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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2015, Article ID 356286, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/356286

Review Article
A Review of Electrospun Conductive Polyaniline Based
Nanofiber Composites and Blends: Processing Features,
Applications, and Future Directions

Saiful Izwan Abd Razak,1,2 Izzati Fatimah Wahab,2 Fatirah Fadil,3
Farah Nuruljannah Dahli,4 Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari,1,2 and Hassan Adeli5
1
IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Institute of Human Centered Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
4
Department of Bioprocess and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
5
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to Saiful Izwan Abd Razak; saifulizwan@utm.my

Received 18 October 2015; Revised 9 December 2015; Accepted 10 December 2015

Academic Editor: Giorgio Pia

Copyright © 2015 Saiful Izwan Abd Razak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.

Electrospun polymer nanofibers with high surface area to volume ratio and tunable characteristic are formed through the
application of strong electrostatic field. Electrospinning has been identified as a straight forward and viable technique to produce
nanofibers from polymer solution as their initial precursor. These nanofiber materials have attracted attention of researchers due
to their enhanced and exceptional nanostructural characteristics. Electrospun polyaniline (PANI) based nanofiber is one of the
important new materials for the rapidly growing technology development such as nanofiber based sensor devices, conductive
tissue engineering scaffold materials, supercapacitors, and flexible solar cells applications. PANI however is relatively hard to
process compared to that of other conventional polymers and plastics. The processing of PANI is daunting, mainly due to its rigid
backbone which is related to its high level of conjugation. The challenges faced in the electrospinning processing of neat PANI have
alternatively led to the development of the electrospun PANI based composites and blends. A review on the research activities of
the electrospinning processing of the PANI based nanofibers, the potential prospect in various fields, and their future direction are
presented.

1. Introduction of quite extensive studies worldwide, because they represent
the smallest dimensional structures with high aspect ratios
Nanostructures, structures of 100 nanometers (nm) or less and degrees of flexibility. Hence, these 1D nanostructures can
in size, have been at the forefront of much modern engi- be exploited as elements in nanodevices with various applica-
neering and science research due to their novel, significantly tions, such as supercapacitors, chemicals, and biosensors, in
improved biological, chemical, and physical properties. There optoelectronics and tissue engineering [1–7].
are mainly four types of nanostructures: zero- (0D) (e.g., Nanoapplication and nanotechnology development con-
nanoparticles), one- (1D) (e.g., nanowires, nanotubes, and tinues to stir the scientists’ and engineers’ interest in explor-
nanofibers), two- (2D) (e.g., films and layers), and three- (3D) ing the best combination of materials and 1D nanostruc-
dimensional structures (e.g., polycrystals). Among them, tures. A few examples of such combinations are carbon
one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have been in the focus nanotubes, inorganic semiconductor nanowire/nanobelts,

2 Advances in Materials Science and Engineering

Publications on polyaniline nanofibers by electrospinning Publications from top 10 countries
180
China
160
United States
140 India
120 South Korea
100 Australia
80 Taiwan
60 Iran
40 Brazil
20 Japan
0 Singapore
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 0 100 200 300 400 500
(a) (b)

Figure 1: (a) Comparison of the annual number of scientific publications related to electrospinning polyaniline nanofibers. (b) Publication
distribution around the world based on data analysis carried out using the Scopus search system with the term “polyaniline nanofibers” as of
30 March 2015.

metallic nanotubes/nanowires, and conjugated polymer regeneration [14], sensory and electronic devices [15, 16],
nanofibers/nanotubes. The conjugated polymer 1D nanos- smart textiles [17], and membrane filtration technology [18].
tructures possess certain highly attractive characteristics, The viability of this technology is evidenced by the easiness
such as an easily controllable bandgap, high mechanical of the spinning procedure and the simplicity in the cus-
flexibility, and greater biocompatibility than that of many tom setting of the electrospinning machine [19]. The most
inorganic materials. In addition, conjugated polymers are amazing characteristics of electrospun nanofibers include
also called conducting polymers; in their neutral states their high surface area-to-volume ratio of well-interconnected
conductivity typically ranges from 10−10 to 10−5 Scm−1 . How- nanofiber webs, flexibility in surface functionalities, tuneable
ever, the conductivity can be enhanced into semiconductor surface properties, high permeability, and good mechanical
or conductor states via chemical or electrochemical redox performance [20].
reactions. Among the various classes of conducting polymers, The principle of the electrospinning technique was first
polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most widely investigated described by Zeleny in his published work on the behavior
materials due to its easy synthesis, excellent optical and mag- of fluid droplets at the end of metal capillaries [12, 21]. Later
netic properties, and environmental stability. Furthermore, on, in 1934, Formhals established the commercialized system
the electrical properties can be controlled by the oxidation of electrospinning for the fabrication of textile yarns in the
and protonation state [8–10]. U.S. Patent number 195704 [22]. Further development of the
Up to now, a large number of approaches have already electrospinning from a polymer melt rather than a polymer
been demonstrated for preparing PANI 1D nanostructures, solution using an air-blast to assist the fiber formation was
including chemical routes, such as hard physical template- patented by Norton in 1936 [23]. The conceptual principle of
guided synthesis and soft chemical template synthesis (inter- electrospinning is based on the employment of the external
facial polymerization, template-free method, dilute polymer- electric field to induce polymer fluid transformation by
ization, and reverse emulsion polymerization), and a variety the elongation and whipping of the jet. In 1969, Taylor
of lithography techniques [11]. However, the drawbacks of introduced the concept of Taylor cone, which is associated
these techniques, such as required postsynthesis process, with the deformation of a liquid surface into a characteristic
relatively poor control of the size and morphology unifor- shape induced by electric fields. The theoretical analysis of
mity, poorly oriented nanostructure arrays, and high costs, the disintegration of liquid drops under electric fields, the
may limit their production on a large scale. Thus, physical calculation of the electric force acting on fine jets, of the
approaches such as electrospinning are more advantageous critical voltage for inducing jet elongation, and of the voltage
compared to the above-mentioned techniques, especially for values at which Taylor cones are formed have been described
the mass production of continuous nanofibers. in detail elsewhere [24]. Recently, the electrospinning process
has gained huge popularity and the publication of works
related to electrospinning increased over the years. A survey
2. Electrospinning Theory and Principle of the publications related to electrospun PANI nanofibers
in the past 10 years is given in Figure 1(a), whereas the
Electrospinning is a fiber-spinning technology used to pro- distribution of these published works among the 15 top
duce long, three-dimensional, ultrafine fibers [12]. Accord- countries is shown in Figure 1(b). These literature data were
ing to Frenot and Chronakis, nanofibers produced by the obtained based on the Scopus search system.
electrospinning technique have diameters in the range of The data clearly demonstrate the progression of research
100 nm to 1 𝜇m and lengths of up to kilometers [13]. Elec- works associated with PANI nanofibers obtained by means
trospun nanofibers present high attractiveness for diverse of electrospinning. The increase in the number of patents for
applications, such as in biomedical engineering and tissue diverse applications gives an insight into the recognition of

