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Author & PICO

Purpose Sample
Year Problem Intervensi Comparison Outcome
Yolanda To examine nurse executives Hospitals continue to December 2013 A qualitative study Seven themes
Ogbolu PhD, chief nurse from one eastern face challenges and December with chief nurse emerged: (1) lack
CRNP, FNAP, executives’ United providing care to 2014, study executives and of awareness of
Assistant perspectives on: States (US). diverse pa- personnel interview. All resources for health
Professor and (1) the sample of twelve tients. The uptake of conducted site interviews were care
Director of
provision of regional hospitals standards related to visits to these eight transcribed organisations; (2)
Health, Debra culturally and was selected culturally and hospitals. verbatim. Eight constrained cultural
A. Scrandis linguistically to include linguistically During these visits, interview competency
PhD, CRNP, appropriate hospitals of appropriate a trained researcher transcripts training; (3)
BC, Associate services in various sizes, services into clinical audiotaped 45- were analysed suboptimal
Professor, hospitals and geographic practice is sluggish, minute in- using content resources
FCH & (2) to identify location, teaching despite potential depth interviews analysis (Miles, (cost and time); (4)
Grace barriers and ownership benefits, including with chief nurse Huberman, & mutual
Fitzpatrick and facilitators status. Eight of the reduc- executives to Saldana, understanding; (5)
MSN, RN associated with twelve sites agreed ing health disparities, identify barriers 2014). limited workplace
(2017) the to partici- patient errors, and facilitators to diversity; (6)
implementation pate in the study readmissions and the delivery of commu-
of culturally improving patient CLAS. Basic nity outreach
and experiences demographic data programmes; and
linguistically were collected and (7) the
ap- the hospital chief management of
propriate nurse executives unvoiced patient
services. were white, expectations.
females (63%) and
males (37%) who
were educated at
the master’s
degree (50%) and
doctoral degree
levels (50%)