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Practical 1 – Introduction of Surveying Instruments

Introduction :
The most common surveying instruments used in Civil Engineering are total station and
level equipment. Total station used for measure the angles and distances whilst level
equipment used for measure the different height between two point.

Objectives :
1) To assist students in gaining confidence in operating surveying equipment.
2) To provide the fundamental operational skills necessary for subsequent tasks.
3) To familiar with the surveying instrument and general functions.

Learning Outcome :
At the end of this practical, students are able to:
1) Set up the survey instruments.
2) Operate survey instruments.
3) Measure horizontal distances and angles with total station.
4) Measure different height with level equipment.

Equipment :
All groups will be issued with the following equipment :

No. Items Quantity
1 Total Station 1
2 Automatic level 1
3 Prisms 2
4 Staff bubble 2
5 Level staff 2
6 Tripod 3


3) Use the optical plummet to focus onto the survey station (e.Recommendation for Setting up a Total Station 1) Ensure that: a) The tripod head is approximately level. and tighten the centring screw to clamp the total station centrally on the tripod head. 90° from position B. Position B Align the plate level bubble tube with the third foot screw i.g. Rotate the two foot screws in opposite directions to centre the plate level bubble. bring the POND BUBBLE into the centre of the circle. 5) Carry out an approximate levelling using the pond (circle bubble) and by adjusting the length of TWO TRIPOD LEGS. using all three in a random manner if necessary. 7) Look through the optical plummet again. Loosen the centring screw holding the total station to the tripod and slide the total station over the TRIPOD HEAD until the reticule of the OPTICAL PLUMMET is over the survey station. The bubble follows the left thumb. REPEAT Position A and Position B until the bubble stays in the centre. 2) Placed the total station on top of the tripod. centre the reticule (black circle) in the OPTICAL PLUMMET onto the survey station. b) Turn the optical plummet focusing ring to focus on the survey station. a) Turn the optical plummet eyepiece to focus on the reticule (the black circular mark). (At this stage the total station has been roughly centered and levelled).e. b) The tripod feet are firmly fixed in the ground. 4) By rotating the levelling FOOT SCREWS. Centre the bubble by rotating the third foot screw (only). 6) Fine level the total station using the FOOT SCREWS and the PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE tube: Position A Align the plate level bubble tube with two of the foot screws. nail in top of peg). 2 .

It is now ready for referencing to a BACK SIGHT for either measuring or setting out angles. 8) Check the plate level bubble in position C and D : . 3 .90° from A and B and if necessary remove half the bubble drift to FREEZE the bubble. REPEAT 6) and 7) until the plate level bubble is centre and the optical plummet is over the survey station. At this stage the total station has been FINELY LEVELLED AND CENTERED OVER THE SURVEY STATION.