values of 1–20 poises and surface tension values of 35–55 whereby the repulsive electrostatic force overcomes the sur- dynes/cm2 is regarded as a suitable solution for inducing fiber face tension of the charged droplet to initiate the polymer jet formation. the formation. As the evaporation of the solvent. under the simultaneous ogy of the nanofibers formed either as an ultrathin or as actions of the repulsive force. The difference in the viscosities and surface tension of The hemispherical droplet gets distorted into a conical the spinning solution will directly influence the morphol- shape. needle. It was solution becomes an utmost issue. and surface tension of the solution. and polymer in solution spinning is one of the fundamental a collector is Figure 2. The spinnability of a reported that the use of glacial acetic acid as solvent resulted . are constantly benefited by the utmost features of nanofibers derived by elec. droplet of the spinning solution. Solvent selection is of paramount Multiple aspects of the electrospinning process have been importance in determining the critical minimum solution demonstrated to affect the morphology of the nanofibers [27]. concentration to allow the transition from electrospray- The major factors involved in the electrospinning process. The hanging hydrostatic pressure of the solution in the capillary needle. These parameters can be classified into tip of the capillary needle attached to the syringe. a high voltage power supply unit. A few companies. Other basic issues regarding the processing limitations of the materials and research challenges are also considered in detail. which is held by its surface the electric potential. humidity. such as Espin Technologies. on the morphology of polymer nanofibers. while ambient influences. a comprehensive review is made on the research and developments related to PANI electrospun nanofibers. Meanwhile. physical and mechanical properties. Polymer Solutions. Bahrami and Gholipour Kanani studied the effects of using solvents of different polarity. and enlarged the electrospun nanofibers from the charged jets. dimethyl formamide. which is major and minor influences. such as solution excess pressure. and straight forward nanofiber production machine.Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 3 the electrospinning process. the spinnability of the polymer acetone. the charge on the surface of the hanging droplet. and applica- tions. will then develop mutual charge repulsion due to to the collector. can be classified as counter electrode is caused by a force directly opposite to the minor parameters [29]. ing to electrospinning. while companies such as Donaldson Company − + and Freudenberg have already applied the electrospinning Syringe process in their air filtration products [25. and air velocity. 3. at viscosities of above 20 poises. and collectors. basic setup of a syringe pump attached to a disposable syringe The need for a volatile solvent as carrier of a particular with a metallic needle. to induce an electric viscosity. the electrospinning equipment is an inexpensive. and KATO Tech. elasticity. thereby significantly affecting solu- including the polymer solutions. When dealing with the spinning acetic acid. A spinning solution with viscosity electric field intensity will lead to reaching a critical value. which receives the deposition of the average distance between beads is longer. which is connected to a high voltage power supply and a grounded collector. glacial formic acid. are tion spinnability and the morphology of the electrospun discussed below [20]. A grounded collector. The formation of beaded fibers at a certain distance from the metallic capillary needle [20]. occurs because the fluid jet breaks up to droplets when the A schematic diagram of the electrospinning system with the viscosity of the spinning solution is below 1 poise [30]. such as glacial 3. The contraction of the surface charges to the temperature. needles. the beads become larger.1. criteria in electrospinning. The electric field is applied at the ning process [28]. The initiation of the polymer jet then undergoes electrospinning is hindered because of the flow instability an instability and elongation process simultaneously with the caused by the high cohesiveness of the solution. is placed fiber diameters are observed. Additional increases in the beaded fibrous structure. Nano Technics. The droplet of the spinning solution is discharged from the capillary needle in a continuous flow and the feed rate of the discharged droplet is adjusted using solution depends on several aspects during the electrospin- an infusion syringe pump. High voltage trospinning. 26]. also called Taylor cone. Major parameters comprise the loaded with a spinning polymer solution. and solution of various polymers. including a discussion of their processing char- Needle acteristics. The standard laboratory elec- trospinning unit generally consists of a metallic capillary Figure 2: Schematic diagram of an electrospinning setup. surface tension of the liquid droplet [27]. and the distance from the capillary tip tension. Technical Aspects in Electrospinning Collector From the technical point of view. viscosity of the solution is increased. nanofibers [31]. robust. pump Solution In this report.

and mingle structured nanofibers need to be spun using a aligned nanofibers between the wires. Typical electrospun nanofibers represent solid the wire. A electric field [30]. In spite of the fact that the electrospinning of polymer blends can be achieved by spinning a mixture Polymer A Polymer A Polymer A of polymers or polymer solutions through a single needle. However.2. bution compared to other solvents. Needles. form a pattern capillary opening is for the core. the same difficulties in optimizing the solu. With two separate spinnerets. This However. There are differences in fiber diameter trospinning). in the case of solution electrospinning. The adjustment of the take-up velocity of tion properties are still present and affecting the multineedle the rotating disk collector proved that the fiber alignment was design of the electrospinning system. Nanoparticles Polymer B Polymer B the electrospinning setup can be designed as having two (a) (b) (c) separate reservoirs to avoid some limitations related to the physics of polymeric blends. Other forms of patterned substrates have also been used to For the randomly blended nanofibers. such the outer capillary opening is for the sheath and the inner as having a pin in the center of a round space. as shown in Figure 4. diverts the electrospinning jet to the adjacent wire.4 Advances in Materials Science and Engineering nanofiber structures can be obtained if the nonuniform deposition of the fiber can be taken under control [35]. Adding throughput is not a primary concern in this case. Grids made out of parallel with only one capillary opening is used. such as core-sheath nanofibers at the gaps between the wires. Despite the preferential deposition of fibers on 3. The neutralization of the stationary collector covered with aluminium foil [38]. (c) is required and. which consist of two distinctive between the wires gets larger. As the wires forming the charges consistently to control the fiber uniformity [33]. The nanofibers due to its electric field profile. nanofibers were obtained by collecting the fibers from a while the fibers become thinner. while for mingled structured where fibers radiate from the central pin to the edges. that are otherwise difficult to produce [35]. as the take-up velocity increased from 630 m/min . For the arrayed pins gives rise to a membrane made out of radiating core-sheath needle. respectively. Indeed. allowing for the formation of blend fibers in the formation of fibers with nonuniform diameter distri. in a typical square grid substrate. One of the effective approaches to adjust conductive collecting substrate with textured surface. wires also increases. core-shell wires close to one another have been shown to form dense. has been used to form patterned/textured nanoparticle filler or soluble salt into the solution. a standard needle collect the deposited nanofibers. the grid are narrow. Generally. As the net charge density increases. the nanofibers are jet and reduced the incident of bead formation by distributing preferentially deposited along the wire. Figure 3: Schematic cross-sectional view of different structures a homogenous. At first. the net 3. nanofiber formation. More grid variations. Collectors. The collector used during the electrospinning volume charge density is proportional to the conductivity of process would also have an influence on the morphology of the solution. the use of a coaxial needle with double Furthermore. electrospun nanofibers can also be designed and results in a higher density of the nanofibers that are aligned fabricated in hybrid form of either basically random blending on the wire. compared to the randomly oriented. the mingled structure generated from various capillary needle nozzles. This has been attributed to a greater stretching forms of randomly blended structure. the randomly oriented become smaller and change more into a spindle-like shape. the polymer solutions will come in contact only at the end of the spinning head. These needles allow the formation of different as well whereby the nanofibers deposited on the wire are fiber morphologies that could be exploited for specific uses larger than the nanofibers deposited within the space between [34]. of the nanofibers when they span across the space [40]. while a substrate with special needle. The results show incorporation of salt increased the stretching of the polymer that. Bi- component mingled structured fibers have been obtained by merging side-by-side two spinnerets fed by separate reservoirs [36. since the a direct function of the velocity of the rotating disk. and mingled structure are illustrated in Figure 3. Cross-sectional views of electrospun nanofibers in the the wires. as the tension in the fiber depends on the net charge tion has been made as the electrospinning jet was shown to be repulsion and the interaction of the net charge with the sensitive to small differences in the electric field profile [39]. the difference in the density of polymers. aligned nanofibers have also been success- or multiple capillary openings in a parallel axis is needed. stationary collector. with a single spinneret. fully collected by using a rotating disk collector instead of the Nonetheless. thermodynamically stable mix of polymers of composite nanofibers: (a) randomly blended. Various designs of electrospun nanofibers were the nanofibers on the wires as well as the space between the successfully created by the use of different needles (coelec. the presence of numerous neighbouring wires often fibers. core-shell structure. nanofibers tend to align along the length of the wire. such as the solution conductivity is by introducing a conductive wire mesh or grid. with a smooth surface and circular cross section. This was due to the high dielectric constant value of acetic acid [32]. However. the beads the electrospun nanofibers. interactions between the polymer and the solvent of the opposing pair become crucial. scattered with nanoparticles or ordered structures. An charge carried by the polymer jet favors the formation of attempt to obtain the deposited nanofibers in aligned orienta- beads.3. (b) core-shell. 37]. two capillary openings are combined: nanofibers between the pins [41]. interesting to this. Where the distance and mingled nanofibers.

