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Technical Manual

The difference is…

www.richardlees.co.uk
…innovation, commitment, support.

2 www.richardlees.co.uk
For a service with a difference, choose A commitment to excellence drives services have introduced the Resotec
Richard Lees Decking, the UK specialist every aspect of our work, from the vibration damping system.
steel decking company with a 65 year innovation that has seen us introduce This is a service that’s as complete as
experience of innovation in structural a number of ‘firsts’, to producing it is reassuring; with all the support you
flooring products. In fact, ours is a top quality products. Perhaps that’s need from initial advice to complete
service which has delivered results why Superib has become the generic installation.
worldwide, providing floor deck profiles term for steel decking in the UK and
into major projects in over 30 countries, consistently outsells any other profile The difference is…
including some of the world’s most in the UK range. On-going development Richard Lees Decking
prestigious buildings. partnerships to create new products and

3
Advantages of steel decking:
Steel decking acts as permanent or ‘lost’ shuttering for suspended in situ concrete floors or roof slabs in new or
refurbished buildings. On most projects, it will act as all, or part, of the tensile bottom reinforcement for the concrete
slabs, hence the term ‘composite’.
The use of steel decking is especially suitable for fast construction methods. Quick to install, simple, and an ideal
complement to steel framed structures make steel decking suitable for both high and low rise buildings. Steel decking
is also used to speed up and simplify the construction of brickwork, blockwork and concrete framed buildings.

• Up to 4 hours’ fire resistance with exposed soffit • Provides a safe working platform.
can be designed. • Easily cut and fitted to awkward shapes.
• Composite construction reduces steelwork frame weight. • Minimal site storage requirements.
• Lower dead load reduces frame and foundation loading. • Needs no (or minimal) propping.
• Stiffens steelwork supporting frame. • Ceilings and services can be easily
• Cover for following trades. suspended using standard fixings.

4 www.richardlees.co.uk
Contents Steel Decking Product Range page 6

Section properties and notes to tables page 7

Resotec page 18

Shaping the London Skyline page 20

Architectural Impact Across the UK page 25

Guidance Notes for Design and Fixing page 28

Deckspan Design Software page 36

5
Steel Decking Product Range

the original:

Superib

less concrete

Ribdeck E60

longer spans

Ribdeck S60

longer spans

Ribdeck 80

Superib Ribdeck S60


•  e-entrant profile.
R • Trapezoidal profile.
• Available in the UK since 1972. • Longer unpropped spans.
• The UK’s most widely specified steel decking profile. • Available with closed ends and a pre-finished Colorcoat®
• Simple to detail and install. soffit giving an attractive appearance with durability to
• Virtually continuous plain soffit finish. minimise future maintenance.
• Excellent load carrying capacity on the finished slab.
• Use Superib for its great versatility and strength.
Ribdeck 80
Ribdeck E60 • Trapezoidal profile.
• Higher grade of steel.
• Trapezoidal profile. • Longer unpropped spans.
• Fast to install – 1.0m cover width. • Use Ribdeck 80 to reduce the number of
• Designed to minimise concrete volume. steel members in a frame.
• Use Ribdeck E60 to reduce the overall cost of a floor slab.

Registered Trademarks:
Holorib, Ribdeck, Superib and Deckspan are trademarks of Richard Lees Decking Ltd

6 www.richardlees.co.uk
Section properties and notes to tables
Superib Section Dimensions Superib Section Properties (per metre width)
Gauge Self Weight Area Inertia YNA
Standard soffit fixings mm kg/m2 kN/m2 mm2 cm4 mm
0.9 13.3 0.13 1,579 55.7 16.74
1.0 14.3 0.14 1,759 62.1 16.73
1.2 17.3 0.17 2,118 77.3 16.72
British Standard

Concrete volume figures in the span/load tables that follow are based on constant slab
thickness. To take account of deflection of the decking profile it is recommended that
the volume of concrete will equate to: Overall slab depth -8mm for voids + span/250.
An additional allowance may also be required to allow for deflections within the
supporting structure (refer to Building Design Engineer).

Ribdeck E60 Section Dimensions Ribdeck E60 Section Properties (per metre width)
Gauge Self Weight Area Inertia YNA
Standard soffit fixings mm kg/m2 kN/m2 mm2 cm4 mm
0.9 9.3 0.091 1,140 80.4 37.1
1.0 10.3 0.101 1,273 89.8 37.2
1.2 12.3 0.121 1,538 108.7 37.2
Concrete volume figures in the span/load tables that follow are based on constant slab
thickness. To take account of deflection of the decking profile it is recommended that
the volume of concrete will equate to: Overall slab depth – 36mm for voids + span/250.
An additional allowance may also be required to allow for deflections within the
supporting structure (refer to Building Design Engineer).

Ribdeck S60 Section Dimensions Ribdeck S60 Section Properties (per metre width)
Gauge Self Weight Area Inertia YNA
Standard soffit fixings mm kg/m2 kN/m2 mm2 cm4 mm
0.9 9.5 0.093 1,171 67.4 28.0
1.0 10.5 0.103 1,301 75.2 28.0
1.2 12.6 0.124 1,570 90.9 28.0
Concrete volume figures in the span/load tables that follow are based on constant slab
thickness. To take account of deflection of the decking profile it is recommended that
Eurocode

the volume of concrete will equate to: Overall slab depth – 33mm for voids + span/250.
An additional allowance may also be required to allow for deflections within the
supporting structure (refer to Building Design Engineer).

Ribdeck 80 Section Dimensions Ribdeck 80 Section Properties (per metre width)


Gauge Self Weight Area Inertia YNA
Standard soffit fixings mm kg/m2 kN/m2 mm2 cm4 mm
0.9 11.1 0.109 1,375 167.5 40.7
1.0 12.3 0.121 1,533 186.7 40.7
1.2 14.8 0.145 1,848 224.8 40.7
Concrete volume figures in the span/load tables that follow are based on constant slab
thickness. To take account of deflection of the decking profile it is recommended that
the volume of concrete will equate to: Overall slab depth – 44mm for voids + span/250.
An additional allowance may also be required to allow for deflections within the
supporting structure (refer to Building Design Engineer).

In pages 8-17 The performance of each product is given in terms of span/load and fire design tables.

Span/load and fire design tables


1. Spans shown assume clear span +150mm to the centreline of supports. 10. Loads shown are unfactored working loads and should include all imposed live
2. Designs are fully in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1. and dead loads, excluding only the self-weight of the slab.
3. The dead weight of the slab has been included in the development of the spans 11. An ultimate load factor of 1.0 is assumed throughout.
shown. However, when reading from the table, consideration should be given 12. - indicates that the area of mesh is less than the minimum for crack control
to finishes, partitions, etc., as noted in the ‘Loading combinations’. recommended in BS EN 1994-1-1 cl.9.8.1(2)
4. Based upon concrete densities at wet stage: normal weight concrete 24 kN/m³, 13. Mesh should satisfy the minimum elongation requirement given in
lightweight concrete 19 kN/m³, plus 1kN/m³ for unhardened concrete. BS4449: 2005.
5. Maximum deflection in the direction of span of the decking is limited to 14. For conditions outside the scope of the tables, including all isolated spans,
span/130 after taking account of ponding. consult Deckspan software.
6. Construction stage design includes an allowance of 1.5kN/m2 for construction 15. Tables are only based on the thinnest gauge of decking available in the
loading. Superib & Ribdeck E60 range. Improved performance with thicker gauges may
7. Composite slabs are designed as simply supported irrespective of the deck be checked using Deckspan software.
support configuration. A minimum crack control and distribution mesh is 16. The figures in brackets shown thus (**) indicates the rebar diameter required
required in accordance with clause 9.8.1(2) of BS EN 1994-1-1. for the noted fire resistance – one bar per trough.
Alternatively the use of fibre reinforcement may be deemed acceptable after 17. Tables are based on concrete class C30/37 for Normal weight or LC30/33 for
reference to the relevant design tables and consultation with the Structural Lightweight, as applicable.
Design Engineers.
18. The spans shown in the Superib & Ribdeck E60 fire design tables are limited
8. Decking is manufactured from material meeting the specification: BS EN for safety reasons to the maximum allowable for whichever is the lesser of
10346-S350GD+Z275. It has guaranteed minimum yield strength of 350 N/mm². the construction or composite performance for a 0.9mm gauge profile. The
9. Tables are applicable for any construction where the mesh may act in tension Deckspan software should be used to determine the minimum mesh required
over a supporting beam or wall (negative bending). This includes end bay for the actual design criteria.
conditions i.e. the concrete slab is continuous over more than one span.

7
Superib Span/load and fire design tables
Normal weight concrete

Span/load table - BS 5950 Method


Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
0.2% Mesh *
Support Condition Depth Volume Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
0.4% Mesh **
(mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
100 0.092 A142* 2.80 2.80 2.64 2.97 2.97 2.78 3.31 3.31 2.80
Single - Unpropped

120 0.112 A142* 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.81 2.81 2.81 3.16 3.16 3.16
130 0.122 A193* 2.58 2.58 2.58 2.73 2.73 2.73 3.09 3.09 3.09
150 0.142 A252* 2.49 2.49 2.49 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.97 2.97 2.97
175 0.167 A252* 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.46 2.46 2.46 2.84 2.84 2.84
200 0.192 A393* 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.35 2.35 2.35 2.73 2.73 2.73
250 0.242 A393* 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.56 2.56 2.56
100 0.092 A142* 3.27 3.04 2.65 3.44 3.20 2.79 4.13 3.45 3.02
Multiple - Unpropped

120 0.112 A142* 3.19 3.19 2.89 3.27 3.27 3.05 4.04 3.79 3.28
130 0.122 A193* 3.11 3.11 3.01 3.27 3.27 3.17 3.94 3.94 3.47
150 0.142 A252* 2.96 2.96 2.96 3.12 3.12 3.12 3.78 3.78 3.71
175 0.167 A252* 2.78 2.78 2.78 2.96 2.96 2.96 3.61 3.61 3.61
200 0.192 A393* 2.63 2.63 2.63 2.79 2.79 2.79 3.45 3.45 3.45
250 0.242 A393* 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.55 2.55 2.55 3.20 3.20 3.20
British Standard

100 0.092 A193** 3.21 2.79 2.48 3.39 2.94 2.62 3.70 3.22 2.86
Single - Propped

120 0.112 A252** 3.44 3.00 2.68 3.62 3.16 2.82 3.97 3.46 3.09
130 0.122 A393** 3.54 3.10 2.77 3.73 3.26 2.92 4.08 3.57 3.20
150 0.142 2xA252** 3.71 3.27 2.93 3.91 3.45 3.09 4.29 3.78 3.39
175 0.167 2xA252** 3.90 3.46 3.11 4.12 3.65 3.29 4.51 4.00 3.60
200 0.192 2xA393** 4.07 3.63 3.28 4.29 3.83 3.47 4.71 4.20 3.80
250 0.242 2xA393** 4.36 3.92 3.58 4.59 4.14 3.78 5.04 4.54 4.14

Fire design table - BS 5950 Method


Span (m) for given imposed Load (kN/m )
Fire period (Hrs) Slab Depth (mm) 0.2% Mesh * A142 A193 A252 (A393***)
5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
100 A142* 3.27 3.04 2.65 3.27 3.04 2.65 3.27 3.04 2.65
120 A142* 3.19 3.19 2.89 3.19 3.19 2.89 3.19 3.19 2.89
130 A193* - - - 3.11 3.11 3.01 3.11 3.11 3.01
1.0 150 A252* - - - - - - 2.96 2.96 2.96
175 A252* - - - - - - 2.78 2.78 2.78
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.63*** 2.63*** 2.63***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.40*** 2.40*** 2.40***
Normal weight concrete

110 A142* 3.20 2.78 2.47 3.20 2.78 2.47 3.20 2.78 2.47
120 A142* 3.19 2.88 2.56 3.19 2.88 2.56 3.19 2.88 2.56
130 A193* - - - 3.11 3.11 2.86 3.11 3.11 2.86
1.5 150 A252* - - - - - - 2.96 2.96 2.96
175 A252* - - - - - - 2.78 2.78 2.78
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.63*** 2.63*** 2.63***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.40*** 2.40*** 2.40***
125 A193* - - - 3.10 2.65 2.37 3.10 2.65 2.37
130 A193* - - - 3.11 2.69 2.40 3.11 2.69 2.40
150 A252* - - - - - - 2.96 2.96 2.79
2.0
175 A252* - - - - - - 2.78 2.78 2.78
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.63*** 2.63*** 2.63***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.40*** 2.40*** 2.40***

* BS 5950: Part 4 currently recommends that crack control reinforcement should be not less than 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete at the support, however in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the
minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction, and 0.4% for propped construction.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E

IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5


CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

the original:

Superib

8
Superib Span/load and fire design tables
Lightweight concrete

Span/load table - BS 5950 Method


Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
0.2% Mesh *
Support Condition Depth Volume Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
0.4% Mesh **
(mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
100 0.092 A142* 3.00 3.00 2.66 3.15 3.15 2.80 3.54 3.51 3.07
Single - Unpropped

120 0.112 A142* 2.85 2.85 2.85 3.02 3.02 3.02 3.38 3.38 3.35
130 0.122 A193* 2.78 2.78 2.78 2.95 2.95 2.95 3.31 3.31 3.31
150 0.142 A252* 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.81 2.81 2.81 3.18 3.18 3.18
175 0.167 A252* 2.54 2.54 2.54 2.67 2.67 2.67 3.04 3.04 3.04
200 0.192 A393* 2.43 2.43 2.43 2.55 2.55 2.55 2.92 2.92 2.92
250 0.242 A393* 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.35 2.35 2.35 2.74 2.74 2.74
100 0.092 A142* 3.47 3.06 2.67 3.65 3.23 2.81 4.19 3.51 3.08
Multiple - Unpropped

120 0.112 A142* 3.36 3.35 2.91 3.49 3.49 3.07 4.31 3.85 3.35
130 0.122 A193* 3.32 3.32 3.03 3.45 3.45 3.20 4.22 4.00 3.51
150 0.142 A252* 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.34 3.34 3.34 4.06 4.06 3.75
175 0.167 A252* 3.03 3.03 3.03 3.19 3.19 3.19 3.88 3.88 3.88
200 0.192 A393* 2.87 2.87 2.87 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.72 3.72 3.72
250 0.242 A393* 2.63 2.63 2.63 2.79 2.79 2.79 3.47 3.47 3.47
British Standard

100 0.092 A193** 3.32 2.86 2.53 3.49 3.01 2.66 3.82 3.29 2.91
Single - Propped

120 0.112 A252** 3.57 3.09 2.74 3.76 3.25 2.89 4.11 3.56 3.16
130 0.122 A393** 3.68 3.19 2.83 3.88 3.36 2.99 4.24 3.68 3.27
150 0.142 2xA252** 3.88 3.38 3.01 4.09 3.56 3.17 4.48 3.90 3.48
175 0.167 2xA252** 4.10 3.59 3.21 4.32 3.79 3.39 4.74 4.15 3.71
200 0.192 2xA393** 4.29 3.78 3.40 4.53 3.99 3.58 4.96 4.38 3.93
250 0.242 2xA393** 4.63 4.12 3.72 4.88 4.35 3.93 5.35 4.76 4.31

