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93

Chapter 6
Basic mechanics

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STATICS All objects on earth tend to accelerate toward the
Statics is the branch of mechanics that deals with the centre of the earth due to gravitational attraction; hence
equilibrium of stationary bodies under the action of the force of gravitation acting on a body with the mass
forces. The other main branch – dynamics – deals with (m) is the product of the mass and the acceleration due
moving bodies, such as parts of machines. to gravity (g), which has a magnitude of 9.81 m/s2:

Static equilibrium F = mg = vρg
A planar structural system is in a state of static
equilibrium when the resultant of all forces and all where:
moments is equal to zero, i.e. F = force (N)
m = mass (kg)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s2)
y
∑Fx = 0 ∑Fx = 0 ∑Fy = 0 ∑Ma = 0 v = volume (m3)
∑Fy = 0 or ∑Ma = 0 or ∑Ma = 0 or ∑Mb = 0 ρ = density (kg/m3)
x ∑Ma = 0 ∑Mb = 0 ∑Mb = 0 ∑Mc = 0
Vector
where F refers to forces and M refers to moments of Most forces have magnitude and direction and can be
forces. shown as a vector. The point of application must also be
specified. A vector is illustrated by a line, the length of
Static determinacy which is proportional to the magnitude on a given scale,
If a body is in equilibrium under the action of coplanar and an arrow that shows the direction of the force.
forces, the statics equations above must apply. In general,
three independent unknowns can be determined from Vector addition
the three equations. Note that if applied and reaction The sum of two or more vectors is called the resultant.
forces are parallel (i.e. in one direction only), then only The resultant of two concurrent vectors is obtained by
two separate equations can be obtained and thus only constructing a vector diagram of the two vectors.
two unknowns can be determined. Such systems of The vectors to be added are arranged in tip-to-tail
forces are said to be statically determinate. fashion. Where three or more vectors are to be added,
they can be arranged in the same manner, and this is
Force called a polygon. A line drawn to close the triangle
A force is defined as any cause that tends to alter the or polygon (from start to finishing point) forms the
state of rest of a body or its state of uniform motion resultant vector.
in a straight line. A force can be defined quantitatively The subtraction of a vector is defined as the addition
as the product of the mass of the body that the force is of the corresponding negative vector.
acting on and the acceleration of the force.

P = ma P

where
P = applied force
m = mass of the body (kg)
a = acceleration caused by the force (m/s2)

The Système Internationale (SI) units for force are Q
therefore kg m/s2, which is designated a Newton (N).
The following multiples are often used:
A
1 kN = 1 000 N, 1 MN = 1 000 000 N

94 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development

Q Concurrent coplanar forces
P Forces whose lines of action meet at one point are
said to be concurrent. Coplanar forces lie in the same
plane, whereas non-coplanar forces have to be related
to a three-dimensional space and require two items
Q of directional data together with the magnitude. Two
+
P coplanar non-parallel forces will always be concurrent.
=
R
Equilibrium of a particle
When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is
A
zero, the particle is in equilibrium, i.e. it is not disturbed
P from its existing state of rest (or uniform movement).
The closed triangle or polygon is a graphical
expression of the equilibrium of a particle.
Q The equilibrium of a particle to which a single force
+
P is applied may be maintained by the application of a
=
R second force that is equal in magnitude and direction, but
opposite in sense, to the first force. This second force,
which restores equilibrium, is called the equilibrant.
Q When a particle is acted upon by two or more forces, the
A equilibrant has to be equal and opposite to the resultant
of the system. Thus the equilibrant is the vector drawn
closing the vector diagram and connecting the finishing
Q point to the starting point.
P

P
S

S
Q+
P+
R=
A

Q

Resolution of a force A
In analysis and calculation, it is often convenient to
consider the effects of a force in directions other than Q
P
that of the force itself, especially along the Cartesian
(xx-yy) axes. The force effects along these axes are
called vector components and are obtained by reversing
the vector addition method. T
T AN
S UL
RE
y

A
Q
F
P
Fy

NT
θ B RA
x LI
0 Fx UI
EQ

Fy is the component of F in the y direction Fy = F sinθ
Fx is the component of F in the x direction Fx = F cosθ A

TAC A free-body diagram of a body is a diagrammatic representation or a sketch of a body in which the body is shown completely separated from all surrounding bodies. When solving a problem it TAB is essential to consider all forces acting on the body and 980 N to exclude any force that is not directly applied to the body. and the action of each body removed on the body being Example 6. 2. Space diagram The free-body diagram of a rigid body can be reduced to that of a particle. Include all dimensions that indicate the location 50° and direction of forces. Locate and mark unknown external forces and 250 N reactions in the free-body diagram. including supports. The first step in the solution of a problem should therefore be to draw a free-body diagram. 4. 1. at 50° to the horizontal by means of a cable when a To draw a free-body diagram: weight of 250  N is suspended as shown in the figure. isolate it from Determine the tension in the cable and the compression any other body and sketch its outline. This should include the weight of the free body. in the rod. ignoring the weight of the rod.1 65° Determine the tension in each of the ropes AB and AC 40° B C Free-body diagram for point A A Tension 180 N 75° 65° Compression Space diagram 265 N 40° 250 N TAB Force triangle TAC The forces may also be calculated using the law of sines: A Compression in rod Tension in cable 250 N = = sin 75° sin 40° sin 65° 980 N Free body diagram Point of concurrency for point A Three coplanar forces that are in equilibrium must all pass through the same point. Example 6. TAB 980 N . by an imaginary cut. which A 75° is applied at the centre of gravity. 3. A Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 95 980 N Free body diagram for point A Free-body diagram of a particle A sketch showing the physical conditions of a problem is known as a space diagram. The free-body of a particle is used to represent a point and all forces working on it. Choose the free body to be used. This does not necessarily apply for more than three forces. Locate all external forces on the free body and clearly mark their magnitude and direction.2 considered is shown as a force on the body when A rigid rod is hinged to a vertical support and held drawing the diagram.

