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“ Design & development of sugarcane lifter.

ABTRACT
With the increasing levels of technology, the efforts being put to produce any kind of
work has been continuously decreasing. The efforts required in achieving the desired
output can be effectively and economically be decreased by the implementation of better
designs. Conveyor systems are one of the most commonly used equipment in almost
every industry. They help in achieving different kinds of functions and by automating
them you can get the added advantages of flexibility and safe practices. Besides, they also
help in enhancing the performance and cost-effectiveness of your processes. This
conveyor system we can modify according to application and also can be develop as per
height and width of job/ application.
In this project, we have tried to develop a new mechanism for sugarcane lifter
for tractor trolley loading and unloading purpose. Here we have used the chain/ belt
conveyor concept to manufacture the proposed mechanism.

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“ Design & development of sugarcane lifter. ”

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

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“ Design & development of sugarcane lifter. ”

CHAPTER 1
Introduction

• India is one of the largest consumers and producers of sugar in the world and is the
world’s second largest producer next to Brazil of the sugarcane.
The excess of bagasse is stored in open area.so the lot of human health hazards is
taking place due to loading of bagasse . Now a days industries are using the crane to
lift the sugarcanes which is very slow working.
A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that
moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in
applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials.
The belt conveyors are used for transporting light and medium weight loads between
operations, departments, levels and buildings , providing considerable control over
the orientation and placement of the load.
Overview of that introduction we done our project to reduce the human efforts.

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“ Design & development of sugarcane lifter. ”

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE
SURVEY

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CHAPTER 2
Literature Survey

2. Present Theories and Practices:

R.B. Lokapure, A.P.Kadam, V.B.Nerle (2012):


It is necessary to take some firm steps to avoid fire risk near storage of bagasse piles
& loose bagasse yard and to save this valuable renewable fuel without damaging of plant,
bagasse handling machinery & life of human being which captured by sudden huge fire.
For protection of the plant against fire, main plant, transformerarea, bagasse storage yard
etc.are protected by Hydrant system apart from portable &mobile fire extinguishers. Fire
water pumps of hydrants are installed in a fire water pump house located with pump
suctions connected in the raw water reservoir. (Cap-10 Lac, Ltr) Two fire water pumps
one of which is electric motor driven & the other diesel engine driven which would be
brought in operation automatically sensed by pressure transmitter. Thus hydrant system
will feed pressurized water to hydrant valves located throughout the plant.
Remark: While facing with fire risk of bagasse only one person could not be able to
fight, but taking some essential steps such as action plan, knowledge of fire fighting
system with safety awareness among workers etc, one can easily come over the risk of
bagasse fire & save this renewable fuel along with minimum loss of property.

Mukesh Kumar Mishra, Dr. Nilay Khare, Dr. AlkaBaniAgrawal(2014):

India is one of the largest consumers and producers of sugar in the world and is the
world’s second largest producer next to Brazil of the sugarcane. Sugar production is an
energy intensive industry and requires both steam as well as electricity. Bagasse is the
leftover of the sugarcane after crushing and is burnt as a fuel in the boiler of sugar mill.
Bagasse cogeneration has been practiced in sugar mills since long to meet sugar mills
own energy needs. However, supplying excess electricity to the grid has gained
momentum worldwide in last one decade. It offers several advantages such as near – zero

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“ Design & development of sugarcane lifter. ”

fuel cost, increased viability of sugar mills, energy security, fuel diversity, reduced
transmission and distribution losses and carbon emission reduction. In view of this, GOI
has launched a programmed to enhance surplus electricity generation from bagasse
cogeneration. Bagasse cogeneration is renewable energy and comes under Ministry for
New and Renewable Sources of Energy of Govt of India.

Remark:Cogeneration potential will increase in near future. Sugar sector in India is very
complex. GOI has taken several initiatives to enhance bagasse cogeneration, which
received positive response from sugar sector. However, this article has indentified the
barriers which need to be overcome to continue the growth story.