Fire design table - BS 5950 Method


Span (m) for given imposed Load (kN/m )
Fire period (Hrs) Slab Depth (mm) 0.2% Mesh * A142 A193 A252 (A393***)
5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
100 A142* 3.47 3.06 2.67 3.47 3.06 2.67 3.47 3.06 2.67
120 A142* 3.36 3.35 2.91 3.36 3.35 2.91 3.36 3.35 2.91
130 A193* - - - 3.32 3.32 3.03 3.32 3.32 3.03
1.0 150 A252* - - - - - - 3.18 3.18 3.18
175 A252* - - - - - - 3.03 3.03 3.03
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.87*** 2.87*** 2.87***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.63*** 2.63*** 2.63***
105 A142* 3.35 2.81 2.49 3.35 2.81 2.49 3.35 2.81 2.49
Lightweight concrete

120 A142* 3.36 2.98 2.63 3.36 2.98 2.63 3.36 2.98 2.63
130 A193* - - - 3.32 3.32 2.95 3.32 3.32 2.95
1.5 150 A252* - - - - - - 3.18 3.18 3.18
175 A252* - - - - - - 3.03 3.03 3.03
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.87*** 2.87*** 2.87***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.63*** 2.63*** 2.63***
115 A142* 2.86 2.44 2.17 2.86 2.44 2.17 2.86 2.44 2.17
120 A142* 2.90 2.48 2.21 2.90 2.48 2.21 2.90 2.48 2.21
130 A193* - - - 3.32 2.84 2.51 3.32 2.84 2.51
2.0 150 A252* - - - - - - 3.18 3.18 2.93
175 A252* - - - - - - 3.03 3.03 3.03
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.87*** 2.87*** 2.87***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.63*** 2.63*** 2.63***

* BS 5950: Part 4 currently recommends that crack control reinforcement should be not less than 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete at the support, however in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the
minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction, and 0.4% for propped construction.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E

IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5


CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

9
Ribdeck E60 Span/load and fire design tables
Normal weight concrete

Span/load table - BS 5950 Method


Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
0.2% Mesh *
Support Condition Depth Volume Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
0.4% Mesh **
(mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
130 0.094 A142* 2.78 2.78 2.67 3.14 3.14 2.85 3.48 3.48 3.17
Single - Unpropped

140 0.104 A193* 2.72 2.72 2.72 3.07 3.07 3.01 3.40 3.40 3.36
150 0.114 A193* 2.66 2.66 2.66 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.33 3.33 3.33
160 0.124 A252* 2.61 2.61 2.61 2.95 2.95 2.95 3.27 3.27 3.27
175 0.139 A252* 2.54 2.54 2.54 2.86 2.86 2.86 3.18 3.18 3.18
200 0.164 A393* 2.43 2.43 2.43 2.75 2.75 2.75 3.05 3.05 3.05
250 0.214 A393* 2.27 2.27 2.27 2.56 2.56 2.56 2.85 2.85 2.85
130 0.094 A142* 3.35 3.14 2.67 3.71 3.38 2.85 4.03 3.81 3.17
Multiple - Unpropped

140 0.104 A193* 3.27 3.27 2.81 3.62 3.57 3.01 3.94 3.94 3.36
150 0.114 A193* 3.19 3.19 2.95 3.53 3.53 3.16 3.85 3.85 3.55
160 0.124 A252* 3.11 3.11 3.08 3.46 3.46 3.31 3.76 3.76 3.73
175 0.139 A252* 3.01 3.01 3.01 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.65 3.65 3.65
200 0.164 A393* 2.84 2.84 2.84 3.19 3.19 3.19 3.49 3.49 3.49
British Standard

250 0.214 A393* 2.58 2.58 2.58 2.92 2.92 2.92 3.23 3.23 3.23
130 0.094 A393** 3.43 2.88 2.51 3.70 3.08 2.67 4.20 3.44 2.94
Single - Propped

140 0.104 A393** 3.58 3.01 2.62 3.87 3.23 2.79 4.42 3.62 3.10
150 0.114 A393** 3.71 3.13 2.73 4.03 3.37 2.92 4.62 3.79 3.25
160 0.124 2xA252** 3.84 3.24 2.83 4.17 3.50 3.03 4.80 3.96 3.39
175 0.139 2xA252** 4.01 3.40 2.97 4.38 3.68 3.19 5.06 4.18 3.58
200 0.164 2xA393** 4.28 3.65 3.20 4.69 3.96 3.45 5.46 4.54 3.90
250 0.214 2xA393** 4.74 4.09 3.60 5.22 4.46 3.91 6.14 5.18 4.48

Fire design table - BS 5950 Method


Span (m) for given imposed Load (kN/m )
Fire period (Hrs) Slab Depth (mm) 0.2% Mesh * A142 A193 A252 (A393***)
5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
130 A142* 3.35 3.14 2.67 3.35 3.14 2.67 3.35 3.14 2.67
140 A193* - - - 3.27 3.27 2.81 3.27 3.27 2.81
150 A193* - - - 3.19 3.19 2.95 3.19 3.19 2.95
1.0 160 A252* - - - - - - 3.11 3.11 3.08
175 A252* - - - - - - 3.01 3.01 3.01
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.84*** 2.84*** 2.84***
Normal weight concrete

250 A393* - - - - - - 2.58*** 2.58*** 2.58***


140 A193* - - - 3.27 3.19 2.81 3.27 3.27 2.81
150 A193* - - - 3.19 3.19 2.95 3.19 3.19 2.95
160 A252* - - - - - - 3.11 3.11 3.08
1.5
175 A252* - - - - - - 3.01 3.01 3.01
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.84*** 2.84*** 2.84***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.58*** 2.58*** 2.58***
150 A193* - - - 3.19 3.19 2.72 3.19 3.19 2.95
160 A252* - - - - - - 3.11 3.11 3.08
2.0 175 A252* - - - - - - 3.01 3.01 3.01
200 A393* - - - - - - 2.84*** 2.84*** 2.84***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.58*** 2.58*** 2.58***

* BS 5950: Part 4 currently recommends that crack control reinforcement should be not less than 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete at the support, however in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the
minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction, and 0.4% for propped construction.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E

IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5


CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

less concrete

Ribdeck E60

10
Ribdeck E60 Span/load and fire design tables
Lightweight concrete

Span/load table - BS 5950 Method


Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
0.2% Mesh *
Support Condition Depth Volume Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
0.4% Mesh **
(mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
120 0.084 A142* 3.02 2.96 2.53 3.40 3.17 2.69 3.60 3.56 2.97
Single - Unpropped

130 0.094 A142* 2.95 2.95 2.67 3.33 3.33 2.85 3.69 3.69 3.17
140 0.104 A193* 2.89 2.89 2.81 3.26 3.26 3.01 3.61 3.61 3.36
150 0.114 A193* 2.83 2.83 2.83 3.19 3.19 3.16 3.54 3.54 3.54
175 0.139 A252* 2.70 2.70 2.70 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.39 3.39 3.39
200 0.164 A393* 2.59 2.59 2.59 2.93 2.93 2.93 3.25 3.25 3.25
250 0.214 A393* 2.42 2.42 2.42 2.74 2.74 2.74 3.04 3.04 3.04
120 0.084 A142* 3.60 2.96 2.53 3.60 3.17 2.69 3.60 3.56 2.97
Multiple - Unpropped

130 0.094 A142* 3.56 3.14 2.67 3.90 3.38 2.85 3.90 3.81 3.17
140 0.104 A193* 3.48 3.31 2.81 3.86 3.57 3.01 4.17 4.05 3.36
150 0.114 A193* 3.40 3.40 2.95 3.78 3.76 3.16 4.10 4.10 3.55
175 0.139 A252* 3.23 3.23 3.23 3.59 3.59 3.52 3.92 3.92 3.92
200 0.164 A393* 3.08 3.08 3.08 3.43 3.43 3.43 3.75 3.75 3.75
British Standard

250 0.214 A393* 2.82 2.82 2.82 3.17 3.17 3.17 3.48 3.48 3.48
120 0.084 A252** 3.35 2.79 2.41 3.60 2.98 2.56 3.60 3.31 2.82
Single - Propped

130 0.094 A393** 3.52 2.93 2.54 3.80 3.14 2.70 3.90 3.52 2.99
140 0.104 A393** 3.68 3.07 2.66 3.99 3.30 2.84 4.20 3.71 3.15
150 0.114 A393** 3.83 3.20 2.77 4.16 3.44 2.97 4.50 3.89 3.31
175 0.139 2xA252** 4.16 3.49 3.03 4.55 3.78 3.26 5.17 4.31 3.67
200 0.164 2xA393** 4.46 3.76 3.27 4.90 4.09 3.53 5.74 4.71 4.01
250 0.214 2xA393** 4.99 4.24 3.71 5.52 4.65 4.03 6.50 5.42 4.64

Fire design table - BS 5950 Method


Span (m) for given imposed Load (kN/m )
Fire period (Hrs) Slab Depth (mm) 0.2% Mesh * A142 A193 A252 (A393***)
5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
120 A142* 3.60 2.96 2.53 3.60 2.96 2.53 3.60 2.96 2.53
130 A142* 3.56 3.14 2.67 3.56 3.14 2.67 3.56 3.14 2.67
140 A193* - - - 3.48 3.31 2.81 3.48 3.31 2.81
1.0 150 A193* - - - 3.40 3.40 2.95 3.40 3.40 2.95
175 A252* - - - - - - 3.23 3.23 3.23
200 A393* - - - - - - 3.08*** 3.08*** 3.08***
Lightweight concrete

250 A393* - - - - - - 2.82*** 2.82*** 2.82***


130 A193* - - - 3.56 3.14 2.67 3.56 3.14 2.67
140 A193* - - - 3.48 3.31 2.81 3.48 3.31 2.81
150 A193* - - - 3.40 3.40 2.95 3.40 3.40 2.95
1.5
175 A252* - - - - - - 3.23 3.23 3.23
200 A393* - - - - - - 3.08*** 3.08*** 3.08***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.82*** 2.82*** 2.82***
140 A193* - - - 3.48 3.31 2.81 3.48 3.31 2.81
150 A193* - - - 3.40 3.40 2.95 3.40 3.40 2.95
2.0 175 A252* - - - - - - 3.23 3.23 3.23
200 A393* - - - - - - 3.08*** 3.08*** 3.08***
250 A393* - - - - - - 2.82*** 2.82*** 2.82***

* BS 5950: Part 4 currently recommends that crack control reinforcement should be not less than 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete at the support, however in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the
minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction, and 0.4% for propped construction.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E

IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5


CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

11
Ribdeck S60 Span/load and fire design tables
Normal weight concrete

UNPROPPED SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - EC Standard Method


Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.2% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
130 0.097 A142 3.39 (10) 3.39 (10) 3.39 (12) 3.57 (10) 3.57 (12) 3.57 (12) 3.82 (10) 3.82 (12) 3.81 (16)
140 0.107 A193 3.30 (8) 3.30 (10) 3.30 (12) 3.48 (10) 3.48 (10) 3.48 (12) 3.73 (10) 3.72 (12) 3.72 (12)
150 0.117 A193 3.22 (8) 3.22 (10) 3.22 (12) 3.40 (10) 3.40 (10) 3.40 (12) 3.64 (10) 3.64 (10) 3.64 (12)
160 0.127 A252 3.15 (8) 3.15 (10) 3.15 (10) 3.33 (8) 3.33 (10) 3.32 (12) 3.56 (10) 3.56 (10) 3.56 (12)
1.0
170 0.137 A252 3.08 (8) 3.08 (8) 3.08 (10) 3.26 (8) 3.26 (10) 3.26 (10) 3.50 (8) 3.49 (10) 3.49 (12)
180 0.147 A252 3.02 (8) 3.02 (8) 3.01 (10) 3.20 (8) 3.20 (10) 3.20 (10) 3.43 (8) 3.43 (10) 3.43 (12)
190 0.157 A393 2.95 (8) 2.95 (8) 2.95 (10) 3.14 (8) 3.14 (8) 3.14 (10) 3.37 (8) 3.36 (10) 3.36 (10)
200 0.167 A393 2.90 (8) 2.90 (8) 2.89 (10) 3.09 (8) 3.09 (8) 3.09 (10) 3.31 (8) 3.31 (10) 3.31 (10)
140 0.107 A193 3.30 (12) 3.29 (16) 3.29 (16) 3.48 (12) 3.47 (16) 3.47 (16) 3.72 (12) 3.71 (16) 3.71 (16)
150 0.117 A193 3.22 (12) 3.22 (12) 3.21 (16) 3.40 (12) 3.39 (16) 3.39 (16) 3.64 (12) 3.63 (16) 3.63 (16)
160 0.127 A252 3.15 (10) 3.14 (12) 3.14 (16) 3.32 (12) 3.32 (12) 3.32 (16) 3.56 (12) 3.55 (16) 3.55 (16)
1.5 170 0.137 A252 3.08 (10) 3.08 (12) 3.07 (16) 3.26 (10) 3.26 (12) 3.25 (16) 3.49 (12) 3.48 (16) 3.48 (16)
180 0.147 A252 3.01 (10) 3.01 (12) 3.01 (12) 3.20 (10) 3.20 (12) 3.19 (16) 3.43 (12) 3.43 (12) 3.42 (16)
190 0.157 A393 2.95 (10) 2.95 (10) 2.95 (12) 3.14 (10) 3.14 (12) 3.13 (12) 3.36 (10) 3.36 (12) 3.36 (16)
200 0.167 A393 2.89 (10) 2.89 (10) 2.89 (12) 3.09 (10) 3.08 (12) 3.08 (12) 3.31 (10) 3.31 (12) 3.30 (16)
150 0.117 A193 3.21 (16) 3.20 (20) 3.20 (20) 3.39 (16) 3.38 (20) 3.37 (25) 3.62 (20) 3.62 (20) 3.60 (25)
160 0.127 A252 3.14 (16) 3.13 (20) 3.13 (20) 3.32 (16) 3.31 (20) 3.29 (25) 3.54 (20) 3.54 (20) 3.53 (25)
Eurocode

170 0.137 A252 3.07 (16) 3.07 (16) 3.06 (20) 3.25 (16) 3.24 (20) 3.24 (20) 3.48 (16) 3.48 (20) 3.46 (25)
2.0
180 0.147 A252 3.01 (16) 3.01 (16) 3.00 (20) 3.19 (16) 3.18 (20) 3.18 (20) 3.42 (16) 3.41 (20) 3.41 (20)
190 0.157 A393 2.94 (16) 2.94 (16) 2.94 (20) 3.13 (16) 3.13 (16) 3.12 (20) 3.36 (16) 3.35 (20) 3.35 (20)
200 0.167 A393 2.89 (16) 2.89 (16) 2.88 (20) 3.08 (16) 3.08 (16) 3.07 (20) 3.30 (16) 3.29 (20) 3.29 (20)