Note that. Rx Ry Built-in support The support is capable of providing a longitudinal reaction (H). Anyone who has tried ‘balancing’ Collinear forces are parallel and concurrent. for other purposes. They will be Resultant of gravitational forces in equilibrium if the sum of the forces equals zero and The whole weight of a body can be assumed to act at the sum of the moments around a point in the plane the centre of gravity of the body for the purpose of equals zero. Pin support A freely hinged support is fixed in position. hence the two reaction forces. The forces member.3 by being secured to rigid fixing points. Q Q Smooth surfaces Reaction is normal to the surface. N Rough surfaces Rough surface is capable of supporting a tangental F force as well as a normal reaction. Resultant reaction is vectorial sum of these two. i. The fixing points or weighing 900 N stands on it at the middle. that are in equilibrium. N Roller support Reaction is normal to the supporting surface only.1 Actions and reactions Flexible cable or rope Force exerted by the cable or rope is always tension away from the fixing. Equilibrium is also indicated by two sums determining supporting reactions of a system of forces of moments equal to zero.e. a lateral or transverse reaction (V). non-concurrent. H M V . at right angles to the tangent. in the direction of the tangent to the cable curve. parallel forces Three or more parallel forces are required. a structural member has to be held or supported at a minimum of two points (an exception to Collinear forces this is the cantilever).it is free to rotate. two are needed to give satisfactory stability. these are often A ladder rests against a smooth wall and a person other parts of the same structure. In general. Coplanar. and a y y y moment (M).. their lines of action can be extended until they generated in the supports are called reactions. only one support is theoretically necessary. such as a structural forces (loads) to cause the member to move. the gravitational forces cannot always be treated in this way. but is not restrained in direction . The weight TABLE 6. The body is fixed in position and fixed in direction. although the forces must be zero for the system to be in equilibrium. The sum of a long pole or a similar object will realize that. Reactions Structural components are usually held in equilibrium Example 6. meet.96 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development If two forces (which are not parallel) do not meet at supports will react against the tendency of the applied their points of contact with a body.

This in turn enables the force vector diagram to be drawn. which is not smooth. A vertical component would have indicated RL a friction force between the ladder and the wall. they can be combined into a single and RB can be found. reducing the problem from one with four forces Answer: RA = 12. Free-body diagram of ladder 12 A RL 15 RL RB C RG = 1 030. 2. to one with only three forces. Combine the two applied forces into one and find the line of action. The end A is pinned to a rigid support. Therefore the resultant line (RL) must RGx be extended to intersect the vertical reaction of 1 000 N support B. 4. giving the direction of the at the wall (RW) and at the ground (RG). from which RA same line of action. From this point of concurrency.4 A pin-jointed framework (truss) carries two loads. the ladder is resting on the ground. At the C bottom. as shown. Example 6. Determine the 6m supporting reactions graphically: 12 kN 3m Space diagram A B 15 kN Rw A 1. Force diagram RA As the wall is smooth. draw a line through the support pin at A. the reaction at B and the R Gy reaction at A. Determine the support reactions (A) can then be found. The point of concurrency RB = 12.8 1 000 N 3.2 kN at 21° to horizontal. the reaction RW must be at RL RB right angles to the surface of the wall and is therefore RA RB horizontal. This gives the line Rw = 250 N of action of the reaction at A. This point is the point of concurrency for the resultant load. and hence the wall and ground reactions determined. . ground reaction force.7 kN vertical. force.Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 97 of the ladder is 100 N. Use these three force directions and the magnitude As the two weight forces in this example have the of RL to draw the force diagram. W = (900 + 100) N while the end B has a roller support. Owing to the roller support reaction RB will be vertical. and therefore the reaction RG must have both a vertical and a horizontal component.

with RB = 120 kN gives: equal zero. the following conditions must be satisfied.100 . on the ladder. The effect of a force on a rigid body depends on its point The equilibrant of the downward forces must be equal of application.5 m) . the magnitude of RG can be calculated as: 2. where known completely. action of force F. then: (6 × RW) . the necessary stability. RW = 250 N Giving RB = 120 kN The vertical component of RG must. horizontal beam. 80 kN 70 kN 100 kN 30 kN The determination of the moment of a force in a coplanar system will be simplified if the force and its point of application are resolved into its horizontal and vertical components. (Nm).8 N 3. This provides a method is common knowledge that a small force can have a for calculating the resultant of a system of parallel large turning effect or leverage. All forces (apart from the two reactions) must be Because RG is the third side of a force triangle. RA=160 kN. though it is usually quicker and easier to opposite in direction to RW. By taking moments around the point where the ladder rests on the ground. obtain the reactions by calculation. At least one point on the line of action for the other reaction must be known (2 and 3 reduce the Resultant of parallel forces number of unknowns related to the equations of If two or more parallel forces are applied to a equilibrium to an acceptable level). A clockwise moment is usually considered as having a positive sign and an anticlockwise moment a negative sign. the term forces. or a combination of calculation and drawing. i. RGX = 250 N However.70 . i. Furthermore. (1 0002 + 2502)½ = 1 030. The line of action of one of the reactions must be known. therefore: Take the moments around point A.80 . However. two reactions are required to ensure ‘moment’ is used instead of ‘turning effect’. as well as its magnitude and direction.e. where The reactions RA and RB must both be vertical because d is the perpendicular distance from O to the line of there is no horizontal force component. magnitude.98 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development The link polygon (see an engineering handbook) Using the first condition of equilibrium it can be seen may also be used to determine the reactions to a beam that the horizontal component of RG must be equal but or a truss. then theoretically the beam can be held in equilibrium by the application of a single force Moments of forces (reaction) that is equal and opposite to the resultant R. the sum of moments must equal zero. The distance d is often called lever the sum of the reaction forces RA and RB must be equal arm. line of action the other two sides are the horizontal and vertical and direction. components.(RB × 12) = 0.(100 N × 1.e. 2m 2m 3m 3m 2m Example 6. In mechanics.e. A moment has dimensions of force times length to the sum of the downward-acting forces. i. because these two forces are the only vertical forces and the sum of the vertical forces must RA .4.5 m) = 0 (80 × 2) + (70 × 4) + (100 × 7) + (30 × 10) . any point must be zero. (moment is zero).(900 N × 1.e. The direction of a moment about a point or axis is defined by the direction of the rotation that the Beam reactions force tends to give to the body. the moment of The magnitude of the reactions may be found by the the reaction RG can be ignored as it has no lever arm application of the third condition for equilibrium. According to the third condition the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about for equilibrium. the conditions RA RB of equilibrium for a rigid body can be used to calculate the reactions. It and opposite to their resultant. the method shown in Example 6. RGy = 1 000 N .5 As the ladder in Example 6. be equal but opposite to the sum of RA is now easily found with the application of the the weight of the ladder and the weight of the person second condition for equilibrium. and a more likely arrangement The moment of force with a magnitude (F) about will have two or more supports. a turning point (O) is defined as: M = F × d. i.30 + RB=0. 1.3 is at rest. according to the second condition.

