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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw


History Of Refrigeration

What is Refrigeration means??

Refrigeration may be defined as the process of achieving and maintaining a temperature


below that of the surroundings.

What is Air Conditioning means??

Air Conditioning refers to the treatment of air so as to simultaneously control its


temperature, moisture content, cleanliness, odour and circulation, as required by

occupants, a process, or products in the space.


Uses of Systems
 Cooling of food stores and cargo

 Cooling of electronic spaces and equipment

• CIC (computers and consoles)

• Radio (communications gear)

• Radars

• ESGN/RLGN

• Sonar

 Air conditioning for crew comfort


Types of Refrigeration Systems

1-Natural Refrigeration

In olden days refrigeration was achieved by natural means such as the use of ice or evaporative
cooling.

 In earlier times, ice was either:

1. Transported from colder regions.

2. Harvested in winter and stored in ice houses for summer use.

3. Made during night by cooling of water by radiation to stratosphere.


 Evaporative Cooling

Evaporative cooling is the process of reducing the temperature of a system by evaporation of water.

 Cooling by Salt Solutions

Certain substances such as common salt, when added to water dissolve in water and absorb its heat of
solution from water (endothermic process). This reduces the temperature of the solution (water+salt).
Sodium Chloride salt (NaCl) can yield temperatures up to -20˚C and Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) up to - 50˚C
in properly insulated containers.
2- Artificial Refrigeration
 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

• Professor William Cullen (1755)

• Jacob Perkins (1835)

• John Hague
Simple VCS Components:

Refrigerant

Evaporator/Chiller

Compressor

Condenser

Receiver

Thermostatic expansion valve (TXV)


 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems

• John Leslie (1810)

• Ferdinand Carre (1860)


Absorption Refrigeration Systems
• Comparison betn. VCRS and VARS
Absorption Refrigeration Systems
• Various energy transfers in VARS
From first law of thermodynamics

From second law of thermodynamics,

The entropy change of the surroundings is given by:

Substituting the expression for first law ofthermodynamics


in the above equation
Absorption Refrigeration Systems

Substituting the expression for first law of thermodynamics in


the above equation

For a completely reversible system


 Gas Cycle Refrigeration
 Steam Jet Refrigeration System

Used when high pressure source of steam is Nozzel


available to produce cold water Steam with
Diffuser

high pressure
from boiler

Heat Exchanger Condenser


Load

Flash Tank

Extractor
Chilled Water pump
Feed Water Pump

Steam Jet System


History Of Refrigeration

 Thermoelectric Refrigeration Systems


Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 1


Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

1- The Carnot refrigeration cycle

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The Carnot refrigeration cycle
Applying first and second laws of thermodynamics to the Carnot refrigeration cycle

now for the reversible, isothermal heat transfer


processes 2-3 and 4-1, we can write

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 3


The Carnot refrigeration cycle

the Coefficient of Performance (COP) is


given by:

Report : Draw the variation of Carnot COP with evaporator temperature for different condenser
temperatures. Write your comments about Prepared
it. by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 4
Standard Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS)

Process 1-2: Isentropic compression


of saturated vapour in compressor

Process 2-3: Isobaric heat rejection in


condenser

Process 3-4: Isenthalpic expansion of


saturated liquid in expansion device

Process 4-1: Isobaric heat extraction


in the evaporator

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 5


Standard Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS)

Comparing VCR with Carnot cycle, it can be seen


that the VCR introduces two irreversibilities:

1) Irreversibility due to non-isothermal heat


rejection (process 2-3).

2) 2) Irreversibility due to isenthalpic throttling


(process 3-4).

As a result, one would expect the theoretical COP of standard cycle to be smaller than
that of a Carnot system for the same heat source and sink temperatures.

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Analysis
Evaporator: mref 4 1

Cooling Capacity or Refrigerating Capacity


CC
CC = mref ( h1 - h4 ) = mref . R.E.