UNPROPPED DOUBLE SPAN (m) - EC Standard Method


Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.2% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
130 0.097 A142 3.43 (8) 3.43 (10) 3.42 (12) 3.83 (10) 3.83 (12) 3.82 (16) 4.49 (12) 4.48 (16) 4.00 (16)
140 0.107 A193 3.29 (8) 3.28 (10) 3.28 (12) 3.76 (10) 3.76 (10) 3.75 (12) 4.35 (10) 4.34 (12) 4.25 (16)
150 0.117 A193 3.16 (8) 3.16 (8) 3.16 (10) 3.62 (8) 3.62 (10) 3.61 (12) 4.21 (10) 4.21 (12) 4.20 (16)
160 0.127 A252 3.04 (8) 3.04 (8) 3.04 (8) 3.48 (8) 3.48 (8) 3.48 (10) 4.09 (8) 4.08 (10) 4.08 (12)
1.0
170 0.137 A252 2.94 (8) 2.94 (8) 2.94 (8) 3.36 (8) 3.36 (8) 3.36 (10) 3.99 (8) 3.98 (10) 3.98 (12)
180 0.147 A252 2.84 (8) 2.84 (8) 2.84 (8) 3.25 (8) 3.25 (8) 3.25 (8) 3.98 (8) 3.98 (10) 3.97 (12)
190 0.157 A393 2.74 (8) 2.74 (8) 2.74 (8) 3.14 (8) 3.14 (8) 3.14 (8) 3.88 (8) 3.88 (8) 3.88 (10)
200 0.167 A393 2.66 (8) 2.66 (8) 2.66 (8) 3.05 (8) 3.05 (8) 3.05 (8) 3.77 (8) 3.77 (8) 3.77 (8)
140 0.107 A193 3.28 (12) 3.26 (12) 3.26 (16) 3.75 (12) 3.74 (16) 3.72 (20) 4.33 (16) 4.33 (16) 4.24 (20)
150 0.117 A193 3.16 (8) 3.15 (12) 3.14 (16) 3.61 (12) 3.59 (16) 3.59 (16) 4.20 (16) 4.20 (16) 4.18 (20)
160 0.127 A252 3.04 (8) 3.04 (10) 3.02 (12) 3.48 (10) 3.47 (12) 3.46 (16) 4.07 (16) 4.07 (16) 4.05 (20)
1.5 170 0.137 A252 2.94 (8) 2.94 (8) 2.94 (10) 3.36 (8) 3.36 (10) 3.34 (16) 3.98 (12) 3.97 (16) 3.97 (16)
180 0.147 A252 2.84 (8) 2.84 (8) 2.84 (10) 3.25 (8) 3.25 (10) 3.25 (12) 3.98 (10) 3.97 (16) 3.97 (16)
190 0.157 A393 2.74 (8) 2.74 (8) 2.74 (8) 3.14 (8) 3.14 (8) 3.14 (10) 3.88 (8) 3.88 (10) 3.86 (16)
200 0.167 A393 2.66 (8) 2.66 (8) 2.66 (8) 3.05 (8) 3.05 (8) 3.05 (8) 3.77 (8) 3.77 (10) 3.76 (12)
150 0.117 A193 3.14 (12) 3.13 (20) 3.12 (20) 3.58 (20) 3.58 (20) 3.55 (25) 4.18 (20) 4.15 (25) 4.10 (32)
160 0.127 A252 3.04 (10) 3.03 (16) 3.01 (20) 3.46 (16) 3.44 (20) 3.42 (25) 4.05 (20) 4.02 (25) 4.02 (25)
170 0.137 A252 2.93 (10) 2.93 (12) 2.92 (16) 3.35 (12) 3.34 (16) 3.33 (20) 3.97 (20) 3.97 (20) 3.95 (25)
2.0
180 0.147 A252 2.84 (8) 2.84 (10) 2.83 (16) 3.25 (10) 3.24 (16) 3.22 (20) 3.97 (16) 3.96 (20) 3.95 (25)
190 0.157 A393 2.74 (8) 2.74 (8) 2.74 (10) 3.14 (8) 3.14 (12) 3.13 (16) 3.86 (16) 3.86 (16) 3.82 (25)
200 0.167 A393 2.66 (8) 2.66 (8) 2.66 (8) 3.05 (8) 3.05 (10) 3.05 (12) 3.76 (12) 3.75 (16) 3.74 (20)

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction. In order to
maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans, increased mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E EC = Eurocode

IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5


CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

longer spans

Ribdeck S60

12
Ribdeck S60 Span/load and fire design tables
Normal weight concrete

UNPROPPED SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - UK NCCI Method


Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.2% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
130 0.097 A142 3.40 (A142) 3.39 (A252) 3.38 (2xA193) 3.58 (A142) 3.56 (A393) 3.56 (2xA252) 3.83 (A193) 3.81 (A393) 3.80 (2xA252)
140 0.107 A193 3.31 (A193) 3.30 (A193) 3.30 (A393) 3.49 (A193) 3.48 (A252) 3.48 (A393) 3.73 (A193) 3.73 (A252) 3.71 (2xA252)
150 0.117 A193 3.23 (A193) 3.23 (A193) 3.22 (A393) 3.41 (A193) 3.41 (A193) 3.40 (A393) 3.65 (A193) 3.65 (A252) 3.64 (2xA193)
160 0.127 A252 3.15 (A252) 3.15 (A252) 3.15 (A252) 3.33 (A252) 3.33 (A252) 3.33 (A393) 3.57 (A252) 3.57 (A252) 3.56 (A393)
1.0
170 0.137 A252 3.08 (A252) 3.08 (A252) 3.08 (A252) 3.27 (A252) 3.27 (A252) 3.27 (A252) 3.50 (A252) 3.50 (A252) 3.49 (A393)
180 0.147 A252 3.02 (A252) 3.02 (A252) 3.02 (A252) 3.21 (A252) 3.21 (A252) 3.21 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.44 (A252)
190 0.157 A393 2.95 (A393) 2.95 (A393) 2.95 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.37 (A393) 3.37 (A393) 3.37 (A393)
200 0.167 A393 2.90 (A393) 2.90 (A393) 2.90 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.31 (A393) 3.31 (A393) 3.31 (A393)
140 0.107 A193 3.31 (A193) 3.30 (A393) 3.29 (2xA252) 3.48 (A252) 3.48 (A393) 3.47 (2XA252) 3.73 (A252) 3.72 (A393) 3.70 (2xA393)
150 0.117 A193 3.23 (A193) 3.22 (A393) 3.21 (2xA252) 3.41 (A193) 3.40 (A393) 3.39 (2xA252) 3.65 (A252) 3.64 (A393) 3.63 (2xA252)
160 0.127 A252 3.15 (A252) 3.15 (A252) 3.15 (A393) 3.33 (A252) 3.33 (A252) 3.32 (2xA252) 3.57 (A252) 3.56 (A393) 3.56 (2xA252)
1.5 170 0.137 A252 3.08 (A252) 3.08 (A252) 3.08 (A393) 3.27 (A252) 3.27 (A252) 3.26 (A393) 3.50 (A252) 3.50 (A252) 3.49 (2xA252)
180 0.147 A252 3.02 (A252) 3.02 (A252) 3.02 (A252) 3.21 (A252) 3.21 (A252) 3.21 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.43 (A393)
190 0.157 A393 2.95 (A393) 2.95 (A393) 2.95 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.37 (A393) 3.37 (A393) 3.37 (A393)
200 0.167 A393 2.90 (A393) 2.90 (A393) 2.90 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.31 (A393) 3.31 (A393) 3.31 (A393)
150 0.117 A193 3.23 (A252) 3.22 (A393) 3.21 (2xA252) 3.41 (A252) 3.40 (A393) 3.39 (2xA252) 3.64 (A393) 3.40 (2xA193) 3.62 (2xA393)
160 0.127 A252 3.15 (A252) 3.15 (A393) 3.14 (2xA252) 3.33 (A252) 3.33 (A393) 3.32 (2xA252) 3.57 (A252) 3.56 (A393) 3.54 (2xA393)
Eurocode

170 0.137 A252 3.08 (A252) 3.08 (A252) 3.08 (2xA193) 3.27 (A252) 3.27 (A252) 3.26 (2xA252) 3.50 (A252) 3.49 (A393) 3.49 (2xA252)
2.0
180 0.147 A252 3.02 (A252) 3.02 (A252) 3.02 (A252) 3.21 (A252) 3.21 (A252) 3.20 (A393) 3.44 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.42 (2xA252)
190 0.157 A393 2.95 (A393) 2.95 (A393) 2.95 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.14 (A393) 3.37 (A393) 3.37 (A393) 3.37 (A393)
200 0.167 A393 2.90 (A393) 2.90 (A393) 2.90 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.09 (A393) 3.31 (A393) 3.31 (A393) 3.31 (A393)

UNPROPPED DOUBLE SPAN (m) - UK NCCI Method


Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.2% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
130 0.097 A142 3.43 (A252) 3.42 (A393) 3.28 (2xA252) 3.83 (A393) 3.82 (2xA252) 3.29 (2xA252) 4.49 (A393) 4.24 (2xA252) 3.33 (2xA252)
140 0.107 A193 3.29 (A193) 3.29 (A252) 3.27 (2xA252) 3.76 (A252) 3.75 (2xA193) 3.71 (2xA393) 4.34 (A393) 4.33 (2xA252) 4.24 (2xA393)
150 0.117 A193 3.17 (A193) 3.17 (A193) 3.15 (A393) 3.63 (A193) 3.61 (A393) 3.57 (2xA393) 4.21 (A393) 4.20 (2xA252) 4.17 (2xA393)
160 0.127 A252 3.05 (A252) 3.05 (A252) 3.05 (A252) 3.49 (A252) 3.49 (A252) 3.48 (A393) 4.09 (A252) 4.08 (A393) 4.05 (2xA393)
1.0
170 0.137 A252 2.94 (A252) 2.94 (A252) 2.94 (A252) 3.37 (A252) 3.37 (A252) 3.36 (A393) 3.99 (A252) 3.98 (A393) 3.97 (2xA393)
180 0.147 A252 2.85 (A252) 2.85 (A252) 2.85 (A252) 3.26 (A252) 3.26 (A252) 3.26 (A252) 3.98 (A252) 3.98 (A252) 3.98 (A393)
190 0.157 A393 2.75 (A393) 2.75 (A393) 2.75 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.89 (A393) 3.89 (A393) 3.89 (A393)
200 0.167 A393 2.67 (A393) 2.67 (A393) 2.67 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.78 (A393) 3.78 (A393) 3.78 (A393)
140 0.107 A193 3.28 (A393) 3.28 (2xA193) 3.24 (2xA393) 3.75 (A393) 3.74 (2xA252) 3.71 (2xA393) 4.33 (2xA252) 4.30 (2xA393) 3.71 (2xA393)
150 0.117 A193 3.17 (A193) 3.15 (A393) 3.12 (2xA252) 3.61 (A393) 3.60 (2xA252) 3.57 (2xA393) 4.21 (2xA193) 4.17 (2xA393) 3.86 (2xA393)
160 0.127 A252 3.05 (A252) 3.05 (A252) 3.03 (2xA252) 3.49 (A252) 3.48 (2xA193) 3.44 (2xA393) 4.08 (A393) 4.07 (2xA252) 4.05 (2xA393)
1.5 170 0.137 A252 2.94 (A252) 2.94 (A252) 2.94 (A252) 3.37 (A252) 3.37 (A252) 3.33 (2xA393) 3.98 (A393) 3.98 (2xA252) 3.97 (2xA393)
180 0.147 A252 2.85 (A252) 2.85 (A252) 2.85 (A252) 3.26 (A252) 3.26 (A252) 3.25 (A393) 3.98 (A252) 3.98 (A393) 3.96 (2xA393)
190 0.157 A393 2.75 (A393) 2.75 (A393) 2.75 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.89 (A393) 3.89 (A393) 3.86 (2xA393)
200 0.167 A393 2.67 (A393) 2.67 (A393) 2.67 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.78 (A393) 3.78 (A393) 3.78 (A393)
150 0.117 A193 3.15 (A393) 3.15 (2xA193) 3.12 (2xA393) 3.61 (A393) 3.60 (2xA252) 3.57 (2xA393) 4.20 (2xA252) 4.17 (2xA393) 3.57 (2xA393)
160 0.127 A252 3.05 (A252) 3.05 (A252) 3.02 (2xA252) 3.49 (A252) 3.47 (2xA252) 3.44 (2xA393) 4.07 (2xA252) 4.05 (2xA393) 3.74 (2xA393)
170 0.137 A252 2.94 (A252) 2.94 (A252) 2.93 (A393) 3.37 (A252) 3.37 (A252) 3.33 (2xA393) 3.98 (2xA193) 3.97 (2xA393) 3.87 (2xA393)
2.0
180 0.147 A252 2.85 (A252) 2.85 (A252) 2.85 (A252) 3.26 (A252) 3.26 (A252) 3.25 (A393) 3.98 (A252) 3.96 (2xA393) 3.96 (2xA393)
190 0.157 A393 2.75 (A393) 2.75 (A393) 2.75 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.15 (A393) 3.89 (A393) 3.89 (A393) 3.86 (2xA393)
200 0.167 A393 2.67 (A393) 2.67 (A393) 2.67 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.06 (A393) 3.78 (A393) 3.78 (A393) 3.75 (2xA393)

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction. In order to maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans,
increased mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E NCCI = Non-contradictory, complementary information

IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5


CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

13
Ribdeck S60 Span/load and fire design tables
Normal weight concrete

PROPPED CENTRALLY SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - EC Standard Method
Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.4% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
130 0.097 A393 4.77 (32) 4.44 (32) 3.93 (32) 4.80 (32) 4.46 (32) 3.98 (32) 4.85 (32) 4.51 (32) 3.97 (32)
140 0.107 A393 4.91 (25) 4.68 (32) 4.11 (32) 5.08 (32) 4.74 (32) 4.30 (32) 5.13 (32) 4.79 (32) 4.29 (32)
150 0.117 A393 4.83 (12) 4.76 (25) 4.27 (32) 5.36 (32) 5.01 (32) 4.48 (32) 5.41 (32) 5.06 (32) 4.60 (32)
160 0.127 2xA252 4.64 (12) 4.62 (16) 4.42 (32) 5.32 (20) 5.22 (32) 4.64 (32) 5.68 (32) 5.32 (32) 4.90 (32)
1.0
170 0.137 2xA252 4.48 (10) 4.47 (12) 4.46 (16) 5.17 (12) 5.12 (16) 4.79 (32) 5.94 (32) 5.58 (32) 5.18 (32)
180 0.147 2xA252 4.33 (8) 4.33 (10) 4.31 (16) 5.00 (10) 4.98 (16) 4.96 (16) 6.12 (32) 5.83 (32) 5.34 (32)
190 0.157 2xA393 4.17 (8) 4.17 (8) 4.17 (10) 4.82 (8) 4.81 (10) 4.79 (16) 6.01 (16) 5.90 (32) 5.49 (32)
200 0.167 2xA393 4.05 (8) 4.05 (8) 4.04 (10) 4.67 (8) 4.67 (10) 4.66 (12) 5.86 (12) 5.81 (16) 5.63 (32)
140 0.107 A393 4.91 (25) 4.68 (32) 4.11 (32) 5.08 (32) 4.74 (32) 4.30 (32) 5.13 (32) 4.79 (32) 4.29 (32)
150 0.117 A393 4.81 (16) 4.76 (25) 4.27 (32) 5.36 (32) 5.01 (32) 4.48 (32) 5.41 (32) 5.06 (32) 4.60 (32)
160 0.127 2xA252 4.62 (16) 4.60 (20) 4.42 (32) 5.32 (20) 5.22 (32) 4.64 (32) 5.68 (32) 5.32 (32) 4.90 (32)
1.5 170 0.137 2xA252 4.46 (16) 4.46 (16) 4.44 (20) 5.13 (20) 5.13 (20) 4.79 (32) 5.94 (32) 5.58 (32) 5.18 (32)
180 0.147 2xA252 4.33 (10) 4.31 (16) 4.29 (20) 4.98 (16) 4.96 (20) 4.92 (25) 6.12 (32) 5.83 (32) 5.34 (32)
190 0.157 2xA393 4.17 (10) 4.15 (16) 4.14 (20) 4.79 (16) 4.78 (20) 4.78 (20) 6.00 (20) 5.90 (32) 5.49 (32)
200 0.167 2xA393 4.04 (10) 4.04 (12) 4.03 (16) 4.66 (12) 4.65 (16) 4.63 (20) 5.82 (20) 5.82 (20) 5.63 (32)
150 0.117 A393 4.76 (25) 4.70 (32) 4.27 (32) 5.36 (32) 5.01 (32) 4.48 (32) 5.41 (32) 5.06 (32) 4.60 (32)
160 0.127 2xA252 4.57 (25) 4.52 (32) 4.42 (32) 5.22 (32) 5.22 (32) 4.64 (32) 5.68 (32) 5.32 (32) 4.90 (32)
Eurocode