Santosh Kunnur, S. N. Kurbet, M M Ganganallimath (2013):

In all sugar industries the cane after processing is left with the waste product called
“Bagasse”. The Bagasse produced in the mills is used as a fuel to boilers and the
generation of steam. The steam thus produced is expanded in turbines and the power is
generated. The excess bagasse is then stored in an open area. Lot of human health hazards
is taking place due to loading of bagasse. Nowadays, the industries are using the crane
systems to load the bagasse into the tippers, which is a very slow task and causing more
dust. The bucket conveyors are used to move bulk materials in a vertical or inclined path.
Buckets are attached to a cable, chain, or belt. Buckets are automatically unloaded at the
end of the conveyor run. The belt conveyor is used for transporting light- and medium-
weight loads between operations, departments, levels, and buildings, providing
considerable control over the orientation and placement of the load. The belt is roller or
slider bed supported; the slider bed is used for small and irregularly shaped items.

Concluding Remarks:-
From literature survey it is seen that this mechanism is required as per market
demand and problem exist in the farming area. In this survey it is seen that very few
research is present and we have to do more research and development activity.

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“ Design & development of sugarcane lifter. ”

CHAPTER 3
PROBLEM
STATEMENT

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CHAPTER3
Problem Statement

3. Problem Defination:-

Fig – 3.1:- Existing manual method for loading of sugarcane in to trolley.

Harvesting of sugarcane at a proper time i.e., peak maturity, by adopting right


technique is necessary to realize maximum weight of the millable canes (thus sugar)
produced with least possible field losses under the given growing environment.
In many countries even today harvesting is done manually using various types of
hand knives or hand axes.Among the several tools the cutting blade is usually heavier and
facilitates easier and efficient cutting of cane. Manual harvesting requires skilled labourers
as improper harvest of cane leads to loss of cane & sugar yield, poor juice quality and
problems in milling due to extraneous matter. During the manual harvesting there during
loading of sugarcane in to the tractor trolley.
There are many disadvantages / limitations are listed as below:-

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a. The time consumtion is more.


b. Manual stress and strain is more.
c. Skilled labours are required.
d. Labour cost is more.

To avoid or to eliminate these problems we have tried to develop a new mechanism for
sugarcane lifting for loading a tractor trolley.

4. Project scope::-
This project will help to labour a lot due to reduced their manual effort required to load
sugarcane in the trolley / in truck. This will give one standard system to agricultural field so
that human accident and stress will get reduce.

5. Objectives of project:-
a) Fabricate a new preposed conveyor system for human easy purpose.
b) Understanding the existing problems and finding out the proper and best
solution.
c) Understand project planning and execution.
d) Understand the fabrication techniques in a mechanical workshop.
e) Understand the usage of various mechanical machine tools and also measuring
tools.

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CHAPTER 4
THEORY

CHAPTER 4.

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Theory

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the
genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions
of South Asia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production. It has stout, jointed, fibrous
stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. The plant
is two to six meters (six to twenty feet) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed and the major
commercial cultivars are complex hybrids[1]. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae,
an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum,
and many forage crops.

Sucrose, extracted and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material
in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Ethanol is produced on a large scale
by the Brazilian sugarcane industry. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop by production
quantity.[2] In 2012, The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates it was cultivated on
about 26×106 hectares (6.4×107 acres), in more than 90 countries, with a worldwide harvest
of 1.83×109 tonnes (1.80×109 long tons; 2.02×109 short tons). Brazil was the largest
producer of sugar cane in the world. The next five major producers, in decreasing amounts
of production, were India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, and Mexico.

