. D) are positioned at a certain angle with the
help of some expensive software
51. It can be inferred from the passage that ----. E) have been specially designed so that they
reflect light
A) antireflective films cause a decline in light
B) most panels in current use employ some
inexpensive software which decreases
C) even though the sunlight becomes weak,
solar panels maintain their efficiency
D) current solar panels are designed in such
a way as to turn almost any form of light
into energy
E) reflection of light has an adverse effect on
the efficiency of solar panels

52. It is clear from the passage that ----.

A) the new panels have been on the market

for a year
B) the antireflective film makes it
unnecessary to rotate solar panels
C) the existing software has to be improved
to make the new panels work
D) it took scientists a year to develop the new
E) the newly-developed software helps to
rotate the panels and so capture more

55. - 58. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre

cevaplayınız. 57. According to the passage, scientists are
using ageliferin ----.
Several years ago, biochemists studying marine A) although they wanted to discard
ecosystems noticed something unusual: a sponge conventional medications
thriving in the middle of a coral reef that was dying B) so that the natural compound can be used
from bacterial infection. The researchers identified a to save dying sponge species
substance made by the sponge in order to defend C) in case they altered the structure of the
itself from harmful microbes. They realized that it compound
was a natural antibacterial molecule called D) to develop new methods to fight drug-
'ageliferin'. This molecule can break down the resistant bacteria
formation of a protective biofilm coating that bacteria E) as if it were more potent in combating
use to shield themselves from threats, including otherwise drug-resistant bacteria
antibiotic drugs. Now the same researchers are
using this natural compound to create innovative 58. One can understand from the passage that
ways to fight drug resistant bacteria. They have the newly-developed compound ----.
recently modified the structure of ageliferin to make
it more potent and formulated to help conventional A) helps ageliferin to proliferate in sponge
medications combat otherwise drug-resistant colonies in coral reefs
bacteria, such as staph and cholera. The newly- B) can easily be used to alter biofilms like
developed chemical does not stop bacteria from ageliferin
proliferating, but it allows the antibiotic to work C) is currently used in most commercial
again. The researchers hope eventually to antibiotic products
incorporate the altered ageliferin as a helper drug D) is ruled out to be an effective way of
within commercial antibiotic products, allowing them fighting drug-resistant strains of diseases
to fight off formerly drug-resistant strains of E) does not help to stop bacteria from
diseases. increasing in number
55. It can be understood from the passage that
bacteria that cause infections ----.

A) protect themselves from threats using a

biofilm coating
B) preserve their biofilm coating with the help
of ageliferin
C) break down the formation of protective
biofilms of other bacteria
D) defend certain sponge types against
harmful microbes
E) have a naturally occurring molecule called

56. It is clear from the passage that ageliferin is

a substance ----.

A) easily broken down by harmful bacteria

B) produced by a sponge found in coral reefs
C) used in order to study bacterial infection
D) helping bacteria to form a protective shield
around them
E) usually abundant in dying coral reefs

59. - 62. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 61. It can be understood from the passage that
cevaplayınız. when oil or coal is burned, ----.

A) there are few adverse effects upon the

The hope with biofuels is that they can offer a planet
carbon-neutral energy source, because the crops B) carbon-neutral energy sources are quickly
that are grown for fuel will remove as much carbon exhausted
from the atmosphere as will be released when they C) a significant amount of carbon is removed
are eventually burned. This is basically the same from the atmosphere
thing that happens when we burn coal or oil. The D) there is less pollution than when any of
difference is that in the case of the latter, the carbon the biofuels are used
was absorbed hundreds of millions of years ago, E) the carbon that was absorbed millions of
and this is part of the problem. Humans will take just years ago is released
a few hundred years to burn through tens of millions
of years of oil deposits. To grow enough crops to 62. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.
keep up with our current demand will require lots of
additional lands to be cleared for agriculture. If A) the demand for biofuels is declining due to
rainforests are cleared to plant sugar cane, all the the many disadvantages they present
carbon that is currently locked in the trees will be B) plants used for biofuels can only be grown
released. The other problem is that adding nitrogen in fertile lands
fertilizer to these crops releases nitrogen oxide, C) clearing rainforests for sugar cane
which is another greenhouse gas. A recent study production seems to be the only way of
showed that burning maize biofuels actually reducing carbon emissions
increases greenhouse gas emissions for this D) the plant “jatropha” is a promising and
reason. However, this is more the fault of the choice more environmentally friendly source of
of biofuel crop and the production method rather biofuel
than a flaw in the biofuel concept as a whole. The E) sugar cane and maize are far better
shrub 'jatropha', for instance, can be grown on land sources of biofuels than jatropha, which
too poor for trees or other crops to grow on, and is impoverishes the soil
already used for biodiesel in India, Cambodia, and
some African countries.

