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#lb Designation: C 33 - 93


100 Barr HyWr Or West Conshohockm. PA 19428
Rqmnted horn the Annua) @oak of ASTM Stmdards. Copyright ASTM
It not rmsted m the current comtmxd mdsx. ~111 appear in flh? next edition.

Standard Specification for

Concrete Aggregates’
This standard IS Issued under the fixed desgnatmn C 33; the number lmmedtately followu~g the deslgnatmn indicates the year of
onginal adoption or. m the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number III parentheses indicates the year of last rcapproval. A
superscnpt epsdon (e) indicates an editorial change smce the last revision or reapproval.

Thts spmfico~ion has brm rrpproved_/or use by agencies nffhe Departmeo~ ~fDqt&ue Consulf !hr DOD lnder of Spmficamns and
Sfandards /iv the spenfir year qi’mue which has been adopted bv the Depurrmmr a/ Dctiww

1. Scope C 88 Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use of

I. 1 This specification defines the requirements for grading Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate’
and quality of fine and coarse aggregate (other than light- C 117 Test Method for Materials Finer than 75pm (No.
weight or heavyweight aggregate) for use in concrete.’ 200) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing3
1.2 This specification may be used by a contractor, C 123 Test Method for Lightweight Pieces in Aggregate3
concrete supplier, or other purchaser as part of the purchase C 125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete
document describing the material to be furnished. Aggregates’
N OTE I-This specification is regarded as adequate to ensure satis-
C 13 1 Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of
factory materials for most concrete. It is recognized that, for certain Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in
work or in certain regions, it may be either more or less restrictive than the Los Angeles Machine 3
needed. For example, where aesthetics are important, more restrictive C 136 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse
limits may be considered regarding impurities that would stain the Aggregates 3
concrete surface. The specifier should ascertain that aggregates specified C 142 Test Method for Clay Lumps and Friable Particles
are or can be made available in the area of the work, with regard to
grading, physical, or chemical properties, or combination thereof.
in Aggregates3
C 227 Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of
1.3 This specification may also be referenced in project Cement-Aggregate Combinations (Mortar-Bar Method)3
specifications to define the quality of aggregate, the nominal C 289 Test Method for Potential Reactivity of Aggregates
maximum size of the aggregate, and other specific grading (Chemical Method)3
requirements. Those responsible for selecting the proportions C 295 Guide for Petrographic Examination of Aggregates
for the concrete mixture shall have the responsibility of for Concrete3
determining the proportions of fine and coarse aggregate and C 330 Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Struc-
the addition of blending aggregate sizes if required or tural Concrete”
approved. C 331 Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Con-
1.4 Chits of Measurement: Crete Masonry Units3
1.4.1 With regard to sieve sizes and the size of aggregate as C 332 Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Insu-
determined by the use of testing sieves, the values in lating Concrete3
inch-pound units are shown for the convenience of the user: C 342 Test Method for Potential Volume Change of
however, the standard sieve designation shown in paren- Cement-Aggregate Combinations3
theses is the standard value as stated in Specification E 11. C 535 Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of
1.4.2 With regard to other units of measure, the values Large-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in
stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard.
the Los Angeles Machine3
2. Referenced Documents C 586 Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of
Carbonate Rocks for Concrete Aggregates (Rock Cyl-
2. I ASTM Standards. inder Method)3
C 29/C 29M Test Method for Unit Weight and Voids in C 637 Specification for Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding
Aggregate 3 Concrete3
C 40 Test Method for Organic Impurities in Fine Aggre- C 638 Descriptive Nomenclature of Constituents of Aggre-
gates for Concrete3 gates for Radiation-shielding Concrete3
C 87 Test Method for Effect of Organic Impurities in Fine C 666 Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid
Aggregate on Strength of MoTtar3 Freezing and Thawing3
D 75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates4
D3665 Practice for Random Sampling of Construction
’ Thts spcctficauon IS under the jurisdiction of ASTM Comminee C-9 on
Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and IS the direct responsibility of Subcommittee Materials4
CO920 on Normal Weight Aggregates. E 1 1 Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for Testing Pur-
Current edition approved Oct. IS. 1993. Published December 1993. Originally poses5
published as C 33 - 2 I T. Last prewous edition C 33 - 92a.
2 For lightweight aggregates, see Specifications C 331. C 332. and C 330: for
heavywclght aggregates see Specification C 637 and Descriptive Nomenclature
c 638. ~.4nnuul Book qf ASTM Smtdards. Vol 04.03.
’ .~nrrun/ &ok ofrl.V,lf Srandords. Vol 04.02. ’ hnd Book ~~fdST,U Standards. Vol 14.02
rgtl c33

