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International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT

ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 02 Issue.01, May-2016]

Design and Fabrication of Pneumatic Sheet Metal Cutting
and Bending Machine

Madhu Kumar V, 1 Arun Kumar N,1 Harsha B S,1 Naveen Kumar K N,1
Nagaraja T.K.2
Final year students, Mechanical Engineering Dept. JSSATE, Bengaluru
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Dept. JSSATE, Bengaluru

Abstract—Use of aluminum is when implemented is believed to result in
increased now days in many industries like reduced cycle time, costs and improved
automobile, packaging, medical etc. The product quality. Other possible advantages
reason behind this is that the aluminum are repeatability, increased productivity,
made things are quiet easier to manufacture, reduced labor and integration of business
handle and reliable to use. So the aluminum systems. The manually operated machine is
goods manufacturing industries are striving converted into pneumatically operated
hard to produce good quality products at machine by applying proper design
large scale and cheaper cost. Hydraulically procedure. At the end of task, the conclusion
operated machines are too costlier for small is made and several recommendations are
scale and medium scale industries. This suggests to make an improvement about the
paper deals with pneumatically operated result and the project for future study.
cutting and bending machine. The bending
machine is one of the most important Keywords— Cutter, Cutting Force, Shear on
machine tool in sheet metal work shop. It is material, Bending Force, Pneumatic System,
primarily designed for bending. The bend IC Timer Circuit, Solenoid Valve.
has been made with the help of punch which
exerts large force on the work clamped on
the die. The sheet metal cutting process is a I. INTRODUCTION
main part of the all industries. Normally the
sheet metal cutting machine is manually The shearing machine and bending
hand operated one for medium and small machine is most important in sheet metal
scale industries. Automation in the modern industry. This machine should be used for
world is inevitable. Any automatic machine straight cutting machine with wide
aimed at the economical use of man, application. But in some industry hand sheet
machine, and material worth the most. In cutter and hand bender are used. For that
our project is solenoid valve and control
machine to operate the human effort are
timing unit is used for automation. The sheet
metal cutting machine works with the help required. The machine should be simple to
of pneumatic double acting cylinder. The operate and easy to maintain, hence we tried
piston is connected to the moving cutting out to develop the Pneumatic Shearing and
tool. It is used to cut the small size of the Bending Machine.
sheet metal. The machine is portable in size,
so easy transportable. The bending machine In shearing operation as the punch
is designed in such a way that, it works descends upon the metal, the pressure
automatically. The automation strategy, exerted by the punch first cause the plastic

Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1.026 564

Mai steel and conventional high strength steel for Huang and Gardeen (1994) presented a a hat channel section with varying cross literature review of the springback of doubly sections. strength analysis and design of (2000) analyzed the springback in dies. It provides experimental references in bending mechanics is aimed at obtaining order to optimize the usage of lubricants and two kinds of information important for sheet metal. machine is designed by observing the factors A simple approach for calculating to improve the efficiency and to reduce the bendability and springback in bending based on the normal anisotropic value. friction coefficient. Vallance and Matlock (1992) studied axisymmetric U-bending processes with a the friction behavior of zinc-based coated finite element program and discussed the sheet steels and laboratory scale friction effect of tool geometry and blank holder analysis techniques that involve sheet force on the final shape after springback. 02 Issue. V-die bending process of steel sheet. LITERATURE REVIEW analysis of testing equipment as a Sheet metal bending is one of the measurement system of the friction most widely applied sheet metal forming phenomena on sheet metal under plane operations. linear hardening model of the bend force for selection of press and multi linear hardening model. strain hardening exponent. die radius. it works automatically. pneumatic system. Samuel capacity. Reviewing the very small. There adjacent to the cutting edges. The verified the model with experimental 565 . hardening exponent and sheet thickness has Automation of machine is achieved with the been presented as described elsewhere by help of pneumatic system. the plastic deformation takes literature. Perduijn been made with the help of punch which and Hoogenboom (1995) derived a simple exerts large force on the work clamped on explicit bending couple curvature relation the die. The understanding of the strain. it is found that researchers have been studying the phenomenon of place in a localized area and the metal springback for nearly six decades. The first one is the anisotropy hardening models with simple springback prediction for die design and loading conditions that include exponential shape control. sliding over cylindrical dies. Wenzloff et al Aleksy et al (2001) conducted (1992) introduced a new test procedure for experiments on springback for dual phase the bending under tension friction test. Since the provided a bibliography on the springback in clearance between the punch and the die is sheet metal forming. normal anisotropy on and shearing die and bending die. pneumatic component punch speed. strain cycle time by producing quality output. This involves the Daw Kwei Leu (1997). The bending machine is designed in for small and larger curvatures and they such a way that. have been diverse efforts to evaluate and/or decrease springback in the sheet metal In bending operation the bend has forming industry for a long time. Sanchez (1999) focused on a systematic II. The second is an estimation hardening model. design of an efficient system which reduces You-Min Hang and Daw-Kwei leu the human effort and help to increase (1998) described the effects of process production output.01. May-2016] deformation of the metal.026 www.sretechjournal. Weilong Hu (2000) proposed industrial applications.International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT) ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. They described the methodology of curved developable sheet metal surfaces and experiments and discussed springback Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1. It also includes variables like punch radius.

Ihab Ragai et al (2005) discussed 1) Pneumatically operated: . Garcia Romeu et al (2007) cylinder from front or the back side of the presented new springback graphics for air piston. Leo De Vin (2001) described the small. induced plasticity (TRIP) steels in air v- bending 566 . foot operated direction control valve. In this case the required Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1. the oil is allowed to enter the conditions.01. May-2016] related results. (2007) examined the effect of tool design and process parameters on the springback of 3) Rack and pinion operated: . standards highly stressed.International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT) ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. Since the and sheet material on springback in straight clearance between the two blades is very flanging.Here the Bruni et al (2006) investigated the lowering and raising of the header is carried effect of the process parameters on over using the hydraulic piston and cylinder springback of AZ31 magnesium alloy in air arrangement. which causes the fracture to or thumb rules.Here the the effect of sheet anisotropy on the advancement of the header is carried out in springback of stainless steel 410 draw bend the upward and the downward direction specimens and lubrication. But the oil is comparatively costlier vee bent sheet metal parts based on an and its leakage may cause so many experimental work. pinion arrangement. To actuate the piston and bending under warm and hot forming cylinder. Carlos Gomes et al (2005) investigated the Brief description of all the types is as variation of springback in high strength follows. 2) Hydraulically operated: . 02 Issue. the pressure determine the influence of die corner radius. exerted by the blade first cause the plastic punch radius. Livatyali and Altan (2001) In shearing or cutting operation as or blade presented experimental investigation to descends upon the metal.026 www.sretechjournal. In this shaped die. steels based on experimental and numerical analysis. the plastic deformation takes place in problems related to an oversimplification of a localized area and the metal adjacent to the the air bending process and explained the cutting edges of the blade edges becomes consequences of applying models. 2) Hydraulically operated Zafer Tekiner (2004) examined the 3) Rack and pinion operated springback of sheet metals with various 4) Spring operated thicknesses and properties in bending dies. friction coefficients and tensile forces 1) Pneumatically operated was conducted by Cardeen (2002). punch speed. Dongye Fei and Peter Hodgson type of machine high pressure air is used as (2006) investigated the springback the working fluid for the transfer of power behaviour of cold rolled transformation and the motion. punch-die clearance. displacement and the sheet length correction. Ozgur Tekaslan using the pneumatic double acting piston et al (2006) carried out the experiment to and cylinder unit arrangement along with the determine springback of steel sheet with V. Draw bend test for various die Types of shearing Machine: radii. Se Young kim et al problems. pad force deformation of the metal. Streppel et al (2001) start on both sides of the sheet as the conducted the experiments on air bending deformation progresses and the sheet is that address the required punch sheared.Here the GLARE and the parameters studied include lowering and the raising of the header are punch radius. forming load and carried out manually using the rack and forming temperature.