roof loads.g. another couple of equal and by a set of irregularly placed beams. Let the load arising opposite moment is required. the applied loads must be rationalized into a number of 2·5 m ordered systems. the loads contributed by the shaded area M. and through the point of action. Note Example 6. e. from the weight of the floor itself and the weight of any material placed on top of it (e. A couple acting on a body produces rotation.e. Irregular loading is difficult to deal with exactly. For the purpose of calculation. but even the most irregular loads may 1·0 m 1·0 m be reduced and approximated to a number of regular systems. i. compression. wind loads. The magnitude of the force is always indicated. parallel and opposite but non-collinear shear force.g.g. or the effect of the weight of water Therefore beam A carries a total load of: on a horizontal surface. forces are said to be a couple. a UDL is normally considered in a plane. bending moment or deflection. etc. Beam C carries Before any of the various load effects (tension. the loading of beam C can be load equal to the total distributed load passing through the calculated to 25 kN / m.Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 99 Couples This technique must not be used for calculation of Two equal. In calculating reactions. uniformly distributed loads can in most. or a person pushing against a box. then be used to calculate the required size of the beams. Concentrated loads are represented by a single arrow drawn in the direction. bending. e.6 that the couple cannot be balanced by a single force. 2·0 m 3·0 m 2·0 m Uniformly distributed loads. the shaded area L. are those that can be assumed to act uniformly over an area or along the length of a structural member. of the force. but not all. a weight hanging from a ceiling. These can then be dealt with in mathematical terms using the principle of superposition to estimate the overall combined effect. cases be represented by a concentrated In the same way. . or 40 kN / 4 = 10 kN / m. Concentrated loads are those that can be assumed to L M 4·0 m act at a single point. written as UDL. 1 m × 4 m × 10 kPa = 40 kN. Determine the UDL acting on beam A and beam C. stored grain) be 10 kPa.) can be considered. FLOOR SECTION BEAM A B C D 150 mm FLOOR PLAN 4·0 m 150 mm F=20N 2·0 m 3·0 m 2·0 m F=20N It can be seen from the figure below that beam A carries the floor loads contributed by half the area between the Loading systems beams A and B. The loading per metre run can centre of gravity of the distributed load. Consider a suspended floor where the loads are supported To produce equilibrium.

25 kN/m Failure to transmit the shearing force at any given section.g. A beam is a structural member subject to lateral loading The shearing force and the bending moment in which the developed resistance to deformation is of a transmitted across the section x-x may be considered as flexural character. the effects of transverse or vertical shearing at x-x. (B) W X A B C X R Distributed loads with linear variation The bending effect of the load will cause the beam to deform as in (C). W × AC. Bending moment (M) at any transverse cross-section Note: Both the shearing force and the bending of a straight beam is the algebraic sum of the moments. which is equal to the product of load W Shear force and bending moment of beams and the distance from W to point A. of all the forces applied to the beam on either side of the chosen cross-section. in maintain equilibrium if a cut is made severing the beam addition. moment will be zero between C and B. The loading shape is triangular and is the result of such actions as the pressure of water R=W on retaining walls and dams. To prevent rotation of the beam at the support A. The primary load effect that a beam the force and moment respectively that are necessary to is designed to resist is that of bending moments but. will cause the beam to fracture as in (B). Consider the cantilever AB shown in (A). shown as MA. Shear force (V) is the algebraic sum of all the Then the shearing force between A and C = Qx = transverse forces acting to the left or to the right of the W and the bending moment between A and C = Mx = chosen section.100 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development 10kN/m taken about an axis passing through the centroid of the cross-section. The free-body diagrams of the two portions of forces must be considered. The cantilever must therefore transmit the effect of load W to the support at A by developing resistance Loading of beam A (on vertical cross-section planes between the load and the support) to the load effect called shearing force. e. . For equilibrium. section x-x. (A) W 4·0 m X A B Loading of beam C C X Distributed load with linear variation is another common load situation. the beam are shown in (D). the reaction force at A must be vertical and 4·0 m equal to the load W. there must be a reaction moment at A.

These graphical of a straight beam is the algebraic sum of the moments. force diagram consists of horizontal steps and the bending-moment diagram is a series of straight lines. Over a part of the span for which SF is zero. MA QX Maximum bending moment values will occur where the MX shear force is zero or where it changes sign. the resulting shear and Concentrated loads will change the value of the shear bending moment at a given section is the algebraic force only at points where they occur. The bending-moment diagram gives useful considered positive if the resultant moment is clockwise information on the deflected shape of the beam.Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 101 (C) force remains constant in between. The most likely section where a beam may fail in cross section. section. the shear- to become convex upwards – an effect called hogging. 6. i. however. 5. At a point where the bending-moment diagram Nm Bending M kNm passes through zero.g. At the point where the shear-force diagram passes through zero (i. When the load is W uniformly distributed. where the SF changes Shearing N sign). the MX rate of change of the bending moment will be parabolic. of all the forces applied to the beam on shear or in bending. Q force kN 4.e. the BM has a maximum or minimum value.2 shows the sign convention for shear types of beam. are considered positive. If the moment is anticlockwise on moment diagrams are: the left and clockwise on the right. the curvature changes from moment Sagging Hogging (top fibre in compression) (top fibre in tension) Nmm concave upwards to concave downwards or vice versa. the shear-force diagram is a sloping straight Sign convention line and the bending diagram is a parabola. e. while concentrated loads bring a sudden change in the value X C of the shear force. The bending moment is 4. For a beam (or part of a beam) carrying a UDL Shearing and bending forces only. Load effect Symbol Positive (+) Negative (–) Units 3.e. Where reinforcement may be required in certain Table 6. the shear force will X vary at a uniform rate. the Up on the left Down on the left bending moment has a constant value. the shear sum of the values at the section. If a beam is subjected to two or more different Shear-force variation systems of loading. This is referred to . shearing forces Bending moment (M) at any transverse cross section and bending moments respectively. which tend to make the part of the information about the bending moment at any beam to the left move up and the right part move point. 3. down. representing the distribution of loads. In the absence of distributed loads. either side of the chosen cross section. In the case of uniformly distributed loads. Bending moment variation (D) Concentrated loads will cause a uniform change of the bending moment between the points of action of the QX W loads. These diagrams Definitions are obtained by plotting graphs with the beams as the Shear force (Q) is the algebraic sum of all the transverse base and the values of the particular effect as ordinates. The shear-force diagram will provide useful Shearing forces. on the left and anticlockwise on the right. TABLE 6. force (Q) and bending moment (M) used in this book. forces acting to the left or to the right of the chosen It is usual to construct these diagrams in sets of three. 2. These tend to make the beam concave upwards and are called sagging Some rules for drawing shear-force and bending- bending moments. the beam will tend 1. Thus it will be seen that uniform A MA B loads cause gradual and uniform change of shear.2 2. X Shear-force (SF) and bending-moment (BM) diagrams R Representative diagrams of the distribution of shearing forces and bending moments are often required at several stages in the design process. representations provide useful information regarding: taken about an axis passing through the centroid of the 1. concrete beams. This point is referred to as point of inflexion.