59. According to the passage, the use of

nitrogen fertilizers for agricultural purposes

A) makes maize-based biofuels more

environmentally friendly
B) contributes to a rise in greenhouse gas
C) has turned the maize into an excellent
biofuel crop
D) helps to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions resulting from fossil fuel use
E) is a problematic and complicated process
which is, nevertheless, desirable

60. It is clear from the passage that the main

problem about biofuels ----.

A) is the consequence of a lack of sufficient

nitrogen fertilizers
B) is that the concept itself is faulty and
should be discarded
C) results from the choice of plants for biofuel
and production techniques
D) is essentially related to the methods used
in the production of fertilizers
E) arises from the limitation of biofuel crops
to maize and jatropha


63. - 66. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 65. According to the passage, the fishing cats --
cevaplayınız. --.

A) have been increasing in number at a rate

Cats are famous for their aversion to water. of about 50 per cent a year
However, the fishing cat, a wild Asiatic species, has B) reproduce at a gradually rising rate
no such tendency. In fact, these felines, about twice C) are regarded as a threat to the aquatic
the size of typical house cats, prefer to be in species they feed on
proximity to water, making their homes in the near D) used to be twice as many numerous only
rivers and marshes. As their name indicates, the a few decades ago
cats fish for their meals, sitting by the water and E) are no longer classified as “endangered”
tapping their paws to create ripples on the surface thanks to the efforts of the IUCN
that resemble insect movements to lure their prey.
Their webbed front paws help the fishing cats to 66. It is pointed out in the passage that, when a
remain dry while scooping fish, frogs, and snails out fishing cat hunts underwater, ----.
of shallow water. However, they also dive right in to
grab large fish and birds in their jaws. Once in the A) it prefers marshes to rivers and other
water, the cats can swim on the surface or even waters
glide under water. Their flat tails, significantly B) it knows exactly where big fish are
shorter than those of house cats, serve as rudders, C) its movements attract large numbers of
helping them to adjust direction below the water fish
surface. Unfortunately, habitat loss and over fishing D) the ripples made by its movements are
have decreased the number of these cats by about hardly distinguishable
50 per cent over the past three generations. E) it uses its tail to find the right direction
Recently, the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) changed the status
of these cats to 'endangered ‘from the less-severe

63. It is clear from the passage that fishing cats


A) have a weak sense of direction compared

to house cats
B) have tails longer than those of house cats
C) tend to avoid large fish and birds
D) have caused many fish species to become
E) have fully adapted themselves to a life in
and by the water

64. It is clear from the passage that the fishing

cats’ front paws ----.

A) help them to adjust direction underneath

the surface while chasing their prey
B) enable them to reach their prey in shallow
water without getting completely wet
C) serve as a defence mechanism against
attacks by enemies like large fish and
D) are relatively shorter compared to those of
typical house cats
E) make it possible and easy for them to find
food even in dry and barren areas


67. - 70. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 69. According to the passage, the organs and
cevaplayınız. muscles of the baby mammoth ----.