Where
CC Cooling capacity in kW
mref Refrigerant mass rate in kg/s
( h1 - h4 ) Refrigeration effect ( R.E. ) kJ/kg

Ton of Refrigeration (T.R) = 3.517 kW

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Analysis

Compressor:
For isentropic compression

Power = mref ( h2 - h1 ) / ηmech

Condenser:
It can be air or water cooled

Qr = mref ( h2 - h3 )

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 8


Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Analysis

Air Cooled Condenser Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw Water Cooled Condenser 9
Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Analysis

Expansion Device :

In all devices

h3 = h4
Capillary Tube Expansion valve

Coefficient of Performance:

COPth = CC/ P
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Refrigerants
Refrigerants.

 A refrigerant is the primary working fluid used for absorbing and transmitting heat in a
refrigeration system.

 Refrigerant required to be :

1- Chemical stability:

- No decomposition due to temperature

- Not corrosive when alone or when mixed with oil

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2- Low flammability. (Class 1, Class 2, Class 3).

3- Economic and available.

4- Saturation pressure

- Evaporation pressure above atmospheric pressure

- Condensing pressure limited at normal condensing temperatures

5-High specific heat of vaporization.

6-Low toxicity to humans and animals. ( Class A , Class B)

7-”Environmentally friendly”
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P-h Chart

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VCR P-h chart Representation

3 2

4 1

h3 h1 h2
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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 1


Standard Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS)

Process 1-2: Isentropic compression


of saturated vapour in compressor

Process 2-3: Isobaric heat rejection in


condenser

Process 3-4: Isenthalpic expansion of


saturated liquid in expansion device

Process 4-1: Isobaric heat extraction


in the evaporator

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 2


VCR P-h chart Representation

3 2

4 1

h3 h1 h2
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Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

Deviations in simple theoretical cycles

The theoretical cycle applications meet many problems, which lead to


change the expected or calculated values.

The deviations occurs in all cycle components.

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Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

 Deviations in compression system

• The suction and delivery valves results in


pressure drops.

• Leakage internal and external is expected.

• Friction of moving parts.

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Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

• Mixing between lubricating oil and refrigerant.

• The compressors never can operate at constant


entropy. Mainly the deviation toward the
increase in outlet temperature.

• The suction pressure must be less than the


evaporator pressure to overcome the pressure
drop in piping, connections and valves.
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Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

• The delivery pressure must be higher than


the evaporator pressure to overcome the
pressure drop in piping, connections and
valves.

• The suction side must take only saturated


or superheated vapor (no liquid hazard
accepted).

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 7


Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

 Deviations in heat exchangers

• The tubes of the heat exchangers causes considerable pressure drops. To


reduce the pressure drops, the internal surfaces must have minimum
coefficient of friction. Also it can be designed with multi-passes.

• Tube material must have high coefficient of heat transfer, with minimum wall
thickness. Tube may have internal and external fins.

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Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

 Deviations in Subcooling & Superheating

• To insure that the refrigerant entering the compressor is vapor, it is necessary to


be at temperature higher than the saturation one. This can be done by
superheating with different methods.

• To improve the expansion process in the expansion valve (EV), the entering
refrigerant must be absolute liquid. Therefore, liquid must be cooled to
temperature lower than the saturation one.
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Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

Superheating

• It can be carried within the evaporator, allowing refrigerant to continue its heat transfer
process after complete evaporation.

• Outside the evaporator can be done using electric heater, atmospheric air at high
temperature, or by heat exchange with the hot liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser.

• Allow refrigerant to be in contact with the electric motor, the refrigerant will be super-
heated and motor will be cooled.
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Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

Superheating

• When refrigerant enters to the compressor crank case, before entering the compressor
it will be super-heated and the oil will be cooled.

• The superheating must be limited as it increases the required compressor power.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 11


Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

Subcooling

• Can be done using secondary condenser, or by adding additional coil to it.

• Performing a heat exchange process with the cold vapor refrigerant leaving the evaporator.

• Using atmospheric air, if it has lower temperature than the hot liquid refrigerant leaving the
condenser, to be a cooling media for the condenser.