shear force to the left of D is zero. reactions and deflections. Consider a section just to the right of D. Consider a section just to the right of E. algebraic moments. D E F G RE = 40 kN R G = 30 kN a = 10 m b = 10 m c = 10 m 4 kN/m (b) Determine the reactions at the supports. As we approach the right-hand end of the beam E G we find the mathematics easier to consider on the right-hand side of any section. Shear force = -30 kN 2 kN/m P = 10 kN 8. D F 5. Critical points are: r The maximum bending moment will occur where r at concentrated loads. Hence. i. ∑Fy = 0. 10 . The following example demonstrates the construction therefore.e. Section just to the right of F. the algebraic sum of forces to the left of this section a = 10 m b = 10 m c = 10 m is made up of P and RE given that the shear force W2 = 4 kN/m equals (-10 + 40)  kN = + 30  kN. note that cantilevered r at points where the magnitude of a distributed beams will always have maximum bending at the load changes. a = 10 m b = 10 m c = 10 m 6.7 of D is 10 kN (negative). shear-force diagram between D and E is thus a moment diagram.(4 × 10) = 0 RE = 40 kN (c) Draw the shear-force diagram (SFD) directly Note the following from the shear-force diagram: below the loading diagram and choose a r Maximum shear force occurs at E and G where convenient scale to represent the shear force. shear force to the right Example 6.(2 × 10) .102 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development as the principle of superposition and applies also 1. Section just to the left of G. of diagrams representing shearing forces and bending 2. horizontal line at -10 kN. First use 2 kN/m P = 10 kN the condition for equilibrium of moments about D E F G a point: RE = 40 kN R G = 30 kN ∑ ME = 0 + 30 kN kN ME = (P × a) + (w1 × b × b / 2 ) + w2 × c(b+c / 2) 30 .F. However. The distribution of loads in a simply supported beam is 3. up to the W1 = 2 kN/m left of section. the shear force is zero or where the shear force r at reactions.( w2 × c) = 0 -30 kN -30 ∑ Fy = RE + 30 -10 . Shear force here equals + 40 . to the right of all critical points. Consider a section through the beam just to to bending stresses.e. 4. The at the supports and draw the shear-force and bending. and find the algebraic sum of all vertical forces to the left of this section. changes sign. the left of D. Shear force = (4 kN / m × 10 m) . Determine the reactions for any such section between D and E.RG (b + c) = 0 20 ME = -(10 × 10) + (2 × 10 × 5) + 4 × 10 × (15) + 10 kN S.D.30 kN respectively. Variation of shear under a distributed load must be linear.RG (20) = 0 0 H m 0 10 20 30 RG = 30 kN -10 -10 kN ∑Fy = 0 hence -20 ∑Fy = RE + RG - P-(w1 × b) . The same result as in point 2 above will be found as given in the diagram below. fixed end. the values are + 30 kN and . These two transverse sections are the two most Calculate the values of the shear force to the left and likely points for failure in shear.30 = + 10 kN. sum of forces to the left of this section is 10 kN down to the left. 4 kN/m 7. no sudden change at F). Section just Solution: to the left of F.(30 kN) using the sign convention to determine (a) Draw the free-body diagram of the beam. Shear force = + 40 - 30 = + 10 kN (i. . positive or negative. Thus at E the shear-force diagram P = 10 kN changes from -10 kN to + 30 kN.

For the bending moment at D consider the left Note the following from the bending-moment side of this point MD = 0 diagram: r The maximum negative bending-moment hogging 2. a tie. hence MF = -(4 × 10 × 10 / 2) + (30 × 10) = 100 kNm they tend to bend the beam with the concave side downwards. in which case the member is called in drawing the curve. It is the effect that one load would have on the bent shape at the chosen point that determines the sign. when the member is called a strut. 20 + + 10 kN S.D. For the bending moment at F consider the loads r The bending-moment diagram will also give to the right of this point. i. .D. Calculate values of the bending moment -30 at all critical points. Critical points for bending moment are: +112.5 (sagging) in the members. this point gives Forces in pin-jointed frames MH = -(4 × 7 512 × 7 5) + (30 × 7 5) Designing a framework necessitates finding the forces = 112. they should also be plotted. it reduces at the rate of 4 kN / m. The bending moment at G is obviously zero r At the supported ends of a simple beam and at the free end of a cantilevered beam. 30 m under the shear-force diagram and choose -10 2∙5 m a convenient scale to represent the bending -20 moment. These are internal forces that must be in equilibrium with the external applied forces. a sagging beam results an indication as to how the loaded beam will and: deflect.5 m. each member is considered to be pin-jointed at each 6. 0 m 30 - Values of bending moment are calculated using the -50 definition and sign convention. 1. or a pure compression (conventionally designated negative). 50 r other points that experience has shown to be B.5 kNm) occurs at a assume a hogging shape: point between F and G. The force can be a pure tension (conventionally 7. 4. When designing beams in materials such as concrete.e. 3.Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 103 a = 10 m b = 10 m c = 10 m The shear-force diagram in the example has two 4 kN/m points where the shear force is zero.F. Positive bending moments (sagging) cause compression in the top fibres of the beam. under the action of UDL to the right R G = 30 kN of F. At point H we have the maximum bending be no resistance to bending. If the inclusion of other points would be helpful designated positive).5 kNm r ends of the beam. 10 (d) Draw the bending-moment diagram directly 0 0 . The variation of the bending moment under a end so that it can transmit an axial force only in the UDL is parabolic direction of the line connecting the pin joints at each end. One is at E and 2 kN/m P = 10 kN the other is between H and G. It will read a kN + 30 kN 30 value of zero after 2.5 m to the right of F. For the calculation of primary stresses. 100 r where the shear force is zero or changes sign. + critical. the steel reinforcement ME = -(10 × 10) = -100 kNm would have to be placed according to these moments. 10 20 . where there can 5. The position of H can D E F G be calculated from the fact that at F the shear force RE = 40 kN is 10  kN and. and considering each -100 -100 kNm load (to one side of the point) separately.M. For the bending moment at E consider the left (100 kNm) occurs at E and the maximum positive side of this point ME = P × a and the beam would bending moment sagging (112. the bending moment moment: considering the forces to the right of is always zero. the point H is 2.