The global demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane
accounts for 80% of sugar produced; most of the rest is made from sugar beets. Sugarcane
predominantly grows in the tropical and subtropical regions (sugar beets grow in colder
temperate regions). Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane
include falernum, molasses, rum, cachaça (a traditional spirit from Brazil), bagasse, and
ethanol. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats, screens, and
thatch. The young, unexpanded inflorescence of tebu telor is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted,
and prepared in various ways in certain island communities of Indonesia.[3]

The Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce
honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and then
spread sugarcane agriculture.[4] Merchants began to trade in sugar from India, which was

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considered a luxury and an expensive spice. In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations
began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need
for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, including slave
labor and indentured servants

4.1 Overview of global sugar industry:

Global sugar production exceeded 170 million tons (MT) a year in 2011-12.
Approximately 80% of the output was sourced from sugar cane, which is largely grown in
tropical countries. The remaining 20% is produced from sugar beet, which is grown mostly
in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere. The 10 largest sugar producing nations
represent roughly 75% of world sugar production. Brazil alone accounts for almost 25% of
world production. Though the industry was characterized by production deficits in 2008-9
and 2009-10, surplus output was seen in 2010-11 and 2011-12 as sugar crop areas expanded
on the back of higher prices. World consumption of sugar has also grown at an average
annual rate of 2.7% over the past 50 years, driven mostly by rising incomes, population
growth and changes in diet in the developing economies
Facts about Global Sugar Industry
 More than 123 countries produce sugar worldwide, with 70% of the world’s sugar
consumed in producer countries and only 30% traded on the international market.
 About 80% of global production comes from sugar cane (which is grown in the
tropics) and 20% comes from sugar beet (grown in temperate climates, including
Europe).
 Around 170 MT of sugar are produced every year. The largest producers are Brazil
(22%), India (15%) and the European Union (10%).
 About 20 % of global sugarcane production was used for ethanol production in 2012.
 The top five consumers of sugar use 51% of the world’s sugar. They include India,
the EU-27, China, Brazil and the US.

4.2 Indian Sugar Industry


The Indian Sugar Industry, with an annual productive capacity of over 25 MMT,
stands out to be the second largest in the world after Brazil, accounting for around 15% of

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the global sugar production. The country consumes approximately 22 MT of sugar annually,
with Maharashtra contributing over 60% of it while the rest of the output come from states
like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The sufficient and well
distributed monsoon rains, rapid population growth and substantial increases in sugar
production capacity have made India the largest consumer and second largest producer of
sugar in the world. Highly fragmented with organized and unorganized players, the sector
supports over 50 million farmers and their families, making significant contribution towards
socio-economic development in the rural areas of the India.
Facts about Indian Sugar Industry
 2nd largest producer of sugar in the world
 5 million hectares & 60 million cane farmers and dependents
 Industry valued at `800 billion
 Large number of sugar mills – 527 operated in 2011-12
 Estimated cane price payment for 2011-12 is `550 billion (Paid to farmers directly
without involvement of any middlemen)
 Located in rural heartland, directly contributes to rural economic development and
employment.

4.3 Sugar Contribution in Maharashtra State

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Fig.4.1- District wise sugar contribution % in total sugar production of


Maharashtra

he sugar industry subsumes the production, processing and marketing


of sugars (mostly saccharose and fructose). Globally, most sugar is extracted from sugar
cane (~80 % predominantly in the tropics) and sugar beet (~ 20%, mostly in temperate
climate like in the U.S. or Europe). Sugar is an essential basis for soft drinks/sweetened
beverages, convenience foods, fast food, candy / sweets, confectionery, baking products and
the respective industries. as per 2013 report from BCC Research estimates the global market
for sugar and sweeteners at about $77.5 billion in 2012 with sugar comprising an almost
85% share. The market is thought to increase at a compound annual growth rate of 4.6%.

Around 460 million tonnes of sugar is produced every year. The largest producers are Brazil
(72%), India (15%) and the European Union (10%). Altogether, there are more than 123
sugar-producing countries, but only 30% of the produce is traded on the international
market. In 2011 global sugar export trade was worth $47bn with $33.5bn of sugar exports
are from developing countries and $12.2bn from developed countries.

4.4 Sugar manufacturing process

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Fig.4.2-Flow of Sugar manufacturing process

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CHAPTER 5
DEVELOPMENT OF
SYSTEM

CHAPTER 5.

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Development of system

Design & development of sugarcane lifter.