to 1890 m/min. (e) coaxial needle with double or multiple capillary openings. (c) core-sheath needle. [45] impro- of the basic electrospinning apparatus represents a severe vised the system by inventing a spiral coil setup and proved restraint. allowed better control of fiber morphology. spinning in detail. The productivity rate type of arrangement. Considering the For this reason. the types of arrangement of the electrospinning setup. The polymer the use of such a system. the average diameter of aligned nanofibers for the industrial production scale. For each higher due to the use of multiple jets. (d) inlet of core- sheath needle. the low roller spinneret through the holes of the solution distributor. For a small laboratory scale use. By using the needleless electrospinning system. the setup conventional single needle.4. the vertical upward setup has been selected above information. In this method. production rate (in the order of tenths of grams per hour) which was located above the spinneret. the vertical The setup of the needleless electrospinning system was downward setup of the electrospinning is the most favorable firstly introduced in 2010 by Tang et al. that of the single needle electrospinning [43]. such as possibilities to increase the production rate of nanofibers are horizontal. Configurations. Therefore. vertical upward.. The advantage of this setup is its ease of scaling-up for increased 3. whereby the nano- due to the simple optimization and operational monitoring. Niu et al. for supplying the solution to a metal roller spinneret. (b) inlet of standard needle.Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 5 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 4: Various needles used in electrospinning: (a) standard needle. consisted of a metal roller spinneret as the positive electrode come in this case is the limited throughput obtainable by connected to a high voltage power supply. despite solution droplets were splashed onto the surface of the metal the commonly high added value of the products. This employs a new design decreased from 700 to 350 nm [42]. and vertical downward. the mass production of the nanofibers by that this method had a higher fiber production rate and using the conventional single needle is tough and challenging. Figure 5 illustrates the arrangement of the electro. For industrial applications. There have been established several output. the positioning of the components is has been significantly enhanced within 30 times higher than different. fibers could be produced in abundance by applying the Most of the research works on the electrospinning method of splashing the polymer solution onto the surface nanofibers completed in the universities are based on the of a metal roller spinneret [44]. one can conclude that various designs and . One of the main issues to over.

PANI has an inherently unstable PANI has the longest history among the intrinsically backbone. its physical properties. PANI nanofibers have received nanostructures can be synthesized using hard. 4. have recently attracted attention PANI is composed of the repeating units of the aniline in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology due to their monomer connected to form a backbone. The existence special conduction mechanism. resulting from the formation of alternate single conducting polymers. poly(3. and anticorrosion coating [60]. as well as of electrical conductivity control by changing either the many other physicochemical properties. PANI typically employs an aluminium oxide or track-etched mem- nanofibers show enhanced water processability [56] and brane as a template for synthesizing the desired material. due to their large surface area. electromagnetic shielding devices. a rather tedious postsynthesis process is often On the other hand. dimensions of nanofibers can be tailored by using different applications. produced across organic compounds has attracted continuing attention. polypyrrole process is generally termed protonic acid doping. owing to its novel phys- reduced leucoemeraldine and fully oxidized pernigraniline ical properties and potential applications. mobile charge carriers. and processability [46–48]. and double bonds along the monomer units during polymer- ducting polymers and its high electrical conductivity among ization. which to the conventional bulk PANI or PANI film [53–55]. sensors and actuators [57. the electronic properties of PANI. unique electrical properties. Additionally. base is protonated and charge carriers are generated. but tives. of a nitrogen atom lying between the phenyl rings allows reversible doping/dedoping process. The green (PPY). improved acid-base sensitivity and response time when they polymerization occurs within the pores of the membrane are exposed to chemical vapor. which covers the whole conducting. PANI are insulating materials [52]. PANI Nanostructures. kinds of electrospinning setup. Much effort has been put in state. Their electrical conductivities can be cally oxidized polymer is called nigraniline [61]. ease of synthesis. the fully oxidized state of PANI is not 102 –105 Scm−1 upon doping [8. (c) needleless. controllable chemical the formation of different oxidation states. depending on the oxidation state and protonation level. flash welding [55]. mers due to its high stability. which can be synthesized into 1D nanostructures. and nanoelectrodes polymer has been termed emeraldine and the 75% intrinsi- for sensor applications. of magnitude higher than that of common polymers. and other polythiophene deriva. such lower than that of typical metals. as nanotubes and nanowires. 58]. The delocalized 𝜋 bonding electrons. PANI nanofibers have numerous potential required to remove the template used [66]. This type of nanofibers has become the source for fully oxidized pernigraniline. PANI is either totally insulating concentration of the dopant ions [62–64]. PANI becomes conducting when the emeraldine insulator-semiconductor-metal range. provide an electrical pathway for has become one of the most attractive conducting poly. A variety of con. poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPV). or electrically conductive. 46].4-ethylene protonated emeraldine salt has conductivity by many orders dioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Only in the intermediate oxidation 4. which are introduced through doping. and the low cost of the structure of the polymer backbone and the nature and the aniline monomer [49–51]. rechargeable batteries [59]. Unlike most increased by many orders of magnitude from 10−10 –10−5 to other polyaromatics. feasibility Consequently. However. including electric devices. The ducting polymers. [65]. In the hard-template method. membranes. The fully synthesizing nanostructured PANI. which can affect and electrochemical properties. are determined by protonation state or the oxidation state.6 Advances in Materials Science and Engineering v v v Solution tank/bath (a) (b) (c) Figure 5: Common configuration of electrospinning: (a) vertical.and soft- much attention due to their superior properties compared template methods. It is one of the oldest artificial con. The 50% intrinsically oxidized the development of films. Generally. PANI the conjugated backbone. the protonated emeraldine form is conductive. such as polyaniline (PANI). (b) horizontal. Basics of PANI The neutral intrinsic redox states of PANI can vary from Conducting polymers are the fourth generation of polymeric that of the fully reduced leucoemeraldine to that of the materials. .1.

