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Part 1: Written Assignment (Individual- 30%


Curriculum is the foundation of an education system. This is because it decides what kind of
subjects will the students learn, the pedagogical skills, teaching and learning materials and
other important aspects that will determine the achievement of students’ learning. Curriculum
should always be a dynamic process as it helps students to keep pace with the constantly
changing society such as the advancement of technology and economy (Kelly, 2009).
Moreover, curriculum involves proper planning. Thus, there are various stakeholders who are
involved in developing and implementing a curriculum, each with different roles. This essay
will elucidate on the roles of different stakeholders which are students, teachers, school heads,
parents, community members, district administrators and school boards in the development
and implementation of a curriculum.

Typically, stakeholders refers to “any group or individual who is affected by or can
affect the achievement of an organization’s objectives” (Freeman & McVea, 2001). In schools,
students are the main stakeholders because it revolves around them, it is created for them.
To determine if a curriculum is successful or not, it is determined by the quality of learning
achieved by students (Stabback, 2016). Furthermore, students are the ones affected by the
curriculum planned. For instance, one of the underlying pedagogical principle in Standard
Based Curriculum for Primary Schools (KSSR) is that learning should be student-centred
(Ministry of Education, 2015). With such principal, the students may feel more motivated in
learning (Weimer, 2011). Moreover, the students are more active when participating in a
lesson and they tend to take ownership of their learning. Thus, the role of students as a
stakeholder may vary according to the development of curriculum.

Without teachers, there is no implementation of the curriculum. Bajpai (2013) stated
that as teachers are the ones who ensure that the students’ needs are met, they are also
responsible in implementing the curriculum in the classroom. Aside from that, they develop
the already existing curriculum according to their pupils’ learning needs. For example, a
teacher simplifies a complicated text through drawings for her pupils who are spatially
intelligent. They are not only an active implementer but are also an adapter of the curriculum
(Keiny, 1993). This can be exemplified through teachers’ adaptation of a theory into their
lesson. In order to ensure that teachers are aligned with the vision of the school, school heads
play a role in leading other teachers. They work closely with teaching and non-teaching staffs
to plan programmes such as seminars, workshops and meetings that can achieve the
objectives of a curriculum (Zambia Daily Mail, 2015). Therefore, teachers and school heads
have the role of developing and implementing the curriculum.

Majority parents provide necessary school supplies and spare their time to ensure that their children complete their homework (Russell & Granville. they are to ensure that the schools in their respective districts follow the developed curriculum. the roles of stakeholders vary according to their position in the society. This is because without the involvement of the stakeholders.d. implement and assess policies which are conformed to the federal laws (Beckham & Wills. Both work closely together in implementing and overseeing the curriculum in schools. Besides. 2014). Hence. have the role in influencing the development of the curriculum. they attend teacher-parent meetings to show their support and to be aware of the school policy or changes. parents invest their faith in the school’s curriculum as they want to see their children excel (Brady & Kennedy. Stakeholders with higher position such as school boards and district administrations are the ones who determine the type of curriculum to be adapted in schools. being the child’s ultimate guidance. As for district administrators. it may lead to a deterioration of . Moreover. model and pick up their habits from. although not directly but parents and community members do have a role in implementing and developing the curriculum. 1996). However. School board appoints district administrators and district administrators have the support from the school board to introduce and provide learning environment improvement (Colorado Association of School Boards. district administrators prepares and proposes a budget to the school board. Therefore. Parents. Parents’ involvement in their children’s school life has a positive impact upon student performance (Khan. teachers and school heads have a direct contact with the curriculum whereby they are the ones to implement the curriculum. school board and district administrators have a more top-down responsibility in the developing of the curriculum. 2005). For this reason. This is where the community members should step in to provide basic supplies for the underprivileged students. For example. some parents do not have sufficient resources to support their children.). the objectives of curriculum cannot be achieved. Moreover.). Additionally. n. Last but not least. They can engage themselves in the student learning by providing opportunities such as experiential learning and project-based learning which happen beyond the classroom. For instance. the school board will consider and revise the proposed budget. school board and district administrators have significant roles in the implementing and developing curriculum. They are the ones that students at a young age.d. then. n. community members should get connected with the school curriculum. it is essential that every stakeholder carry out their roles respectively for the success of curriculum to be implemented and developed in schools. In conclusion. This is because they are considered to be the overseers of the curriculum. Whereas stakeholders such as students. school boards function as legislative agencies because they develop.

stakeholders should be aware of their roles and responsibility in the implementation and development of the curriculum. .the education of that country. Therefore.

com/sol3/ a-major-stakeholder-1. Great Britain: SAGE Publication. Retrieved March 21. Colorado Association of School Boards. 65-93. & Granville. What Makes A Quality Curriculum: Current and Critical Issues in Curriculum and Learning. J. Curriculum Construction. Retrieved March 21. Parental Involvement in Education: Possibilities and Limitations: The School Community Journal. A Learner-Centered Approach Affects Student Motivation. K.cfm?abstract_id=263511. J. The Curriculum: Theory and Practice. Darden Business School Working Paper.1080/0965079930010105 Kelly. (1996). 2018 from http://education. 2018 from http://papers. assistance/roles/schooldistrict-administrators Freeman. S. & Kennedy. 2018 from https://www. (2001). Stabback. (2015).my/ B. (n. 2018 from http://gulfnews. Retrieved March 22.ssrn. (n.). S. 15-41. learner-centered-approach-affects-student-motivation/ . V. Retrieved March 22. Retrieved March 21. (2009). B.html Brady. & Wills. DOI: 10. (2005).References Bajpai. L. K. S. E.ed. 2018 from https://safesupportivelearning. School-Based Curriculum Development as a Process of Teachers’ Professional Development: Educational Action Research.stateuniversity. 2(2). July 15). (2014).1200247 Beckham. Responsibilities. and Legal Basis for Local School Board Powers. Decision-Making. M. 57-68. Parents' Views on Improving Parental Involvement in Children's Education. Retrieved March 21. (2013. (1993). A Stakeholder Approach to Strategic Management. Weimer (2011. 2018 from http://www.d. 6(1). A. March 28). The Classroom Teacher is a Major 1(1).gov. Duties.d. School/District Administrators. (2016). & McVea. Retrieved March K. 2018 from https://www. Malaysia: Pearson.facultyfocus. Dokumen Standard Kurikulum Dan Pentaksiran (DSKP) KSSR. Ministry of Education.php/my/pegawai-perkhidmatan-pendidikan/dokumen- standard-kurikulum-dan-pentakdiran-dskp Russell.

Retrieved March 22. Head Teachers have Important ( . from https://www. May 1).Zambia Daily Mail.