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Advanced Design and Analysis of Algorithm

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Algorithms∗

**Lecture 6, February 1, 2008
**

Lecturer: John Hopcroft

Scribes: Shaomei Wu, Ethan Feldman

February 7, 2008

**1 Threshold for k − CN F Satisfiability
**

In the previous lecture, we discussed the threshold for 3 − CN F problem and

claimed that for any k − CN F , there is a threshold rk = 2k ln 2 for formula

satisfiability. Today’s lecture gives a more formal proof for this statement.

Theorem 1 Given a k − CN F formula with c clauses(c is a fixed number) and n

variables, assume c = rk n, then rk = 2k ln 2 is a threshold for the given formula to be

satisfiable.

Proof:

(1) Pick a random assignment S for n variables.

(2) For any clause (with k literals), the probability that it is false under as-

signment S is 21k , hence

1

P rob(clause is true under S) = 1 −.

2k

(3) Given c clauses, the formula is true with probability

1 c

P rob(formula is true) = (1 −

)

2k

(*The clauses are considered to be generated independently.)

When rk = 2k ln 2 and c = rk n,

1 c

P rob(formula is true) = (1 − )

2k

1 k

= (1 − k )2 ln 2×n .

2

∗ The second part of this lecture on graph connectivity was re-stated and corrected in February

3’s lecture, hence we reduced the amount of content in that part. Please refer to later notes for more

clear proof and explanations

1

the number of satisfying assignements for the given formula is a monotone property.. + E(I2n ) = 2n × =1 2n Figure 1: Probability of k-CNF being satisfied by a random assignment. 2nd... .. the expected number of satisfying assignments will be less than 1. As shown in Figure 1... = E(I2n ) = 1 × n = n. 1 2k For large k. the probability that the given formula is satisfied by a ran- dom assignment of variables is 21n . As proved in previous lectures. I2n to represent the events of 1st. Let’s use a set of indicator random variables I1 .. 2 2 Therefore. hence 1 2k ln 2×n 1 P rob(formula is true) = (1 − ) −→ e−(ln 2)n = n . and 2n t h assignments satisfying the given formula. which means. (1 − 2k ) −→ e−1 . . Knowing that each assignment has the same probability of making the formula true. 2 ... Increasing c will introduce a de- crease of the probability that the formula is true under a random assignment. rk = 2k ln 2 is the place where the upperbound of threshold for k-CNF appears. the expected values for all Ii ’s are same as 1 1 E(I1 ) = E(I2 ) = . 2k 2 In other words. re- spectively.. when c is greater than rk • n. the expected number of assignments that satisfy the given formula would be 1 E(I) = E(I1 ) + E(I2 ) + . I2 .

One guess can be made by observing the change of solution space ac- cording to rk : starting from rk = 0. G(n. the heuristic algorithm can almost always find the satisfying assignment. G(n. See lecture notes for 01/25/2008. k However. which will be discussed in the following section. and it is possible that there is a second-moment threshold existing in this range. assuming there are 10 variables appearing in a 3-CNF formula: if the number of clauses is below 26. 3 . when does it become connected? There are three states that G(n. Threshold at p = log nn+c . p) has no isolated vertex. p) is connected.1 Disappearance of isolated vertices Specific vertex is isolated with probability (1 − p)n−1 . For k = 3. consists of isolated vertices. 2. but is not connected either (It is unlikely for this case to happen). For example. Chao and Franco [1] presented a heuristic algorithm based on k Unit-Clause rule and proved that: when rk ≤ 2k . p) consists of isolated vertices. the solution space is a fully-connected graph. Investigat- ing the satisfiability of k-CNF from the solution space view brings us back to the connectivity problem of graphs. the probability is approaching 0. the solution space will fall apart and form a set of connected components. after passing the threshold of rk = 2k ln 2. if the number of clauses is above 55. the probability of the heuris- tic finding a solution is approaching 1. G(n. p). it would be nearly impossible for the heuristic algorithm to generate a solution. the solution space becomes very sparse. If iso- lated vertices are the last to disappear before the graph becomes connected. v connected by an edge. 3. the situation between rk = 2k and rk = 2k ln 2 is still unclear to us. −c then the probability that the graph is connected is e−e . while when rk ≥ 2k ln 2. along with the increase of rk . 2 When does a graph become connected? Given a random G(n. 2. Threshold at p = log nn+c Note: P rob(no isolated vertices) was wrong for this lecture because the P rob(isolated vertex) is not independent across all vertices.2 Disappearance of components of size 2 Given 2 vertices u. p) can be: 1. 2.

While ∃ discovered but unexplored vertex. 2.3 Graphs with Giant Components d p= n. add all adjacent vertices to discovered and mark the selected vertex explored Let d = 2 for this example. Select a vertex v 2. select one and 5. t = iteration #. Note: P rob(no components of size 2) was wrong for this lecture because the P rob(component of size 2) is not independent across connected nodes. See lec- ture notes for 02/04/2008. Mark all vertices as undiscovered and unexplored 3. n−2 z }| { 2n−4 ¶³ P rob(component of size 2) = (1 − p) u µ ¶2n µ´ log n + c ≈ 1− n = e−2(log n+c) = e−2logn e−2c ¶³ e−2c v = µ´ n2 | {z } n−2 Number of connected vertices ≈ n log n. d>1 Algorithm for traversing connected components: 1. F = expected # of vertices discovered per iteration (frontier). Mark v as discovered 4. S = total # of discovered vertices. Graph: 4 .

Probabilistic analysis of a generalization of the unit clause selection heuristic for the k-satisfiability problem. Franco. T. Chao and J. the algorithm discovers ≈ 2 vertex per iteration (expected degree of each vertex = 2. we expect F to be near 0 only during the first few iterations and then near n (the giant connected component). F is an expected value. 5 . As the graph shows. 51:289–314. Differential Equation: dS ³ s´ =d 1− dt n Solving for S: ³ ´ d S = n 1 − e− n t References [1] M. so on each iteration we expect to find 2 more vertices). the frontier is empty so we just found the last vertex of a connected component. so there will be some variation from the given curve (indicated by the lighter lines above. 1990.) If F = 0. F =S−t # of discovered vertices on each iteration time t n Initially. so there exists a connected component of size t. Information Sciences. but also t is incremented so initially we expect the line Fn to have a slope ≈ 1.

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