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COMPLICATIONS DURING
PREGNANCY

Complications of Pregnancy  Health problems that occur during pregnancy. the fetus or both. .  These complications involve the mother’s health.

 Reduced blood flow slows the flow of fetus . High blood pressure  When arteries carrying blood from the heart to the body organs are narrowed.  In pregnancy it makes it hard for blood to reach the placenta. which provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. which causes pressure to increase. Miscarriage/Pregnancy loss  20% of pregnancies end in miscarriages  Signs include vaginal spotting or bleeding 2. Complications of Pregnancy 1.

hormonal changes from pregnancy cause body to not make enough insulin causing glucose to build up in your body  Can cause health problems  exp: heart disease & vision problems  If not treated can lead to large infant which increases cesarean delivery . Complications of Pregnancy 3.Gestational Diabetes  Occurs when a women didn’t have diabetes before pregnancy but starts developing it during pregnancy.  In this.

Complications of Pregnancy 4.  If placenta gets close to Cervix: can cause bleeding . Placenta previa  your placenta is lying unusually low in your uterus.  located near the top of the uterus – that supplies your baby with nutrients through the umbilical cord. Ectopic Pregnancy  When a fertilize egg implants outside the uterus  There is no way to transplant it into the uterus so ending the pregnancy is the only option. 5. next to or covering your cervix.

 The blastocyst becomes an embryo and then a fetus. it divides many times to form a blastocyst. . which is nourished through the placenta via the umbilical cord. which implants itself in the uterine wall. The chromosomes of the ovum combine with those of the sperm to for the diploid zygote. Fertilization and Fetal Development  Fertilization of the of the oocyte by a sperm usually take place in the fallopian tube. it divides many time to form a zygote.

Becoming Pregnant  Preconception care is aimed at interventions that help to improve pregnancy outcomes. . Pregnancy is confirmed by the detection of the fetal heartbeat and movements or through examination by ultrasound.  The most commonly used chemical pregnancy test can be taken 2-4 weeks after a woman misses her menstrual period.

 A woman’s feelings vary greatly during pregnancy. relatives. or a history of miscarriage .  Sexual activity is generally save unless there is pain. Her feelings about sexuality are likely to change during pregnancy. It is important for her to share her concerns and have support from her partner. friends. bleeding. And health care practitioners.

alcohol. Harmful substances may be passed to the embryo or fetus through the placenta (ex. STD’S) . and environmental pollutants) as well as infectious diseases (ex. certain drugs. tobacco.

 During labor. Labor and Delivery  In the last trimester of pregnancy. and the fetus presents a part of itself into the vagina. thinning and dilation of the cervix occurs. a woman feels Braxton-Hix contractions. These contractions also begin the effacement and dilation of the cervix to permit delivery.  True labor begins when the uterine contractions are regularly spaced. contractions begin with the effacement (thinning) and dilation (gradual opening) of the cervix. .

Three Stages of Labor  The first stage is usually the longest (4-16 hours or longer) – early sign is the expulsion of a plug of a slightly bloody mucus that has blocked the opening of the cervix during pregnancy. . – During this time.  The second-stage begins when the baby’s head moves into the birth canal and ends when the baby is born. many women experience a great force in their bodies.

the uterus continues to contract. the remaining section of the umbilical cord. After the baby has been deliver. and the fetal membranes. . Three Stages of Labor  The third stage is when the placenta (afterbirth) is delivered . expelling the placenta.

intercourse must take place within 5 days before and 1 day after ovulation . Fertilization  Once the ovum has been released from the ovary. it drifts into the fallopian tube and may be fertilized if live sperm is present  Oocyte.Ovum or unfertilized egg  Oocyte remains viable for 12-24 hours after ovulation  For fertilization to occur.

Capacitation  The process by which their membranes become fragile enough to release enzymes from their acrosomes  Acrosomes.The helmet like coverings of the sperm’s nuclei  Within 9 months. . this single cell zygote may become 600 trillion cells that constitute a human being.

The process of implantation takes about a week. where it floats for a day or two before implanting in the soft. blood-rich uterine lining which has spent 3 weeks preparing for arrival. during which the cells replicate  On the 5th day the blastocyst(100 cells) arrives in the uterine cavity. An embryo which will turn into a fetus in about 8 weeks of gestation. Development of the conceptus  The zygote undergoes a series of divisions. .

 3rd. The digestive and circulatory system begin to develop in the 4th week and the heart begins to pump blood.4th week the organs are beginning to develop and body segments and the brain form.  5th-6th week the formation of arms and legs. Development of the Conceptus continued…  During the first 2 or 3 weeks . the embryonic membranes are formed. This includes the amniotic sac . . The 6th week the eyes and ears form.

1 million births in the United States in 2009.  The term child-free is used to describe those who expect and intend to remain nonparents. Being Pregnant  A few facts….  The percentage of births to unmarried woman has continued to increase. nearly 3% less than in 2008.  There were 4. .

If a Y chromosome is detected the fetus is male. & Changes during Pregnancy  Preconception is used to identify and early defects that the child or mother may have. Pregnancy Detection. In China men and wanted more than Females. the absence Y means Female. Pregnancy Detection can be as early as 7 weeks. . A babies sex can be determined with 95% accuracy at 7 weeks and 99% at 20 weeks through a blood test.Preconception Care. During preconception partners must be very cautious of how they are taking care of their bodies.

Swelling is more common in women now with their feet and ankles.The fetus begins to move and nausea is less common  3rd trimester.vommiting.the fetus is the size of the mothers fist . . and swelling of breast are symptoms  2nd trimester. Changes in Woman During Pregnancy  Women go through 3 trimesters.Nausea.  1st trimester (3 months).

or the inability to carry a child to term. In•fer•til•i•ty -adjective The inability to conceive a child after a year of unprotected intercourse. .

20-49 B. 15-44 C. 32-61 . 30-59 D. Female Infertility About 10% (6.1 million) women aged _____in the United States have difficulty getting or staying pregnant. A.

Physical Causes Ovulation  Low/HIGH levels of body fat Benign Entities Waiting to Conceive  Around what age do women get pregnant?  Seasoned Ovaries .

Male Infertility  Variocele  Low Sperm Count  Decreased Sperm Mobility  Sperm Morphology  Best Indicator  Environmental Factors  Rate of sperm .

Negative -Gestational Carrier (Ovaries but NO Uterus) . Infertility Treatment  Myth or NO?  “We can’t get pregnant because we’re too anxious”  Enhancing Fertility  Timing Coitus  Medical Intervention  AI  Surrogate Motherhood: Positive vs.