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Lesson Plan Title: Permutations and Factorial Notation

Date: February 27, 2018

Subject: Foundations of Mathematics 30 Grade: 12
Topic: Permutations and Factorial Notation

Materials: Foundations of Mathematics 30 Textbook: Chapter 4.2

- Calculator

Stage 1- Desired Results – you may use student friendly language

What do they need to understand, know, and/or able to do?
Students will need to know how to manipulate equations to solve for a variable. As well, they will learn the
notion of a factorial and how to show it in expanded and condensed forms. There will be a connection formed
between the use of factorials in permutations.

Broad Areas of Learning:

Sense of Self, Community, and Place: In discussion, students will learn more about how they solve problems
and the approaches that their peers take in solving the same problem. They will learn to respect both
opinions and strengthen their relationships with each other.

Lifelong Learners: This lesson allows students to shape new content using past knowledge that they have
learned. They are able to demonstrate collaboration with others in pursuing new information. The examples
provide connections to real-world examples giving students the opportunity to continue applying this
knowledge throughout their life.

Cross-Curricular Competencies:
Develop Thinking: Using prior knowledge of permutations, students will connect the new concept of
factorials to solving problems which allows them to think in new contexts. They will think creatively about
ways to solve each problem and discover how factorials play an important part in solving permutation

Develop Identity and Interdependence: Through class discussion, students will develop respect and
understanding for everyone in the classroom. They will work together in solving the problems and analyzing
each other’s responses.

Develop Literacies: Students will develop literacies by learning about new mathematics language and how it
is applied. They will interact with technology to strengthen their understanding of the content. This lesson
incorporates technology, manipulating objects, and handouts which will help meet the needs of different

FM 30.6: Demonstrate understanding of combinatorics including:
- The fundamental counting principle
- Permutations (excluding circular permutations)
- combinations
PGP Goals:
- 1. 1 the ability to maintain respectful, mutually supportive and equitable professional
relationships with learners, colleagues, families and communities
- 1.3 a commitment to social justice and the capacity to nurture an inclusive and equitable
environment for the empowerment of all learners
- 3.2 the ability to use a wide variety of responsive instructional strategies and methodologies to
accommodate learning styles of individual learners and support their growth as social,
intellectual, physical and spiritual beings
- 4. 1 knowledge of Saskatchewan curriculum and policy documents and applies this understanding
to plan lessons, units of study and year plans using curriculum outcomes as outlined by the
Saskatchewan Ministry of Education

Stage 2- Assessment

Assessment FOR Learning (formative) Assess the students during the learning to help determine next steps.

- Exit Slip
- Teacher feedback to student responses

Assessment OF Learning (summative) Assess the students after learning to evaluate what they have learned.

- Homework questions
- Unit exam: students will be tested on this content at the end of the unit.

Stage 3- Learning Plan

Motivational/Anticipatory Set (introducing topic while engaging the students) (15 min)
Learning Objective:
- Gain an understanding of factorial notation and apply the definition
- Explain, using examples, how factorials are related to the determination of
permutations and combinations.

- Arrange students in groups of 3

- Have the students arrange themselves in a straight-line writing down the different ways they did so.
- As a class discuss the strategies each group used to come up with an answer

Main Procedures/Strategies: (25 min)

- Overview of factorial notation
- Example 1 in textbook : Determine the number of arrangements that six children can form while
lining up to drink
o Students will use mental math strategies in solving the problem
o Students can work individually or in pairs on the reflection questions
o Discuss their answers as a class
- Example 2 in textbook: a) 10! B) 12!/9!3!
o Technology and factorials
- Example 3 in textbook: Simplify, where n  N. a) (n+3)(n+2)! B) (n+1)!/(n-1)!
o Simplifying algebraic equations involving factorials
- Example 4 in textbook: Solve n!/(n-2)! = 90, where n  I
o Solving equations using factorials

- If students struggle with mental math they can use their calculator
- Able to work alone or in pairs for the example
Show the common mistake of expanding factorials

Closing of lesson (20 min):

- Exit slip on Google forms
- Questions 16
o Working in pairs
o Allows practice of the Fundamental counting principle and permutations
- Assign homework questions

Personal Reflection:

M. Wilkinson ’16 *Adapted from Understanding by Design (McTighe and Wiggins, 1998)