• The sub-cooling can be increased as it increases the required compressor power.

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Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 1


Characteristics and Performance of Vapour Compression
System

CC = mref ( h1 - h4 ) = mref . R.E.

ηv th = 1 + c – c (Pd/Ps )(1/n)

ηv act = ηv th x ( Ts / Tcyl ) x ( Pcyl / Ps )

mref = n . (π/4) d2 L N ηv /vs

Power = mref ( h2 - h1 ) / ηmech

COPth = R.E./W
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Characteristics and Performance of Vapour
Compression System

 Parameters affecting VCS Performance:

1. Evaporator Pressure

R.E.' < R.E.  1

W' > W  2

vs' > vs  3

ηv' < ηv  4

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Characteristics and Performance of Vapour
Compression System
from 3 & 4 :

mref' < mref  5

from 1 & 5 :

CC' < CC

from 2 & 5:
R.E.' < R.E  1
Power' < Power
W' > W  2

from 1 & 2 vs' > vs  3

ηv' < ηv  4
COP' < COP Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 4
Characteristics and Performance of Vapour
Compression System

2. Condenser Pressure

R.E.' < R.E.  1

W' > W  2

vs' = vs  3

ηv' < ηv  4

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 5


Characteristics and Performance of Vapour
Compression System
from 3 & 4 :

mref' < mref  5

from 1 & 5 :

CC' < CC

from 2 & 5:
R.E.' < R.E  1
Power' > Power
W' > W  2

from 1 & 2 vs' = vs  3

ηv' < ηv  4
COP' < COP Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 6
Characteristics and Performance of Vapour
Compression System
3. Compressor speed (RPM)

4. Volumetric efficiency

Volumetric efficiency is not only affected by evaporator and condenser pressure but it
also affected by: Refrigeration System Determinants

• Clearance volume

• Cylinder temperature.

• Cylinder pressure.

Report : Draw the variation of VCS CC, Power, and COP with evaporator temperature for different
condenser temperatures. Write your comments about it.
Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 7
Refigeration System Determinantes
 Major determinates

1- Evaporator temperature

ΔTev = Tjob - Tev

2- Condenser temperature

ΔTcond = Tcond - Tcooling media

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Refigeration System Determinantes

 Mainor determinates

1- Degree of Superheating

2- Degree of Subcooled

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Vapour Refigeration System with Heat Exchanger

• From heat balance for the heat exchanger

( h 2 - h 1 ) = ( h4 - h 5 )

• CC = mref ( h1 - h6 ) = mref . R.E.

• Power = mref ( h3 - h2 ) / ηmech

• Qcond = mref ( h3 - h4 )

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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 1


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
• The performance of single stage systems shows that these systems are adequate as long as the
temperature difference between evaporator and condenser (temperature lift) is small.

• There are many applications where the temperature lift can be quite high. The temperature lift
can become large either due to the requirement of very low evaporator temperatures and/or due
to the requirement of very high condensing temperatures. For example, in frozen food industries
the required evaporator can be as low as –40 oC, while in chemical industries temperatures as low
as –150oC may be required for liquefaction of gases. On the high temperature side the required
condensing temperatures can be very high if the refrigeration system is used as a heat pump for
heating applications such as process heating, or drying.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 2


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
• A multi-stage system is a refrigeration system with two or more low-side pressures. Multi-stage
systems can be classified into:

a) Multi-compression systems

b) Multi-evaporator systems

c) Cascade systems, etc.

• Two concepts which are normally integral to multi-pressure systems are,

i) flash gas removal.

ii) intercooling. Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 3


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

• Flash gas removal using flash tank

 one of the problems with high temperature lift


applications is the high quality of vapour at the
inlet to the evaporator.

 The refrigerant from condenser is first expanded


to an intermediate pressure corresponding to
the pressure of flash tank, Pi using a low side
float valve.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 4


Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using two individual compressors.

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using two individual compressors.