5.1 Theoretical work


1. Literature survey.
2. Agricultural survey.
3. Design and development of mechanism.
4. Study and understand the components used for mechanism and for machine. .

5.2 Experimental work:-


1. Selection of materials and drives for project.
2. Manufacturing of test set up as per drawing.
3. Testing of project in actual / proposed Mechanism.
4. Collection of reading and data of observation.
5. Selection of proper motor.
6. Drawn the conclusion as per collected data.

5.3 Specification of proposed


1. Function : to lift the sugarcane up to proper height according to tractor trolley.
2. Specification :
i. Type : Motorosed / engine operated
ii. Power:- 0.5 hp.
iii. Overall dimensions(Tentative): 3feet x 3feet x 5feet height. approx
v. Job capacity- up to 20kg.
vi. General Information :
The machine consists of a mechanism for adjustable height, chain conveyor and
fabricated structure for whole assembly. Also in this mechanism we will develop a lifting
aids for sugar cane for chain conveyor.

5.4 . Analysis of different critical parts of mechanism

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4.5 Selection of materials and drives.

5.6 Expected outcomes:-


• The main outcome of the project work is to minimize handling of sugarcane and also
loading time.
• Easy to operate by unskilled worker.
• User-friendly, it will run smoothly and it will be portable.

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CHAPTER 6
PROBLEM
STATEMENT

CHAPTER 6

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Proposed work in project

6.1 Design & development of simple abrasive belt grinder.

Specification of proposed
1. Function : for grinding the jobs.
2. Specification :
i. Type : abrasive belt type
ii. Power:- 0.5 hp.
iii. Overall dimensions(Tentative): 3feet x 3feet x 4feet height. approx
v. Job capacity- up to 300 mm
vi. General Information :
The machine consists of a mechanism for adjustable belt tension also its orientation. We
will give facility of digital display to visualize speed easily so that we can adjust the
speed quickly.

6.2 . Analysis of different critical parts of mechanism


6.3. Selection of materials and drives.

This project will undergo through following six phases.

Phase I : Literature Survey


A detailed literature survey will be carried out in the related area. Majorly the selected
project is come under industrial field influence, So In this phase we will do small scale
industrial visits, Feedbacks and problems faced by vendors.

Phase II : Concept Generation


In this phase, we are going to do schematic arrangement design and drawing of major
component which we can use for completion of our project. In this phase we will generate

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the schematic drawing on the basis of problem statement and feedback and suggestion
received from end customer and vendors.

Phase III : Design calculations


In this phase we are going to do the design calculations by referring the standards, catalogue
and reference books. In this work we will finalise the design and components dimensions.
We are also select the material according to parts and components fuction and loading
conditions. In this phase we will decide the size and shape of components and its position in
the assembly. Also we will decide the limit and tolerance between components and alos
machining methods required to select to manufacture the components.

Phase III : Preparation of Drawings


In this phase we are going to prepare the design. The suitable component and assembly
drawings will be prepared which will help visualize the actual project set up. In this phase
we will prepare the drawing as per industrial format.

Phase IV : Structural Analysis of the Critical Components


In this phase we will do analysis of one components which is under critical loading
condition. And by doing analysis we can decide the final dimensions and material of the
component.

Phase V : Fabrication
(01) Manufacturing of various components and subassemblies will be carried out by using
suitable manufacturing processes.
(02) The components will be assembled per the drawing.
(03) Working trials of the project will be conducted to confirm and testing parameters
(Time and speed) we will decide for to get best quality of product.

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Phase VI : Experimental Investigations (Actual Field Trial)


The fabricated abrasive belt grinder machine will be tested for the suitability to the intended
application. This experimental testing will include the testing of machine at actual site.

