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SAFETY

I. INTRODUCTION TO SAFETY
A. Famous Safety Incidents
1. Flixborough Disaster (United Kingdom, 1974)- cyclohexane oxidation plant
- killed 28 people and 36 people injured
- temporary bypass pipe between reactor 4 and 6 was
installed by not professionally qualified engineers

2. Tenerife Airport Disaster (Spain, 1977)- Boeing 747 collides with another
Boeing 747 taxing on the runway during its take-off
- 538 people died
- miscommunication; zero visibility due to the fog

3. Three Mile Island Accident (United States, 1979)- partial nuclear meltdown
- mechanical failure which allowed large amounts of
nuclear reactor coolant to escape
- no deaths and injuries

4. Bhopal Disaster (India, 1984)- Union Carbide
- gas leak because the water preventer was not closed
- the plant itself is poorly designed
- 4000 to 20000 deaths in a span of 90 minutes

5. San Juanico Explosion (Mexico, 1984)- cause of accident not fully established
due to extensive damage
- hypothesis (gas leak due to pipe rapture)
- 500 to 600 deaths; 5000 to 7000 others suffer severe burns

6. Chernobyl Disaster (Ukraine, 1986)- a reactor overheated because control rods
were not installed during maintenance
- steam explosion killed up to 50 people with estimation that
there may be 4000-7000 additional cancer deaths

7. Tianjin Explosion (China, 2015)- immediate cause was the spontaneous ignition
of overly dry nitrocellulose stored in a container that
overheated
- flames from the initial fire reached the nearby ammonium
nitrate fertilizer of about 800 tons which exploded
- 172 deaths, 8 missing, 797 non-fatal injuries

8. Kentex Slipper Factory Fire (Philippines, 2015)- 74 deaths

Risk.Experience T.critical aspect of chemical engineering D. or too much information 2. Inspection and Maintenance 4.Fundamentals E. engineering.Time Y. Design 3. Outstanding Safety Program.H.a chemical or physical condition that has potential to cause damage to people. environmental damage. property. Ingredients of a Successful Safety Program S.framework for managing the integration of operating systems and process handling of hazardous substances by application of good design principles. or the environment F. B. Process Safety. Emergency Response 10.System A. Major Failures that Lead to Safety Incidents 1. unclear. Permit to Work Systems 9. Blind Operation.identifies and eliminates existing safety hazards I. Not learning from Near-misses 7. Good Safety Program.measure of human injury.the prevention of accidents using applied technologies to identify the hazards and eliminate them before an accident occurs . Knowledge and Training 5. Hazard. and operating practices .prevention and control of incidents that have the potential to release hazardous materials and energy .Attitude F.You H. Fawcett (1980) C.has management systems that prevent the existence of safety hazards . Safety. Human Factors “To know is to survive and to ignore fundamentals is to count disaster”.H.loss prevention E.incorrect. Management of Change 6. or economical loss in terms of both incident likelihood and the magnitude of the loss or injury G. Operating Practices 8.

and 5S 5S: Sort.protect every workingman against the dangers of injury.part of daily work and it becomes a habit Rule 1070: Occupational Health & Environmental Control. space requirements. emergency assembly point. and duties and responsibilities of safetyman No.measurement of performance Rule 1060: Premises of Establishments. red tag technique Set in Order. follow and enforce them Sustain.composition of health safety committee. threshold limit values for noise & permissible noise levels. illumination.include work conditions or practices not covered by the standards and hazardous workplaces Rule 1020: Registration Rule 1030: Training of Personnel in Occupational Safety and Health. sickness or death through safe and healthy working conditions Rule 1000: General Provisions. manholes.a place for everything and everything in its place Shine. stairway. ladderway opening.clean and inspect or inspect through cleaning Standardize. railings. and general ventilation . duties of health and safety committee. health. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS IN THE PHILIPPINES Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).danger.include duties of employers and workers and other personnel. move it out. and welfare of people at work Occupational Safety and Health Standards. do not enter.when in doubt. fire exit.make up the rules.concerned with the safety. construction and maintenance.threshold limit values for airborne contaminants. confidentiality of trade secrets Rule 1010: Other Safety Rules. of Workers No. terms of office Rule 1050: Notification and Keeping of Records of Accidents and/or Occupational Illness.include training programs. appointment of safetyman in the workplace.II. toeboards. of Safetyman Hazardous Workplace 200 and below 1 part-time SM Over 200 to 1000 1 full-time SM For every 1000 workers 1 full-time SM Non-Hazardous Workplace Less than 100 1 part-time SM For every 1000 1 full-time SM Rule 1040: Health and Safety Committee.

they must be aware of the risk involved with each activity and the measures that must be taken to minimize the risks B.all safety precautions and procedures must be collated here .evacuation plan must include at least two (2) evacuation routes . Safety Manual. Laboratory Safety A. Laboratory Personnel.safety inspection fees. respiratory protection.must be publicized and accessible to all staff .assist in the proper identification of materials conveyed in piping systems Rule 1410: Construction Safety Rule 1420: Logging Rule 1940: Fire Protection and Control Rule 1950: Pesticides and Fertilizers Rule 1960: Occupational Health Services Rule 1970: Fees. hand and arm protection. Rule 1080: Personal Protective Equipment and Device. Access to Laboratory & Emergency Plans. emergencies preparedness is the responsibility of everyone .access to laboratory must be restricted to authorized personnel only .eye & face protection. and the most direct means of egress from the facility . use of safety shoes Rule 1090: Hazardous Materials Rule 1100: Gas and Electric Wielding and Cutting Operations Rule 1120: Hazardous Work Processes.emergency exits C.must be trained in laboratory safety .adoption of the Philippine Electrical Code Rule 1220: Elevators and Related Equipment Rule 1230: Identification of Piping System.underground tank and similar confined spaces work Rule 1140: Explosives Rule 1150: Materials Handling and Storage Rule 1160: Boilers Rule 1170: Unfired Pressure Vessels Rule 1200: Machine Guarding Rule 1210: Electrical Safety. shortest. and safety nets. certificates of safety practitioner and consultants Rule 1980: Authority of Local Government Rule 1990: Final Provision III. head protection.primary route should be identified. safety belts. life lines.emergencies are not planned.