3. Terminology Whether the restriction on reactive materials in

3. I For definitions of terms used in this standard, refer to 7.3 applies,
Terminology C 125. In the case of the sulfate soundness test (8.1) which
salt is to be used. If none is stated, either salt may be used. The appropriate limit for material finer than the
4. Ordering and Specifying Information No. 200 sieve (Table 1). If not stated, the 3.0 % limit shall
4. I The direct purchaser of aggregates shall include the apply, and
information in 4.2 in the purchase order as applicable. A The limit that applies with regard to coal and
project specifier shall include in the project documents lignite (Table 1). If not stated. the I .O % limit shall apply.
information to describe the aggregate to be used in the 4.3.3 When the aggregate being described is coarse aggre-
project from the applicable items in 4.3. gate:
4.2 Include in the purchase order for aggregates the The nominal maximum size or sizes permitted,
following information, as applicable: based on thickness of section or spacing of reinforcing bars
4.2.1 Reference to this specification, as C 33-__, or other criteria. In lieu of stating the nominal maximum
4.2.2 Whether the order is for fine aggregate or for coarse size, the specifier may designate an appropriate size number
aggregate, or numbers (10.1 and Table 2). Designation of a size number
4.2.3 Quantity, in tons or metric tons (Note 2), to indicate a nominal size shall not restrict the person
4.2.4 When the order is for fine aggregate: responsible for selecting proportions from combining two or Whether the optional grading in 6.2 applies, more gradings of aggregate to obtain a desired grading, Whether the restriction on reactive materials in provided that the gradings are not otherwise restricted by the
7.3 applies, project specifier and the nominal maximum size indicated In the case of the sulfate soundness test (8. I) which by the size number is not exceeded,
salt is to be used. If none is stated, either salt may be used, The class designation (11. I and Table 3), The appropriate limit for material finer than No. Whether the restriction on reactive materials in
200 sieve (Table 1). If not stated, the 3.0 % limit shall apply, 10.2 applies, The appropriate limit for coal and lignite (Table In the case of the sulfate soundness test (Table 3),
1). If not stated, the I.0 % limit shall apply, which salt is to be used. If none is stated, either salt may be
4.2.5 When the order is for coarse aggregate: used, The grading (size number) (I 1.1 and Table 2), or The person responsible for selecting the concrete
alternate grading as agreed between the purchaser and proportions if other than the concrete producer, and
aggregate supplier. Any exceptions or additions to this specification The class designation (11.1 and Table 3), (See Note I). Whether the restriction on reactive materials in
11.2 applies, FINE AGGREGATE In the case of the sulfate soundness test (Table 3),
which salt is to be used. If none is stated, either salt may be
used, and 5. General Characteristics
4.2.6 Any exceptions or additions to this specification (see 5. I Fine aggregate shall consist of natural sand, manufac-
Note 1). tured sand, or a combination thereof.
NOTE 2-The weight should be determined as loaded in the hauling
unit. including any natural moisture present. No water should be added 6. Grading
at the time of loading.
6.1 Sieve Analysis-Fine aggregate, except as provided in
4.3 Include in project specifications for aggregates the 6.2, 6.3, and 6.4, shall be graded within the following limits:
following information, as applicable: Sieve (Specification E 1 I) Percent Passmg
4.3.1 Reference to this specification, as C 33_. K-in. (9.5 mm) 100
4.3.2 When the aggregate being described is tine aggregate: No. 4 (4.75-mm) 95 to 100
No. 8 (2.Smm) 80 to 100
No. 16 (1.18-mm) 50 to 85
TABLE 1 Limits for Deleterious Substances in Fine Aggregate No. 30 (600~pm) 2sto60
for Concrete No. SO (3OOqm) tot0 30
No. IO0 (I SO-pm) 2to 10
Weight Percent
Item of Total Sampk 6.2 The minimum percent shown above for material
man passing the No. 50 (3OOym) and No. 100 (ISO-pm) sieves
Clay lumps and friable partides 3.0 may be reduced to 5 and 0, respectively, if the aggregate is to
Matenal finer than No. 200 (75-jcn) we: be used in air-entrained concrete containing more than 400
Concrete subpct to abrasion 3.0”
All other concrete 5-v lb of cement per cubic yard (237 kg/m3) or in nonair-
Coal and lignite: entrained concrete containing more than 500 lb of cement
Where surface appearance of concrete OS per cubic yard (297 kg/m’) or if an approved mineral
is of impcftance admixture is used to supply the deficiency in percent passing
All other concrete 1.0
these sieves. Air-entrained concrete is here considered to be
1 In the case of manufactured sand, fl Me material riner than the N0. 200
(75pm) owe ccfwsts of me dust ot fracture. essent!aW free of clay 0T stab
concrete containing airentraining cement or an airen-
these limits may be increased to 5 and 7 %. respctiivecy. training agent and having an air content of more than 3 %.