170 0.137 2xA252 4.41 (25) 4.41 (25) 4.36 (32) 5.10 (25) 5.04 (32) 4.79 (32) 5.94 (32) 5.58 (32) 5.18 (32)
2.0
180 0.147 2xA252 4.29 (20) 4.27 (25) 4.22 (32) 4.93 (25) 4.88 (32) 4.88 (32) 6.12 (32) 5.83 (32) 5.34 (32)
190 0.157 2xA393 4.14 (16) 4.11 (25) 4.11 (25) 4.75 (25) 4.75 (25) 4.70 (32) 5.90 (32) 5.90 (32) 5.49 (32)
200 0.167 2xA393 4.03 (16) 4.01 (20) 3.99 (25) 4.61 (25) 4.61 (25) 4.56 (32) 5.73 (32) 5.73 (32) 5.63 (32)

PROPPED CENTRALLY SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - UK NCCI Method
Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.4% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
130 0.097 A393 4.10 (2xA252) 3.56 (2xA252) 3.06 (2xA252) 4.15 (2xA252) 3.60 (2xA252) 3.09 (2xA252) 4.24 (2xA252) 3.68 (2xA252) 3.16 (2xA252)
140 0.107 A393 4.48 (2xA393) 4.10 (2xA393) 3.53 (2xA393) 4.54 (2xA393) 4.14 (2xA393) 3.56 (2xA393) 4.66 (2xA393) 4.21 (2xA393) 3.62 (2xA393)
150 0.117 A393 4.70 (2xA393) 4.15 (2xA393) 3.58 (2xA393) 4.77 (2xA393) 4.18 (2xA393) 3.62 (2xA393) 4.85 (2xA393) 4.26 (2xA393) 3.68 (2xA393)
160 0.127 2xA252 4.63 (2xA393) 4.20 (2xA393) 3.64 (2xA393) 4.81 (2xA393) 4.24 (2xA393) 3.67 (2xA393) 4.90 (2xA393) 4.31 (2xA393) 3.74 (2xA393)
1.0
170 0.137 2xA252 4.49 (2xA252) 4.27 (2xA393) 3.72 (2xA393) 4.86 (2xA393) 4.30 (2xA393) 3.74 (2xA393) 4.96 (2xA393) 4.38 (2xA393) 3.81 (2xA393)
180 0.147 2xA252 4.34 (2xA252) 4.34 (2xA252) 4.03 (2xA393) 5.02 (2xA252) 4.62 (2xA393) 4.03 (2xA393) 5.23 (2xA393) 4.63 (2xA393) 4.04 (2xA393)
190 0.157 2xA393 4.18 (2xA393) 4.18 (2xA393) 4.18 (2xA393) 4.83 (2xA393) 4.83 (2xA393) 4.36 (2xA393) 5.61 (2xA393) 5.00 (2xA393) 4.37 (2xA393)
200 0.167 2xA393 4.05 (2xA393) 4.05 (2xA393) 4.05 (2xA393) 4.68 (2xA393) 4.68 (2xA393) 4.68 (2xA393) 5.81 (2xA393) 5.33 (2xA393) 4.68 (2xA393)
140 0.107 A393 4.37 (2xA393) 3.82 (2xA393) 3.29 (2xA393) 4.40 (2xA393) 3.84 (2xA393) 3.31 (2xA393) 4.45 (2xA393) 3.88 (2xA393) 3.35 (2xA393)
150 0.117 A393 4.41 (2xA393) 3.87 (2xA393) 3.34 (2xA393) 4.44 (2xA393) 3.89 (2xA393) 3.36 (2xA393) 4.49 (2xA393) 3.94 (2xA393) 3.41 (2xA393)
160 0.127 2xA252 4.44 (2xA393) 3.91 (2xA393) 3.39 (2xA393) 4.47 (2xA393) 3.93 (2xA393) 3.41 (2xA393) 4.53 (2xA393) 3.98 (2xA393) 3.45 (2xA393)
1.5 170 0.137 2xA252 4.46 (2xA393) 3.94 (2xA393) 3.43 (2xA393) 4.49 (2xA393) 3.97 (2xA393) 3.45 (2xA393) 4.55 (2xA393) 4.02 (2xA393) 3.50 (2xA393)
180 0.147 2xA252 4.34 (2xA252) 3.97 (2xA393) 3.47 (2xA393) 4.51 (2xA393) 4.00 (2xA393) 3.49 (2xA393) 4.58 (2xA393) 4.06 (2xA393) 3.54 (2xA393)
190 0.157 2xA393 4.18 (2xA393) 4.08 (2xA393) 3.57 (2xA393) 4.60 (2xA393) 4.09 (2xA393) 3.58 (2xA393) 4.62 (2xA393) 4.11 (2xA393) 3.59 (2xA393)
200 0.167 2xA393 4.05 (2xA393) 4.05 (2xA393) 3.87 (2xA393) 4.68 (2xA393) 4.41 (2xA393) 3.87 (2xA393) 4.94 (2xA393) 4.40 (2xA393) 3.86 (2xA393)
150 0.117 A393 4.22 (2xA393) 3.70 (2xA393) 3.20 (2xA393) 4.24 (2xA393) 3.72 (2xA393) 3.21 (2xA393) 4.28 (2xA393) 3.75 (2xA393) 3.24 (2xA393)
160 0.127 2xA252 4.28 (2xA393) 3.77 (2xA393) 3.27 (2xA393) 4.31 (2xA393) 3.79 (2xA393) 3.28 (2xA393) 4.34 (2xA393) 3.82 (2xA393) 3.32 (2xA393)
170 0.137 2xA252 4.30 (2xA393) 3.80 (2xA393) 3.31 (2xA393) 4.33 (2xA393) 3.82 (2xA393) 3.32 (2xA393) 4.37 (2xA393) 3.86 (2xA393) 3.36 (2xA393)
2.0
180 0.147 2xA252 4.32 (2xA393) 3.84 (2xA393) 3.35 (2xA393) 4.35 (2xA393) 3.86 (2xA393) 3.37 (2xA393) 4.40 (2xA393) 3.90 (2xA393) 3.40 (2xA393)
190 0.157 2xA393 4.18 (2xA393) 3.86 (2xA393) 3.38 (2xA393) 4.37 (2xA393) 3.89 (2xA393) 3.40 (2xA393) 4.42 (2xA393) 3.93 (2xA393) 3.44 (2xA393)
200 0.167 2xA393 4.05 (2xA393) 4.01 (2xA393) 3.52 (2xA393) 4.49 (2xA393) 4.01 (2xA393) 3.52 (2xA393) 4.50 (2xA393) 4.02 (2xA393) 3.52 (2xA393)

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.4% for propped construction. In order to maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans, increased
mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E EC = Eurocode
NCCI = Non-contradictory, complementary information
IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5
CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

longer spans

Ribdeck S60

14
Ribdeck 80 Span/load and fire design tables
Normal weight concrete

UNPROPPED SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - EC Standard Method


Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.2% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
140 0.096 A142 3.95 (10) 3.94 (12) 3.90 (16) 4.11 (10) 4.11 (12) 4.09 (16) 4.27 (12) 4.27 (12) 4.20 (16)
150 0.106 A142 3.85 (10) 3.84 (12) 3.84 (12) 4.03 (10) 4.03 (12) 4.02 (16) 4.19 (10) 4.18 (12) 4.18 (16)
160 0.116 A193 3.75 (10) 3.75 (10) 3.75 (12) 3.96 (10) 3.95 (12) 3.94 (16) 4.11 (10) 4.11 (12) 4.10 (16)
1.0 170 0.126 A193 3.66 (10) 3.66 (10) 3.66 (12) 3.87 (10) 3.87 (10) 3.87 (12) 4.04 (10) 4.04 (12) 4.04 (12)
180 0.136 A252 3.58 (8) 3.58 (10) 3.57 (12) 3.79 (10) 3.79 (10) 3.79 (12) 3.98 (10) 3.98 (10) 3.98 (12)
190 0.146 A252 3.50 (8) 3.50 (10) 3.50 (10) 3.72 (10) 3.72 (10) 3.72 (12) 3.91 (10) 3.91 (10) 3.90 (12)
200 0.156 A252 3.43 (8) 3.43 (10) 3.43 (10) 3.66 (8) 3.65 (10) 3.65 (12) 3.84 (10) 3.84 (10) 3.84 (12)
150 0.106 A142 3.84 (12) 3.83 (16) 3.83 (16) 4.02 (16) 4.02 (16) 4.01 (20) 4.18 (16) 4.18 (16) 4.16 (20)
160 0.116 A193 3.75 (12) 3.74 (16) 3.74 (16) 3.95 (12) 3.94 (16) 3.94 (16) 4.10 (16) 4.10 (16) 4.09 (20)
170 0.126 A193 3.66 (12) 3.65 (16) 3.65 (16) 3.87 (12) 3.86 (16) 3.86 (16) 4.03 (16) 4.03 (16) 4.03 (16)
1.5
180 0.136 A252 3.57 (12) 3.57 (16) 3.57 (16) 3.79 (12) 3.78 (16) 3.78 (16) 3.98 (12) 3.97 (16) 3.97 (16)
190 0.146 A252 3.50 (12) 3.50 (12) 3.49 (16) 3.72 (12) 3.71 (16) 3.71 (16) 3.90 (12) 3.90 (16) 3.90 (16)
200 0.156 A252 3.43 (10) 3.43 (12) 3.42 (16) 3.65 (12) 3.65 (12) 3.65 (16) 3.84 (12) 3.83 (16) 3.83 (16)
160 0.116 A193 3.73 (20) 3.73 (20) 3.71 (25) 3.93 (20) 3.91 (25) 3.91 (25) 4.09 (20) 4.08 (25) 4.08 (25)
170 0.126 A193 3.64 (20) 3.64 (20) 3.62 (25) 3.85 (20) 3.85 (20) 3.83 (25) 4.03 (20) 4.01 (25) 4.01 (25)
Eurocode

2.0 180 0.136 A252 3.57 (16) 3.56 (20) 3.54 (25) 3.77 (20) 3.77 (20) 3.76 (25) 3.96 (20) 3.96 (20) 3.95 (25)
190 0.146 A252 3.49 (16) 3.49 (16) 3.48 (20) 3.70 (20) 3.70 (20) 3.70 (20) 3.89 (20) 3.89 (20) 3.87 (25)
200 0.156 A252 3.42 (16) 3.42 (16) 3.41 (20) 3.65 (16) 3.64 (20) 3.64 (20) 3.82 (20) 3.82 (20) 3.81 (25)

UNPROPPED DOUBLE SPAN (m) - EC Standard Method


Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.2% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
140 0.096 A142 4.21 (10) 4.20 (12) 4.08 (16) 4.43 (12) 4.43 (12) 4.25 (16) 5.02 (12) 4.92 (16) 4.33 (16)
150 0.106 A142 4.03 (10) 4.03 (12) 4.01 (16) 4.37 (10) 4.37 (12) 4.36 (16) 4.85 (12) 4.84 (16) 4.57 (16)
160 0.116 A193 3.87 (8) 3.87 (10) 3.86 (12) 4.30 (10) 4.29 (12) 4.27 (16) 4.70 (12) 4.70 (12) 4.68 (16)
1.0 170 0.126 A193 3.73 (8) 3.72 (10) 3.72 (12) 4.14 (10) 4.14 (10) 4.13 (12) 4.56 (10) 4.56 (12) 4.54 (16)
180 0.136 A252 3.59 (8) 3.59 (8) 3.58 (10) 3.99 (8) 3.99 (10) 3.98 (12) 4.50 (10) 4.49 (12) 4.48 (16)
190 0.146 A252 3.47 (8) 3.47 (8) 3.46 (10) 3.86 (8) 3.86 (8) 3.86 (10) 4.48 (8) 4.48 (12) 4.48 (12)
200 0.156 A252 3.35 (8) 3.35 (8) 3.35 (8) 3.74 (8) 3.74 (8) 3.73 (10) 4.36 (8) 4.35 (10) 4.35 (12)
150 0.106 A142 4.01 (16) 4.01 (16) 3.99 (20) 4.36 (16) 4.36 (16) 4.35 (20) 4.84 (16) 4.82 (20) 4.55 (20)
160 0.116 A193 3.86 (12) 3.84 (16) 3.84 (16) 4.27 (16) 4.27 (16) 4.25 (20) 4.68 (16) 4.66 (20) 4.66 (20)
170 0.126 A193 3.72 (12) 3.70 (16) 3.70 (16) 4.12 (12) 4.12 (16) 4.10 (20) 4.54 (16) 4.54 (16) 4.53 (20)
1.5
180 0.136 A252 3.58 (10) 3.58 (12) 3.57 (16) 3.98 (12) 3.97 (16) 3.97 (16) 3.48 (16) 4.48 (16) 4.47 (20)
190 0.146 A252 3.47 (8) 3.46 (10) 3.45 (16) 3.86 (10) 3.84 (16) 3.84 (16) 4.46 (16) 4.46 (16) 4.45 (20)
200 0.156 A252 3.36 (8) 3.36 (8) 3.35 (12) 3.74 (8) 3.73 (12) 3.72 (16) 4.35 (12) 4.33 (16) 4.33 (16)
160 0.116 A193 3.82 (20) 3.82 (20) 3.79 (25) 4.25 (20) 4.22 (25) 4.16 (32) 4.63 (25) 4.63 (25) 4.58 (32)
170 0.126 A193 3.70 (16) 3.68 (20) 3.65 (25) 4.10 (20) 4.07 (25) 4.07 (25) 4.52 (20) 4.50 (25) 4.45 (32)
2.0 180 0.136 A252 3.56 (16) 3.55 (20) 3.52 (25) 3.95 (20) 3.95 (20) 3.92 (25) 4.47 (20) 4.46 (25) 4.43 (32)
190 0.146 A252 3.49 (12) 3.43 (20) 3.43 (20) 3.84 (16) 3.82 (20) 3.80 (25) 4.45 (20) 4.42 (25) 4.42 (25)
200 0.156 A252 3.35 (10) 3.34 (12) 3.32 (20) 3.73 (12) 3.70 (20) 3.70 (20) 4.32 (10) 4.29 (25) 4.29 (25)

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction. In order to
maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans, increased mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E EC = Eurocode

IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5


CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

longer spans

Ribdeck 80

15
Ribdeck 80 Span/load and fire design tables
Normal weight concrete

UNPROPPED SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - UK NCCI Method


Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.2% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
140 0.096 A142 3.67 (A193) 2.99 (A193) 2.53 (A193) 3.74 (A193) 3.06 (A193) 2.56 (A193) 3.89 (A193) 3.18 (A193) 2.67 (A193)
150 0.106 A142 3.85 (A193) 3.84 (A393) 3.71 (2xA252) 4.03 (A252) 4.03 (A393) 3.70 (2xA252) 4.19 (A252) 4.18 (A393) 3.67 (2xA252)
160 0.116 A193 3.76 (A193) 3.74 (A393) 3.74 (2xA252) 3.96 (A193) 3.95 (A393) 3.95 (2xA252) 4.12 (A193) 4.11 (A393) 4.09 (2xA393)
1.0 170 0.126 A193 3.67 (A193) 3.66 (A252) 3.65 (2xA252) 3.88 (A193) 3.88 (A252) 3.86 (2xA252) 4.05 (A193) 4.04 (A393) 4.03 (2xA252)
180 0.136 A252 3.58 (A252) 3.58 (A252) 3.58 (A393) 3.80 (A252) 3.80 (A252) 3.79 (A393) 3.98 (A252) 3.98 (A252) 3.97 (2xA252)
190 0.146 A252 3.51 (A252) 3.51 (A252) 3.51 (A252) 3.73 (A252) 3.73 (A252) 3.72 (A393) 3.91 (A252) 3.91 (A252) 3.91 (A393)
200 0.156 A252 3.44 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.66 (A252) 3.66 (A252) 3.65 (A252) 3.85 (A252) 3.85 (A252) 3.84 (A393)
150 0.106 A142 3.84 (A393) 3.42 (2xA252) 2.78 (2xA252) 4.03 (A393) 3.44 (2xA252) 2.81 (2xA252) 4.18 (2xA252) 3.48 (2xA252) 2.86 (2xA252)
160 0.116 A193 3.74 (A393) 3.74 (2xA252) 3.72 (2xA393) 3.95 (A393) 3.95 (2xA252) 3.93 (2xA393) 4.11 (A393) 4.10 (2xA252) 4.09 (2xA393)
170 0.126 A193 3.66 (A252) 3.66 (A393) 3.64 (2xA393) 3.87 (A393) 3.86 (2xA252) 3.85 (2xA393) 4.04 (A393) 4.03 (2xA252) 4.02 (2xA393)
1.5
180 0.136 A252 3.58 (A252) 3.58 (A393) 3.57 (2xA252) 3.80 (A252) 3.79 (A393) 3.77 (2xA393) 3.98 (A252) 3.98 (A393) 3.96 (2xA393)
190 0.146 A252 3.51 (A252) 3.51 (A252) 3.49 (2xA252) 3.73 (A252) 3.72 (A393) 3.71 (2xA252) 3.91 (A252) 3.91 (A393) 3.89 (2xA393)
200 0.156 A252 3.44 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.43 (A393) 3.66 (A252) 3.66 (A252) 3.65 (2xA252) 3.85 (A252) 3.84 (A393) 3.83 (2xA252)
160 0.116 A193 3.74 (A393) 3.72 (2xA393) 3.21 (2xA393) 3.95 (2x252) 3.93 (2xA393) 3.20 (2xA393) 4.10 (2xA252) 4.09 (2xA393) 3.21 (2xA393)
Eurocode

170 0.126 A193 3.66 (A393) 3.65 (2xA252) 3.64 (2xA393) 3.87 (A393) 3.86 (2xA252) 3.85 (2xA393) 4.04 (A393) 4.02 (2xA393) 3.81 (2xA393)
2.0 180 0.136 A252 3.58 (A393) 3.58 (2xA193) 3.56 (2xA393) 3.79 (A393) 3.79 (2xA252) 3.77 (2xA393) 3.98 (A393) 3.97 (2xA252) 3.96 (2xA393)
190 0.146 A252 3.51 (A252) 3.50 (A252) 3.48 (2xA393) 3.73 (A252) 3.72 (2xA193) 3.70 (2xA393) 3.91 (A393) 3.90 (2xA252) 3.89 (2xA393)
200 0.156 A252 3.44 (A252) 3.44 (A252) 3.42 (2xA252) 3.66 (A252) 3.65 (A393) 3.65 (2xA393) 3.85 (A252) 3.83 (2xA252) 3.82 (2xA393)

UNPROPPED DOUBLE SPAN (m) - UK NCCI Method


Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.2% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
140 0.096 A142 3.41 (A193) 2.95 (1xA193) 2.53 (A193) 3.48 (A193) 2.97 (A193) 2.54 (A193) 3.62 (A193) 3.10 (A193) 2.63 (A193)
150 0.106 A142 4.02 (A393) 4.00 (2xA252) 3.28 (2xA252) 4.36 (2xA252) 4.02 (2xA252) 3.31 (2xA252) 4.84 (2xA252) 4.08 (2xA252) 3.38 (2xA252)
160 0.116 A193 3.87 (A252) 3.85 (2xA252) 3.82 (2xA393) 4.29 (A393) 4.24 (2xA393) 4.05 (2xA393) 4.70 (A393) 4.66 (2xA393) 4.06 (2xA393)
1.0 170 0.126 A193 3.73 (A193) 3.73 (A252) 3.68 (2xA393) 4.15 (A252) 4.12 (2xA252) 4.09 (2xA393) 4.56 (A393) 4.52 (2xA393) 4.22 (2xA393)
180 0.136 A252 3.60 (A252) 3.60 (A252) 3.58 (A393) 4.00 (A252) 3.99 (A393) 3.95 (2xA393) 4.49 (A393) 4.49 (2xA252) 4.37 (2xA393)
190 0.146 A252 3.47 (A252) 3.47 (A252) 3.46 (A393) 3.87 (A252) 3.87 (A252) 3.85 (A393) 4.49 (A252) 4.48 (A393) 4.45 (2xA393)
200 0.156 A252 3.36 (A252) 3.36 (A252) 3.36 (A252) 3.75 (A252) 3.75 (A252) 3.73 (A393) 4.36 (A252) 4.35 (A393) 4.32 (2xA393)
150 0.106 A142 3.79 (2xA252) 3.19 (2xA252) 2.70 (2xA252) 3.81 (2xA252) 3.22 (2xA252) 2.73 (2xA252) 3.87 (2xA252) 3.28 (2xA252) 2.78 (2xA252)
160 0.116 A193 3.85 (2xA252) 3.82 (2xA393) 3.40 (2xA393) 4.24 (2xA393) 4.21 (2xA393) 3.41 (2xA393) 4.66 (2xA393) 4.19 (2xA393) 3.44 (2xA393)
170 0.126 A193 3.71 (A393) 3.70 (2xA252) 3.68 (2xA393) 4.12 (2xA252) 4.09 (2xA393) 3.68 (2xA393) 4.55 (2xA252) 4.52 (2xA393) 3.68 (2xA393)
1.5
180 0.136 A252 3.60 (A252) 3.57 (2xA252) 3.55 (2xA393) 3.98 (A393) 3.95 (2xA393) 3.82 (2xA393) 4.49 (2xA252) 4.47 (2xA393) 3.81 (2xA393)
190 0.146 A252 3.47 (A252) 3.47 (2xA252) 3.43 (2xA393) 3.87 (A252) 3.85 (2xA252) 3.82 (2xA393) 4.47 (2xA252) 4.45 (2xA393) 3.92 (2xA393)
200 0.156 A252 3.36 (A252) 3.36 (A252) 3.35 (A393) 3.75 (A252) 3.74 (A252) 3.70 (2xA393) 4.35 (A393) 4.32 (2xA393) 4.02 (2xA393)
160 0.116 A193 3.82 (2xA393) 3.60 (2xA393) 3.00 (2xA393) 4.24 (2xA393) 3.60 (2xA393) 3.01 (2xA393) 4.35 (2xA393) 3.62 (2xA393) 3.04 (2xA393)
170 0.126 A193 3.70 (2xA252) 3.68 (2xA393) 3.29 (2xA393) 4.09 (2xA393) 4.02 (2xA393) 3.29 (2xA393) 4.52 (2xA393) 3.99 (2xA393) 3.31 (2xA393)
2.0 180 0.136 A252 3.58 (A393) 3.55 (2xA393) 3.55 (2xA393) 3.98 (2xA252) 3.95 (2xA393) 3.54 (2xA393) 4.47 (2xA393) 4.39 (2xA393) 3.54 (2xA393)
190 0.146 A252 3.47 (A252) 3.45 (2xA252) 3.43 (2xA393) 3.85 (2xA252) 3.82 (2xA393) 3.68 (2xA393) 4.45 (2xA393) 4.45 (2xA393) 3.67 (2xA393)
200 0.156 A252 3.36 (A252) 3.36 (1xA252) 3.32 (2xA393) 3.75 (A252) 3.72 (2xA252) 3.70 (2xA393) 4.34 (2xA252) 4.32 (2xA393) 3.75 (2xA393)

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.2% for un-propped construction. In order to maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans,
increased mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E NCCI = Non-contradictory, complementary information

IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5


CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

longer spans

Ribdeck 80

16
Ribdeck 80 Span/load and fire design tables
Normal weight concrete

PROPPED CENTRALLY SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - EC Standard Method
Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.4% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
150 0.106 A393 5.47 (32) 5.08 (32) 4.26 (20) 5.50 (32) 5.12 (32) 4.42 (16) 5.55 (32) 5.17 (32) 4.64 (20)
160 0.116 A393 5.73 (32) 5.28 (32) 4.46 (16) 5.76 (32) 5.38 (32) 4.61 (16) 5.81 (32) 5.43 (32) 4.87 (20)
170 0.126 A393 5.65 (20) 5.47 (32) 4.61 (16) 6.02 (32) 5.63 (32) 4.79 (16) 6.07 (32) 5.68 (32) 5.07 (20)
1.0
180 0.136 2xA252 5.46 (16) 5.43 (20) 4.76 (16) 6.07 (25) 5.85 (32) 4.95 (16) 6.32 (32) 5.93 (32) 5.24 (20)
190 0.146 2xA252 5.28 (12) 5.26 (16) 4.91 (16) 5.93 (16) 5.87 (25) 5.09 (16) 6.57 (32) 6.17 (32) 5.42 (16)
200 0.156 2xA252 5.11 (10) 5.09 (16) 5.07 (16) 5.74 (16) 5.72 (20) 5.24 (16) 6.71 (32) 6.43 (32) 5.59 (16)
150 0.106 A393 5.47 (32) 5.08 (32) 4.26 (20) 5.50 (32) 5.12 (32) 4.42 (20) 5.55 (32) 5.17 (32) 4.62 (25)
160 0.116 A393 5.73 (32) 5.28 (32) 4.45 (20) 5.76 (32) 5.38 (32) 4.60 (20) 5.81 (32) 5.43 (32) 4.89 (25)
170 0.126 A393 5.65 (20) 5.47 (32) 4.61 (20) 6.02 (32) 5.63 (32) 4.76 (20) 6.07 (32) 5.68 (32) 5.06 (25)
1.5
180 0.136 2xA252 5.43 (20) 5.43 (20) 4.76 (20) 6.07 (32) 5.85 (32) 4.93 (25) 6.32 (32) 5.93 (32) 5.22 (25)
190 0.146 2xA252 5.26 (16) 5.24 (20) 4.91 (20) 5.91 (25) 5.87 (25) 5.07 (25) 6.57 (32) 6.17 (32) 5.39 (25)
200 0.156 2xA252 5.09 (16) 5.07 (20) 5.06 (20) 5.72 (20) 5.72 (20) 5.22 (25) 6.71 (32) 6.43 (32) 5.57 (25)
160 0.116 A393 5.73 (32) 5.28 (32) 4.42 (32) 5.76 (32) 5.38 (32) 4.57 (32) 5.81 (32) 5.43 (32) 4.87 (32)
Eurocode

170 0.126 A393 5.54 (32) 5.47 (32) 4.58 (32) 6.02 (32) 5.63 (32) 4.75 (32) 6.07 (32) 5.68 (32) 5.03 (32)
2.0 180 0.136 2xA252 5.38 (25) 5.33 (32) 4.72 (32) 6.01 (32) 5.85 (32) 4.91 (32) 6.32 (32) 5.92 (32) 5.16 (32)
190 0.146 2xA252 5.21 (25) 5.15 (32) 4.87 (32) 5.81 (32) 5.81 (32) 5.05 (32) 6.57 (32) 6.05 (32) 5.29 (32)
200 0.156 2xA252 5.04 (25) 4.98 (25) 4.98 (32) 5.62 (32) 5.62 (32) 5.20 (32) 6.71 (32) 6.35 (32) 5.42 (32)

PROPPED CENTRALLY SINGLE SPAN DECK CONTINUOUS SLAB (m) - UK NCCI Method
Fire Slab Concrete 0.9 Gauge 1.0 Gauge 1.2 Gauge
period Depth Volume 0.4% Mesh * Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m ) Imposed Load (kN/m )
(Hrs) (mm) (m /m ) 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
150 0.106 A393 4.19 (2xA252) 3.65 (2xA252) 3.14 (2xA252) 4.25 (2xA252) 3.70 (2xA252) 3.18 (2xA252) 4.35 (2xA252) 3.79 (2xA252) 3.26 (2xA252)
160 0.116 A393 4.77 (2xA393) 4.17 (2xA393) 3.60 (2xA393) 4.82 (2xA393) 4.21 (2xA393) 3.64 (2xA393) 4.90 (2xA393) 4.29 (2xA393) 3.70 (2xA393)
170 0.126 A393 4.83 (2xA393) 4.24 (2xA393) 3.67 (2xA393) 4.88 (2xA393) 4.28 (2xA393) 3.71 (2xA393) 4.97 (2xA393) 4.37 (2xA393) 3.78 (2xA393)
1.0
180 0.136 2xA252 4.88 (2xA393) 4.30 (2xA393) 3.74 (2xA393) 4.93 (2xA393) 4.35 (2xA393) 3.78 (2xA393) 5.03 (2xA393) 4.44 (2xA393) 3.85 (2xA393)
190 0.146 2xA252 5.00 (2xA393) 4.42 (2xA393) 3.85 (2xA393) 5.02 (2xA393) 4.44 (2xA393) 3.87 (2xA393) 5.08 (2xA393) 4.50 (2xA393) 3.92 (2xA393)
200 0.156 2xA252 5.10 (2xA393) 4.72 (2xA393) 4.12 (2xA393) 5.34 (2xA393) 4.73 (2xA393) 4.13 (2xA393) 5.44 (2xA393) 4.74 (2xA393) 4.15 (2xA393)
150 0.106 A393 3.52 (2xA252) 3.07 (2xA252) 2.64 (2xA252) 3.56 (2xA252) 3.10 (2xA252) 2.67 (2xA252) 3.65 (2xA252) 3.18 (2xA252) 2.74 (2xA252)
160 0.116 A393 4.22 (2xA393) 3.70 (2xA393) 3.19 (2xA393) 4.26 (2xA393) 3.73 (2xA393) 3.22 (2xA393) 4.32 (2xA393) 3.78 (2xA393) 3.27 (2xA393)
170 0.126 A393 4.40 (2xA393) 3.87 (2xA393) 3.35 (2xA393) 4.44 (2xA393) 3.90 (2xA393) 3.38 (2xA393) 4.50 (2xA393) 3.96 (2xA393) 3.43 (2xA393)
1.5
180 0.136 2xA252 4.46 (2xA393) 3.93 (2xA393) 3.41 (2xA393) 4.49 (2xA393) 3.96 (2xA393) 3.44 (2xA393) 4.56 (2xA393) 4.02 (2xA393) 3.50 (2xA393)
190 0.146 2xA252 4.49 (2xA393) 3.97 (2xA393) 3.46 (2xA393) 4.53 (2xA393) 4.01 (2xA393) 3.49 (2xA393) 4.60 (2xA393) 4.07 (2xA393) 3.55 (2xA393)
200 0.156 2xA252 4.52 (2xA393) 4.01 (2xA393) 3.51 (2xA393) 4.56 (2xA393) 4.05 (2xA393) 3.54 (2xA393) 4.63 (2xA393) 4.11 (2xA393) 3.60 (2xA393)
160 0.116 A393 3.82 (2xA393) 3.34 (2xA393) 2.89 (2xA393) 3.85 (2xA393) 3.37(2xA393) 2.91 (2xA393) 3.90 (2xA393) 3.42 (2xA393) 2.95 (2xA393)
170 0.126 A393 4.06 (2xA393) 3.57 (2xA393) 3.09 (2xA393) 4.09 (2xA393) 3.59 (2xA393) 3.11 (2xA393) 4.14 (2xA393) 3.64 (2xA393) 3.15 (2xA393)
2.0 180 0.136 2xA252 4.24 (2xA393) 3.73 (2xA393) 3.25 (2xA393) 4.26 (2xA393) 3.76 (2xA393) 3.27 (2xA393) 4.31 (2xA393) 3.80 (2xA393) 3.31 (2xA393)
190 0.146 2xA252 4.30 (2xA393) 3.80 (2xA393) 3.31 (2xA393) 4.33 (2xA393) 3.83 (2xA393) 3.34 (2xA393) 4.38 (2xA393) 3.87 (2xA393) 3.38 (2xA393)
200 0.156 2xA252 4.32 (2xA393) 3.84 (2xA393) 3.36 (2xA393) 4.35 (2xA393) 3.87 (2xA393) 3.38 (2xA393) 4.41 (2xA393) 3.91 (2xA393) 3.42 (2xA393)

* In accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 Clause 9.8.1 (2) - the minimum cross-sectional area of crack control reinforcement above the ribs should not be less than 0.4% for propped construction. In order to maximise the FIRE LIMIT STATE spans, increased
mesh sizing is required as specified in the above tables.