wool. which involves step polymerization of two was diffused into acetone and allowed fiber formation. A higher volume . There are also reports on the preparation of nanos. but instead tructured PANI through polymerization in the presence of they were collected in an acetone bath placed on an electrode functionalized protonic acid. one of the self-assembling techniques that do not require a In their study. In order to avoid agglomeration study. such as radiation or gases [93]. Moreover. MacDiarmid et al. In the ing greater elasticity. By controlling the synthesis conditions. [93]. with a significant with electrospinning into uniform fibers. conducting polymer. 87]. Jing and by a method similar to the one used by Cárdenas et al. which acts as both surfactant [95].1. It utilizes the organic arrangement of macro bath collector in the fabrication of PANI nanofibers by the molecules to fabricate nanolayered aggregates and thin films electrospinning procedure. and dendrites of PEO resulted in a drastic decrement of conductivity. 76]. the reports on the fabrication of neat PANI acid. However. Producing neat PANI nanofiber on the substrates. lar method to obtain PANI nanofibers is through interfacial By using the acetone bath as collector. were not deposited on the grounded collector. and Si wafer. which is favorable for electrical charac- by electrospinning has been a great challenge for researchers. nanotube junctions. the sonochemical method is an important approach. impart- merization in the presence of protonic acids as dopants. Cárdenas and coworkers proposed using a host polymer. a variety of PANI micro/nanostructures. 69] is a simple self-assem. The nanofibers can be synthesized by PANI. wire mesh. allow. How. some novel template-less methods PANI by one or several orders of magnitude [94]. requiring it to be increasing trend in the conductivity values. to date. the fibers [80. Previous studies reported the formation of bly method. cotton.Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 7 preformed PANI nanostructures may be destroyed or form to test suitability of electrospinning PANI solutions with- undesirable aggregates when released from the template. the excess solvent polymerization. such In order to improve the electrospinning processing of as electrospinning [78]. have been prepared by the soft-template method. Another popu- PANI (1 wt%) in acetone [95]. fiber form [79]. PANI films with a produce neat PANI. reactive agents or monomers that dissolve in two immis- the researchers have successfully fabricated neat submicron cible phases. the presence of a noncon- self-assembled formation mechanism using this approach. Thus. conditions to produce pure PANI nanofibers with smooth silk. PANI Nanofibers via Electrospinning electron microscope (SEM). no concern about side reactions with the doping agents when phase polymerization [79]. ducting polymer strongly modifies the physical and chemical the micelles formed by dopant and/or monomer dopant act properties of PANI and eventually limits its applications as soft templates in the process of forming tubes/wires [68]. Ultrasound assistance through pipette fixed above a copper cathode immersed in pure water. The fibers produced by this technique were observed and characterized under scanning 5. Neat PANI Nanofibers. Although there are a number of literature sources [96– (and emulsifier) and protonating agent. low elasticity [92]. The [77]. The conductivity of these fibers was measured The poor solubility of PANI in common solvents interferes to be in the order of 10−3 to 102 Scm−1 . which thus makes the elasticity of [67]. hollow oxide (PEO) in a 1 : 1 ratio has been reported. includ. its solution insufficient for being electrospun directly into a The soft-template method [68. 71]. liquid crys. protonic electrospinning. poration of high molecular weight polymer blending for gaining jet stability to form fibers. and coworkers have employed ultrasonic radiation to assist the achieved fibers with an average diameter of 139 nm by placing conventional dropwise addition of the oxidant solution to a 20 wt% solution of PANI in 98% sulfuric acid in a glass form PANI nanofibers [85]. a few routes have been developed to find the optimum deposition directly onto aluminium foil. Cárdenas and coworkers ing researchers to obtain uniform dispersion of inorganic used a solution with a considerably lower concentration of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix [86. This process is called 98] describing the preparation of PANI based nanofibers by emulsion polymerization and it combines aniline. terization. emulsions. This technique allows the synthesis of high crystallinity PANI nanofibers without depending on specific PANI using the electrospinning technique without incor- templates and solvents [60. results of the study allow the conclusion that reducing the ever. in contrast to this work. this method allows for a limited range of chemicals to PEO content will enhance the conductivity of the electrospun be used. The out blending with other polymers. [99] produced nanofibers of PANI of thick fibers into irregularly shaped particles. structures like beads and droplets in electrospun fibers with ing the temperature and molar ratio of monomer to dopant. These fibers appeared as isolated 5. Various methods have been attempted their increased volume to surface ratio. such as transistor using PANI nanofibers blended with polyethylene micro/nanotubes [70. The use of an insulating copolymer with PANI nanostructures can be prepared by in situ doping poly. The addition microspheres [75. high molecular weight is expected to act as a remedy. have also been developed to shape PANI into nanofibers. Being an intrinsically soft-template method uses micelles. In this research work. but also to obtain fibers that would raise thickness of 20 to 100 nm have been prepared using vapor. nanowires/fibers [72–74]. Nanofibers with doped by organic acids in order to increase its solubility in larger diameters have higher values of conductivity due to organic solvents [91]. The objective was not only to the synthesis of PANI nanostructures. fiber surface and to minimize the limitations caused by Many other methods have also been recognized for nonconducting copolymers. 88–90]. and oxidant with a mixture of water and a nonpolar or nanofibers by electrospinning are quite rare. Vapor-phase polymerization is exposed to external agents. However. PANI is available only in the form of tals. In an earlier weakly polar liquid [82–84]. The fabrication of one-dimensional polymer field effect Up to now. 81]. and surfactant gels to synthesize PANI nanostructures low molecular weight.