333 m body diagram for each joint. Method of sections: The free-body diagram RE = (9 + 12 + 12 ) / 2 = 15 kN considered is for a portion of the framework to one side or the other of a cut section.104 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development TIE INTERNAL FORCE EXTERNAL FORCE ∑Mc = 0 (FHG × CG) + (9 × CD) . FHG is found by taking a moment about point C. Force considering the right hand section (RHS) of the cut Thus Stress = 1-1 is in equilibrium. stress is defined as force transmitted or resisted per unit area. This is also called a Pascal (Pa).17 diagram.59 kN ( all 30°.333) . . CD = 11 547 / cos 30° = 13. Application of the equations of equilibrium will solve the unknown forces in the cut section.774 CD = DE = FE / cos 30° A number of different techniques can be used to determine the forces in the members. the body 1 tends to change its shape.(15 × 20) = 0 cut by the section are included in the free-body FHG = 31.333) . C D Example 6. The Find the forces and their direction in the members BH members GH and HB are therefore in tension. RE As the effect of the force is distributed over the cross- section area of the body. MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Direct stress 12 kN 9 kN When a force is transmitted through a body.547 (FBH × 11.(15 × 20) = 0 FBH = 15. and HG by using the method of sections.(RE × 20) = 0 STRUT CG = FX = 10 tan 30° = 5. a stress may be described as a mobilized internal 1 reaction that resists any tendency towards deformation. FE = EX / cos 30° = 11. and the G F fibres doing this work are said to be in a state of stress.547 m Joint analysis: This is based on considering the equilibrium of each joint in turn and using the free. This provides an analytical solution and is most useful when 12 kN 9 kN 2 requiring the answers for one or two members only. 10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m HC = FE = 11. it is often more convenient to use the multiple N / mm2. the many fibres or particles that make up the body transmit the force throughout the length and section of the body.8 H G F 9 kN 12 kN 9 kN 2 E B C D RE H G F A 30° E Take section 2-2. Although these deformations C D are seldom visible to the naked eye.547) + (9 × 13. The forces in the members Hence (FHG × 5. The SI unit for stress is Newtons per square metre (N / m2). However. The forces FHC and FBC have no Area moment about point CBL because they intersect at and pass through the point. E Thus. 60°.774) + (9 × 13. 90° triangle) It can therefore be seen that FGH and FBH must be clockwise to have equilibrium about point C.

7 m × 0. i.49 m2 mm 25 mm 490 kN Stress= σc = = 1 000 kPa or 1 MPa 0.0 m × 19 kN / m3 = 28 kN Consider a steel bar that is thinner at the middle of its Total load = 490 + 28 = 518 kN and length than elsewhere.10 Example 6 kN 6 kN A brick pier is 0. Calculate 6 kN 10 mm (a)  the stress in the brickwork immediately under the column.9 0∙7 m m 0∙7 kN 45 12 45 kN mm Solution a σt = = 150 MPa 300 Cross-section area mm 2 24 = 0.7 m × 3. not breaking but sliding of its fibres. 3m Tensile stress Example 6. it is Shear stress = T = = 76 MPa Example 6.49 m2 6.49 m2 150 mm kN 45 Solution b Weight of pier = 0.11 78. it would be as a Stress = σc = = 1 057 kPa result of breaking where the amount of material is at a 0. It is supporting an axial load from a column of 490 kN. whereas the effect of the force is distributed over a cross-sectional Shear stress 6 kN area of 1 200 mm2 for part of the length of the bar. and (b) the stress at the bottom of the pier. the tensile stress is greatest in the middle and is: A rivet is used to connect two pieces of flat steel. The load is spread uniformly over the top of the pier. Calculate the shear 45 kN σt = = 150 MPa stress of theChange rivet when the steel bars in length $Lare subject to an 300 mm2 Direct strain axial pull = of 6 kN. =E= original length L Compressive stress 490 kN Stress= σc = = 1 000 kPa or 1 MPa 0. which result from forces acting perpendicular to the plane of cross-section in question.e.7 metres square and 3 metres high and weighs 19 kN / m3. . Shear stress is produced by forces acting parallel or tangential to the plane of cross-section and is symbolized with τ (Greek letter tau).49 m2 minimum. are known as normal stress and are usually symbolized with σ (the Greek letter sigma). so the arrow shown in the diagram 6 kN merely represents the resultant of the load. 518 kN If the bar were to fail in tension.5 mm 2 distributed over only 300 mm2 at the middle position. and that is subject to an axial pull of 45 kN. the rivet could fail in shear. Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 105 490 kN Note that 1 N / mm2 = 1 MN / m2 = 1 MPa Tensile and compressive stress. If the loads are large enough. sometimes given a suffix t for tension (σt) or c for compression (σc). The total force tending to cause the bar to fracture is 45 kN at all cross-sections but. Thus.

