You are on page 1of 24

ABSTRACT

A crane is a lifting machine equipped with a winder, wire ropes or chains and
sheaves that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them
horizontally. It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage
and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are
commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of
freight; in the construction industry for the movement of materials; and in the
manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment. The generally-
accepted definition of a crane is a machine for lifting and moving heavy objects by
means of ropes or cables suspended from a movable arm. As such, a lifting
machine that does not use cables, or else provides only vertical and not horizontal
movement, cannot strictly be called a 'crane'.

INTRODUCTION to CRANES

The main objective of this project to build a unique kind of robotic algorithm to
achieve a new kind of approachability in the field of robotics. The solar crane with
solar panel is one of those types of different view for automation in machines.
These car are designed to go at different places without man. The main supply is
given by solar panel. By this supply we are operating robotic car in various
directions.

A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an
electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer or electronic
programming, and is thus able to do tasks on its own. Another common
characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense
that it has intent or agency of its own.

The basic purpose of this robot is to provide automation for the utility machines
that are operated in manual mode for removing different obstructions form fixed
terrain in a remote location.

We are developed solar operated motor crane system new RND mechanical
project. This project shortly explanation of each part as follows.

it is known as crane. springs… etc.The mechanical assembly of the project crane consists of a DC motor with gear attached a chain and another similar gear at opposite end and which is mounted on a shaft mechanism. Hence. The assembly details are shown in figure. It consists of a shaft which travels so as to increases the height of the crane. Many accessories like screw. with the help of shaft rotation the assembly lifts up which ultimately lifts the weight up. Initially the Wight is on the ground rested with the help of wheels. washer. The shaft of crane is used for lifting the weight. . One of the flat surfaces of the crane is placed on ground and another flat surface on top side is used to lift the weight. And we require lifting it up for some purpose then. are provided.

.

Description: Jib cranes are not created equally. Gorbel offers the most comprehensive features and design criteria in the industry. especially where load handling is localized • Are an economical choice for outdoor installations . Properly Applied Gorbel Jib Cranes: • Cover circular (or semi-circular) work areas • Are versatile enough to perform a wide variety of local handling and spotting functions • Are economical enough to be dedicated to individual work stations • Can increase worker satisfaction and encourage safe work practices • Provide a rapid return on investment • Can relieve a main crane of many handling operations where the greater capacity and energy consumption of the larger unit would be wasted • Can be effectively applied in the absence of a main crane.

Further on the literature based on the current design is reviewed. Since the jib crane design procedures are highly standardized with these components. However. It is well known that generic features of jib crane components are similar for various different types of cranes. and power plants. who are often perceived as bottlenecks to the delivery of software products. Testers are being asked to test more and more code in less and less time. tools that help programmers quickly create applications with graphical user interfaces have dramatically improved programmer productivity. Test automation is one way to do this. and environmental conditions. In the initial stage the project overview and scope of project is analyzed. Consideration of the available technology that is mainly based on the accumulated previous experience is important for better performance. This has increased the pressure on testers. geometric features. LITERATURE SURVEY Jib Cranes are industrial machines which mostly uses for materials movements in construction of buildings. weight and type of the load. The design features of jib crane vary widely according to their major operational and manufacturing specifications such as: crane structure according to motion. higher safety and more reliable designs. Over the past several years. main effort and time spent in jib crane design projects are mostly for interpretation and implementation of the available design. crane location. assembly lines. They need to dramatically improve their own productivity. storage areas. a review of the available literature tells that technical design of jib cranes are highly saturated and standardized in many industrial companies and organizations independent of the jib crane type. production halls. .

TYPES OF CRANE FREE STANDING CRANES Description: • Available as Base Plate Mounted (FS300). and Sleeve Insert Mounted (FS350S) • All three types use a similar mast pipe. and I-beam boom • Difference in the models is found in the mounting arrangement • Provide for 360º of continuous rotation • All models have a round mast pipe that remains stationary throughout rotation . head assembly. Insert Mounted (FS350).

Design Advantages: The features incorporated into the design of a Gorbel® Free Standing jib make it the most unique in the industry. .