and low myoblast XRD and FTIR data from this study displayed the existence cell attachment. The response index of the by having metal-polymer blend [106]. PHB- tion. They cells on the PANI fibers exhibited a significantly extended reported fabrication of PANI/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide- lag phase of growth. Since the manner due to the spark formation at the end of the pipette. most researchers tend to incorporate it with other with 98% sulfuric acid inside the glass pipette.1 Scm−1 . nanofiber structure and properties than chloroform. In this studied the incorporation of PANI into poly(𝜀-caprolactone) study. The fibers were then collected on a degenerately PANI/PEO blends [91]. The study found that the PANI (PVA) and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) were blended into nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning possessed negligible the PANI copolymer to make the electrospinning solution. cytotoxicity. PANI nanofibers with the least amount of PEO. doped and conductive. with a rate of nanofibers with enhanced hydrophilicity and low electrical 0. [100] reported the use of solution of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with PANI [103].6% ± 9. An effort to replace high cost platinum for oxygen reduction reaction catalyst in polymer electrolyte fuel these fibers may elicit a slight inflammatory response after cells with cheaper material has been done by Zamani et al. and PABSA) by in-situ polymerization. Thus. PANI nanofibers were collected on resistance. It is noticeable that didates to be blended with. Pure PANI fibers were prepared by PEO concentration was decreased [107].02 to 0. effect of two different solvents in preparing electrospinning Another study by Shie et al. The fibers polymers to make it electrospinnable. it is suggested that PANI catalysts and it provides improvements to half-wave potential nanofibers can be considered to be very suitable for biosensor and ORR onset potential by 70 and 100 mV.76 Scm−1 . an aluminum plate placed 8 to 14 cm below the tip of the Karim utilized dual approach to incorporate PANI needle. uniform. The solution was then held in a glass pipette nanofibers. the conductivity of in vivo [102]. . The samples were then heated at 100∘ C for an hour. while after electrical stimulation. Then. it is reasonable to suggest that the overall conductivity the water for 12 h to allow the sulfuric acid to dissolve in of the PANI/PS blends will be higher than that of the the water. Compared to PEO. applications. leading to the deposition of fine fibers in an erratic better homogeneity of the blend in chloroform. 10 wt% PANI addition toxicity assay of PANI to myoblast cells was nearly zero into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was firstly used as nanofiber after electrical stimulation.1%. the amount of PANI. Since PANI is difficult to be elec- in pure water was done by placing 20 wt% of PANI solution trospun. The percentage of myoblast cell attachment of hydrogen bonds between PANI-co-PABSA. aligned nanofibers [104]. conductivity of PANI is very sensitive to the amount of Fibers deposited on the surface of water and were left in defects.8 Advances in Materials Science and Engineering to surface ratio causes a relatively slower loss of solvent by doped Si/SiO2 wafer. THF gave better (THF/DMF) for the preparation of the electrospinning solu. investigated the collected from the conductive surface [99]. A value of 15 kV of spinning voltage was successfully with fewer defects. polyvinyl alcohol cell and protein adsorption. The results indicated that the cate scaffolds for three-dimensional cell culture [105]. Fryczkowski et al. the emeraldine base of poly(o-methoxyaniline) powder dis. Blend PANI Nanofibers. and fine syringe connected with a metallic needle. The method of utilizing the copper cathode immersed 5. suggesting that the fibers were in formation [94]. adhesion to electrically stimulated PANI was 53. The average diameter of these fibers was evaporation and consequently the fibers will be more partially measured to be approximately 10 𝜇m. the solvent used during the the morphology of the nanofibers deposited in the solution electrospinning solution preparation is also an important bath was less smooth as compared to that of the nanofibers parameter to consider.2. electro- placed vertically 3 cm over a beaker of water acting as spinning the blended polymer solution produced nanofibers cathode. Such drawbacks could be explained by the the metallic regime of charge transport since there was no capillary instability of the spinning jet by surface tension as apparent field effect [101]. Sharma et al. The posite by 1 : 1 ratio of polymers. within A study of electrospun PANI doped with 2-acrylomido. the authors reported having successfully produced and gelatin for orthotopic photothermal treatment of tumors fibers with average diameters of 139 nm. as compared to PEO. and presented applied. The first step was to synthesize PANI The biocompatibility of these fibers was examined through copolymer with o-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (PANI-co- various analyses: agar diffusion test.7% ± 6. low serum protein absorption. the co-methacrylic acid) (PANI-CNT/PNIPAm-co-MAA) com- cells demonstrated higher proliferation on PANI fibers. Apart from having the right polymer can- single fibers being of about ∼0. A significant increase better cell survival than the control and PNIPA-co-MAA of nitric oxide secretion by PANI nanofibers shows that without PANI. This study suggests possible decreased cell growth on PANI fibers was probably caused by use of conducting nanofibers as scaffolds after obtaining the hydrophobic surface of the fibers. implantation in the human body. A 5 wt% solution of PANI was loaded into a plastic PANI in THF solvent produces smooth. COS. nitric oxide assay. with a diameter below 100 nm. made use of electrospun fibers to fabri- which was slightly higher. as it led to the formation of thinner PANI rod for 30 min. Their study showed potential biodegradability and interest- solved in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran/dimethylformamide ing electrical properties for PHB-PANI. with respect to 2-ethyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) indicated a con. while cell molecules that may possibly cause weak interaction in COS. dissolving 900 mg of PANI-AMPSA into 3 mL concentrated polystyrene (PS) was found to be more suitable for blending sulfuric acid and manually stirring the solution with a glass with PANI. Chen and coworkers were collected either in or at the surface of water. Thus.04 mL/min.9%. the range of 1 to 0% w/w of PEO content. revealed some defects such as bead ductivity of 0. and PVA to PANI was measured to be 40.

The one- of the fibers decreased from 1440 ± 200 to 620 ± 160 nm pot electrospinning requires only one mixture of solu- [109]. a suitable matrix. Spinneret of coaxial electrospinning can be with chain extension along the fiber axis [122]. PANI camphor-10-sulfonic acid (HCSA) blended with poly(methyl content. methacrylate) (PMMA) in core-sheath form through coaxial An attempt by Liu et al. reported hollow structured PANI nanofibers. coax. This approach gave better poorer than their corresponding textile fibers made from the efficiency for acidic phytohormones and high extraction same polymers. the technique did not require the prepa- the doped PANI cores. It was found that the order of 10−2 Scm−1 and may give response in magnetic field. [114]. This trospinning [115]. sion pressure. coagulant temperature had significant effects on the strength These conductive nanocables were insulated with each other and modulus of the spun fibers [124]. PANI fibers were wet spun from a conductive cores possessed electrical conductivity at the solution of PANI containing solvent. in the array form and able to emit green light under ultraviolet ial spinning can also be used in producing PANI nanofibers. They are collagen core-sheath for same purpose but the PS core the first to record this procedure of obtaining bistrand- showed poor extraction ability to very polar and ionic aligned nanostructures. Low concentration of PVDF low nanofibers with 238 nm outer diameters and 80 nm was added to PANI solution in order to increase the viscosity inner diameters [116]. PS core. light due to the sheath properties.3. nanofibers are often found to be mechanically as-spun collagen/PANI sheath. magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Wu et al. These nanobundles consisted polystyrene (PS)/PANI core-sheath electrospun nanofibers of PANI/PVP as one strand and Eu(BA)3 phen/PVP as [111]. applied this approach Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/Fe3 O4 /PVP hollow nanofibers. The low nanofibers had outer diameters of 305 nm and inner nanofibers consist of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as the diameters of about 140 nm. PANI on the designed to produce novel ribbon-shaped flexible nanocables other hand usually acts as conducting particulate filler in [113]. erties of the compressed pellets depended on the compres- ble array produced electrically conductive-magnetic bifunc. Zhang tune the emission in wide range of red-yellow-green colour and Rutledge produced fibers of PANI with a dopant of by adjusting the mass ratio of Eu+ /Tb+ complexes. Their tensile strength and Young’s modulus capacity. . Modified Core/Shell PANI Nanofibers. which provides the required mechanical bon to be adjusted to achieve preferred diameters by changing properties. Later. Liu et al. In was obtained after selectively removed collagen content in spite of this. phen = 1. respectively [119– 5. and multiwalled carbon nan. The ability to tune the This kind of electrospinning uses two spinnerets. PANI. The team also used the same core and blends of PVA. 121]. or Fe3 O4 nanoparticles content. The modified spinneret allows the core for the nanorib. Instead of using the conventional coaxial was done to remove the PMMA shells and thereby release electrospinning. Lv and coworkers applied electrospinning using spe- An attempt to develop a material extraction for in vivo.10-phenanthroline). To produce high-performance electrospun nanofibers. 100% doped-PANI fibers were then obtained fabricate PANI nanofiber with hollow structure through elec- by immersing the fiber blend into isopropyl alcohol. cations can also be done to produce variations of core/shell the molecular structures of the nanofibers should be oriented structure. they successfully modified the fabrication The mechanical properties of electrospun nanofibers are of core-sheath by having PANI sheath. It was aniline on the surface of as-prepared electrospun nanofibers shown that the presence of PANI component increased the and followed by removal of the electrospun template PVA nanofibers mat formation by bridging the nanofibers [117]. However. The samples became brittle at a compression tional core with insulating photoluminescent sheath. those MWCNT was reported to significantly reduce the electrical nanofibers were obtained by the in situ polymerization of percolation concentration in the polymer matrix. They suggested better connectivity of compounds [112]. The pressure above 800 MPa. Valentová and Stejskal [123] characterized the the inner needle. the diameters ration of two different electrospun solutions. The collagen sheath failed to extract and PANI in the nanofibers and effective isolation of rare earth therefore would prevent the permeation of tissue matrix into complex. Neat PANI sheath generally considered important for many applications. This novel technique could fabricate tunable mechanical properties of PANI on compressed circular pel- core composed of PANI. have previously worked on PS/crosslinked another strand. tion favored for the shell and eventually directly produces Coaxial electrospinning is also useful in incorporating hollow electrospun nanofibers. procedure to produce Tb(BA)3 phen/PANI/Fe3 O4 /PVP hol- otube (MWCNT) as the shell. Due to the removal. and eliminating air resistance. and lets instead of conventional rectangular or dumbbell shaped PMMA template with photoluminescent Tb(BA)3 phen (BA samples.4. which emission colour of their belt-shaped coaxial microcables by allows the low elastic fluid to elongate along with the changing the europium/terbium (Eu+ /Tb+ ) molar ratio in electrospinnable fluid [108]. Core/Shell PANI Nanofibers. fabricated tri- conducting material onto nonconducting fibers (or vice functional (photoluminescent-electrical-magnetic) flexible versa) with distinct layers. This process will result in the sheath was shown by Shao et al. where the PVP acted as template. As mentioned earlier. It was found out that the dynamic mechanical prop- = benzoic acid. Various modifi. They were able to nanofiber with continuous core-sheath morphology. were reported below 300 MPa and 3 GPa. Sarvi et al. There are also few studies that of relatively dilute PANI solution so that it is electrospinnable. cially designed parallel dual spinnerets to prepare bistrand- semisolid tissue extraction has been done by preparing aligned nanobundles [118]. The nanoca. has led to an interesting way to electrospinning.Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 9 5. The hol- to develop nanofibers with superior piezoelectricity [110].