106 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development Note that although the rivets do. or Young’s modulus and should be the connection by pressing the two steel bars together. strain is proportional to the stress causing it. This is because strain has no units.5 mm2 is to plot a graph of the results of a simple tensile test carried out on a thin mild steel rod. the first portion of the safety margin. considered as a measure of the stiffness of a material.e. FL 108 000 × 4 000 Factor of safety ∆L = = = 1. be less than is called the limit of proportionality (Hooke’s law).5 mm AE 22 500 × 7 800 as the stress increases. Modulus of elasticity = E = = 0.49 m Strain A∆L Cross-section area of rivet = 1/4 × π × 102 = 78. 0. Within the elastic range. not all of the induced strain is recovered. . if a graph is drawn of stress against strain as the structure – in other words there must be an ample the load is gradually applied. are subjected to an axial load of 108  kN each. 22 500 ×15 300 of course. a building code declared graph will be a straight line.3 mm AE 22 500 ×15 300 limiting value of stress is called the elastic limit. Stress = σc = = 1 057 kPa changes in length.1 Behaviour of a mild steel rod under tension Original length L Strained length Example 6. the rivet is 518 kN Stress FL Stress = assumed = all the2 = toσgive c 1 057 kPa strength to the connection. The rod is hung vertically and a series of forces are applied at the lower Strain end. =the 76major MPa deformation is point Lower yield point failure 78. the stresses that would cause failure of the members of Thus. and bearing stresses cause indentation in the bearing surface. where a uniaxial state of stress Upper yield tic Stress at is Shear the usual stress 6 kN Plas stress = T =considered. If the stress is steadily increased.5 mm2 The modulus of elasticity will have the same units as stress (Pa).49torsional-shearing m2 stresses cause twisting. Two gauge points are marked on the rod and the When loads ofChange any typein are applied to $L length a body. Ultimate or maximum stress In farm structures. this strength cannot be calculated easily owing to friction and is therefore neglected. The test is continued until original length L this is called deformation.3 mm The greatest stress for which strain is still proportional The permissible AE stresses must. measuring 150  millimetres square and 4  metres high. This Australian blackwood: ∆L = = = 1. The slope of this straight the life of the builder to be forfeit should the house line is the constant of proportionality. they are seldom significant. mm2 Although there are always small Elastic limit deformations present in the other two dimensions.5 in the axial direction. when the load causing the deformation FL 108 000 × 4 000 is removed. the material returns to its original size and Pine: ∆L = = = 2. Stress (σ) Limit of proportionality ic Elast Change in length $L Direct strain = =E= original length L Srain (ε) Elongation ∆L Figure 6. 518 kN Tensile and compressive stresses cause the rod breaks.5 mm AE 22 500 × 7 800 shape and is said to be elastic. One post is made of pine timber (E = By definition strain is a ratio of change and thus it is a 7  800  MPa) and the other is Australian blackwood (E dimensionless quantity. 6 kN Shear stress = T = = 76 MPa A convenient way of demonstrating elastic behaviour 78. in fact. = 15  300  MPa). a point is reached when. the deformation also increases.  i. strengthen elasticity (E). ∆L = = length L = 4 000 mm Cross-section area A = 22 500 mm2. This is called the modulus of elasticity. after the removal of FL 108 000 × 4 000 the load. In many cases. (In 2  000  BC. the body distance between them is measured after each force Direct strain = will always undergo dimension E= =changes.12 L + ∆L Two timber posts. increment has been added. How much will they shorten because of the load? Elasticity FL 108 000 × 4 000 All solid materials deform when they are stressed and. modulus of collapse and kill the owner). = 2.

Wind loads are imposed loads. a grain bin may be affected by dynamic loading if filled suddenly from a suspended hopper.  e. Other materials. in order to save materials. partitions and finishes. etc. different factors of safety are sometimes This principle states that the effect of a number of loads considered for common loading systems and for applied at the same time is the algebraic sum of the exceptional loading systems. but are usually treated Ultimate (or yield) stress Design stress = as a separate category owing to their transitory nature factor of safety and their complexity. Common loadings are those that occur frequently. the model). opposite in direction to that of the dead load. can be calculated from the For these and other reasons. such as the: cause the roof structure to lift. structure. This margin is called the factor of self-weight of some members must be made before safety. weight of stored products. Very often wind loading proves to be the most critical load imposed on agricultural In the case of a material such as concrete. have a yield point where a sudden increase in strain When designing a structure. such as steel. maximum values at the same time.g. including roof. etc. furniture and people who use the building. Dynamic loading results from a change of loading. wind loads and other imposed loads. while loads. etc. the factor of safety is could give rise to the most critical loading condition. . r permanency of the loads. e. resulting directly from the movement of loads. it is necessary to ensure manufacturer’s data sheets. superimposed loads because they are in addition to the r level of quality control ensuring that the materials dead loads. shape. Imposed r uniformity of the building material. are in accordance with their specifications.4 are chosen when related to yield-point stress. allowable stress structural elements cannot be accurately determined and permissible stress are less than the ultimate stress until the design is completed. height and that behave in a linear manner up to failure. wind pressure. Wind loads are naturally dependent on wind not have a well defined yield point. which occur less frequently + = and seldom at full intensity.g. vehicles. Hence estimates of or the yield stress. livestock. 3 kN 1 kN 4 kN 4 kN 7 kN 5 kN earthquakes. and at which point the stress is lower than consider which combination of dead and imposed loads the ultimate stress. and values of 1. light open sheds). size. but the self-weight of the that the design stress. r type of stresses developed.Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 107 Also. as well as adversely Applied loads affecting the functional needs. it Values of 3 to 5 are normally chosen when the factor of is not sufficient to consider the load solely when the bin safety is related to ultimate stress. the factor construction of a building. In some cases (for The value of the factor of safety has to be chosen example. which does buildings. wind loads may tend to with a variety of conditions in mind. In the case of building materials such as steel Principle of superposition and timber. e. r purpose of the building. equipment. whereas a smaller safety margin may be considered 4 kN 2 kN 6 kN 2 kN 4 kN 6 kN for exceptional loadings. loads where applicable. of safety is related to the ultimate stress (maximum Specific information concerning various load types stress before breakage). is presented in Chapter 8. it is necessary to occurs. Imposed loads are loads related to the use of the r probability of casualties or big economic losses in structure and to the environmental conditions. loads include earthquake loads. deformations must be limited because excessive STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND LOADING deflection may give rise to problems such as cracking of ceilings. floor. The self-weight of some parts of a actual behaviour of the structure is concerned. For r cost of building materials. they may be only approximate as far as the walls. Applied loads fall into three main categories: dead Structural design is not an exact science and. case of failure. producing an effect r accuracy in the loading assumptions. 2. wind loads and snow r workmanship expected from the builder. or brittle materials speed. weight of all permanent construction. working stress. roof cladding. effects of the loads applied singly. but also on location. calculated values of reactions. example. stresses. In this case. related to the yield stress in order to avoid unacceptable Not all the imposed loads will necessarily reach their deformations.e.4 to is either empty or full. commencing a design analysis and the values checked upon completion of the design.g. may be Dead loads are loads resulting from the self- mathematically correct for the theoretical structure (i. and are sometimes referred to as r strength properties of the materials.