Design of experiment set up

6.6 Major points / steps involved in design of Test rig.


 Design of conveyor shaft.
 Selection of bearing.
 Selection and arrangement of speed reduction.
 Selection of motor

1.1.1 Design of drive shaft.


Conveyor capacity = 15 kg per 10 min
Sugarcane weight for this project we have considered 15 kg
Selection of motor-

The load required to lift considered = 15 kg = 150N

The sprocket dia D = 100mm


So Maximum Torque T = Effort x Radius of wheel

Total torque on sprocket shaft = 150 x 50 = 7500 N-m

P = 23.56 watt
By considering application and extra jerk and safe design prime mover power
considered = 360 watt

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Design of Chain Drive:-

From below table we have determined which chain type is applicable for drive

From above table asper application and speed we have selected the service factor = 1.3
Design power required = 23.56 x 1.3
= 30.62 watt

By considering application and extra jerk and safe design prime mover power
considered = 360 watt

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From chart 10B 5/8” chain drive is selected. Here in our project the speed reduction
is not involved due to conveyor type application. The 30 rp is considered.
The chain selected Simplex, 19 teeth, 15.87 mm pitch is selected.

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From selected dimensions as per application :-


C = 1500 mm
P = 15.87 mm
f = t =19 teeth

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From above table we have to select factor but there is no speed reduction so K = 1 assumed.

So from above formula L = 208 pitches


L = 208 x 15.87
L = 3300 mm
Design of drive shaft.

P = Load of sugarcane
T = Max Torque generated due to sprocket wheel. = 7500 N-mm

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RA = Support reactions.
Motor speed N =30 rpm
For speed reduction the pulley and v belt is used.

As per Design data book shaft material is selected Carbon steel C40

σ = 145 N/mm2

As per ASME code


0.3 X Yield strength N/mm2
0.18 X ultimate strength N/mm2} whichever is smaller
0.3 x 330 = 99 N/mm2 ………………………………………….(a)
0.18 x 580 = 104 N/mm2 ……………………………………..(b)
From equation (a) & (b)
Allowable stress value will be 99 N/mm2
If key ways will provide to shaft then
τ = 99 x 0.75 = 74.25 N/mm2

Max torsional moment equation is given by

Where T = 7500 N-mm


By using above equation drive shaft dia d = 8.02 mm ……………….A

We know that,
Max bending moment equation is given by

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P = 150 N
The sprocket dia D = 150mm

F Y 0

RA + RB = P
As per load condition and farm condition the total load on wheel is considered
RA =150 …………………………………………………I
The distance we have considered as per component fitment
L = 100 mm
Calculation of bending moment at loading point P,
BM at M = 150 x 100 = 15000 N-mm

Ϭ = 145 N/ mm2 considering factor of safety = 4


By using above equation drive shaft dia d = 12.85mm ………………..B

From equation A and B we have selected the diameter of shaft = 20mm considering
extra jerk and for safe design.

According to maximum shear stress theory

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Te = 16770 N-mm

Me = 23385N-mm

74 > 10.67 = ‫ ځ‬N/mm2 and


Ϭ = 93.25< 145 N/mm2

By using above equation we have checked the allowable shear stress and allowable bending
stress and it is seen that the both values are within limit hence design is safe.
Selection of bearing :-

P = RB = 150 N
Life in hrs = 10000 hrs

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L = 36 millions of rev

a = 3 for ball bearing.

From SKF bearing catalogue we have selected the bearing static capacity for shaft dia
20mm = Co = 2.32 KN
From above equation = C = 201 N

So calculated dynamic capacity C < bearing catalogue dyanamic capacity C = 4.32KN

Hence from catalogue bearing selected = 61804

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6.5 Constructional details

5.6 Working Principle:-


The arrangement shown of schematic diagram of Proposed mechanical system of
conveyor for lifting purpose. In this screen, structural parts and conveyor parts we are going
to design and develop. When the motor rotates at that time the conveyor also rotates with 30
rpm. Conveyor have buckets. These buckets fabricated in such a way that, The distance
between two strips are changed to lift the sugarcane as per there size. The motor have given
connection 230 V AC supply

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Fig6.1 . Assembly of sugarcane lifter

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CHAPTER 7
TESTING OF
MACHINE

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“ Design & development of sugarcane lifter. ”

CHAPTER 7.
Testing of Machine

7.1 Testing of Machine


To test and confirm the working of developed mechanism for Sugar cane lifter, we have
taken practical demonstration at various small scale farm area. Also we have collected the
feedbacks and improvements points in developed model.

