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Bagaimana Menulis


Mengapa harus menulis
• Alat penyalur ide
• Merupakan alat komunikasi penelitian
• Perencanaan untuk aemua yang
dibuthkan dalam penelitian seperti
SDM, Akat dan bahan, dan dana
• Penghubung pada lembaga pemilik
dana yang akan membiayai penelitian
• Menentukan tahap-tahap yang

still you need a plan • Proposal Kompetitif. to several months. Hibah B . Tipe proposal penelitian • Proposal Tugas Akhir berlangsung 3 bulan • Proposal Jangka panjang 5-tahun. untuk peneliti murni • Jangka menengah. proyek Diknas (Hibah. 1-2 tahun. DUE. RUT. Seperti QUE. 1 hr. Biasanya dananya besar. TPSDP. dsb) • Shorh-run.

PKM Penerapan Teknologi (PKMT) 6 juta .PKM Penulisan Ilmiah (PKMI) 1. untuk TA menyangkut kegamaan (3 juta) • Proposal Bogasari : berhubungan dengan tepung (3 juta) .5 juta • Proposal MIZAN.PKM Pengabdian Masyarakat (PKMM) 5 juta .Jenis proposal yang didanai (Untuk Skala S-1) • Proposal Program Kreatifitas Mahasiswa (PKM) .PKM Kewirausahaan (PKMK) 6 juta .

termasuk asal alt dan bahan tersebut) . penting. Harus berhubungan dengan latar belakang penelitian • Bahan dan Alat (Harus lengkap. Komponen proposal (1) • Judul/Tema (Sangat Penting karena komunikasi pertama bagi pembaca) • Abstract/executive summary. karena beberapa pembaca butuh waktu cepat untuk membaca proposal anda • Latar belakang dan Masalah (Menyangkut mengapa penelitian ini perlu dilakukan) • Tinjauan Pustaka (Utamakan Pustaka Primer).

Bibliografi (semua yang berhubungan dengan literatur) • Apendiks (tulis kata yang kira-kira penting) . Komponen proposal (1) • Metode atau tahap pemelitian (tulis secara spesifik. jika metode diadaptasi dari peneliti lain tulis pustakanya) • Pustaka (sitasi pustaka yang aktual).

analysis. determine) – Include technique only if it is unique • Include areas covered or sample only if it is unique • Title pages generally identify the author(s) and their professional affiliations • important to recognize any assistance that you received (Indicates to a granting agency you willingnes to recognize their support as well) . Title Page • Titles Should be Descriptive – Avoid empty words (evaluate.

and their importance . Abstract/Executive Summary • Generally no more than one page • Should include: – Brief statement of the problem and why it is important – Brief description of the research procedures to be used – Possible outcomes and outputs.

Problem Statement (1) • Your opportunity to establish importance of topic • Sources of problems – Disciplinary. may involve multiple disciplines – Serendipity. theory. applied. usually involve single discipline – Real world. luck .

trade publications – Listening – Meditation. your mission in life . contemplation – Generating luck – Be sure its important to you. inspiration – Writing. Problem Statement (2) • How do you identify important problems? – Reading. can your idea be communicated or do you need to do more thinking. contemplation. professional journals. meditation. reading.

Problem Statement (3) • Criteria for importance – Welfare of society – Better explanations of real world – Improved theory. intuition • End your problem statement with questions that are unanswered – Verify result found by someone else – Extend the body of knowledge by proposing to answer new questions – What is it that you want to know? . conceptual foundations – Curiosity.

it is important that you approach those that are most important – Quantifiable-if possible . Objectives/Purpose • Concise statement of what you want to accomplish-fllows nicely as responses to the question from the problem statement • Criteria for objectives – Realistic given the resources available or requested – Spesific-lets the reader know you have a good idea of what you will accomplish – Comprehensive-while you can’t perhaps answer every question suggested by the problem statement.

Originality of Research/Previous Literature • In your statement of what you will do. state: – Similarity to previous research – Contribution to knowledge (how your work is uniqeu) • May or may not be a separate section • Possible problems – Incomplete. key missing publication – Misinterpret key result from another source – Include irrelevant literature – Best if organized around topics/problem rather than articles .

existing secondary sources. be as specific as possible. Plan of Research (1) • Why your method is superior to all others – Appears to be bias toward quantitative research tools – Consider several alternatives • How will you reach a conclusion for each objective or subjective? • Statement of feasibility-outline all procedures – Data requirements. be as specific as possible – Other resources. software. . collection methods. include questionnaires if they are to be used – Equipment. travel etc.

when resources will be needed – Should be tied to the budgets (time and money) for the project . Plan of Research (2) • Flow charts and diagrams are sometimes very helpful • Time lines – Identification and assignment of tasks to time period and to individuals – Be realistic about time requirements – Do not promise too much with too few resources – Build in time for reporting results – Forecast timing of dollars flows.

conceptual model) – Appropriate techniques to model the system – Collect data – Analyze data-just because it comes from a computer. it isn’t necessarily correct – Inferences from the analysis – Report and interpret – Peer review and publish – Publish empirical work in popular press . Plan of Research (3) • Research process – Recognize and define the problem – Define the objective – Statement of how the system works (theory.

Publications • Much greater probability of successful publication if the audience is in mind when the proposal is written • Relevance of the research to the readership. too much frustration if you try to publish to uninterested audience • Ability of reviewers to understand its importance • May consider three publication types – Journal article-many more outlets today than 10 years ago – Professional presentation – Popular press .

author(s). page numbers • Start an annotated word processing file as soon as you begin your project (card file is also appropriate). or copy articles (write relevant journal information on the front page of the copy) . title. References (1) • Check to see if annotated bibliographies are available on your subject • Start from the beginning with knowledge of what is required for a citation. date of publications (month). volume. publisher.

References (2) • Use key sources to find other key words and sources-genealogy of concepts • Electronic searches through the information superhighway is becoming more and more accesssible – Quality of a library is going to be related to its electronic access rather than the number of valumes – World-wide information access – Makes discovery of key words and concepts important .

Appendices • Must be relevant • If material is critical to making a point. it probably should be summarized in the text .