Conducting polymers exhibit a reversible as a conductive scaffold in the proliferation of myoblast electrochemical response. it can be made so by phologies. biocompatible. PANI/poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) [138]. they will contract upon reduction cell tissue culture. primarily in the fields of tumor PANI/nanohydroxyapatite/gelatin [139]. Electrospun tissue engineering [144. [147] who [127. PANI nanofibers are a promising candidate for cover surface (control sample). blends for tissue engineering include reports on PANI/ The development of effective methods to deliver drugs chitosan [137]. like many conductive polymers. and PANI/PCL [142]. Electrospinning myotubes formed increased with increasing PANI concen- a biocompatible or a biodegradable polymer filled with tration. This neering [143] was then supported with the research works section highlights opportunities of using electrospun PANI developed by Ghasemi-Mobarakeh et al. 128]. different organs [146]. In this way. is a method to fabricate new tissue from cultured cells. cultured cells and templates to guide tissue regeneration [125. cell growth on designing sensors since their conductivity is highly sensitive larger diameter nanofiber substrates presented low density to chemical vapors due to their high surface area [155]. Studies on electrospun PANI myogenic differentiation. Sensors. which is less than 3% conducting polymer nanofibers provide high surface area. significant enhancement in cell proliferation and dif- 6. The diameter of the blended for such applications has already brought evidence of the PANI-PCL nanofibers was reduced through the increasing ability of PANI and blended PANI to support cell growth. Other physicochemical measurements. the seeded cells grown on aligned (1) blending it with a biodegradable polymer to form a nanofibers were found to possess bipolar morphologies. nanofibers was found with the increment of the PANI to which is due to the contraction and expansion of the PEDOT gelatin volume ratio. ferent signaling pathways required for cellular processes. supercapacitors.2. there have been a few works reported morphologies. Thus. The number of the that can undergo gradual erosion [136]. alignment of nanofibers can synergistically stimulate the sue engineering applications. The focusing on electrospun PANI blends for controlled drug cells cultured on the smaller diameter PANI-gelatin nanofiber release [154]. conductive PANI provides an excellent opportunity for Biodegradable scaffolds can act as transplant vehicles for the fabrication of highly selective. have confirmed the uniformity of the ensued PANI nanofibers. have the potential to be applied as conductive substrates for Rotor speed was adjusted to 100 rpm for collecting ran- tissue engineering [129–131]. The results suggested that both conductivity and PANI could produce nanofibers that may be useful in tis. specific. PANI is matrixes were observed as having flat and multipolar mor- not inherently biodegradable [133]. The the tunable electroactivity of PANI has been explored in the electrospun PANI/PCL nanofibers with both random and area of diverse biological applications. Applications of Electrospun such as tensile strength. It is only quite recently that dom nanofibers and to 900 rpm for aligned nanofibers. The preliminary study of PANI nanofibers in tissue engi- tions of electrospun PANI nanofibers in various fields. compared to the amount of PANI in total weight. nanofiber based sensor devices. the investigation of PANI C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. 157] and PANI . It has been shown that alteration of the physicochemical properties of the nanofiber the release of dexamethasone from electrospun PEDOT/PGA composites. The concentration of PANI as a result of the increment in ability of varying the oxidative state of PANI has increased the electrical conductivity of the spinning solution. The seeded cells grown on randomly oriented nanofiber Although. such as in that the surface modification and functionalization of PANI the conductive scaffolding materials. The cells initially displayed different [153]. and highly porous. leads to an which can be easily loaded with drugs. [143] described and position. system can release quantitatively drugs at a specific time Previous research conducted by Li et al. (2) modifying the backbone to render PANI loading significantly affected the number of myotubes degradability [135]. elasticity. The scaffolds should be biocompatible. blend were more spread out and exhibited a smooth muscle- like morphology. It was explained nanofibers for emerging technology development. Tissue engineering ferentiation was observed through the employment of PANI. controlled drug delivery with different biomolecules or dopants allowed them to be systems. Gelatin. and pseudopodia. Gelatin is a frequently used biomaterial and expand after oxidation. PANI is one of the conducting polymers that prepared electrospun PANI nanofibers in a PCL blend. and (3) synthesizing short PANI chains formed on the PANI-PCL nanofibers. Synthetically prepared PANI nanofibers [156. This feature permits the con- for tissue engineering applications. depending on the concentration of PANI. therapy and tissue engineering. biodegradable. Still. especially the stimuli-response drug delivery the use of composite nanofibers of PANI blended with gelatin systems [148–150]. and modified with biological sensing elements and to exhibit dif- flexible solar cells. especially in cardiac trolled release of various kinds of drugs [151. they should have large surface area and The effect of PANI nanofiber orientation on electrical highly interconnected pore structure with suitable pore size conductivity has also been reported by Ku et al. such as for scaffolds in aligned orientation were used as scaffolds for the growth of the tissue engineering field.10 Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 6. composite [134]. has attracted wide attention. and stable nanocomposite scaffolds for tissue engineering of 126]. 152]. A controlled drug delivery PANI/PPY [141]. 145]. However. similarly to the cells growing on a glass 6. Researchers have been investigating the potential applica. conductivity.1. The decrement in the diameter of the composite nanofibers can be controlled by using electrical stimulation. PANI/PLA [140]. In contrast. Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery. Up to date. and electron PANI Nanofibers microscopy analysis. research development in biomedical research fields [132].