When a load is applied. and in the fact that cap channels are added to longer spans for lateral stability.Applied Forces to the Supporting Structure: The applied forces diagram details the relative position and direction of the forces that a Wall Bracket jib crane applies to the structure that supports it when a load is picked up. The tie rod is in tension. These Thrust & Pull forces are significantly higher than the capacity of the crane! Be sure to have a qualified structural engineer verify the adequacy of the supporting structure. is utilized • Offers ease of leveling . Tie Rod: • A single tie rod (ASTM A36). Design Advantages: The key to Gorbel’s superior Wall Bracket jib crane lies in the design and manufacture of the bracket system. right-hand threaded at each end. the top wall bracket applies an overall downward and outward force (pull) on its support. The bottom wall bracket applies a downward and inward force (thrust) on its support.

This has increased the pressure on testers. who are often perceived as bottlenecks to the delivery of software products. The Promise of Test Automation Test automation implementations are expected to achieve some or all of the following objectives.NEED FOR AUTOMATION Over the past several years. tools that help programmers quickly create applications with graphical user interfaces have dramatically improved programmer productivity. reduce the mundane repetitive execution of tests. They need to dramatically improve their own productivity. . Test automation is one way to do this. Testers are being asked to test more and more code in less and less time.  Speed up testing to accelerate releases  Allow testing to happen more frequently  Reduce costs of testing by reducing manual labour  Improve test coverage  Ensure consistency  Improve the reliability of testing  Allow testing to be done by staff with less skill  Define the testing process and reduce dependence on the few who know it  Make testing more interesting.

 The Test Automation Engineers automate the tests previously executed for each release. occurs in the short term. already a rare commodity.  Building a regression test suite requires significantly more time to develop than purported by the tool vendors. This results in a large number of (short) segmented automated tests.  ROI on the tools and labour seldom.  Maintenance of the regression suite becomes unmanageable with the number of changes implemented in each release.  Metrics are difficult to determine as the test automation scripts do not necessarily report into the Test Management tool effectively. the most common being.  Effective test automation requires developer skills.  Test Automation Engineers are seldom included as an integral part of the development/test team. automation implementations fail due for a number of reasons. if ever.  A reasonable maturity and competence in manual testing is lacking. more often than not.  The application must be available and stable before script development/ maintenance can take place. .The Reality Unfortunately.  A number of automated testing “frameworks” exist but require an army of consultants to maintain. adding to the regression test pack.

BLOCK DIAGRAM .

DIAGRAM supply .

In this project entire kit is controlled by using solar power. In the keypad the three keys names are assigned FOV. Dc motor and crane model. In charging circuit the voltage signal from the board is gathered together and stored in the battery. When the FOV key is pressing the microcontroller activates the driver circuit then through this driver circuit the relay will activated. When the F/R switch is touch the crane modal gets stopped. solar panel with battery. Relay is directly connected with dc motor. The same process is talking when the REV key is pressing. REV and STOP. WORKING PRINCIPLE This project is designed with power supply. The keypad is used to control the crane which is connected with the microcontroller. keypad. The same process is continuously repeating. Solar panel consists of number of silicon cells. Depends on the panel board size the generated voltage amount is increased. Hence the synchronous motor is running while the F/R switch is touch. The battery power is used to control the vehicle. when sun light falls on this panel it generate the voltage signals then these voltage signals given to charging circuit. driver circuit with relay. Suppose synchronous motor is running if the STOP key is pressing motor will stop at the same place while FOR or REV key pressing. .

The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 watt module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module. Gear =2 5. Solar panels can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. A PV module is a packaged. and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC). or to a set of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules electrically connected and mounted on a supporting structure. There are a few solar panels available that are exceeding 19% efficiency. connected assembly of solar cells. Control unit =1 2. . Battery =1 3. a solar hot water panel. Mounting Fabrication =1 6. SOLAR PANEL Solar panel refers either to a photovoltaic module. Solar system =1 4.Componant list 1. Motor =1 1.

battery and inverter. the maximum discharge rate. . and the minimum temperature at which the batteries will be used. The most efficient way to determine the capacities of these components is to estimate the load to be supplied. an inverter.V modules. most installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a panel or an array of solar modules. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power. The size of the battery bank required will depend on the storage required. Basic Components of Solar Power The major components include P. and sometimes a battery and/or solar tracker and interconnection wiring.