A) make the animal inapt for a CT scan

A 37,000-year-old baby mammoth could help to B) will give scientists an insight into the
explain why the ancient species became extinct as survival and adaptation skills of the
well as giving an insight into climate change. mammoths
Researchers at a Japanese medical school carried C) were found to be different from those of
out a computed tomography (CT) scan of the the other members of the same species
mammoth, which was found frozen in Northern D) did not provide any new insight about the
Siberia. They produced some high-resolution 3D species
pictures which are being analyzed to find out about E) were found to be similar to those of the
the animal’s internal organs and diet, and to work reindeer that lived in the same area
out how she died. The mammoth’s tissues and
skeleton have been studied at a zoological museum 70. It is clear from the passage that the CT scan
in Russia. Air samples from her lungs will also be of the mammoth ----.
analyzed for clues to the Earth’s atmosphere at the
time of her death. The mammoth, named Lyuba, A) did not yield the expected result, as the
was found by a reindeer herder buried in animal had remained in permafrost for too
permafrost. She is unusual because of the long
proportion of her body that is preserved. According B) was carried out in northern Siberia
to one expert working on Lyuba, with fossils, C) provided extensive information on the
scientists generally get only bones and teeth, but Earth’s atmosphere at the time of her
this specimen is special in that there are also the death
organs and muscles. The same expert notes that it D) is sure to offer scientists insight into
will be interesting to see how this animal managed climate change
to adapt to life high in the Arctic and was able to E) is expected to give scientists an idea
survive, especially in the Ice Age. about the eating habits of the animal
67. It can be inferred from the text that ----.
71. - 75. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada
A) Lyuba was a special animal with unusual anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
features cümleyi bulunuz.
B) there were many animals left in the high
Arctic by the Ice Age 71. The irreversible loss of biodiversity has a
C) reindeer were the dominant species in serious impact on the ability of the
Siberia some 37,000 years ago remaining species, including humans, to
D) scientists have adequate information as to survive. Humans depend on the diversity of
why mammoths disappeared species and healthy ecosystems to provide
E) most fossils do not provide pre-historic air food, clean air and water, and fertile soil for
samples agriculture. ---- As many as 40 per cent of
our modern pharmaceutical medicines are
68. It is clear from the passage that the derived from plants or animals. A small
mammoth Lyuba is considered plant from Madagascar, the rosy periwinkle,
extraordinary because ----. for instance, produces substances that are
effective in fighting two deadly cancers,
A) it had remained buried in permafrost Hodgkin’s and leukaemia.
B) a great part of its body was conserved
C) it was found by a reindeer herder A) However, the survival of ecosystems
D) its body was unusually disproportionate depends on their variety of plants,
E) it was a rather muscular animal animals, and habitats.
B) In addition, we benefit greatly from the
many drugs that biodiversity provides.
C) In contrast, modern medicine makes use
of medicines derived from both natural
and chemical sources.
D) Biologists believe that the Earth is
currently going through a period of mass
E) In such cases, direct habitat destruction
threatens the greatest number of species.


72. Organisms use two types of cell division to 74. A handful of countries produce a portion of
ensure that DNA is passed down from cell their electricity from nuclear energy. ---- The
to cell during reproduction. Simple one- world has witnessed one such disaster in
celled organisms and some other recent history. The 1986 accident at the
organisms reproduce by a process called Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine
'mitosis', during which a cell doubles its scattered radioactive contamination over a
DNA before dividing into two cells and large part of Europe. Approximately 200,000
distributing the DNA evenly to each people were evacuated, and human health
resulting cell. ---- Known as 'meiosis', this has been dramatically affected ever since.
process involves sexual reproduction. In Studies in 1999 found that the rate of
this process, an egg and sperm unite to thyroid cancer in young Ukrainian children
form a zygote, in which the full number of was ten times higher than was the norm
chromosomes is restored. prior to the accident.

A) Organisms that reproduce sexually, on the A) The decades of the Cold War witnessed
other hand, use a different type of cell the dangerous escalation of a nuclear
division. arms race.
B) In all organisms, cells divide to produce B) Most people are against its use for the
new cells, each of which requires the production of electricity, as it is too costly.
genetic information in DNA. C) Nuclear weapons can cause wide-spread
C) Mitosis occurs in five stages, namely disaster.
interphase, prophase, metaphase, D) The first large-scale nuclear reactors were
anaphase, and telophase. built in 1944 in the US, for the production
D) Modern genetics offers solutions to the of nuclear weapons material.
reproductive problems that were once E) Many people, however, are opposed to
thought to be incurable. nuclear power stations, on the grounds
E) Each new cell needs a complete copy of that an accident can cause massive
an organism’s genetic information to devastation.
function properly.
75. As the hardest substance known, diamond
73. ---- There are those that affect the body is ideal for cutting rock and other tough
surfaces they contact, and those that stuff. ---- For cutting steel, the first choice is
damage the general nervous system. cubic boronnitride, which is almost as hard.
Surface agents include phosgene gas, But manufacturing the substance requires
chlorine gas, hydrogen cyanide, and high temperatures and extreme pressures,
mustard gas. While the principal action of which make it expensive.
the first three occurs through inhalation,
mustard is ablistering agent that damages A) Making ultrahard materials usually
any surface it contacts, including the skin. requires extreme pressures.
Nerve agents, on the other hand, which B) The hardness of diamond arises because
include the chemicals sarin, soman, and of short, covalent bonds that keep the
tabun, act by blocking the transmission of constituent atoms strongly stuck together.
nerve messages throughout the body. A C) Scientists want to design new hard
single drop of nerve agent can shut down materials rather than finding them using
the body’s nervous system. trial-and-error methods.
D) But diamond is costly, and it degrades
A) A biological attack involves dispersing machining steel and other ferrous metals
agents into the air. because of reactions.
B) Chemical warfare involves the use of E) The method should lead to even less
compounds to kill an enemy. costly, ultrahard compounds.
C) Biological weapons use living
microorganisms to infect large masses of
D) Both biological and chemical weapons are
considered weapons of mass destruction.
E) Chemical warfare agents can be grouped
into two general types.