LOADING COMBINATION (kN/m ) Refer to page 7 for notes on the use of these tables
Spans indicated above have been based on 150mm beam widths.
CATEGORY C C E NCCI = Non-contradictory, complementary information
EC = Eurocode
IMPOSED 3.0 4.0 7.5
CEILING & SERV. 0.5 1.0 1.0
FINISHES 0.5 1.5 1.5
PARTITIONS 1.0 1.0 0.0

TOTAL 5.0 7.5 10.0

CATEGORIES DESCRIPTION
C Congregation
C Congregation
E Storage

17
The only analysis tool that can
predict the damped floor response
achievable with Resotec. Providing
Resotec is an innovative way to design footfall vibration damping automatic stud and section design,
into a building. In the past a great emphasis has been put on Compos is the premiere tool for
composite analysis and design.
countering vibrations through the provision of mass in the structure
Supplied by Oasys Ltd
but with Resotec the building can remain lightweight whilst still Tel: +44 (0) 191 238 7559
benefiting from a low design response factor. www.oasys-software.com

18 www.richardlees.co.uk
What is it?
Resotec is a thin constrained layer damping membrane that
sits between the soffit of the steel decking and parts of the top
flange of the steel beams. In these zones there is no mechanical
connection between the floor and the supporting structure,
allowing the two to move independently under the influence of
vibration induced excitation.

Where does it go?


For maximum effectiveness the Resotec strips are installed on
the top flange of a steel beam, extending from each end for
approximately one quarter of the length towards the middle
of the span. Steel decking can then be laid over the top of the
Resotec but it should not be secured down to the beams in
any way. Instead fixity is achieved by side lapping and stitching
together the sheets to form one continuous membrane.

Composite beams Design assistance


In a traditional secondary beam design the shear studs are Engineers are encouraged to consider the use of Resotec
evenly spaced along the length of the beam. With a Resotec when designing large column free floor areas with lightweight
layer installed there can be no shear studs in the outer quarter long span beams. Because of the effects Resotec has on the
portion of the beam so a new approach is needed. The result is placement of shear studs and the design of the supporting
a 50% partially composite beam design which is illustrated in structure it is seldom possible to incorporate Resotec as a
the Bending Moment diagram. Shear studs are installed in the last minute solution to a footfall vibration issue. Engineers are
middle section of the beam and the design allows for partial therefore encouraged to consider Resotec in the early stages
interaction between the beam and the slab to be developed of a building design. Assistance for doing this can be obtained
in this zone only. The bending and shear resistance of the through the use of COMPOS, part of the OASYS suite of
structure in the outer quarter regions of the beam is that of the structural design programmes, or through contacting Richard
steel section alone with no composite interaction with the slab. Lees Decking.

X 105 50% partially composite beam: BM capacity and demand


16

14 Strength provided
in 100%
composite design
12
Effect with Resotec
Partially composite
10
Moment (Nm)

8 Beam
strength
6

Strength
required

0
0 5 10 15
Length (m)

19
Shaping the London Skyline Location:
30 St Mary Axe, London,
30 St. Mary Axe - The Gherkin England, United Kingdom

Status: Complete

Completion Date: 2004

Height: 180 metres

Floor Area:
70,000 square metres

Architect: Foster + Partners

Steel Contractor:
Victor Buyck – Hollandia JV

Deck Profile: Ribdeck 80

Widely known throughout the world by


the nickname ‘The Gherkin’, 30 St Mary
Axe stands at 180 metres tall, making it on
completion the second tallest building in the
City of London and the sixth tallest in the
Greater London region.

Thanks to the efficiency of it’s


environmentally-conscious design, The
Gherkin uses half the power that a similar
tower would typically consume, whilst the
unique triangulated perimeter structure
makes this tall building sufficiently stiff
to control wind-excited sways without
requiring any additional cross-bracing.

The specification of Ribdeck 80 for this


project was an integral factor in achieving
the ambitious design of this unique building,
with its radial steel beam arrangement
requiring a decking profile that could span
up to 4.75m without any requirement for
additional framing or temporary support.

20 www.richardlees.co.uk
Shaping the London Skyline
20 Fenchurch Street

Location: 20 Fenchurch
Street, London, England,
United Kingdom
Status: In Construction
Completion Date: 2013
Height: 160 metres
Floor Area:
83,500 square metres
Architect: Rafael Vinoly
Steel Contractor:
William Hare
Deck Profile: Ribdeck E60,
Ribdeck 80 & Superib

20 Fenchurch Street is one of London’s


most eagerly anticipated development
projects thanks to celebrated architect
Rafael Viñoly’s innovative design.

The 160m high building flares outwards


from its base so that the larger floorplates
are to be found at the higher storeys,
delivering both impressive architecture and
more efficient office space than many of
its neighbours. The distinctive shape of the
building, has earned it the nick-name, the
“Walkie Talkie”.

The successful intergration of Ribdeck E60


decking into the scheme was intergral to
the rapid erection of the steel frame, which
rose at the rate of a floor per week.

21
Shaping the London Skyline
Canary Wharf

12

7
13 9

Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located


Location: Isle of Dogs, London, England, on the Isle of Dogs in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the
United Kingdom old West India Docks in the London Docklands. When topped out in 1990, One
Canada Square became the UK’s tallest building and a powerful symbol of the
Completion Date: Various regeneration of Docklands, as well as being an imposing architectural presence on
Height: 235 metres (highest point) the London skyline.

Floor Area: See panel opposite During the various phases of construction at Canary Wharf, over 800,000 square
Architect: Various metres of Ribdeck profiles were used, testament to the quality of service and the
superiority of the profiles supplied over the years.
Steel Contractor: Various
Deck Profile: See panel opposite

22 www.richardlees.co.uk
1

10
11

4 3

1 Canada Square - 147,000 m Ribdeck 60 25 Cabot Square - 60,000 m Ribdeck 60


1 2 8 2

2 8 Canada Square - 101,700 m2 Ribdeck AL 9 40 Bank Street - 71,700 m2 Ribdeck AL



3 5 Churchill Place - 38,500 m2 Ribdeck E60 10 1 Cabot Square - 65,000 m2 Ribdeck 60

4 20 Churchill Place - 38,700 m2 Ribdeck E60 11 10 Cabot Square & 5 North Colonnade

5 25 North Colonnade - 34,000 m2 Ribdeck 60 - 75,000 m2 Ribdeck 60

6 30 South Colonnade - 35,000 m2 Ribdeck 60 12 15 Westferry Circus - 23,500 m2 Ribdeck AL

7 20 Cabot Square & 10 South Colonnade 13 20 Bank Street - 59,300 m2 Ribdeck AL

- 68,000 m2 Ribdeck 60
Total decking supplied: 817,400 m2

23
Shaping the London Skyline
The Willis Building

Location: Floor Area:


51 Lime Street, London, 51,000 square metres
England, United Kingdom
Architect: Foster + Partners
Status: Complete
Steel Contractor:
Completion Date: 2007 William Hare

Height: 125 metres Deck Profile: Ribdeck 80

The Willis Building stands opposite the


famous Lloyd’s building in the heart of
the City of London. The building features
an iconic “stepped” design, which was
intended to resemble the shell of a
crustacean, with setbacks rising at 97 and
68 metres respectively.

Constructed between 2004 and 2007, it was


a significant addition to the London skyline,
becoming the third tallest building in the
City after 30 St Mary Axe and CityPoint.
The core was topped out in July 2006,
with Ribdeck 80 specified throughout the
structure primarily due to its excellent load
carrying properties and unrivalled ability
to carry long unpropped spans. The Willis
Building was the first in a wave of new
skyscrapers planned for the area.

24 www.richardlees.co.uk
Architectural Impact Across the UK
Civil Justice Centre, Manchester

Location:
Spinningfields, Manchester,
England, United Kingdom

Status: Complete

Completion Date: 2007

Height: 80 metres

Floor Area:
35,160 square metres

Architect:
Denton Corker Marshall

Steel Contractor:
William Hare

Deck Profile: Superib

This distinctive building is widely


recognisable for the ‘fingers’ at each end
that are cantilevered over the lower levels -
it is rumoured that architect Barrie Marshall
sketched the entire building by hand and
that very little has deviated from his original
drawings. On the west side of the building
is an imposing 11,000 m2 suspended glass
wall -the largest in Europe.

The specification of Superib throughout


the building was an important factor in
minimising the construction depth of the
floor slab to suit the architect’s vision of the
slender form of the ‘finger’ protrusions at
each end of the building.

25
Architectural Impact Across the UK
Spinnaker Tower, Portsmouth

Location:
Portsmouth Harbour,
Portsmouth,
United Kingdom
Status: Complete
Completion Date: 2005
Height: 170 metres
Floor Area:
1,600 square metres
Architect: HGP Architects
Steel Contractor: Butterley
Deck Profile: Ribdeck 80

The Spinnaker Tower is the centrepiece of


the redevelopment of Portsmouth Harbour,
and was chosen by Portsmouth residents
from a selection of concept designs.
The tower reflects Portsmouth’s maritime
history, representing sails billowing in the
wind – a design accomplished using two
large, sweeping steel arcs.

An imposing and stunning addition to the


Portsmouth horizon, Spinnaker Tower
is the tallest accessible structure in the
United Kingdom outside London, with three
observation platforms constructed from
Ribdeck 80 affording glorious views of up to
23 miles.

26 www.richardlees.co.uk
Architectural Impact Across the UK
The Curve, Leicester Performing Arts Centre

Location:
Rutland Street, Leicester,
England, United Kingdom

Status: Complete

Completion Date: 2008

Floor Area:
2,600 square metres

Architect:
Rafael Vinoly Based on the redeveloped Cultural Quarter in Leicester City Centre, the Curve Theatre opened
in Autumn 2008 and is one of the main flagship projects in the regeneration of the city.
Steel Contractor:
This ambitious and innovative design has complete architectural transparency, with the
William Hare
weight of the structure suspended from the roof of the building. The long spanning capacity
Deck Profile: Ribdeck 80 of Ribdeck 80 allowed the number of steel members in the structure to be kept to a
minimum, emphasising the light and airy form of the structure.

27
Guidance Notes for Design and Fixing
Design pages 28-29 Professional Prior to concrete
General 28 fixing pages 30-32 placement page 34
Construction Loading 28 Installation Service 30 Forming Openings 34
Permanent Loading 28 Health & Safety 30 Cleaning the Decking 34
Reinforcement 28 Fall Arrest 30
Deflection 28 Fixing and Securing 31
Concrete
Temporary Support 29 Cartridge Tools 31 placement page 34
Durability 29 Site Testing 31 Temporary Props 34
Full Lateral Restraint 29 Edge Trim 31 Construction Joints 34
Diaphragm Action 29 Cantilevered Deck and Trim 32 Placing and Compacting 34
Composite Beams 29 Decking on Shelf Angles 32 Curing 34
Perimeter Beams 29 Decking Around Columns 32 Composite
Transverse Reinforcement 29 Minimising Concrete Loss 32
Shear Studs 29
floor slab page 35
Concrete Encased Perimeter
Soffit Fixings 35
Reference Literature 29 Steel Beams 32
Holowedge and Wedge Nut 35
Delivery page 30 Shear studs page 33 Alphawedge 35
Delivery, Transportation and Access 30 Spacing of Shear Studs 33
Identification 30 Preparation of Steel Flanges 33
Lifting and Storage 30 Stud Installation Equipment 33
Installation and Testing 33

GOOD PRACTICE: These guidance notes have been developed by RLD during our many years in the Steel Decking Industry. Whilst
every effort has been made to ensure that they are comprehensive, we would refer you to the BCSA publication No 37/04 – BCSA
Code of Practice for Metal Decking and Stud Welding – for further guidance. These notes should also be read in conjunction with
the prevailing national design guidance and health and safety legislation.

Design
General and loads when reading from these tables. Any walls other than
RLD’s structural decking can be used as permanent shuttering lightweight partitions should be considered separately as either line
to an in situ concrete topping, or as both shuttering and tensile or concentrated loads, and specific calculations should be made to
reinforcement to form what is referred to as a composite floor slab. check the adequacy of the selected slab to support them.
Composite floor slabs form the most frequent application and these
are designed to the currently applicable design codes (principally BS Reinforcement
EN 1994-1-1). A slab design appropriate to the required application In all circumstances appropriate crack control and distribution
can be selected by a suitably qualified person from reference to reinforcement should be provided within the slab and this can be in
either RLD’s span/load tables or using Deckspan software, both of the form of a wire-welded mesh or, in certain situations, as macro
which are available free of charge at www.richardlees.co.uk. When fibres. This reinforcement may also be sufficient to provide the
decking is used as permanent shuttering only it is the responsibility necessary fire resistance for the slab and this can be checked by
of the Project Structural Design Engineer to specify all the slab reference to the RLD tables for the Fire Design Methods, available
reinforcement necessary to support the permanent loads, ignoring in literature on the RLD website. Where the design criteria are
any contribution from the decking profile. not covered by the tables, then reinforcing bars, positioned in
the decking troughs, will be required, the exact quantity being
Construction Loading determined using RLD’s Deckspan software.
The RLD design span/load tables generally make allowance for Decking can only contribute to the transverse shear reinforcement
a temporary construction live load of 1.5kN/m2 in addition to the for the distribution of longitudinal shear forces in composite beams
wet weight of concrete. This should not be exceeded without when it is spanning perpendicular to the beam. In addition it should
consultation with the RLD Technical Advisory Service. The heaping either be continuous across the beam, or the beam flange be wide
of concrete during placement should be avoided. In the unpropped enough to allow effective anchorage of the deck using shear studs
condition it is normally the construction stage that governs the welded in a staggered pattern. Additional reinforcement may also
allowable spans shown in the tables. be required to comply with building or other regulations and it is the
customer’s responsibility to ensure that the necessary design checks
Construction Loading after Initial Concrete Set and approvals have been granted.
The slab strength will generally have been specified by the Project
Structural Design Engineer on the basis of support of long-term
loads consistent with the building’s intended use. In the temporary Deflection
condition, construction loads from plant used for erecting steelwork Decking will deflect under the weight of wet concrete as it is placed.
or from materials stored for following trades may constitute a more The design process takes account of this deflection and limits it in
onerous design condition and should be referred back to the Project accordance with the relevant code of practice. The additional weight
Structural Design Engineer for assessment. of concrete due to this deflection is factored into this and
all subsequent calculations. No account is taken in RLD’s tables
Permanent Loading or software for any deflection of the supporting steel frame. Those
The self weight of the slab has been taken into account in the design responsible for the placement of the concrete should be made aware
process and need not be included in the imposed loads indicated of all expected deflections when assessing concrete volumes and
in the span/load tables. The Project Structural Design Engineer finishing techniques.
should sum all predominantly uniform applied live, partition, finishes