Force required = 25×0. Force Calculation for cutting opertion handled carefully.The working of spring MATERIAL operated machine is similar to the rack and THICKNESS 0. we have taken the cylinder of properties i.e.34 bar (150psi). it is easily machinable . The machine is basically made up of mild Force applied by the cylinder. however the initial force A. Here the lowering and the Max. steel.It has diameter 24 mm. hence it is not suitable.5×30= 375 N III. The materials of the Where.The selection of the sheet = 431. material should be properly selected. The reasons for the selection are Mild F = ( /4) × d2×p steel is readily available in market . And pressure applied by 12 volt compressor 4) Cost of the materials.43 mm standard sizes. It has good mechanical For safety . Design of a cylinder for cutting opertion components.25 N components. =10bar Therefore.5 mm pinion operated machine but differs from it LENGTH OF CUT 25 mm in construction. robust and requires large pressure. Compressor that develops a pressure of 10.25= ( /4) × d2×(10/10) economical to use and is available in →d=23. Force Calculation for bending material and heavy selection. Material Selection required to cut the sheet is more and it is To prepare any machine 567 . 02 Issue.25N material for engineering application is given Now we have chosen 12 volt DC Air by the following factors:.026 www. SHEAR STRENGTH raising of the heating handle are carried out OF 30 N/mm2 manually and it requires too much pressure ALUMINIUM for its operation and also there is possibility of having damage to the work piece if not B. TABLE 1: Specifications SHEET METAL ALUMINIUM 4) Spring operated: .International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT) ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. moderate factor of safety. Therefore. Since the machine is distinguished properties and features. max force required to cut considering design. 1) Availability of materials 2) Suitability of the material for the required C. Low coefficient × K × σut × t) / (w) of thermal expansion. because factor of safety results in unnecessary wastage of D.sretechjournal.It is 431. the type of 10% to 20% than we calculated. DESIGN PROCEDURE This is the force required to cut the sheet metal.01. safety . May-2016] pressure is applied manually using direct plastic as they are replacing many metals in hand pressure on the rack using pinion and the present scenario because of their lever arrangement. Since the max force required to cut the sheet 3) Suitability of the material for the required = 431. Force required to bend the Sheet Metal = (L It has high tensile strength. Force required to cut the Sheet = L×t×ፘ max For sheet of 0. σut = Ultimate Tensile Strength of sheets to be cut are taken as aluminium and Aluminium(400N/mm2) Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1. Low factor of operation safety results in unnecessary risk of failure.5 mm thickness.

Solenoid Valve G.33 for V.International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT) ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. Force applied by the cylinder. Therefore. to do service =10 bar work or to install them. Therefore.33. non-mobile applications. May-2016] K = Die opening Factor (1. For fixed. The directional valve Rechargeable lead acid batteries provide a does this by changing the position of its good power-to-weight ratio. A solenoid is an electrical device that Force required = (25 × 1. The Since the max force required to cut the sheet name of the parts of the solenoid should be = 716. w=16t machine by means of using a solenoid valve.026 www. For value of modification of the machine into automatic K=1. however the initial force required to turn operates the valve mechanism. max force required to The push type solenoid is one in which the cut the sheet = 716. To run the 12 volt dc compressor the Commonly known as DCV. Battery The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic system.sretechjournal.44 N motion and force.5) / converts electrical energy into straight line (16 ×0. This valve was high surge current capability and are well suited for driving DC motors for Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1.33 × 300 × 0. 02 Issue.5) = 623.96= ( /4) × d2×(10 /10) →d=30. cut the sheet is more and it is 15% than we Solenoids may be push type or pull type. calculated.96N plunger is pushed when the solenoid is energized electrically. the pneumatic 568 . F = ( /4) × d2×p 716. The pull type E. Design of a cylinder for bending solenoid is one in which the plunger is operation pulled when the solenoid is energized. These are also used to This is the force required to bend the sheet operate a mechanical operation which in metal.01.21 mm For safety . They also have internal movable parts. we have taken the cylinder of diameter 30 mm. selected for speedy operation and to reduce Bending) the manual effort and also for the w = Width of Die Opening. this valve is battery required to run this compressor is of used to control the direction of air flow in 12 volt.96 N learned so that they can be recognized when And pressure applied by 12 volt compressor called upon to make repairs. Fig 2 : Sectional view of solenoid valve Fig 1 : Piston Cylinder Fig 3 : Solenoid Valve F.