176]. The Neat PANI fibers with different levels of doping were also fab- composite nanofiber SAW sensor revealed very high sensitiv. thus making use of the conductivity changes upon PANI blended with PVB were responsible for the attractive oxidation or reduction [161]. trospun core-sheath PANI-PVB composite nanofibers. ment. PANI/SnO2 for H2 gas sensing [166]. which exhibited a core- routes. The blending enedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The high surface-to-volume ratio and [159]. enhanced molecular alignment within structure. As it was not possible to molecular orientation. without using the conventional lithography process.4-ethyl- compared with the nanofibers without beads. It was reported that nanos. was found to increase to 130 ± 40 Scm−1 with increasing pared to those of bulk PANI.Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 11 nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [158]. electroacoustic load. Moreover. and their humidity response. and uniform sensor showed good stability. that is. The a range of compositions. fabrication of electrospun fibers of PANI and poly(3. increasing the electrical conductivity of conductive polymers. [177]. PANI/polyamide the long-term stability of the SAW sensor based on PANI- 66 for colorimetric sensing [168]. fibers to be tested for electrical performance and its enhance- fast response. WO3 with good sensitivity. and small hysteresis [177]. cess and subsequent posttreatment. The nanofibers were deposited as single nanofibers across and PANI/polyamide 6/TiO2 nanofibers for ammonia sensor two gold electrodes by means of near-field electrospinning [175. Recent reports include the outer sheath. This specific feature was targeted humidity sensing properties of the SAW sensors [178]. and very fast response in both humidification and fiber electrical conductivities. high sensitivity gas sensors based on PANI/PMMA sensing application in the fabrication of a chemiresistor [179]. According to Lin et concentration. Humidity sensors based on PANI nanofibers with some by dissolution. PANI-PVB nanofiber based with the increasing ratio of dopant to PANI. good sensing the shell by dissolution and shown to exhibit a large range of linearity. have al. Several types of electrospun PANI nanofiber based sheath structure. These fibers sensors could be used to detect humidity as low as 0. excellent detection. electrode receptor and better electrical contact due to the high Further.5% RH were found to be very effective in nanoscale chemiresistive . parameter for a sensor. and are potentially versatile by doping with formation of some beads exhibited improved adhesion to the different particles. the rheology of PANI nanofibers presenting the good reversibility. These nanofiber sensors are flexible. The results indicated that PVB was The experimental results thus support those described suitable to be coelectrospun with PANI to form a core-sheath previously. Fibers PANI-PEO nanofiber based sensors revealed much higher of neat PANI doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) sensitivity than their film counterparts with the impedance were successfully fabricated for the first time by coaxial increasing by three orders of magnitude from 20% to 90% electrospinning and subsequent removal of the PMMA shell RH. to as spun core-sheath structured polyaniline/poly(vinyl butyral) PANI/PVB blended nanofibers. which in turn enhanced their sensing properties. covered by PVB sensors have been developed lately. to amplify signals transduced by the electrochemical reac. during both the electrospinning pro- It was demonstrated that high performance SAW humid. high as 50 ± 30 Scm−1 for the as-electrospun fibers of 100% tructured PANI exhibited an excellent chemical sensitive PANI/CSA. [178]. leading to a short lifetime have recently captured the researchers’ interest due to of PANI based sensors. These The humidity response of the PANI nanofiber sensors palladium nanoparticle based chemiresistors recorded 1. which increased exponentially desiccation processes. electrospun fibers. PANI/poly(ethylene oxide) PVB nanofibers found that the sensor maintained its high gas sensor [169]. contributes positively to ity sensors could be successfully fabricated based on elec. with PANI inner core. as well as for gas sensing application. The conductivities Lin et al. it [100]. PANI/fibroin microfibrous mat as reactive sensor [174]. The conductivity of the neat doped PANI fibers response. blended with poly(ethylene of PEO into PANI greatly modified the hydrophilicity of oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) over the PANI-PEO nanofibers. The investigation on multiple detections using PANI/PCL [167]. the study of Zhang and Rutledge reported the surface area. compared to other chemical or template electrospun composite nanofibers. PANI/ZnO for chemiresistor sensor [170]. ricated by coaxial electrospinning and subsequent removal of ity of 75 kHz/% RH over a wide humidity range.8% was determined by measuring their impedance at different resistance change in the environment with 0. could effectively protect the PANI core. instead of being directly exposed to the open electrospun nanofiber of graphene/PANI/PS for the detection air. Doped PANI generally shows unsat- Electrospun PANI nanofibers and their polymeric blends isfying stability in the open air. was blended with PVB.3% hydrogen humidity levels at room temperature. and viscoelastic applications towards humidity and vapors and as biosensor load of the core-sheath structured composite nanofibers of devices. using template synthesis. owing to the rheology of the nanofiber formation. However. and TiO2 [160] have been investigated for gas sensing the improved mass load. developed humidity of the PANI-blend fibers were found to increase exponentially sensors of surface acoustic wave (SAW) based on electro- with the weight percent of doped PANI in the fibers. sensitivity after storing for more than seven months [178]. It is known that the detection stability is an important tions [162–164]. PANI/PLA to sense alcohol vapors of increasing molecular Electrospun PANI nanofibers doped with palladium size [171]. [173]. on the other hand. The chemically stable and relatively hydrophobic PVB of Pb and Cd ions [165]. achieved through solid state drawing prepare nanostructured PANI directly from its solution. with higher sensitivity and faster response com. This allowed for the electrospun PANI/CSA beads and a small content of PEO revealed high sensitivity. the PANI/PVB nanofiber their ease of processing. PANI/polyvinylidene fluoride as strain sensor nanoparticles have been demonstrated efficient for hydrogen [172].