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TABLE 2 Grading Requirementa for Coarse Aggregates

T Nommal Size
I Amounts Finer than Each Laboratoty
Sieve (Square-01zenmngs), Weight Percent
- A L

Sue Numbs


3% to 1% m. 1 M:
3V2 tn.
(90 mm)

IO to lc4
3 ‘“’ 21/z in.
g) (63 mm)

25 to 60
2 in.
(50 mm)
1% m
37.5 mm

1 In.
25.0 mm

0 to 5
I”. ‘12m.
12.5 mm
% in.
(9.5 mm)
No 4
No. 6
2.36 mm
do. 16

(90 to 37.5 mm)

2 21/z to 1% n. 100 9oto1Oc 35 to 70 oto15 0 to 5
(63 to 37 5 mm)
3 2 to 1 m. 100 $0 to lo(1 35 to 70 oto15 0 to 5
(50 to 25.0 mm)
357 2 in. to No 4 100 KJ to IOC 35 to 70 10 to 30 0 to 5
(50 to 4.75 mm)
4 1 l/2 to % in. 100 30 to IOC 20 to 55 0 to 15 0 to 5
(37.5 to 19.0 mm)
467 lV2m.toNo.4 100 35 to loo 35 to 70 10 to30 0 to 5
(37.5 to 4.75 mm)
5 1 to VP 8”. ,,. 100 30 to 100 20 to 55 oto 10 0 to 5
(25.0 to 12.5 mm)
56 1 to Ye In. .,. 100 #O to loa 40 to 85 10l040 oto15 0 to 5
(25.0 to 9.5 mm)
57 1 in. to No. 4 100 35 to 1Oc 25 to 60 OtolO 0 to 5
(25.0 to 4.75 mm)
6 % to % in. 100 30 to 1oc 20 to 55 01015 0 to 5
(19.0 to 9.5 mm)
67 % in. to No. 4 .., 100 H3 to 7oa 20 to 55 0 to 10 0 IO 5
(19.0 to 4.75 mm)
7 VZ in. to No. 4 .,. loo 30 to 100 40 to 70 oto15 0 to 5
(12.5 to 4.75 mm)
6 Vu in. to No. 8 100 35 10 loo 10 to x otoro
(9.5 to 2.36 mm)