are derived from the primary load is obtained. Standard case values of shear force. concrete has little or no strength in tension Ties and struts and is therefore unsuitable for use alone as a tie. However. Secondary load effects. framework called a pin-jointed truss or lattice frame such as deflection. X Column Rods or bars under compression are the basis for vertical structural elements such as columns. stanchions. and subsequently their combined effects are considered when giving the member its size and shape. to bending. will be transmitted through the structure. The choice of material for a member may be influenced to some extent by the type of loading. but as load effects. while members in compression are called struts. bending Cable moment or deflection at particular positions along a Cables. bars and poles are used to resist tensile or Y compressive loads. Cables are the most efficient structural elements because they allow every fibre of the cross- Effects of loading section to resist the applied loads up to any allowable After the loads have been transformed into definable stress. which has a specific orientation with respect to the three axes. . Any single load or combination of loads can give rise to one or more of these primary load effects. strings. after which the total value because of their small lateral dimensions in relation to of such parameters for the actual loading system can be their length. slabs and roof trusses to the foundations. after which the load effects are first studied separately for one axis at a time. Rod Z Rods. loads and members in tension are called ties. Primary load effects A primary load effect is defined as being the direct result of a force or a moment. the full cross section can be considered and the full allowable stress for the material can be used in design calculations. shear. Loads are not transmitted as such. In a rod or a bar under axial tension. They may be loaded axially or they may have to be designed to resist bending when the load is eccentric.108 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development Using standard load cases and applying the principle Structural elements of superposition. when considering a structural member that occupies a certain space (see the figure below). When bars are connected with pin joints and the Tension. the forces and moments are resolved into their components along the axes. bending and torsion resulting structure loaded at the joints. In more complex situations. ropes and wires are flexible member can be evaluated. It is usual practice to orientate the Cartesian z-z axis along the length of the member and the x-x and y-y axes along the horizontal and vertical cross-sectional axes respectively. and therefore have very limited resistance found by algebraic summation. piers Z X and pillars. They are often used to transfer load effects Y from beams. In most cases. their application is limited by the fact load systems. a structural are all primary load effects. complex loading patterns can be solved. For instance. cords. a member will be designed basically to sustain one load effect. the designer must consider how the loads that they can be used only in tension. usually the one producing the greatest effect. compression. The members are subjected only to axial effects.

in ends TIE Deflection shape BOW STRING ARCH Simply supported Frames Plane frames are also made up of beams and columns.e. the only difference being that they are rigidly connected at the joints. even though the shear capacity will be reduced. an Sp Simple arch Built . S T T S The span that a beam can usefully cover is limited by S S the self-weight of the beam. The safe span for long. the beam. This problem of horizontal thrust can be eliminated by connecting a tension member between the support points. and shear stresses.Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 109 The load on a beam causes longitudinal tension and compression stresses. and within. T T T T T S S S S S S S T T T T T T Web Flanges Hallow web beam Beam A beam is a member used to resist a load acting across its longitudinal axis by transferring the effect over a distance between supports – referred to as the span. shear force Cantilever and axial force. . lightly loaded beams can be increased somewhat S S S S S S by removing material from the web. Arch The arch can be shaped such that. Arches exert vertical and horizontal thrusts on their supports. Internal forces at any cross-section of the plane frame member are: bending moment. i. it will eventually reach a T T T length when it is capable of supporting only itself. this problem is overcome with the hollow web beam and the lattice girder or frame. all sections of the arch are under simple compression with no bending. which can prove troublesome in the design of supporting walls. for a particular loading. To a degree. Their S S magnitudes will vary along.

Note that the centroid is sometimes Calculation of moment of inertia outside the actual cross-section of the structural element. is a property that When designing beams in bending. The moment of inertia about the x-x axis of Reference axes such a strip is the area of the strip multiplied by the It is usual to consider the reference axes of structural square of the perpendicular distance from its centroid sections as those passing through the centroid. or to use the more PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL SECTIONS correct term. and is an important factor in its basic geometrical properties of the cross-sections of resistance to bending. columns in measures the distribution of area around a particular buckling. of the material from which a beam is made. neutral axis. This is a point about which the area of the section is evenly distributed. C x x +d 2 bd3 Ixx = ∫ −d 2 by2 dy = 12 y . it is necessary to use the moment of inertia of a section about the relevant axis Centre of gravity or centroid or axes. and are allowed for Area in other ways. it is necessary to refer to a number of axis of a cross-section. The best shape structural members are given in millimetres. etc. such as the strength structural members. and values for a section is one that has the greater part of its area as for design stresses found in tables are usually given in distant as possible from its centroidal. By applying calculus and integrating as follows. b × ∆y × y2 the x-x axis is drawn perpendicular to the greatest lateral dimension of the section. ∆y y d/2 y C x x x x d/2 y y The sum of all such products is the moment of inertia about the x-x axis for the whole cross-section. Other factors.. i. and the y-y axis is drawn b perpendicular to the x-x axis. For design purposes. In general. because the dimensions of most its value as a beam or slender column. to the x-x axis.110 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development y C x x y Moment of inertia The area moment of inertia (I). are also important for resistance to bending. the exact value for the moment of inertia can be obtained. The moment of inertia measures only Cross-section areas (A) are generally calculated in how the geometric properties or shape of a section affect square millimetres. intersecting it at the centroid.e. Consider a rectangle that consists of an infinite number of strips. Newtons per millimetre square (N / mm2). second moment of area.