System Analysis

• Mass Balance.
• Heat Balance.
• Compressor power
• Evaporator capacity (Refrigerating or
Cooling capacity) “C.C”
• Coefficient of performance “C.O.P”

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 6


Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using Back Pressure Valve.

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using back Pressure Valve.

System Analysis

• Mass Balance.
• Heat Balance.
• Compressor power
• Evaporator capacity (Refrigerating or
Cooling capacity) “C.C”
• Coefficient of performance “C.O.P”

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 8


Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 1


Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using Flash Tank.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 2


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

• Flash gas removal using flash Sub-cooler

 one disadvantage of the above system is that


since refrigerant liquid in the flash tank is
saturated, there is a possibility of liquid flashing
ahead of the expansion valve due to pressure
drop or heat transfer in the pipelines connecting
the flash tank to the expansion device.
Sometimes this problem is tackled by using a
system with a liquid sub-cooler.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 3


Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using two individual compressors.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 4


Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using two individual compressors.

System Analysis

• Mass Balance.
• Heat Balance.
• Compressor power
• Evaporator capacity (Refrigerating or
Cooling capacity) “C.C”
• Coefficient of performance “C.O.P”

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 5


Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using Back Pressure Valve.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 6


Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank
• Using Back Pressure Valve.

System Analysis

• Mass Balance.
• Heat Balance.
• Compressor power
• Evaporator capacity (Refrigerating or
Cooling capacity) “C.C”
• Coefficient of performance “C.O.P”

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 7


Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 1


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
• Using Flash Tank. • Using Flash Sub-cooler.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 2


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

• Intercooling in multi-stage compression

 Intercooling reduces the work input.


 Intercooling reduces the compressor discharge
temperature leading to better lubrication and
longer compressor life.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 3


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

• Intercooling by using external water H.E

 It depends on the availability of


sufficiently cold water to which the
refrigerant from low stage compressor
can reject heat.

 Water cooling is commonly used in air


compressors.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 4


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

• Intercooling using flash Inter-cooler

 Intercooling using liquid refrigerant from


condenser in the flash tank may or may
not reduce the power input to the system,
as it depends upon the nature of the
refrigerant. This is due to the fact that the
heat rejected by the refrigerant during
intercooling generates additional vapour
in the flash tank, which has to be
compressed by the high stage compressor.
Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 5
Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

• Intercooling using flash Inter-cooler

 Whether total power input to the system


decreases or not depends on whether the
increased power consumption due to
higher mass flow rate is compensated by
reduction in specific work of compression
or not.

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems with Flash
Tank

System Analysis

• Mass Balance.
• Heat Balance.
• Compressor power
• Evaporator capacity (Refrigerating or
Cooling capacity) “C.C”
• Coefficient of performance “C.O.P”

Report : Check if the consumed power is decreasing in all type of refrigerant and determine them .

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 8


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

• Intercooling using flash Sub-cooler Inter-cooler

Report : Draw The Flow Diagram & P-h


chart. Make a thermal analysis for this cycle.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 9


Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw

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Multi-Evaporator Vapour Compression Systems

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Multi-Evaporator Vapour Compression Systems

• Individual EX.V , Individual compressor

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Multi-Evaporator Vapour Compression Systems

System Analysis

• Mass Balance.
• Heat Balance.
• Compressor power
• Evaporator capacity (Refrigerating or
Cooling capacity) “C.C”
• Coefficient of performance “C.O.P”

Report : Check if the consumed power is decreasing in all type of refrigerant and determine them .

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 4


Multi-Evaporator Vapour Compression Systems

• Individual EX.V , One compressor

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Multi-Evaporator Vapour Compression Systems

• Individual EX.V , Multi-stage compressors

Report : Draw The Flow Diagram & P-h chart


for a system content Heat exchanger, flash
sub-cooler intercooler.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 6


Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
Limitations of multi-stage systems

Though multi-stage systems have been very successful, they have certain limitations. These are:

a) Since only one refrigerant is used throughout the system, the refrigerant used should have high critical
temperature and low freezing point.

b) The operating pressures with a single refrigerant may become too high or too low. Generally only R12, R22
and NH3 systems have been used in multi-stage systems as other conventional working fluids may operate in
vacuum at very low evaporator temperatures. Operation in vacuum leads to leakages into the system and
large compressor displacement due to high specific volume.

c) Possibility of migration of lubricating oil from one compressor to other leading to compressor break-down.
Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 7
Cascade Systems
• In a cascade system a series of refrigerants with progressively lower boiling points are used in
a series of single stage units.

