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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

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What is Differential Equation?
The equations that containing at least one or more differential coefficient.

dy
e.g: (1) x2  y sin x
dx
(2) 3 y 2  3 xy  5 x  7e 4 x

d2y dy
(3) xy 2
y  e3x  0
dx dx

ORDER OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
The order of a differential equation is given by the HIGHEST DERIVATIVES
that appears in the equation.

dy
e.g: (1) x  y2  0
dx
2
 dy 
(2) x (1  y )   1  x  y  0
 dx 

d3y dy
(3) 3
 ex  y  ln x
dx dx
2
d4y  d3y 
(4)  y  3   e 4 x  0
dx 4  dx 

DEGREE OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION.

The Degree of the differential equation is the POWER OF THE HIGHEST
ORDER DERIVATIVE COEFFICIENT that appears in the equation.

dy
e.g: (1) x  y2  0
dx
d2y dy
(2) 2
 3  2 y  x2
dx dx
2
d4y  d3y 
(3)  y  3   e 4 x  0
dx 4  dx 
2
 d3y  d2y
(4)  3   x 2  y 4  cos x
 dx  dx

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There are 4 types of first order diff. equation: (1) Separable equation. (2) Homogeneous equation. Example: Obtain a differential equation from the following expressions: (a) y  Ax  x 2 A (b) y  x  2 x (c) y  Ax 2  Bx 5 FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. 2 .FORMATION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION Ordinary differential equations can be generate by eliminating the constants from the given expressions.

This type of equation usually in the form dy dy f ( x)  f ( x) g ( y ) or  dx dx g ( y ) How to solve separable equation. [note: when separating x and y. make sure the y term must be at the LHS. (4) Exact equation. dx 3 . This type of equation can be solve by separating x with dx and y with dy. (3) Linear equation. dx y 1 dy Example 2: Find the solution for  2 y sin x .] dy 2x Example 1: Solve  . SEPARABLE EQUATION.

dt t y  t2 Exercises: Solve dy (a)  1  x 1  y  dx dy (b) 5y  2x dx 4 . dy y 2  ty 2 Example 3: Solve  2 .

Homogeneous equation is the equation in which we can express the RHS as f ( x. dx 2x 5 . dy (note: before substituting y and .  v with dv = x with dx Step 3 : Integrate both side of the equation. y ) . Example 1: Determine whether each of the equations given is homogeneous equation or not? dy x  3 y (a)  dx 2x dy (b) 2x 2  x2  y2 dx (c)  x3  x 2 y  dy dx  xy  y 2  How to solve Homogeneous equation. There are 3 steps: yvx dy dv Step 1 : Substitute and vx into the dx dx equation/question. make sure that the dx dy coefficient of is 1.) dx Step 2 : Separate the variables.HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION. Example 1: Find the solution for the equation dy x  3 y  . ** Note: After finding the result of integration. substitute back v = y/x. y ) and f (  x.  y )  f ( x.

6 .Example 2: Solve the homogeneous equation dy ( xy )  ( x 2  y 2 ) dx .

dx x  2 xy 7 . dy 2 xy  3 y 2 Example 3: Solve the equation  2 .

x LINEAR EQUATIONS. b(x) and c(x) are functions of x or a constants. (1) 1  x  dy  5 y  e 7 x dx 8 . Example: Determine whether each of the equation below linear or not. Linear equation is the equation in the form of dy a( x)  b( x ) y  c ( x ) dx where a(x) .Exercises: Find the solution of the equations dy  2x (a) 2x 2  x2  y2 (ans: y  x ) dx ln x  c (b) x dy dx 2  xy   xy  y 2 (ans: xy  Ae y ).

dy y   x  y 2 (2)  dx x 2 dy (3) 7  e 3 x y  1 dx  How To Solve Linear Equations: dy Step 1 : Make sure the coefficient of is 1. Step 2 : Find  P dx . 9 . dx  The equation become dy  Py  Q dx  Determine what is P and Q.

dx dy Example 2: Solve the equation x  y  x sin x . Step 3 : Calculate the integrating factor (µ)  e  P dx Step 4 : Solve  y    Q dx Find what is y ? dy Example 1: Find the solution for  5 y  e2x . dx 10 .

dy Example 3: Solve x  5 y  x7 . dx 11 .

y ) dx  N ( x. The equation in the form of M ( x. y x Example: Determine if each of the equations below is an exact equation or not. (a)  2 x  3 y  dx   6 xy  2 y  dy  0 2 y 2  x3  (b)   3x  dx  1   dy  0 x   y  (c) 1  cos x  2 dy   y sin 2 x  dx 12 . y ) dy  0 is an exact equation only if M N  .EXACT EQUATIONS.

y ) such as u  M dx   ( y ) Step 3 : Find the partial differential of u in term of y. Example 1: Find the solution of 6x 2     10 xy  3 y 2 dx   5 x 2  6 xy  3 y 2 dy  0 . 13 . Step 2 : Find u ( x. y Step 4 : Find  ( y ) where ( y )   ( y ) dy Step 5 : The solution to the given equation is u ( x. Step 1 : Proof that the given equation is an exact equation. u ? y u Determine ( y ) by comparing N . There are 5 steps to solve exact equations. y )  A where A is a constant.How to Solve Exact Equations.

Example 2: Solve  sin x  dy   y cos x  x sin x  dx  0 14 .

If so.Example 3: Determine whether the differential equation 3 x 2 y 2 dx  (2 x 3 y  e 7 y ) dy is exact equation. 15 . solve it.