B.V systems because their initial cost is lower and also they are readily available nearly everywhere in the world. lenses to direct and concentrate sunlight on the PV cells of small areas Solar radiation ● Involving tracking mechanisms for directing the sunlight ● Can increase power flux of sunlight hd d fi Fresnel lens Solar cell hundreds of times ● Heat dissipation required .g. Concentrator systems: ● With optical components. Deep cycle batteries are designed to be repeatedly discharged as much as 80 percent of their capacity and so they are a good choice for power systems TYPES OF SOLAR PANEL Flat plate systems: ● on rigid flat surface ● usually from single wafers from 300 to 250 to 200 μm tk ● Area: 170 cm 2 approx. all of these factors are to be taken into consideration when battery size is to be chosen. When designing a solar power system. Lead-acid batteries are the most common in P.5 v approx. ● Output Voltage: 0. e. ● Output power: 1 Output power: 1 .2 W approx 2 W approx.

all the bearings are permanently lubricated and therefore require no maintenance. The output shaft rotates in a sintered bushing. These spindles rotate between bronze plates which ensures silent running. 2. It’s of vital importance for the industry today. The motor is screwed to the gear box from inside. The whole assembly is covered with a plastic ring. . and is equally important for engineers to look into the working principle of DC motor in details that has been discussed in this article. A DC motor in simple words is a device that converts direct current (electrical energy) into mechanical energy. DC MOTOR Nr-dc-eco is high quality low cost dc geared motor. The gears are fixed on hardened steel spindles polished to a mirror finish. It contains brass gears and steel pinions to ensure longer life and better wear and tear properties. In order to understand the operating principle of dc motor we need to first look into its constructional feature.

Now to go into the details of the operating principle of DC motor it’s important that we have a clear understanding of Fleming’s left hand rule to determine the direction of force acting on the armature conductors of dc motor . The very basic construction of a dc motor contains a current carrying armature which is connected to the supply end through commutator segments and brushes and placed within the north south poles of a permanent or an electro-magnet as shown in the diagram below.

then the conductor experiences a force in the direction (represented by the thumb) mutually perpendicular to both the direction of field and the current in the conductor. . Fleming’s left hand rule says that if we extend the index finger. middle finger and thumb of our left hand in such a way that the current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field (represented by the index finger) is perpendicular to the direction of current (represented by the middle finger).

6. 7. It has low maintenance. It is easy to make. 8. 2. 5. The machine has very low error. Size of machine is small therefore it is easy to transport. The cost of machine is less. .Advantages 1. 4. The size of project made by is more suitable for material handling system. 3. The system has worked fully switched operated. Weight of machine is low.

Use in domestic purpose. . 3. Being semiautomatic we cannot neglect at least one operator. 4.Disadvantages 1. Maintenances less.workshop. No skilled manpower required. 4. Salient features 1. Application of project 1. 5. Can be used in engg. Use in agriculture purpose. In industries purpose. 3. 2. Simple in operation. Battery system is required to operate the machine control circuit & motor operate. Fully automation. 2. 2. Used loons.

CONCLUSION The project “Solar operated crane” is designed very care full using our mechanism engine through . In fault we can make it as a fully automated system. . During the assembly we must some offset used otherwise then is so problem at all.it works much without any problem.

pp. Nootan ISC Chemistry (12th) Edition 18.02. Jacob and Jason Marcinkoski. C. Basu. doi:10.. Applied Energy 145: 80– 03.S. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office. "Direct ethanol fuel cells for transport and stationary applications – A comprehensive review". William Robert... "On a Gaseous Voltaic Battery". K. 2013 [5] http://scopewe. Goel. October 16. 458–459. 52 (25): 7330–7336. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science vol. XXI (1842).1016/j.. [4] Spendelow. Giddey. J. 417–420 [3] Kakati B. S.. (May 2015). Deka D. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Badwal. Nageen Prakashan (2014) ISBN 9789382319399 .com/phosphoric-acid-fuel-cells [6] Srivastava. H. S.2015. S. "Differences in physico-mechanical behaviors of resol and novolac type phenolic resin based composite bipolar plate for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell".002 [2] Grove.apenergy. A. "Fuel Cell System Cost – 2013". Electrochimica Acta 2007.. pp.P. Kulkarni.