6.3 The fine aggregate shall have not more than 45 % N OTE 5-The base fineness modulus should be determined from
passing any sieve and retained on the next consecutive sieve previous tests, or if no previous tests exist, from the average of the
fineness modulus values for the first ten samples (or all preceding
of those shown in 6.1, and its fineness modulus shall be not samples if less than ten) on the order. The proportioning of a concrete
less than 2.3 nor more than 3.1. mixture may be dependent on the base fineness modulus of the fine
6.4 Fine aggregate failing to meet the sieve analysis and aggregate to be used. Therefore, when it appears that the base fineness
fineness modulus requirements of 6.1, 6.2, or 6.3, may be moddulus is considerably different from the value used in the concrete
accepted provided that concrete made with similar fine mixture, a suitable adjustment in the mixture may be necessary.
aggregate from the same source has an acceptable perfor-
mance record in similar concrete construction; or, in the 7. Deleterious Substances
absence of a demonstrable service record, provided that it is
7. I The amount of deleterious substances in fine aggre-
demonstrated that concrete of the class specified, made with
the fme aggregate under consideration, will have relevant gate shall not exceed the limits prescribed in Table 1.
7.2 Organic Impurities:
properties at least equal to those of concrete made with the
same ingredients, with the exception that a reference fine 7.2.1 Fine aggregate shall be free of injurious amounts of
aggregate be used which is selected from a source having an organic impurities. Except as herein provided, aggregates
acceptable performance record in similar concrete construc- subjected to the test for organic impurities and producing a
tion. color darker than the standard shall be rejected.
7.2.2 A fine aggregate failing in the test may be used,
N OTE 3-Fine aggregate that conforms to the grading requirements provided that the discoloration is due principally to the
of a specification, prepared by another organization such as a state presence of small quantities of coal, lignite, or similar
transportation agency. which is in general use in the area, should be discrete particles.
considered as having a satisfactory service record with regard to those
concrete properties affected by grading. 7.2.3 A tine aggregate failing in the test may be used,
NOTE 4-Relevant properties are those properties of the concrete provided that, when tested for the effect of organic impurities
which are important to the particular application being considered. STP on strength of mortar, the relative strength at 7 days,
169B6 provides a discussion of important concrete properties. calculated in accordance with Test Method C 87, is not less
than 95 %.
6.5 For continuing shipments of fine aggregate from a 7.3 Fine aggregate for use in concrete that will be subject
given source, the fineness modulus shall not vary more than to wetting, extended exposure to humid atmosphere, or
0.20 from the base fineness modulus. The base fineness contact with moist ground shall not contain any materials
modulus shall be that value that is typical of the source. If that are deleteriously reactive with the alkalies in the cement
necessary, the base fineness modulus may be changed when in an amount sufficient to cause excessive expansion of
approved by the purchaser. mortar or concrete, except that if such materials are present
in injurious amounts, the fine aggregate may be used with a
6Signtficnnce qt’ Tests and Propenres of Concrere and Concrete Makrna
cement containing less than 0.60 % alkalies calculated as
.Lfu!enols. STP 1698, ASTM, 1978. sodium oxide equivalent (Na,O + 0.658&O) or with the

esB, c 33
TABLE 3 Limits for Ddateriour Substanws and Pttytil Property Raquirements of Coarse Aggragate for Concrate
NOTE-SW Fig. 1 for the bcatlon of the weathering regions and Note 10 for guidance n using tf’m map Tha weathering regrms are deknad as follows:
(S) Savers Weethenng Region-A ccfd climate where concrete is exposed to deicing chemicafa or other eggresaive agents, ci
where ccncrete may bsczxne saturated by wntinued contact with moisture (x free water prior to repeated freezing and thawing.
(U) Modsrate Weathering Regmn-A climate where occasbnet freezing is expscted. but where coocrete in outdccr service wtfl not
be continually exposed to freezing and thawing rn the m of moisture 0T to &i&g chemicals.
(N) Negligible Weathering Region-A dimate where concrete is rem+ exposed to freezing in the preserke of moisture.
Maxrmum Alkwatde X
sum cd clay
ClElSS Type or Locatrcn of Concrete may Che& (Less Lunps’ Friabfe Meter@ Finer
Designation Construction Lumps and Sulfate
padfcfes’ and Than No. 200 -$t($,, AbnMi&
FnMe Par- chart (Less Soundness
tiiS Than 2_4o sp (75~) Sieve
(5 cycfss?
gr SSO)o
Severe Weathering Regions
1s Fwtings. fourdatbns, columns and 10.0 1 .oc 1 .o 50
beams not exposed to the weather, in-
tehff ftoor sfebs to be given coverings
2s lnterbr Roars without coveflngs 5.0 1 .OP 0.5 50
3s Fourdetion walls above grade, retllln!ng 5.0 id 7.0 1 .OP 0.5 50 18
walls, abutments, piers, girders, and
beams exposed to the weather
4s Pavements, bridge decks. driveways 3.0 5.0 5.0 1 .oo 0.5 50 18
and curbs, walks, patios. garage floors.
exposed bon and porches, or water-
front structures, subject to frequent
5s Exposed architecture concreta 2.0 3.0 3.0 1.0o 0.5 50 18
Moderate Weethedng Regions
1M Footings, fcundaticns, columns, and 10.0 1 .OD 1.0 50
beams not exposed to the weather, in-
tenor floor slab3 to be given coverings
2M Intatitx fbc4-s without coverings 5.0 1 .OD 0.5 50
3M Foundation wails above grade. retalnlng 5.0 8.0 10.0 1 .OP 0.5 50 18
walls, abutments, piers, girders. and
beams exposed to the weather
4.4 Pavements, Mdge decks. driveways 5.0 5.0 7.0 1 .OP 0.5 50 18
and curbs. walks. patios, garage fkzom,
exposed 5oors end ptxchss, or water-
hcnt sbuckses subject to frequsnt wet-
5M Exposed architectural contMe 3.0 3.0 5.0 1 .oo 0.5 50 18
5~oNe#igibfe Wenthating Regions
1N Slabs sllbject to traffic abrasbn, brldga . 1 .OP 0.5 50
decks, iIoors. ~idewatks. pavefn8MS
2N All otha classes of concrete 10.0 t .OD 1.0 50