28 www.richardlees.co.uk
L=Span As examples, values for lateral restraint with 0.9mm thickness
decking are:
Slab
Depth a) with nails at 333mm centres at sheet ends
X-ENP-19 L15 = 8.10 kN/m DAK 16 = 2.40 kN/m
Decking b) with nails at 666mm centres at intermediate support
Props placed in X-ENP-19 L15 = 4.05 kN/m DAK 16 = 1.20 kN/m
Continuous supporting accordance with
span/load tables
timber propped at 1m
centres along its length
Diaphragm Action
Guidance on diaphragm action of steel decking during construction
Slab Runner Size
depth Span ‘L’ can be obtained from BS EN 1993-1-3. cl. 10.3 and by reference to
(m)
(mm) Depth Width ECCS publication No. 88.
120 3.25 175mm 50mm
Composite Beams
130 3.75 200mm 50mm
Guidance on the design of composite beams is given in
150 4.25 225mm 50mm BS EN 1994-1-1. Within the design there is a requirement for the
200 4.75 225mm 75mm provision of transfer of horizontal shear forces between the steel
beam and the concrete slab. This is commonly achieved with the
ABOVE DATA OFFERED AS A GUIDE ONLY TO SIZE OF TIMBER RUNNER
use of headed shear studs welded through the decking panels to the
underlying beam top flange.
Temporary support The Project Structural Design Engineer should ensure that sufficient
Temporary support may sometimes be necessary to sustain the studs can be welded within the confines of the metal decking
dead weight of wet concrete and any other construction loads. troughs to achieve the required degree of shear connection. In
General guidance is provided by RLD in the form of span/load tables particular it is important to avoid the specification of beams with
and Deckspan software and, where provided, on project specific top flanges that are too thin and/or too narrow to accept off-centre
installation layout drawings and design calculations. The Project welded studs. (Refer to Shear Studs section for further guidance
Structural Design Engineer may also specify temporary propping in
-page 33).
situations where tighter control on deflections is deemed necessary.
The design and safe installation of temporary supports, including Perimeter Beams
any bracing necessary, is the responsibility of the Project Structural
Design Engineer. There should be continuous sole and header plates If perimeter beams, and beams adjacent to internal slab openings,
across the full width of every propped bay and the system should are to be designed as composite ‘L’ beams, then the edge of the
be installed so as to ensure zero deflection of the deck at propped slab should extend a minimum distance of 6 times the stud diameter
points prior to concrete placement. The header plate should offer a beyond the beam centreline. In most cases this will equate to a
wide area of support so as not to locally compromise the structural minimum distance of 114mm. If this condition is satisfied but does
integrity or the appearance of the decking. Except where specifically not exceed 300mm, then reinforcement should be specified in
advised by RLD’s Technical Department, all temporary props to the form of ‘U’ bars detailed below the heads of the studs. If the
unsupported slab edges are to be fully in place prior to installation of edge distance exceeds 300mm, then the composite beam may
the edge trim or decking. The same condition also applies to internal be designed as an internal beam (albeit with reduced effective
props meeting the conditions set out in Table 1. composite flange width) and reinforcement added as required to
Profile Span satisfy longitudinal shear transmission rules.
Superib >= 4.0 m Transverse Reinforcement
Ribdeck E60 >= 4.0 m The concrete flange of a composite beam is subjected to splitting
Ribdeck S60 >= 4.0 m forces and these may be resisted in part by contributions from the
concrete, decking, top mesh and any additional steel bars crossing
Ribdeck 80 >= 4.5 m
the beam perpendicular to the span direction. Any contribution
from the decking should only be considered where the decking
Table 1: Lower Limit for Pre-installation of Temporary Supports. spans onto the beam and is either continuous across or is securely
Temporary supports should remain in place until the concrete anchored to it with through deck welded shear studs. The decking
has reached a minimum of 70% of its characteristic strength. contribution should be ignored where it spans parallel to the
Durability composite beam being considered. Any shortfall in transverse shear
resistance is normally compensated for by the design and inclusion
Decking is produced from galvanised steel strip to BS EN 10346 of additional reinforcement bars.
with a standard Z275 coating. When used in a dry and unpolluted
environment, such as is the case in the majority of offices, Shear Studs
warehouses, hospitals, and schools etc, a design ‘life to first Shear studs are manufactured from low carbon steel with minimum
maintenance’ of 20 - 50 years can be expected. Recent documented values of yield point of 350 N/mm2, ultimate tensile strength
research would suggest that the predicted performance is likely to 450 N/mm2, and elongation 15%. The studs should be headed and
approach the higher end of this range. for through deck welding they should be specified with a shank
Full Lateral Restraint diameter of 19mm. Studs should protrude a minimum of 35mm
above the shoulder of the decking profile and the covering of
Guidance on lateral stability of beams can be obtained from SCI concrete over the head of the stud should be a minimum of 15mm.
publication 360. Positive connection between the composite floor
slab and the compression flange of a steel support beam may be The shear capacity of headed studs embedded in solid concrete is
achieved using either X-ENP-19 L15 or DAK 16 nails. These nails are calculated in accordance with BS EN 1994-1-1 cl. 6.6. In composite
capable of resisting lateral forces as required by BS EN 1993-1-1, with slabs the studs may be affected by the proximity of the webs of the
safe working loads per nail indicated for differing sheet thicknesses in steel decking sheet and their capacity may be reduced. Refer to
Table 2. BS EN 1994-1-1 cl. 6.6 for reduction factor formulae.

Deck Thickness X-ENP-19 L15 DAK 16


Reference Literature
(mm) Shear (kN) Shear (kN) • MCRMA Technical Paper 13 / SCI Publication P300: Composite
0.8 2.3 0.8 Slabs and Beams Using Steel Decking: Best Practice for Design
and Construction.
0.9 2.7 0.8
• BCSA Publication 37/04: Code of Practice for Metal Decking and
1.0 3.0 0.8 Stud Welding.
1.1 3.5 0.8 • BS EN 1994-1-1 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and
1.2 4.0 0.8 concrete structures.

Table 2: Safe Working Load per Nail

29
Delivery
Delivery, Transportation and Access Identification
Loads are normally delivered by articulated vehicles of approximately Where appropriate, bundles will be marked to correspond with RLD
16 metres in length and with maximum gross weights of up to 36 layout drawings, with a bundle label identifying the product, the site,
tonnes. Decking will normally be delivered in full loads. Suitable and a schedule reference code.
access to and from unloading points on sites must be provided
and maintained by the client. Delivery vehicles have a maximum
Lifting and Storage
unloading time of 2 hours. Unless otherwise agreed in writing
before delivery, offloading and lifting to level and position is the The customer should arrange for bundles to be lifted using two
responsibility of the customer. double wrapped chains, with care taken to avoid excessive pressure
across the sheets. Careless use of the slings can cause panels to
Deck Width (mm) Height (mm) buckle. Under no circumstances should the bundles or sheets be
Superib 680 525 removed from delivery vehicles by tipping, barring or similar means.
Bundles should be lifted directly from the delivery vehicle and placed
Ribdeck E60 1020 175 on the building framework at the correct level and in positions
Ribdeck S60 620 350 appropriate for installation. Generally one bundle of decking will
Ribdeck 80 620 350 be positioned in each steelwork bay. The sides of the bundles are
identified with paint splashes and these marked sides must all face
Table 3: Approximate Maximum Sizes of Bundles away from the appropriate set out point. Care must be taken to avoid
local overloading of the structure.
Bundle length will depend on decking panel lengths. Export/shipped
bundles may differ – please ask for details. Except in situations where fixing is contracted to RLD, it is the
customer who is responsible for the safe execution of the works.
Lengths of decking manufactured in accordance with RLD layout
drawings or customer schedules are normally consolidated into All users, installers and persons working in the proximity of the
compact, banded bundles as shown in Table 3. These bundles may decking should be made familiar with the recommendations in this
weigh up to 1.5 tonnes and cover an effective area up to 100 square section.
metres when laid, depending on the profile, gauge and length of
the panels being delivered. Table 4 gives the mass per linear metre
(kg/m) of each profile and gauge to assist in the calculation of
individual bundle weights.
Gauge of Steel
Deck
0.9 1.0 1.2
Superib 8.0 8.7 10.4
Ribdeck E60 9.3 10.3 12.3
Ribdeck S60 6.3 7.0 8.4
Ribdeck 80 6.7 8.0 9.2

Table 4: Mass of Deck Panels (kg/m)


The maximum sheet length on a particular project could be governed
by one or more of the following: manual handling limitations, support
configuration, transportation and access for loading deck bundles
onto the steel frame.

installation
Health and Safety
Decking is manufactured to ISO 9001 from high yield steel coated with
zinc and may be covered with a soluble protective lubricant which does
not adversely affect performance. The sheets will have sharp edges
and corners. COSHH data sheets are available for all hazards/activities
associated with the handling and fixing of RLD decking.

Fall Arrest
It is recommended that appropriate fall arrest systems are used.
Generally safety netting is advised for steel-framed structures; air
bags or similar for other structures. Details of the appropriate fall
arrest system, together with a risk assessment covering the safety
system installation method, should be included in the detailed
installation method statement prepared by the decking installer prior to
commencement of work.

30 www.richardlees.co.uk
Fixing and Securing Cartridge Nails
Prior to the commencement of installation of the decking the The nails are suitable for fastening decking and edge trim to
supporting structure must be in a sound and stable condition. structural steelwork up to 630 Rm N/mm2 and a minimum thickness
Steelwork must be adequately restrained and support for the decking of 6mm. Technical advice on the use of these tools can be obtained
must be provided around columns, splices, openings and other from Hilti Technical Advisory Service, Manchester (Freephone 0800
penetrations. Brickwork, blockwork and concrete supports must be 886 100, e-mail gbtas@hilti.com, web www.hilti.com).
adequately cured. Alternative tools and fixings can be obtained from Spit
Steelwork Concrete Other Materials (tel: 0800 731 4924, e-mail tsupport@itwcp.co.uk,
(incl. Brick and Block) web www.itwcp.co.uk).
50mm 70mm 70mm
Site Testing
Table 5: Minimum Bearing Requirements for Decking Once nails have been installed, the effectiveness of the fixing can
Decking MUST be suitably secured to avoid excessive deflection be determined by comparing appearance of the installed nail with
or dislodgement during construction. The fixings should be placed guidance diagrams and other information in the manufacturer’s
at 333mm maximum spacing at panel ends and 667mm maximum literature.
spacing on intermediate supports. No pedestrian access to the
installed decking should be permitted until it has been securely fixed Edge Trim Restraint Strap Edge Trim
to the supporting structure and access is recommended to be limited Decking

to essential construction personnel once installation is complete. Galvanised steel edge


trim is not a structural
In the case of a steel support structure, low power powder-actuated component. It is used only
fastenings such as Hilti X-ENP-19 L15 can be used with the DX 76 as permanent formwork Typical Edge
fastening tool to make this connection. In situations where shear to retain the wet concrete Detail 1
studs are subsequently to be welded through the decking, a lighter slabs, avoiding the need 600mm
gauge nail such as Hilti X-DAK 16 can be used with the DX 460 or DX for timber shuttering. It maximum
36 cartridge tools at the discretion of the Project Structural Design is normally supplied in Edge Trim -
Engineer. 3m lengths but may be in Restraint Strap galvanised steel
Decking permanent
Alternatives to Hilti nails are available through companies such as 2.5m lengths if obtained edge formwork

Spit, or decking can be secured to steelwork using self-tapping directly from our stock
screws. Decking may be secured to brickwork, blockwork and depots. Thicknesses, or
Typical Edge Brick, block,
concrete supports provided that the top surface is flat and level and gauges, are usually 0.9mm masonry, concrete
or 1.2mm, but can be up to Detail 2 or steel supports
that the top course of bricks or blocks are of solid construction.
Special masonry fixings, such as the Hilti HPS-1 Hammer Screw 2mm when needed. Edge
and Hilti X-SW Soft Washer Fastener can be considered, but in trim is supplied complete minimum
6 x stud dia.
all instances it is recommended that the decking installer refers with restraint strapping in
to the fixing manufacturer’s recommendations for the system to lengths to be cut to suit Shear Stud
(when used) Edge Trim

be used. Decking may be cut on site to accommodate notching on site. Fixing screws are
around obstructions such as columns but this may affect the design only provided when RLD is Decking

of the sheet and its spanning capability. In such situations special carrying out installation.
SEE
consideration should be given as to the adequacy and completeness Edge trim can be secured to Typical Edge TABLE 7
Detail 3
of bearings and to the spanning capability of cut sheets, adjacent the end of a decking sheet
sheets and the finished floor slab. A petrol-driven disc cutter is the using self-tapping screws
preferred method for cutting deck sheets and edge trim on site. (see detail 1) or to the main
It is recommended that all profiles are seam-stitched at regular support structure using the
intervals along their length using self-tapping screws. Care should be same fixings as used for securing the decking (details 2 & 3).
taken to ensure that the seam stitch screws effectively penetrate and Fixings to the top flange are normally made at each end of the edge
engage with the under-lapping deck sheet. trim sheet and at no more than 600mm centres along its length.
Edge trim is delivered to site in straight lengths and is cut to suit
Superib Ribdeck E60 Ribdeck S60 Ribdeck 80 on site. To approximate a curve, the edge trim can be cut on site to
form a facetted face and the frequency of fixings may need to be
1.0m 1.0 m 1.0 m 1.0 m increased accordingly.
Table 6: Max­­imum Spacing of Seam Stitch Screws Restraint straps are used to control the outward deflection of
Note: The guidance given here applies to the shallow deck range of the edge trim under pressure from the wet concrete and should
profiles supplied by RLD. Separate guidance should be sought on generally be installed at no more than 600mm centres and at an
the safe installation of deep deck profile CF225. angle no steeper than 45o.

Cartridge Tools
DX-750 Cartridge Tool
Hilti cartridge tools are commonly
used to install X-ENP-19-L15 and
X-DAK 16 nails. No external power
source is required. These tools
should be used only by suitably-
trained personnel in accordance
with manufacturer’s instructions.
When detailing steelwork for the
support of metal decking sheets,
consideration should be given to Approx. Dims. 450mm
the physical dimensions of the x 70 - 110mm wide
cartridge tool, which must be held
perpendicular to the fixing surface Typical dimensions to show
clearance/access required
and will experience a re-coil effect for use of tool
on firing.

WARNING: Steel decking is a structural element of the construction and should always be installed by a competent contractor to avoid
adverse effects on following trades. As a minimum requirement, valid CSCS cards for steel decking and/ or stud welding should be held by
all workers involved in the installation of these products.