As batteries discharge the  Shaft Diameter: 6mm acid is turned to water and the lead plates  Weight : 130. 180 and 200 per revolution are compressor is measured in HP (Horsepower) available resulting in angle of the shaft and CFM (cubic feet of air per minute)..5 RPM discharged or dead.00g are turned into lead sulfate. May-2016] applications such as pumps that usually sometimes provided to allow many more require high inrush currents. The power of a 72. an air compressor forces more and H. This voltage is created  Length : 80mm by the concentrating negative ions on the negative plates and positive ions on the  Torque : 1. the air compressor turns on direction of rotation of motor shaft and its again and re-pressurizes the tank. When both  Supply Voltage: 12V plates are turned to lead sulfate the battery is  Speed = 3. AIR COMPRESSOR An air compressor is a device that converts power (using an electric motor. The energy contained in the of a stepper motor rotate at equal angle of compressed air can be used for a variety of increment called steps when electrical applications. diesel or gasoline 569 . speed directly related to the frequency of input pulses and total radiation at a stretch is The most common types of air directly related to the number of input pulse compressors are: electric or gas/diesel applied. By one of several methods. 5°. Stepper motors with steps of 12.5kg. acid batteries is a good solution. When two dissimilar metal plates are immersed in acid Specification of DC Motor they create a voltage. 24. The discrete electrical pulse into discrete compressed air. The increments of 30°. increasing the A stepper motor is an pressure. 02 Issue.1 volts and 6 cells are used in 12v battery to produce 12. When tank pressure reaches applied pulse is directly related to the its lower limit.) into potential energy stored in pressurized air Fig 4 : Battery (i.01. then.026 www. When tank pressure reaches its electromechanical device which converts upper limit the air compressor shuts off.e.6 volts.International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT) ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. One battery cell produce 2. Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1.000 steps per revolution or even more. Fig 5 : DC Motor I. DC Motor more air into a storage tank. etc. Photovoltaic steps per revolution and these circuitry offer technology combined with rechargeable lead 10. 2° and 1. is held in the tank until mechanical positive plates. utilizing the kinetic energy of command pulses are applied to it in the the air as it is released and the tank proper sequence. 144. The sequence of the depressurizes. The shaft or spindle called into use. Special micro-stepping circuitry is compressed air "in reserve" is available. compressed air). 25°.sretechjournal.8° gallon size of the tank tells you how much per step. 15°. powered compressors.