addition of a material that has been shown to prevent 8.2 Fine aggregate failing to meet the requirements of 8.1
harmful expansion due to the alkali-aggregate reaction. (See may be accepted, provided that concrete of comparable
Appendix X 1.) properties, made from similar aggregate from the same
source, has given satisfactory service when exposed to
weathering similar to that to be encountered.
8. Soundness 8.3 Fine aggregate not having a demonstrable service
8.1 Except as provided in 8.2 and 8.3, fine aggregate record and failing to meet the requirements of 8.1 may be
subjected to five cycles of the soundness test shall have a accepted, provided it gives satisfactory results in concrete
weighted average loss not greater than 10 % when sodium subjected to freezing and thawing tests (see Test Method C
sulfate is used or 1.5 % when magnesium sulfate is used. 666).


Moderate i-1
Weathering R e g i o n s

FIG. 1 LocatIon of Weatharing Regions

COARSE AGGREGATE 11. Deleterious Substances

11.1 Except for the provisions of 11.3, the limits given in
9. GeneralCharacteristics Table 3 shall apply for the class of coarse aggregate desig-
9.1 Coarse aggregate shall consist of gravel, crushed nated in the purchase order or other document (Notes 8 and
gravel, crushed stone, air-cooled blast furnace slag, or 9). If the class is not specified, the requirements for Class 35
crushed hydraulic-cement concrete, or a combination 3M, or 1 N shall apply in the severe. moderate, and negligible
thereof. conforming to the requirements of this specification. weathering regions, respectively (see Table 3 and Fig. 1).
N OTE 6-Although crushed hydraulic-cement concrete has been NOTE S-The specifier of the aggregate should designate the class of
used as an aggregate with reported satisfactory results. its use may coarse aggregate to be used in the work, based on weathering severity,
require some additional precautions. Mixing water requirements may be abrasion, and other factors of exposure. (See Table 3 and Fig. 1.) T’he
increased because of the harshness of the aggregate. Partially deterio- limits for coarse aggregate corresponding to each class designation are
rated concrete, used as aggregate, may reduce freeze-thaw resistance. expected to ensure satisfactory performance in concrete for the resp-
affect air void properties or degrade during handling, mixing, or placing. tive type and location of construction. Selecting a class with unduly
Crushed concrete may have constituents that would be susceptible to restrictive limits may result in unnecessary cost if materials meeting
alkali-aggregate reactivity or sulfate attack in the new concrete or may those requirements are not locally available. Selecting a class with
bring sulfates, chlorides, or organic material to the new concrete in its lenient limits may result in unsatisfactory performance and premature
pore structure. deterioration of the concrete. While concrete in difkrent parts of a single
structure may be adequately made with different classes of coarse
aggregate, the specifier may wish to require the coarse aggregate for all
10. Grading concrete to conform to the same more restrictive class to reduce the
IO. I Coarse aggregates shall conform to the requirements chance of furnishing concrete with the wrong class of amte,
especially on smaller projects.
prescribed in Table 2 for the size number specit’ied. NDTE 9-For coarse aggregate in concrete exposed to weathering, the
NOTE 7-The ranges shown in Table 2 are by necessity very wide in map with the weathering regions shown in Fig. I is intended to xrve
order to accommodate nationwide conditions. For quahty control of only as a guide to probable weathering severity. Those undertaking
any specific operation, a producer should develop an average gradation construction. especially war the boundaries of weathering regions,
for the particular source and production facilities, and control the should consult local weather bureau records for amount of winter
gradation within reasonable tolerances from this average. Where coarse precipitation and number of freeze-thaw cycles to te expected, for
aggregate sires numbers 357 or 467 are used, the aggregate should be determining the weathering severity for establishing test requirements of
furnished in at least two separate sizes. the coarse aggregate. For construction at altitudes exceeding SOtXl fi