the unit should be at least 12-lb unit.should be understood F. Emergency Equipment.some of the equipment needs to be built in.D. Chemical Safety Transport Pictograms . Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). no more than 25 ft Emergency Light First Aid Kit Fire Alarm Pull Station Absorptive Material Personal Protective Equipment and Janitorial Supplies Combustible Gas and Toxic Fume Testing Equipment Oxygen Meter.must be placed in an easily accessible location.5 % E.ensure that the oxygen level is above the acceptable limit of 19.should be capable about a gallon/s with a water pressure of 20 to 50 psi Fire Extinguishers. should be no more than 100 feet and travel time should not exceed 10 seconds Deluge Shower. as part of the fixed equipment in the laboratory Eyewash Station.

trash. release a lock latch or press a puncture lever Aim.if an overhead wire falls across your vehicle while you are driving. and enough fuel Major Causes of Fire: . matches. enough heat.enough oxygen. wood.fire by closing all doors in the fire area Extinguish.the extinguisher at the base of the fire Squeeze.small fires.misuse of electricity .IV.never operate electrical equipment while you are standing in water .nearest fire alarm and call your response telephone number Contain. leave the area How to Properly Use a Fire Extinguisher: Pull. grease Type C.have a qualified electrician inspect electrical equipment .always use caution when working near electricity B.the handle of the fire extinguisher Sweep. Fire Safety Combustion Process. Electrical Safety.improper rubbish disposal .anyone in immediate danger of the fire Alarm.combustible Type K.carelessness with smoking. paper Type B. and open fire . stay inside the vehicle and continue to drive away from the line . INDUSTRIAL SAFETY Industrial Safety.the pin. for protecting its employees and assets A.cooking media Four Essential Steps When You Discover a Fire: Rescue. DROP.assume that all overhead wires are energized at lethal voltages .liquids. if fire cannot be extinguished.from side-to-side at the base of the flame When you are on fire: STOP.electrical equipment Type D. and ROLL .refers to the management of all operations and events within an industry.stay at least 10 feet (3 m) away from overhead wires during cleanup and other activities .improper storage of flammable materials Fire Classes: Type A.never repair electrical equipment unless qualified & authorized .

Who will be the responsible in identification? .The way in which the identification reports are processed . or vibration . noise.transport hazards . lack of communication. entanglement. and other hazards from arising equipment . Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Management System Model for this OHSAS Standard Cycle: Plan => Do => Check =>Act OH&S Policy => Planning => Implementation and Operation => Checking and Corrective Action => Management Review => Continual Improvement B. bullying. Chemical Hazards. or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health 1. and depression .substances hazardous to health due to inhalation of vapors. ISO 18000 SERIES AND HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION RISK ASSESSMENT AND DETERMINING CONTROLS A.The identification time frame . gases. allergens.excessive workload.biological agents.objects falling from height .poor ergonomics .recognizing that a hazard exists and defining its characteristics Hazard.harmful energy such as electricity.manual handling . situation. the storage. intimidation C.source. physical violence. burns. particles. Physical Hazards. Biological Hazards.slippery or uneven grounds . or pathogens 4. Hazard Identification Considerations . and Determining Controls) Hazard Identification.situations that can lead to negative psychosocial conditions such as stress.V. fatigue. Psychosocial Hazards. contact with or being absorbed through the body.fire and explosion .violence of staff leading to physical harm 2.working at height . anxiety.inadequate space at work . incompatibility or degradation of materials 3. Risk Assessment. radiation. OHSAS 18001:2007 (Hazard Identification.trappings.

Medium. never occurred Remote. Low.may be acceptable and further reduction may not be necessary . Engineering Controls.is practically impossible. Prioritization of Identified Risks 1. quantitative 1.change the way people work 5. Severity Catastrophic. Elimination. Substitution.action taken must be documented on the risk assessment form 2.action taken must be documented too 3. High.A time-frame for reviewing and if necessary. bruises.non-fatal injury. Likelihood of Occurrence Inconceivable.requires planned approach to control the hazard .physically remove the hazard 2.replace the hazard 3. Risk Assessment Approaches. revisiting the methodology D. major property damage if hazard is realized Serious.most likely result of the hazard/ event being realized 2.minor abrasions.qualitative. Administrative Controls.numerous fatalities.isolate the people from the hazard 4. irrecoverable property damage and productivity Fatal.has not been known to occur after many years Conceivable.might occur sometime in the future Possible.requires immediate action to control the hazard . semi-qualitative. cuts.has good chance of occurring and not unusual Most Likely.The keeping of record of hazards .disabling but not permanent injury Negligible. permanent disability Minor. Hierarchy of Controls 1.apply temporary measure if required .if risk can be resolved quickly and efficiently. . PPE. first-aid type of injury E.protect the worker with PPE . control measures should be implemented and recorded F.approximately one fatality.