the Ixx = (22.025 ×106 6 Timber 38x100 = 10. The Iyy of the above beam section is most easily found Principle of parallel axes by adding the Iyy of the three rectangles of which According to the principle of parallel axes.13 86 Determine the moment of inertia about the x-x axis and the y-y axis for the I-beam shown in the figure. For structural rolled-steel sections.2 106×mm 4 106 mm4 12 12 . Solution: Ixx I The entire cross-section of both the beam and the Zxx1 = . 100 × 863 300 ×103 Iyy = 2 × + 12 12 86 = 2 × 5. the F-F axis is the centroidal axis for the top flange. if the it consists. Zxx2 = xx y1 y2 cross-section of the web have their centroids on the x-x axis. which is therefore their centroidal axis. The beam has a web of 10 mm plywood and the flanges are made of 38 mm by 100 mm timber. and moments of inertia may be added or beam shown below) about any axis is parallel to its subtracted if they are related to the same axis.5 × 106) + (351.2 × 106) + (351.6 ×106 mm4 F F 100 Section modulus In problems involving bending stresses in beams. a 200 property called section modulus (Z) is useful. centroidal axis.3.5 4 106 mm4 y1 12 12 12 12 x x The moment of inertia of one flange about its own y2 centroidal axis (F-F): y 86 × 1003 86 × 100 3 IFF of one flange = = 7. +d 2 bd3 Ixx = ∫ by dy6 =– Basic Chapter −d 2 2 12 mechanics 111 For a circular cross-section: and from the principle of parallel axes.5 =× 106×mm 22. Unsymmetrical cross-sections Sections for which a centroidal reference axis is not an axis of symmetry will have two section moduli for that axis.g. It is the Plywood x x ratio of the moment of inertia (I) about the neutral axis 500 300 10 of the section to the distance (C) from the neutral axis to the edge of the section. then the product of the area of the shape and the square of the perpendicular distance between 100 300 100 the axes must be added to the moment of inertia about the centroidal axis of that shape.2 × 106) + (86 × 100 × 2002) = 351. top flange of the neutral axis. y bd bd103 × 300 3 3 = = 10 × 300 3 Ixx of the web using = 22. because the y-y axis is their common moment of inertia of any area (e.2 × 106) moment of inertia can be found tabulated in handbooks. 10 y Example 6.2=×7.2 × 106 mm4 64 Thus the total Ixx of the web plus two flanges equals: Moments of inertia for other cross-sections are given later and in Table 4.3 ×10 + 0. the Ixx of one flange equals: PD4 Ixx = (7.3. = 725 × 106 mm4 Some examples are given in Appendix V. which are nailed and glued to the plywood web. Similarly.

Slender compression members tend to buckle about the axis for which the radius of gyration is a minimum value. to estimate their slenderness ratio and hence their tendency to buckle.3 Properties of structural sections Section Area Moment Section Radius Distance from (mm2) of inertia modulus of gyration extreme fibre or (m2) (mm4) or (m4) (mm3) or (m3) (mm) or (m) to centroid (mm) or (m) A Ixx Iyy Zxx Zyy rxx ryy y x Rectangle bd bd 3 db 3 bd 2 db d b d b y= 12 12 6 6 12 12 2 d b d y= G d 12 12 2 y a Square a2 a4 a4 a3 a3 a a a y=x= 12 12 6 6 12 12 2 y y G a x x y x Square a2 a4 a4 a3 a3 a a a y y=x= with 12 12 6 2 6 2 12 12 2 a y diagonal G axes x x y x y Circle D2 D4 D4 D3 D3 D D D x y= 4 64 64 32 32 4 4 2 D x= x G x 2 y y y Annulus (D2 − d2) (D4 − d4) (D4 − d4) (D3 − d3) (D3 − d3) D x 4 (D2 d2) 4 (D2 d2) y= 4 64 32 32 32 2 y D x= d x G x 2 y D Radius of gyration I I I I Radius of gyration (r) is the property of a cross-section rxx r=xx = xx xx and ryy r=yy = yy yy Therefore.112 Rural structures in the tropics: design and development TABLE 6. it is used in relation to the length of compression (general relationship I = Ar2) members. . In structural design. it will be seen that the least radius of gyration is related to the axis about which the least moment of inertia occurs. A A A A that measures the distribution of the area of the cross- section in relation to the axis. such as columns and struts. From the equations.

Morgan. Find the position of the section that has to support the greatest bending moment. Obtain an expression for the maximum bending moment at a section of the girder at a distance of z metres from an abutment. N. materials and design of structural elements. Roy. Materials and structures. 1986.B. analysis. Delhi. . New York. Two concentrated loads of 100  kN and 200  kN advance along a girder with a 20-metre span. S. 2009. Englewood Cliffs. 2000. Structure in architecture: the building of buildings. 4. 2 L 1 L Whitlow. 2B. 20th edition. I. Find the reactions on beam BC. S. & Meador. R..L. Nath Market. at a distance of 10  metres. Sketch the shear and bending moment diagrams Al Nageim. Light agricultural and industrial structures: analysis and design. the distance between the loads being 8 metres. Durka. 2. indicating values of shear D.B.K & Chakrabarty. W. F. Manbeck. Fundamentals of structural analysis with computer analysis and b) W N/m applications. 2010. Prasad. Chand and Company Ltd. Pearson Education. A 2 3 60˚ 60˚ 1 B C 4 5 P L/2 L/2 3. London. G.. New Jersey. Prentice-Hall. a) Nelson. 3 3 Longman. Structural mechanics: loads. force and bending moment at the key points. & Heller. Ram Nagar. New Delhi. S.. Khanna Publishers. and calculate the value of the bending moment. 3rd edition. M. A load of 100  kN. AVI Book Co. 7th edition. H. A text book of strength of materials.F. 1973. Salvadori. H. & Williams for the beams below.Chapter 6 – Basic mechanics 113 REVIEW QUESTIONS FURTHER READING 1. R. advances across a girder with a 100-metre span. 1988. Nai Sarak.T. followed by another load of 50  kN.