31
Cantilevered Deck and Trim Decking Around Columns
Special consideration should be given to cantilevers. Guidance is Decking should be cut on site to fit into the webs of columns that
given here on the use of both decking and edge trim as cantilevered penetrate the floor plate. Where there are no beams available as
shuttering. It is the responsibility of the Project Structural Design supports, and where column penetrations exceed 250mm in width,
Engineer to assess whether any additional reinforcement is required the steel frame supplier should provide additional support (such as
to enable the finished floor slab to carry the design imposed loads. welded on angle brackets) in the web of the column.
In the direction of span of the decking sheets, a maximum cantilever
distance of 600mm is recommended. This limit is based on health &
safety considerations and is not affected by the gauge or profile of
decking, or the depth of concrete to be poured. It is important that
the back span of the decking sheet is securely anchored at no more
than the recommended maximum spacing for end and intermediate
supports respectively. Unsupported side cantilevers of decking are
NOT permitted in any circumstances.
Edge trim cantilevers are measured from the toe of the beam flange.
The maximum cantilever length permitted varies with concrete depth
to be poured and with gauge of edge trim. When cantilevering edge
trim to the distances shown in Table 7, the maximum spacing of the
restraint straps and fixings to the beam top flange should follow the Decking Support Details at a Column Web
guidelines given previously for non-cantilevered edge trim.

Overall Deck End Deck Side Edge Trim Minimising Concrete Loss
Slab From Beam Centreline From Toe of Beam Wherever possible, decking sheets are butt jointed with ribs
Depth Any Gauge 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0 lined through. Gaps up to 5mm in width can be tolerated without
significant leakage of concrete over the top flange of the beams.
130 600 0 100 125 160 195 Gaps greater than 5mm should be sealed using a method such as
150 600 0 50 115 150 185 adhesive tape or expanding foam. At the building perimeter the
200 600 0 n/a 100 130 160 decking should either continue out to butt up against the edge trim
or be sealed using a 0.7mm gauge galvanised steel or plastic closure
250 600 0 n/a 50 100 135
plate or preformed polystyrene inserts.
300 600 0 n/a n/a 50 100
0.7mm Closure Plate
For the treatment of side lap
350 600 0 n/a n/a n/a 50 Decking
joints of decking refer to the
Table 7: Maximum Cantilever Distances earlier section on seam stitching
requirements.
For conditions outside of the scope of Table 7, permanent supports
or temporary propping may be required. Please refer to the RLD Where the decking changes
Technical Department for further guidance. Galvanised Steel direction of span it may be
Closure Plates necessary to stitch the edge of
the last sheet to the supporting
Decking on Shelf Angles beam and seal off the ends of the perpendicularly-spanning sheets
Where decking is required to be supported on shelf angles, the with closure plates or preformed polystyrene inserts.
following checks are made to ensure it is physically possible to place
panels of sufficient length to achieve 50mm minimum end bearings. Concrete Encased Perimeter Steel Beams
Similar arrangements are necessary where the decking panels sit on
the bottom flanges of steelwork. Concrete encasement may be specified as part of the fire resistant
design of perimeter steel members. The preferred method of
construction is for concrete encasement to be carried out off site
lmin = Lclear + 2 x 50mm prior to erection of the steel frame. If the encasement only extends
lmax = Lcc –B / 2 - Tw / 2 - 20mm [- Trsa if angle leg upwards] to the top of the steel beam, then metal decking installation can
proceed as normal.
In situations where pre-encasement is not practical, the following
Where: solution is offered for Superib floor slabs only. The Superib decking
lmin is the minimum allowable sheet length should be fitted to the perimeter steel beams as normal to provide a
lmax is the maximum allowable sheet length working platform and then cut back to the line of the shuttering once
it has been installed around the beam. The Project Structural Design
Lclear is the clear distance between toes of shelf angles Engineer should check that the shuttering system has been designed
Lcc is the centre to centre spacing of the beams to support the decking and subsequent weight of wet concrete, and
B is the smaller of the two flange widths if not, to specify the inclusion of an adequate temporary propping
system as indicated in the diagram.
Tw is the web thickness of the other beam
Trsa is the thickness of the vertical leg of the shelf angle
Crack Control Reinforcement
by others Hairpin Tie Bars
Lcc by others
B Nominal
Cover

Trsa
Lclear
Superib Re-entrant Decking
Tw
Supporting Timber
and Temporary Prop

The shelf angles are structural supports and the Project Structural Wrapping Fabric by others
Design Engineer should ensure that they are fit for purpose. In
addition it is important that the angles project a minimum of 50 mm Timber Formwork
beyond the top flange of the steel beam to enable a cartridge tool or
similar to be used to secure the decking to the supporting structure.
A sufficient quantity of hairpin tie bars, as determined by the Project
Structural Design Engineer, should be positioned in each trough of
the Superib decking prior to placement of the concrete.

32 www.richardlees.co.uk
Shear Studs
Shear studs are normally welded through the decking to the top Stud Installation Equipment
flange of the steel beam. To avoid burn through of the beam flange The preferred method for welding shear studs is through the use
the studs should be welded directly above the web (on the beam of mains power. This provides a quiet, clean and environmentally-
centreline) or the flange should have a minimum thickness of 0.4 friendly option. The supply should be 3 phase with 415 V / 150 A per
times the shank diameter (0.4 d = 7.6mm generally). It is preferable phase. The welding convertor, measuring 0.5m cubed and weighing
to limit the number of studs to a maximum of 2 per trough, wherever 0.5 tonne, is connected to this supply through a watertight 150 amp
possible. As the number of studs increases beyond this limit, the plug and socket.
decking becomes more susceptible to localised heat warping and
weld splatter can interfere with subsequent welds.
80m (cable)
An alternative to welded shear studs is the Hilti X-HVB shear maximum
connector. These connectors are ‘L’ shaped galvanised steel
sections that are secured to the steel beam flange using the Hilti
DX 76 powder actuated tool. The mechanical properties of the HVB
connectors are different to those of welded studs and a substitution
should not be made without the consent of the Project Structural
Design Engineer.
A greater number of X-HVB connectors are needed to provide the
same degree of shear connection as when using welded studs, and
particular attention should be paid to the space available for placing
these within the confines of a steel decking profile. Guidance and
Assistance on the application of the HVB system is available from
Hilti (tel: 0800 886100).

Spacing of Shear Studs 7.5m


maximum
In order to maintain effective shear connection, both maximum
and minimum spacings are defined for the studs. The maximum
longitudinal spacing is defined to prevent localised vertical separation
of the slab from the beam. Minimum spacings are defined to Where access for the welding rig to within 7.5m of the frame is
ensure that each stud is adequately embedded in concrete and that restricted, a steel section may be welded to the frame and extended
concentrations of compressive force do not occur as a result of to a position from which the 7.5m access rule may be applied.
overlapping zones of influence around adjacent studs.
This steel section should, as a minimum, be a steel plate measuring
100 x 10mm. In situations where access for the mobile rig is
restricted and mains power is not available, a static generator can
be provided. This 200 KVA generator is housed in a unit measuring
Minimum Spacing Minimum Spacing
Single Studs Studs in Pairs 3m long, 2m wide and 2m high and with a gross weight of 5 tonnes.
This unit will emit diesel fumes when in operation and should
be positioned on the structure in a well-ventilated area which is
verified as suitable for this purpose by the Project Structural Design
4d (76mm)
Engineer. Consideration should also be given to the method of safely
5d (95mm) re-fuelling the unit and to the safe storage of fuel in a bunded diesel
bowser on the site.
Minimum Spacing
Staggered Studs Maximum Spacing Installation and Testing
Welded shear studs should be installed and tested in accordance
with BS EN 14555, the recommendations of the manufacturers of
5d

3d (57mm)
the welding equipment and studs, and the project specific design
(9

and layout.
5m

600 or 4DS
m

4d (76mm)
)

15
35 DS
d

7.6mm
20
Studs on Studs
Centreline Offset

The studs should not be welded closer than 20mm


clear distance from the edge of the top flange

Preparation of Steel Flanges


Any impurities present at the welding interface will lead to a
decrease in weld quality. RLD profiles are formed from steel with a
Z275 galvanised coating and the through deck welding process can
be successfully applied to this material provided that the top flange
of the steel beam is not primed, painted or galvanised and is also
free from dirt, grease and loose rust. Light rusting that occurs after
shot blasting is acceptable. In the welding zone, the decking should
fit closely against the beam top flange, a condition that can generally
be assured by the installer at the time of welding.

33
PRIOR TO CONCRETE PLACEMENT
Forming Openings
The following guidelines are offered for forming openings in a slab.
It is the responsibility of the Project Structural Design Engineer to
ensure the slab will be adequate to support the design imposed loads
after the formation of any openings. RLD’s responsibilities exclude
the design, supply or installation of any framing or reinforcement and
Timber
the boxing out of decking to form openings.
Formwork

Openings can be classified in terms of the width measured Deck over Void
perpendicular to the span of the decking:
1) Up to 300mm wide – No special treatment is required. The
opening should be boxed out and the decking only cut out using a
reciprocating saw or nibbler when the slab has cured.
2) Between 300mm and 700mm wide – The opening should be
formed as above but additional reinforcement bars should be
designed and added as necessary to spread the load laterally
around the opening, supplement the slab strength immediately
parallel to the opening, and control crack widths at corners. The three size categories, outlined here, relate to isolated openings.
If openings are grouped such that a gap of less than 1.5 times
3) Over 700mm wide – Structural trimming steel should be added to the width of the largest opening exists between them, then
the framing arrangement before the decking is installed. consideration should be given to the combined width.

Health and Safety note: Due consideration should be given to the Cleaning the Decking
means of providing protection against falls and accidental passage
through of materials at whatever stage openings are formed in the It is recommended that any debris on the decking be removed by the
slab. One method that can be used is to provide a temporary cover contractor after all reinforcement has been positioned and openings
to the opening using unconcreted decking secured to a special boxed out and immediately prior to concreting. Slight surface grease
edge trim. or oil residue from the decking manufacturing process does not
affect the design bond strength between decking and concrete
and therefore need not be removed. Any residual ceramic ferrule
fragments left over after breaking them away from the welded shear
studs can be left distributed over the decking surface and lost within
the concrete pour.

CONCRETE PLACEMENT
Temporary Props Placing and Compacting
Immediately prior to concrete placement, it is recommended that Care should be taken when concreting in extremes of temperature.
checks are made to ensure that temporary propping is installed: If the air temperature falls below 4oC, then the concrete should be
a) where indicated on RLD drawings if supplied under the discharged from the mixer at a temperature of no lower than 10oC
contract; and be protected from frost and maintained at no lower than 5oC for
72 hours after placement. In hot weather the concrete temperature
b) where shown to be required on RLD standard span/load tables; when deposited should not exceed 32oC and measures should
c) where indicated on project specific design calculations. be taken to prevent drying out of the surface before any curing
Care should be taken not to over-jack these props whilst ensuring protection can be applied.
that the prop header is in continuous and level contact with the deck Where possible the concrete should be pumped or discharged
soffit. The propping system should extend to the full width of the from a skip in a controlled manner over an intermediate beam of
bay and be left in place for a minimum of 14 days after the concrete a multiple span sheet and spread evenly into the adjacent spans.
has been placed to ensure that sufficient shear bond resistance is For single span slabs and in situations where the concrete must be
developed. discharged directly on to the span, care should be taken not to allow
the concrete to fall from a height exceeding 1.0m nor for heaping to
a depth significantly in excess of the design slab depth. Work should
Construction Joints progress transversely across each bay in a direction such that the lap
Continuous concrete pours in excess of 1,000m2 can be achieved joints are approached from the side of the overlapping sheet.
on composite floor slabs. If the limits of the pour do not coincide If the workability of the concrete is too low, then it will not be
with permanent slab edges, a construction joint should be formed. possible to achieve full compaction and an acceptable finish.
The construction joint should wherever possible be positioned Advice should be obtained from the concrete supplier on any
over permanent supports at the ends of decking panels, not over measures to be taken to recover the workability of the mix. Under no
intermediate supports which would result in only one span of a circumstances should water be added to the concrete after it has left
multiple span sheet receiving concrete. the batching plant.
Where it is not possible to have the construction joint at a sheet end, The concrete should be compacted using a power driven beam or
it should be positioned such that no more than 1/3 of the final span plate vibrator. Immersion vibrators should not be used. Care should
is left unconcreted. be taken to avoid over-vibration as this could cause segregation of
the mix, leakage through deck joints, and surface laitance.
Construction Joint Construction Joint
Concrete Preferred Location Alternative Location
Curing
Concrete should be protected from the harmful effects of sun, wind,
Max
Decking Permanent Decking 1/3rd
Decking cold and rain during the first stage of hardening. The protection
Butt Jointed
Supports Butt Jointed Span should be applied as soon as possible after placing the concrete and
Span be designed to prevent surface drying for a minimum of 7 days. No
concrete should be disturbed for at least 24 hours after placing.

34 www.richardlees.co.uk
COMPOSITE FLOOR SLAB
Loading of the composite floor slab to its full design load should only The wedges are designed to act as vertical anchors only and should
take place once the concrete has reached its target strength. Early not be used as nuts. To avoid local overloading of the floor slab
loading of the slab can have detrimental effects on the long-term the wedges should not be closely grouped, a nominal 600 mm
strength and load-bearing capacity of the structure. The use of the grid being recommended as a minimum. Design advice for closer
floor slab for storage of materials or as a working platform for further groupings should be obtained from the Project Structural Design
erection of the structure should only be attempted with the prior Engineer or from RLD Technical Department. Dynamic loads should
approval of the Project Structural Design Engineer. NOT be supported by wedge fixings. Proprietary anchors can be
embedded in the slab and used as directed by the manufacturer and
where approved by the Project Structural Design Engineer.
Soffit Fixings
The Superib and Ribdeck ranges of steel decking allow the
suspension of lightweight services and fixtures from removable
wedge-shaped fixings. It is important that the correct wedge fixing
and decking are paired together and that the wedges are not
inserted into lap joints. Table 8 shows the options available, together
with the safe static working load that can be suspended from each
fixing when attached to a fully cured composite floor slab.

Profile Wedge Type Thread Size Safe Static


(mm) Working Load (kg)
Superib Holowedge 4 150
6, 8, 10 200
Ribdeck E60 Alphawedge 6, 8, 10 100
Ribdeck S60 Wedge Nut 6, 8, 10 100
Ribdeck 80 Wedge Nut 6, 8, 10 100
Table 8: Safe Static Working Loads

Installation Procedure: Alphawedge


1) Ensure that the correct wedge is selected. The Alphawedge suspension fixing is available from Lindapter
2) Thread wedge onto the required bolt or rod. International Ltd (tel: 01274 521444, email support@lindapter.com,
web www.lindapter.com). It is designed for use with all gauges of
3) Insert wedge in to dovetail rib from below and rotate Ribdeck E60. Guidance on the use of Alphawedge fixings is available
through 90o so that the sloped faces of the wedge bear on from Lindapter International Ltd.
the decking ribs.
4) The bolt or rod should then be finger tightened up to the
roof of the dovetail or to a washer set against the soffit of Deckspan Design Software
the decking. for Superib, Ribdeck E60, Ribdeck S60, Ribdeck 80, available to
5) Use mechanical tightening to finish. download free of charge at www.richardlees.co.uk

Wedge correctly inserted and bolt/rod


tightened against top of dovetail rib

Alternative fitting with washer or


plate tightened against soffit

35
Deckspan Design Software
for Superib, Ribdeck E60, Ribdeck S60 and Ribdeck 80
available to download free of charge at www.richardlees.co.uk

36 www.richardlees.co.uk
Our partners...
Supplied by Oasys Ltd
Tel: +44 (0) 191 238 7559 www.oasys-software.com

37
Richard Lees Decking Limited
Brandlesholme House, Brandlesholme Road,
Bury, Greater Manchester, BL8 1JJ
Tel: +44 (0) 161 609 0455
www.richardlees.co.uk
Email: sales@richardlees.co.uk

Content copyright Richard Lees Decking Ltd and liable to change without notice.
Trademarks acknowledged.
TM1 EUR 04/14