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Cascade Systems
• The upper and the lower cycle can use any type of refrigerants and they can be different from
each other.

• Applications of cascade systems:

i. Liquefaction of petroleum vapours

ii. Liquefaction of industrial gases

iii. Manufacturing of dry ice

iv. Deep freezing etc.

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 9


Cascade Systems

• Advantages of cascade systems:


i. Since each cascade uses a different refrigerant, it is possible to select a
refrigerant that is best suited for that particular temperature range. Very high
or very low pressures can be avoided.
ii. Migration of lubricating oil from one compressor to the other is prevented

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 10


Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Dr. Mohamed Elhelw

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 1


Cooling Load Calculations

Cold Store Loads:

• Heat Transmission load • Occupants load

• Solar radiation load • Lighting load

• Product load • Air change load

• Respiration load • Motor load

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 2


Space Storage Capacity
It depend on:

1. Empty space for project or required storage capacity or project


budget.

2.How we will storage the products.

For this load density = 3-4 mt per ton

Mst= Volume / 3.75 (tons)


Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 3
Cold Store Insulation

For cold store the optimum insulation thickness = 7.5 to 10 cm

For freezing store, the optimum insulation thickness = 15 to 20 cm

How we insulate the cold store?


 Building types
1. Concert and masonry building
2. Prefabricated building
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Concert and Masonry Building
Wall insulation

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Roof or ceiling

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Floor

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Prefabricated Building

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1- Transmission load

QT = U A (To – Ti)/1000 (kW)

Where :

U = 1/(1/ho + xin / kin +1/hi )

ho = outside heat transfer coefficient = 34 W/m2K

hi = inside heat transfer coefficient = 9 W/m2K

kin = insulation thermal conductivity = 0.04 W/m K


Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 9
2- Solar Radiation Load

Qs = U A ΔTs/1000 (kW)

ΔTs = allowance of solar radiation C

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3- Product load

Normal cooling

•Reserve fresh vegetables and fruits

•Chilling water bottles

•Reserve fresh meat for short period

Qp = mp cbf (Tin – Tout) (kW)


Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 11
Sub-Freezing (Deep freezing)

•Reserve previous freeze meat.

•Reserve previous freeze vegetables .

•Reserve previous freeze ice blocks.

Qp = mp caf (Tin – Tout) (kW)


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Freezing

•Ice production

•Freezing meat in freezing tunnel

•Freezing vegetables in freezing tunnel

Qp = mp cbf (Tin – Tf) + mp L + mp caf (Tf – Tout) (kW)


Where
Daily Product rate = 5- 10% of storage rate
For freezing tunnel they have the same rate
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4- Respiration load

Qe = mst r /(24*3600)

Where

r = respiration rate kJ/kg.day

= 0.5 kJ/kg.day (except some product)

Prepared by Dr. Mohamed Elhelw 14


5- Occupants load

Qpr = heat of person(W) * No of


persons / 1000 (kW)

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6-Lighting load

QL = lighting intensity * plan area / 1000 (kW)

Where

lighting intensity = 20 W/m2

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7- Air change load

Qa = Volume * ζ * ρ * (ho – hi )/(24*3600)

Where

ζ = No of air change per day

ρ = air density = 1.2 kg/m3

ho = ambient air enthalpy kJ/kg

hi = space air enthalpy kJ/kg


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8- Motor load
Refrigeration capacity
From the pervious loads :

Qtotal = ∑ Q

R.C = Qtotal * factor of safety * 24/(24 – τ ) (kW)

Where

τ = defrosting period, hour/day


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