( I520 m) above sea level. the likelihood of more severe weathenng rhan preparation of samples for soundness or abrasion tests. For
indicated by the map should be considered. In arid areas. severity of determination of all other tests and for evaluation of
weathering may be less than that indicated. In either case. the definitions
of weathering severity UI Table 3 would govern. If there 1s doubt in
potential alkali reactivity where required, use independent
choosing between two repons. select the more severe weathcnng region. test specimens.
12.1.1 Sampling-Practice D 75 and Practice D 3665.
L 1.2 Coarse aggregate for use in concrete that will be 12.1.2 clruding and Fineness 1Modulus-Test Method
subject to wetting, extended exposure to humid atmosphere, c 136.
or contact with moist ground shall not contain any materials 121.3 Amount of Material Finer than No. 200 (7.S-l.~n]
that are deleteriously reactive with the alkalies in the cement Siuvu-Test Method C 117.
in an amount sufficient to cause excessive expansion of 12.1.4 Organic 1mpuri&s-Test Method C 40.
mortar or concrete except that if such materials are present 12. I.5 l!$iict oj- Organic Impurities on Strength-Test
in injurious amounts, the coarse aggregate may be used with Method C 87.
a cement containing less than 0.60 % alkalies calculated as 12.1.6 Soundness-Test Method C 88.
sodium oxide equivalent (Na,O + 0.658K,O) or with the 12.1.7 Clav Lumps and Friable Particles-Test Method
addition of a material that has been shown to prevent C 1 4 2 .
harmful expansion due to the alkali-aggregate reaction. (See 12.1.8 Coal and Lignire-Test Method C 123, using a
Appendix X 1.). liquid of 2.0 specific gravity to remove the particles of coal
I 1.3 Coarse aggregate having test results exceeding the and lignite. Only material that is brownish-black, or black,
limits specified in Table 3 may be accepted provided that shah be considered coal or lignite. Coke shall not be classed
concrete made with similar aggregate from the same source as coal or lignite.
has given satisfactory service when exposed in a similar 12.1.9 Weight of Slug-Test Method C 29.
manner to that to be encountered; or, in the absence of a 12.1.10 Abrasion of Coarse Aggregute-Test Method
demonstrable service record, provided that the aggregate C 131 or Test Method C 535.
produces concrete having satisfactory relevant properties (see 12.1.11 Reactive Aggregates-See Appendix X 1,
Note 4). 12. I. 12 Freezing and Thawing-Procedures for making
freezing and thawing tests of concrete are described in Test
Method C 666.
12. Methods of Sampling and Testing 12.1.13 Chert-Test Method C 123 is used to identify
particles in a sample of coarse aggregate lighter than 2.40
12.1 Sample and test the aggregates in accordance with
specific gravity, and Practice C 295 to identify which of the
the following methods, except as otherwise provided in this
particles in the light fraction are chert.
specification. Make the required tests on test specimens that
comply with requirements of the designated test methods.
The same test specimen may be used for sieve analysis and 13. Keywords
for determination of material finer than the No. 200 (75ym) 13.1 aggregates; coarse aggregate; concrete aggregates; fine
sieve. Separated sizes from the sieve analysis may be used in aggregate


(Nomnaodatory Information)


X 1.1 A number of methods for detecting potential reac- tities of these materials by petrographic examination is
tivity have been proposed. However, they do not provide helpful in evaluating potential alkali reactivity. Some of these
quantitative information on the degree of reactivity to be materials render an aggregate deleteriously reactive when
expected or tolerated in service. Therefore, evaluation of present in quantities as little as 1 .O % or even less.
potential reactivity of an aggregate should be based upon Xl. I .2 Test Method C289-In this test method, aggre-
judgment and on the interpretation of.test data and exami- gates represented by points lying to the right of the solid line
nation of concrete structures containing a combination of of Fig. 2 of Test Method C 289 usually should be considered
fine and coarse aggregates and cements for use in the new potentially reactive.
work. Results of the following tests may assist in making the Xl. 1.2.1 If R, exceeds 70, the aggregate is considered
evaluation: potentially reactive if SC is greater than R,.
X1.1.1 Pracrice C29_5-Certain materials are known to X1.1.2.2 If R, is less than 70. the aggregate is considered
be reactive with the alkalies in cements. These include the potentially reactive if S, is greater than 35 + (RJ2).
following forms of silica: opal, chalcedony, tridymite, and XI. 1.2.3 These criteria conform to the solid line curve
cristobalite; intermediate to acid (silica-rich) volcanic glass given in Fig. 2 of Test Method C 289. The test can be made
such as is likely to occur in rhyolite. andesite, or dacite; quickly and, while not completely reliable in all CZWS,
certain zeolites such as heulandite; and certain constituenw provides helpful information, especially where results of the
of some phyllites. Determination of the presence and quan- more time-consuming tests are not available.

