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# Summary of Vector Calculus I

!·B
A ! = scalar = |A|
! |B|! cos ψ = Ai Bi (summation convention)
!×B
A ! = vector = #ijk !
ei Aj Bk (with #ijk the Levi-Civita Tensor)

Useful to Remember
A!×A !=0
A!×B ! = −B ! ×A !
A! · (A
! × B)
! =0
A! · (B
! × C)
! =B ! · (C
! × A)! =C ! · (A
! × B)
!
A! × (B! × C)
! = B(! A ! · C)
! − C(! A! · B)
!
(A! × B)
! · (C! × D)
! = (A ! · C)(
! B ! · D)
! − (A! · D)(
! B ! · C)
!

! =vector operator= ( ∂ ,
∇ ∂
, ∂
)
∂x ∂y ∂z

!
∇S = gradS = vector
! ·A
∇ ! = divA! = scalar
! ×A
∇ ! = curlA! = vector

Summary of Vector Calculus II ! = scalar operator = ∂ 22 + ∂ 22 + ∂ 22 ! ·∇ Laplacian: ∇2 = ∇ ∂x ∂y ∂z ∇2 S ! · (∇S) = ∇ ! = scalar ! ∇2 A ! · ∇) = (∇ ! A ! = vector ! ∇ ∇( ! · A) ! \$= ∇2 A! = vector ! × (∇S) ∇ ! = 0 curl(gradS) = 0 ! · (∇ ∇ ! × A) ! = 0 ! =0 div(curl A) ! × (∇ ∇ ! × A) ! ! ∇ = ∇( ! · A) ! − ∇2 A ! ! ∇(ST ) = ! + T ∇S S ∇T ! ! · (S A) ∇ ! = S(∇! · A) ! +A ! · ∇S ! ! × (S A) ∇ ! = S(∇! × A) ! −A ! × ∇S! ! · (A ∇ ! × B) ! = ! · (∇ B ! × A) ! −A ! · (∇ ! × B) ! .

and let A(! ! " ( ! × A) ∇ ! d2 S != A! · d!l S γ . Integral Theorems I Gradient Theorem: Let γ be a curve running from ! x0 to ! x1 . then: bounded by a 2D surface S . and φ(! !1 x " !1 x " ! · d!l = ∇φ dφ = φ(! x1 ) − φ(! x0 ) x0 " x0 " It follows that " ! · d!l = 0 ∇φ Divergence Theorem (Gauss’ Theorem): Let V be a 3D volume ! x) be a vector field. d!l is the x) is a scalar field then: directed element of length along γ . and let A(! ! ! ! ·A ∇ ! d3 !x = ! · d2 S A ! V S Curl Theorem (Stokes’ Theorem): Let S be a 2D surface bounded by a ! x) be a vector field. then: 1D curve γ .

we have from the gradient theorem that " ! · d!l = 0 F From the curl theorem we immediately see that ! ×F ∇ ! =0 We immediately infer that a conservative force is curl free. and that the ! · d! amount of work done (dW = F r ) is independent of the path taken. From the divergence theorem we infer that ! ! ! ! ·A φ∇ ! d3 ! x= ! · d2 S φA !− ! · ∇φ A ! d3 x ! V S V which is the three-dimensional analog of integration by parts ! dv ! ! u dx dx = d(uv) − v du dx dx . Integral Theorems II NOTE: Since a conservative force F ! can always be written as the gradient of a scalar field φ.

q3 ) and (q1 + dq1 . z) or spherical (r. q2 . Curvi-Linear Coordinate Systems I In addition to the Cartesian coordinate system (x. so that ds2 = h2 i dq 2 i with ∂" x hi ≡ hii = | ∂q i | The differential vector is ∂" x ∂" x ∂" x d! x= ∂q1 dq1 + ∂q2 dq2 + ∂q3 dq3 The unit directional vectors are ∂" x ∂" x 1 ∂"x ei = ! ∂qi /| ∂qi | = hi ∂qi # so that d! x= hi dqi ! ei and d3 ! x = h1 h2 h3 dq1 dq2 dq3 . i . y. The distance between (q1 . q2 + dq2 . θ. q3 + dq3 ) is ds2 = hij dqi dqj (summation convention) We will only consider orthogonal systems for which hij = 0 if i \$= j . q2 . φ) coordinate systems Let (q1 . defined by the metric tensor hij . φ. q3 ) denote the coordinates of a point in an arbitrary coordinate system. z). we will often work with cylindrical (R.

Curvi-Linear Coordinate Systems II The gradient: ! = ∇ψ 1 ∂ψ ! e hi ∂qi i The divergence: \$ % ! ·A ∇ != 1 ∂ (h2 h3 A1 ) + ∂ (h3 h1 A2 ) + ∂ (h1 h2 A3 ) h1 h2 h3 ∂q1 ∂q2 ∂q3 The curl (only one component shown): \$ % ! × A) (∇ ! 3= 1 ∂ (h2 A2 ) − ∂ (h1 A1 ) h1 h2 ∂q1 ∂q2 The Laplacian: \$ & ' & ' & '% 1 ∂ h2 h3 ∂ψ ∂ h3 h1 ∂ψ ∂ h1 h2 ∂ψ ∇ ψ= 2 h1 h2 h3 ∂q1 h1 ∂q1 + ∂q2 h2 ∂q2 + ∂q3 h3 ∂q3 .

then AR = Ax cos φ − Ay sin φ Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ Az = Az v = Ṙ! Velocity: ! e˙ R + ż! eR + R! ez = Ṙ! eR + Rφ̇! eφ + ż! ez Gradient & Laplacian: ! ·A != 1 ∂ 1 ∂Aφ ∂Az ∇ R ∂R (RAR ) + R ∂φ + ∂z & ' 1 ∂ ∂ψ 1 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ ∇ ψ= 2 R ∂R R ∂R + R2 ∂φ2 + ∂z 2 . φ. z) we have that x = R cos φ y = R sin φ z=z The scale factors of the metric are: hR = 1 hφ = R hz = 1 x = R! and the position vector is ! eR + z! ez ! = AR ! Let A eR + Aφ! eφ + Az ! ez an arbitrary vector. Cylindrical Coordinates For cylindrical coordinates (R.

Spherical Coordinates For spherical coordinates (r. then Ar = Ax sin θ cos φ + Ay sin θ sin φ + Az cos θ Aθ = Ax cos θ cos φ + Ay cos θ sin φ − Az sin θ Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ v = ṙ! Velocity: ! e˙ r = ṙ! er + r ! er + r θ̇! eθ + r sin θ φ̇! eφ Gradient & Laplacian: ! ·A != 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂Aφ ∇ r 2 ∂r (r 2 Ar ) + r sin θ ∂θ (sin θAθ ) + r sin θ ∂φ & ' & ' ∂2ψ ∇ ψ= 2 1 ∂ r 2 ∂r r 2 ∂ψ ∂r + 1 ∂ r 2 sin θ ∂θ sin θ ∂φ ∂θ + 1 r 2 sin2 θ ∂ψ 2 . θ. φ) we have that x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ z = r cos θ The scale factors of the metric are: hr = 1 hθ = r hφ = r sin θ x = r! and the position vector is ! er ! = Ar ! Let A er + Aθ ! eθ + Aφ! eφ an arbitrary vector.