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**What is Differential Equation?
**

The equations that containing at least one or more differential coefficient.

dy

e.g: (1) x2 y sin x

dx

(2) 3 y 2 3 xy 5 x 7e 4 x

d2y dy

(3) xy 2

y e3x 0

dx dx

**ORDER OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
**

The order of a differential equation is given by the HIGHEST DERIVATIVES

that appears in the equation.

dy

e.g: (1) x y2 0

dx

2

dy

(2) x (1 y ) 1 x y 0

dx

d3y dy

(3) 3

ex y ln x

dx dx

2

d4y d3y

(4) y 3 e 4 x 0

dx 4 dx

DEGREE OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION.

**The Degree of the differential equation is the POWER OF THE HIGHEST
**

ORDER DERIVATIVE COEFFICIENT that appears in the equation.

dy

e.g: (1) x y2 0

dx

d2y dy

(2) 2

3 2 y x2

dx dx

2

d4y d3y

(3) y 3 e 4 x 0

dx 4 dx

2

d3y d2y

(4) 3 x 2 y 4 cos x

dx dx

1

There are 4 types of first order diff. equation: (1) Separable equation. (2) Homogeneous equation. Example: Obtain a differential equation from the following expressions: (a) y Ax x 2 A (b) y x 2 x (c) y Ax 2 Bx 5 FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. 2 .FORMATION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION Ordinary differential equations can be generate by eliminating the constants from the given expressions.

This type of equation usually in the form dy dy f ( x) f ( x) g ( y ) or dx dx g ( y ) How to solve separable equation. [note: when separating x and y. make sure the y term must be at the LHS. (4) Exact equation. dx 3 . This type of equation can be solve by separating x with dx and y with dy. (3) Linear equation. dx y 1 dy Example 2: Find the solution for 2 y sin x .] dy 2x Example 1: Solve . SEPARABLE EQUATION.

dt t y t2 Exercises: Solve dy (a) 1 x 1 y dx dy (b) 5y 2x dx 4 . dy y 2 ty 2 Example 3: Solve 2 .

Homogeneous equation is the equation in which we can express the RHS as f ( x. dx 2x 5 . dy (note: before substituting y and . v with dv = x with dx Step 3 : Integrate both side of the equation. y ) . Example 1: Determine whether each of the equations given is homogeneous equation or not? dy x 3 y (a) dx 2x dy (b) 2x 2 x2 y2 dx (c) x3 x 2 y dy dx xy y 2 How to solve Homogeneous equation. There are 3 steps: yvx dy dv Step 1 : Substitute and vx into the dx dx equation/question. make sure that the dx dy coefficient of is 1.) dx Step 2 : Separate the variables.HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION. Example 1: Find the solution for the equation dy x 3 y . ** Note: After finding the result of integration. substitute back v = y/x. y ) and f ( x. y ) f ( x.

6 .Example 2: Solve the homogeneous equation dy ( xy ) ( x 2 y 2 ) dx .

dx x 2 xy 7 . dy 2 xy 3 y 2 Example 3: Solve the equation 2 .

x LINEAR EQUATIONS. b(x) and c(x) are functions of x or a constants. (1) 1 x dy 5 y e 7 x dx 8 . Example: Determine whether each of the equation below linear or not. Linear equation is the equation in the form of dy a( x) b( x ) y c ( x ) dx where a(x) .Exercises: Find the solution of the equations dy 2x (a) 2x 2 x2 y2 (ans: y x ) dx ln x c (b) x dy dx 2 xy xy y 2 (ans: xy Ae y ).

dy y x y 2 (2) dx x 2 dy (3) 7 e 3 x y 1 dx How To Solve Linear Equations: dy Step 1 : Make sure the coefficient of is 1. Step 2 : Find P dx . 9 . dx The equation become dy Py Q dx Determine what is P and Q.

dx dy Example 2: Solve the equation x y x sin x . Step 3 : Calculate the integrating factor (µ) e P dx Step 4 : Solve y Q dx Find what is y ? dy Example 1: Find the solution for 5 y e2x . dx 10 .

dy Example 3: Solve x 5 y x7 . dx 11 .

y ) dx N ( x. The equation in the form of M ( x. y x Example: Determine if each of the equations below is an exact equation or not. (a) 2 x 3 y dx 6 xy 2 y dy 0 2 y 2 x3 (b) 3x dx 1 dy 0 x y (c) 1 cos x 2 dy y sin 2 x dx 12 . y ) dy 0 is an exact equation only if M N .EXACT EQUATIONS.

y ) such as u M dx ( y ) Step 3 : Find the partial differential of u in term of y. Example 1: Find the solution of 6x 2 10 xy 3 y 2 dx 5 x 2 6 xy 3 y 2 dy 0 . 13 . Step 2 : Find u ( x. y Step 4 : Find ( y ) where ( y ) ( y ) dy Step 5 : The solution to the given equation is u ( x. Step 1 : Proof that the given equation is an exact equation. u ? y u Determine ( y ) by comparing N . There are 5 steps to solve exact equations. y ) A where A is a constant.How to Solve Exact Equations.

Example 2: Solve sin x dy y cos x x sin x dx 0 14 .

If so.Example 3: Determine whether the differential equation 3 x 2 y 2 dx (2 x 3 y e 7 y ) dy is exact equation. 15 . solve it.

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