reduce fabrication cost. thanks in propylene carbonate (PC)) electrolyte is compared with to this large range of available electrical conductivities. Electrode performance. Recently. The H2 O2 is useful because it sites needed for charge transfer reaction and counterion is often a product of enzymatic reactions. Given these characteristics demonstrated by PANI the reaction between glucose and oxygen in the presence of nanofibers synthesized through electrospinning. Both that of PANI powder. high catalytic performance. and operation and complex facilities. the capacitance retention of the orientation). compared to previously made Given all these excellent advantages of PANI. performance of the PANI/CSA-PLA film was higher than that which served as current collector. The characteristic times for rior stable performance compared to that of PANI powder the gas sensing were shown to be on the order of 1 to 2 min. technology that underlies its performance and has turned it These are usually made of Pt films.35 A⋅g−1 . and deliver a specific capacitance of 230 F⋅g−1 at the 1000th Using a model that accounted for the effects of intrinsic fiber cycle. Counter electrodes of DSCs function as to conventional capacitors and batteries [180–184]. Solar Cells. Over 86% of its original capacitance is retained after conductivity (including both composition and molecular 1000 cycles. 6. Smaller individual sured experimentally [100]. The increasing energy need of the world population has urged for new discoveries and manipulation 6. An investigation on electrospun PLA/PANI nanofibers for Chaudhari and his coworkers [186] initiated a study rigid and flexible DSCs [198] and another on PANI/MWCNT on applying PANI nanofiber webs as electrode materials counter electrodes [199] are among the few studies con- for supercapacitors. meanwhile. electrolyte has the ability of catalyzing tri-iodide species. in high performance supercapacitors [186]. 15 wt% of films (PANI/CSA-PLA) on flexible indium tin oxide-coated carbon black. However. witnessed the development of PANI usage in this area in order desirable chemical stability. For these reasons. Duan et al. doped PANI blended with polylactic acid (PLA) composite The fabrication of electrodes took 75 wt% of PANI. researchers have recognized shortening the charge diffusion path length. it has solar cells [197]. but despite their good into a research hotspot is the electrode material.12 Advances in Materials Science and Engineering sensors for both ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gases. it is crucial to find turned out to be the centre of interest in nowaday’s low- ways to store energy in order to keep getting sufficient carbon economy as a solution to the energy requirements supply and to secure energy distribution. electrospinning is a difficult task. regardless of the potential shown. and recovering this potential of electrospun PANI through their studies dye molecules at the anode/electrolyte interface [197]. For this reason. calculated mat conductivities were obtained This observation indicated that PANI nanofiber webs have in quantitative agreement with the mat conductivities mea. The result revealed that the catalytic The resulting slurry was then used to coat a graphite substrate. high energy density. However. high power procedures. Since the direct processing of PANI by ducted. PANI/GO/PVDF [189]. The specific capacitance of a PANI sensitivity and response times were shown to be excellent. also proved that a solid PANI become a strong competitor as a material for building pow. nanofiber web in 1 M H2 SO4 is 267 F⋅g−1 at a current density with response ratios up to 58 for doped PANI sensing of of 0. mat porosity. and cheap counter density. compared electrodes [193]. A simple electrospinning method was developed [198] to cation of high aspect ratio PANI (>50) by electrospinning directly deposit conductive 10-camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) a polymeric blend of PANI with polyethylene oxide (PEO). three. catalyzing the redox couple regeneration. which was ascribed to the contribution The performance of electrospun nanofibers produced in of the high surface area of PANI/CSA-PLA nanofibers and aqueous electrolyte (1 M H2 SO4 ) and organic (1 M LiClO4 relatively high electrical conductivity of the PANI/CSA-PLA . Supercapacitors. which limits their appli- conducting polymers. and multiple intrinsic redox to enhance cell stability. and simplify states [185]. The key collecting electrons. Electrospun PANI/PS nanofiber impedance parameters in the case of PANI nanofiber webs showed excellent detection of H2 O2 compared to that of its were also observed. They have been recognized as a potential alternative the supercapacitor has been a phenomenal discovery with its to silicon based solar cells due to their simple fabrication low internal resistance. and PANI/vanadium pentoxide dedicated to it seem scarce. therefore the studies hollow-structured PANI [91]. better cycle stability than PANI powder. Among conductive polymers. The large surface area promotes more to be a suitable candidate for being used as electrode material GOX immobilization than the film sensor [176]. within the mat. The on electrospun PANI nanofiber web electrodes [186]. which is higher compared to that of PANI ammonia and up to more than 105 for nitrogen dioxide powder (208 F⋅g−1 ).4. erful supercapacitors. 192]. as asymmetric supercapacitor [190]. focus of the research on utilizing PANI as a component in dimensional porous PANI/polyacrylonitrile core-shell [187]. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have of renewable energy sources. fast charge and discharge. It is generated in diffusion. they proposed the fabri. 10 wt% of polyvinylidene fluoride. is still an emerging topic of research. PANI nanofiber webs demonstrate supe- sensing by undoped PANI fibers. and fiber orientation distribution PANI powder is observed to be 48% after 1000 cycles. recent decades have has become the preferred material due to its high capacitance. it was found glucose oxidase (GOX). of the PANI-PLA film. PANI cation [194–196]. and a few polyethylenenaphthalate (PEN) and rigid fluorine doped tin drops of N-methylpyrrolidinone to form a uniform slurry.3. this PANI/carbonized polyimide [188]. DSCs has widened by the effort of certain research teams in sandwiched symmetric supercapacitor consisting of flexible studying electrospun PANI nanocomposites. and long life cycle. the preparation techniques. oxide (FTO) substrates. [191. metal oxide. indicating the availability of electroactive corresponding thin film form. Pt based solar cells need high temperature of materials mainly include carbon material.

Wan. 2013. 66. S. M. due to dopant leaching. Conclusions (1) Electrospinning is a simple. Goryacheva. and Z. De Saeger. rigid = 6. Agranovich. 36. Liu. G.30%. pp. pp. and Y. Goftman.51%). Zhou. Due to these interesting properties. X. S. which can [2] R. particularly nanostructures multiloaded with quantum dots. V. X. and rapid tech. Fan. 9. 529–540. organic semiconductors. 14. and thus feasible for large-scale and flexible being held back by poor mechanical properties as application of DSCs. “Conducting-polymer- impact on the ambient environment. electrospun PANI nanofibers show an and S. 2013. versatile. The preparation process of the PANI/CSA-PLA counter (7) In addition to issues on extended response/recovery electrodes suggested in this experiment was simple and capabilities. supercapacitors. no. Xia. N. and biotechnology applications. 1. However. The flexible and rigid DSCs demonstrate high photo. 990–997. 2015. 4.” Journal of Power resolved. Speranskaya.” Chemical Reviews. 2013. Liu. pp. “Micro.” Accounts of Chemical Research. vol. it is not possible to produce It was found that the flexible DSC based on the PANI/CSA. (6) The core-sheath structure of PANI hybrids with other [8] A. 1–12. PANI nanofiber films. the in Analytical Chemistry. “Applications of still inadequately carried out and are rather limited. while the PANI/CSA-PLA film on FTO glass as free-standing PANI nanofibers by improving the counter electrode exhibits a reasonably high photoelectrical mechanical properties is another way to enhance the conversion efficiency of 5. scaffolds. vol. M. “Coaxial electrospun nanostructures are being tested to develop new smart materials for and their applications. energy. and also Depart- electrospinning process seems to be a promising ment of Chemistry.” Journal begins. apart from template coating. which may have a negative [9] G. which can generate nonwoven The authors would to express their gratitude to Universiti nanofibers with high surface area to volume ratio and Teknologi Malaysia for the Potential Academic Staff (PAS) tunable porosity and can be designed into various scheme. “Synthesis and bioanalytical applications of excellent potential for future applications. 11513–11528. Acknowledgments nology advancement. D. Kao. A. Wei. Ying. vol. and A. “Hybrid properties for targeted applications. a variety of applications. vol. Article ID 495708. sensitivity of detection toward specific environments. G. Ding. of Nanomaterials. such as tissue engineering no. A new method towards of 3. and M. vol.” TrAC—Trends in biomedical devices and sensors. (5) In general.” MRS It is important that the toxicology profile of the Bulletin. C. 2010. Faculty of Science.” Journal of Colloid and shape and size of the cells and have demonstrated high Interface Science. Zhu. Malaysia.39%. and the collector used in electrospinning have significant effects on the fiber morphology. 53–62. MacDiarmid. 2001. Li. vol. no. Y. Qu. = 4. (2) The polymer solution. vol. P. ““Synthetic metals”: A novel role for organic polymers has improved the usability of PANI. thus by the manipulation of References these parameters one can get nanofibers with desired [1] V. 38. Litinskaya. pp. Y. 7. . A. they demonstrate that PANI can be used as counter electrode material for DSCs. electrospun PANI nanofibers and their health impacts [7] H. 2581–2590. 1–11. S. and M. Y. Sources. no. Although these results are a usability of PANI nanofibers for a wide range of future little lower than those for the sputtered Pt based DSC (flexible biomedical. Snook. pp. Universiti Teknologi method for various applications. 2010. 196. The polymers (Nobel lecture). 2011. PANI solution is an alternative for the electrospinning 2011. Y. vol. no. should be thus based supercapacitor devices and electrodes. sensors. Gartstein. studies on biocompatibility for long-term use are [6] T. 12. 5179–5214. fabricated micro. Wei. Best. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. W. 1. which are mechanically robust PLA counter electrode can exhibit a conversion efficiency enough to be free-standing. pp. no. A. 111. Z.1%.Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 13 film. 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