c 33

XI. 1.3 Test Methud C 227-The results of this test Potential Volume Change of Cement-Aggregate Combina-
method when made with a high-alkali cement, furnish tions,” Appendix to Committee C-9 RepoR. Proceedings,
information on the likelihood of harmful reactions occur- ASTM, Volume 54. 1954, p. 356. It indicates that cement-
ring. The alkali content of the cement should be substantially aggregate combinations tested by this procedure in which
above 0.6 o/c, and preferably above 0.8 %, expressed as expansion equals or exceeds 0.200 % at an age of I year may
sodium oxide. Combinations of aggregate and cement that be considered unsatisfactory for use in concrete exposed to
have produced excessive expansions in this test usually wide variations of temperature and degree of saturation with
should be considered potentially reactive. While the line of water. In that geographical region, the problem has been
demarcation between nonreactive and reactive combinations reduced through the use of partial replacement of the
is not clearly defined, expansion is generally considered to be “sand-gravel” with limestone coarse aggregate.
excessive if it exceeds 0.05 % at 3 months or 0.10 % at 6 X 1.1.5 Potential Reactivily of Carbonate Aggregates-
months. Expansions greater than 0.05 % at 3 months should The reaction of the dolomite in certain carbonate rocks with
not be considered excessive where the &month expansion alkalies in portland cement paste has been found to be
remains below 0.10 %. Data for the 3-month tests should be associated with deleterious expansion of concrete containing
considered only when &month results are not available.
X 1.1.4 Test Mefhod C 342-This test method is intended such rocks as coarse aggregate. Carbonate rocks capable of
primarily for research concerning the potential expansion of such reaction possess a characteristic texture and composi-
cement-aggregate combinations subjected to variations of tion. The characteristic texture is that in which relatively
temperature and water saturation during storage under large crystals of dolomite are scattered in a finer-grained
prescribed conditions of test. Its use is mainly by those matrix of calcite and clay. The characteristic composition is
interested in research on aggregates that are found in parts of that in which the carbonate portion consists of substantial
Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa and possibly other adjoining areas. amounts of both dolomite and calcite, and the acid-insoluble
X 1. I .4. I In addition to its usefulness in research, this test residue contains a significant amount of clay. Except in
method has been found useful in the selection of aggregates certain areas, such rocks are of relatively infrequent occur-
of the so-called “sand-gravel” type found mainly in some rence and seldom make up a significant proportion of the
parts of Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa, which contain very material present in a deposit of rock being considered for use
little coarse material; generally 5 to 15 % retained on the No. in making aggregate for concrete. Test Method C 586 has
4 (4.75-mm) sieve. Much work has been done on the been successfully used in ( 1) research and ( 2) preliminary
problems of using these aggregates successfully in concrete screening of aggregate sources to indicate the presence of
and is reported in summary in the &Final Report of material with a potential for deleterious expansions when
Cooperative Tests of Proposed Tentative Method of Test for used in concrete.
The American Soclefy /or Tesfrng and Mafenafs fakes no pos!f!on respechng fhe val/d!fy of any patenf rrghls asserted m connecflon
wfh any /fern menfloned IR fhts standard Users of thhrs sfandard are expressly adwsed lhaf defermmalfon 01 fhe vabdrfy of any such
pafenf nghfs. and fhe risk 01 mhingemenf 01 such righls. are enfaely fhev own responsbrluy

Thci sfandard IS subjecf lo rews~on at any tfme by fhe responsible fechmcal commrlfee and musf be rewewed every twe years and
rl nor revrsed, erfher reapproved or whdrarn Your commertls are mvrled eNher for rews~on oi thus standard or for addmona! standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headguarlers. Your commends wrll racewe careful corwderalion at a meefmg of the responsrb!e
fechmcal comm~tfee. which you may affend. If you feel fhaf your commends have not received a fair hearmg you should make your
wews known IO the ASTM Comm4tae on Standards, 100 Barr Hsrbor Drwe. West Conshohocken. PA 19428