workshops and garages with permanent access to electricity. Electric powered compressors are widely so easy transportable. The piston is used in remote areas with problematic connected to the moving cutting tool. WORKING MODEL OF PNEUMATIC SHEET The sheet metal cutting and bending METAL CUTTING AND machine works with the help of pneumatic BENDING MACHINE Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1.International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT) ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. The compressed air from the compressor Common workshop/garage compressors are is used as the force medium for this 110-120 Volt or 230-240 Volt. The machine is portable in size.sretechjournal. and "vertical". It is access to electricity. used in production. In one position air enters to the cylinder and pushes the piston so that the cutting stroke is obtained. Next the same procedure repeats to bending machine operation. control valve. Depending on a control valve and the timer unit is used. The controlled air from the flow control valve enters to the solenoid valve. May-2016] Gas/diesel powered compressors are widely double acting cylinder. "twin tank". Fig 6 : Air Compressor IV. The function of solenoid valves all of air correct time interval. The 5/2 solenoid valve is used. so that the releasing stroke is obtained.026 www. The size and purpose compressors can be arm from the compressor enters to the flow stationary or portable. WORKING PRINCIPLE V. The speed of the cutting and releasing stroke is varied by the timer control unit circuit. Compressor operation. 02 570 . There are pneumatic double tank shapes are: "pancake". flow "horizontal". sheet metal.01. They are noisy and used to cut and bend the small size of the require ventilation for exhaust gases. The next position air enters to the other side of cylinder and pusses the piston return back. acting cylinders solenoid valves.

we only have thought  Cost of unit is very less Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1. and also  Easy maintenance and repair due to lack of funds. FUTURE SCOPE Since old age man is always trying to VI. ADVANTAGES gain more and more luxurious. aesthetic look and economic consideration. DISADVANTAGES  Silencer must be used while compressing the air  High torque cannot be obtained  Load carrying capacity is low VIII.01. May-2016]  No fire hazard problem due to overloading  Continuous operation is possible without stopping VII. cutting & bending machine X. Man is always trying to develop more and more  The pneumatic is more efficient in modified technique with increasing the the technical field. The range of the cutting and bending thickness can be increased by arranging a high pressure compressor and installing more hardened 571 .sretechjournal.  Quick response is achieved Hence there is always more and more scope. CONCLUSION Now we know that Pneumatic cutting and bending machine is very cheap as compared to hydraulic cutting and bending machine. 02 Issue. APPLICATIONS  This machine is very useful for small scale industries  These machines used to cut the roller sheet metal  All industrial application IX.International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT) ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. This machine is advantageous to small sheet metal cutting and bending industries as they cannot afford the expensive hydraulic Fig 7 : Working Model of sheet metal cutting and bending machine.  Simple in construction But due to some time constraints.026 www.

Degarmo. Aditya Polapragada & K.M. 2) P.S.sretechjournal. Sri Varsha . 572 . International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. Majumdar. The place where there is scarcity of the electricity the electric motor operate compressor is replaced by an I. by replacing Manufacturing. Thus in future there are so many modifications. This air is released to the atmosphere. the pneumatic circuit by rack and the pinion Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd.026 www.Pradhan. 2. 3. Reprint 2002. REFERENCES 1) A. After the completion of the cycle the air moves out through the out port of Solenoid valve.01. Publication Impact Factor (PIF) :1.C. 2003. Metal Cutting”. arrangement by the square threaded screw 5) K. Mahadevan. cutting and Riveting Machine “. May-2016] and put in the report the following future 4) E. 02 Issue. Design Data and nut arrangement. “Experimental Investigation and Fabrication of Pneumatic Cutting tool”. XI. Vol. which we can make to survive the huge global world of competition. Handbook.International Journal of Engineering Research And Advanced Technology (IJERAT) ISSN: 2454-6135 [Special Volume. 1 Issue 7. Engineering and Technology. In future the mechanism can be developed to use this air again for the working of cylinder. compressed air is used to move the cutting tool for carrying out cutting operation.R. September - 2012 ISSN: 2278-0181. “Shearing in modifications. June 2013. Pages 518-528. Engine installed compressor. In this machine. 3) Pneumatic Systems (principles and maintenance) wriiten by S. Eighth edition. Third edition. Paul. Issue 6. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. 2. It can be made rack and pinion operated Materials and Processes in or spring and lever operated. “Pneumatic Auto Feed Punching . CBS Publishers & distributors.