76. - 80. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla 79. (I) Ancient seafarers found their way by
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü observing landmarks, such as large rocks or
bozan cümleyi bulunuz. trees, along rivers and coastlines. (II) When out
of sight of land, they derived clues about their
location by measuring water depth, monitoring
76. (I) The oldest known evidence of strange flying wind patterns and wave shapes, and observing
objects is from some cave paintings that were the positions of the Sun and the stars. (III)
found in Europe. (II) Before the end of the 18th Later, navigators developed tools to measure a
century, very few Europeans had dedicated ship’s position and progress more precisely.
themselves to the study of flight. (III) One was (IV) They can choose from a great variety of
the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da hightech tools to determine their position on
Vinci. (IV) He was preoccupied chiefly with bird Earth and find their way from one place to
flight and with flapping-wing machines called another. (V) They used a magnetic compass to
'ornithopters'. (V) His aeronautical work, determine direction, measured the height of the
however, remained unknown until late in the Sun or stars on the horizon to fix their position,
19th century, when it could furnish little of and plotted their progress and routes on
technical value to experimenters but was a nautical maps called 'charts'.
source of inspiration to aspiring European
engineers. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V 80. (I) Scientists who study tornadoes have a wide
variety of powerful research tools at their
77. (I) Galaxies have three common shapes. (II) disposal. (II) Moreover, they classify tornadoes
One is elliptical galaxies, which have an ovoid based on the damage they wreak on manmade
or globular shape and generally contain older structures. (III) For instance, advances in
stars. (III) Another, spiral galaxies, which computer technology make it possible to
contain both old and young stars, are disk- stimulate the thunderstorms that cause
shaped with arms that curve around the edges. tornadoes. (IV) Doppler radars allow
(IV) Astronomers believe that the Milky Way, of meteorologists to see the winds inside the
which our solar system is a part, is the largest storms, and modern video camera footage
galaxy. (V) Yet another type, irregular galaxies, provides an unprecedented amount of high-
have no regular structure, and their structures quality documentation. (V) All these contribute
are believed to have been distorted by greatly to the scientific understanding of
collisions with other galaxies. tornadoes, which may eventually lead to
increased tornado warning times, better
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V guidelines for building construction, and
improved safety tips.
78. (I) While it lights our day and provides energy
for life, sunlight can also be harmful to humans. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
(II) Particles flowing from the Sun can disrupt
our planet’s magnetic field, and these
disruptions can interfere with electronic
communications. (III) Human skin is sensitive to
ultraviolet light emitted from the Sun. (IV)
Earth’s atmosphere blocks much of the harmful
light, but sunlight is still strong enough to burn
skin under some conditions, a major risk factor
in the development of skin cancers. (V) Sunlight
is also very harmful to our eyes, which can be
damaged through a direct gaze at the Sun.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V


1 B 11 D 21 E 31 B 41 B 51 E 61 E 71 B
2 E 12 A 22 C 32 C 42 D 52 B 62 D 72 A
3 C 13 B 23 D 33 A 43 B 53 E 63 E 73 E
4 A 14 C 24 C 34 D 44 C 54 A 64 B 74 E
5 B 15 E 25 D 35 B 45 C 55 A 65 D 75 D
6 D 16 B 26 A 36 C 46 B 56 B 66 E 76 A
7 E 17 C 27 E 37 E 47 B 57 D 67 E 77 D
8 E 18 D 28 E 38 B 48 C 58 E 68 B 78 B
9 A 19 A 29 A 39 E 49 E 59 B 69 B 79 D
10 B 20 B 30 E 40 A 50 C 60 C 70 E 80 B