Testing points and concluded points as below:-

Lot size considered = 15Kg per lot

Existing manual method


Sr. New developed method
Points observed Manual marking
No mechanism
method

Labour requirement LABOUR


1. LABOUR
Per day 06 = UnSkilled labor
02 UnSkilled labor

Totally depends on 45 sec for 15 kg of potatoes


2. manual experience If we build the actual set up
Time required
For one trolley loading it then time will require
requires 1.5 hours 45 minutes
3. Space required NA Storage space required for
machine

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Required for to operate motor


/ engine
Electricity required for Not required
4. As per observation it will be
mechanism or
Seen that for one hour diesel
accessories
cost will 150/-

5. More than developed Material handling is very


Material handling
mechanism less.
6.
Manual effort More required Very less required

Maintenance cost considered


10% anaually of total cost
7. 15Rs per person Actual set up cost will come
Maintenance
hospitality charges approx 80000/-
So maintenance cost will be
8000/- per year

Pay back period analysis:-


Payback period is the length of time required to recover the cost of an investment. The
payback period of a given investment or project is an important determinant of whether to
undertake the position or project, as longer payback periods are typically not desirable for
investment positions. Payback period is the time in which the initial cash outflow of an
investment is expected to be recovered from the cash inflows generated by the investment. It
is one of the simplest investment appraisal techniques Payback period intuitively measures
how long something takes to "pay for itself." All else being equal, shorter payback periods
are preferable to longer payback periods. Payback period is widely used because of its ease
of use despite the recognized limitations described below.

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Calculated as:
Payback Period = Cost of Project / Annual Cash Inflows
Advantages and disadvantages of payback method:
Advantages:
1. An investment project with a short payback period promises the quick inflow of
cash. It is therefore, a useful capital budgeting method for cash poor firms.
2. A project with short payback period can improve the liquidity position of the
business quickly. The payback period is important for the firms for which liquidity is
very important.
3. An investment with short payback period makes the funds available soon to invest in
another project.
4. A short payback period reduces the risk of loss caused by changing economic
conditions and other unavoidable reasons.
5. Payback period is very easy to compute.
Disadvantages:
1. The payback method does not take into account the time value of money.
2. It does not consider the useful life of the assets and inflow of cash after payback
period.
Initial cost :- 80000 /- with fabrication material and labor cost.
Maintenance cost :- 10 % of initial cost = 80000 x .10 %= 8000 /- Per year

Sr Points Cost for manual Method Cost for developed


No considered / Mechanism
activity / cost
01 Labour Cost `Labour requirement = 06 numbers `Labour requirement = 03
Cost for skilled labor = 400 per day numbers
To load one trolley Cost for Unskilled labor = 300 per day Cost for Unskilled labor =
Unskilled labour = 06 number 300 per day
Total cost = 300 x 6 = 1800 Rs
Total cost = 300 x 3 = 900
Rs
02 Maintenance cost For labour hospitality 15 rs per day 10 % of initial cost =8000

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Rs per year
Total cost = 6 x 15 = 90/- Working days considered
100
Per day charges = 80Rs
Total cost = 3 x 15 = 45 Rs
03 Storage cost Neglected Neglected
05 Electricity charges NA For one hour it will be
To load one trolley 150Rs
04 Labour charges To 1890/- To load one trolley 1175 To load one trolley
load one trolley

Total saving per = 1890- 1175= 715 Rs


day
Considering 100 trolleys
Per year saving = 100 x 715 = 71500/-

So from above analysis it is concluded that

Payback Period

= 71500/ 80000
= 0.893 year

So from above analysis it is seen that the pay back period for developed mechanism is 10
months

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CHAPTER 8
PROJECT COST OF
BILL MATERIAL

CHAPTER 8
Project cost and Bill of material

8.1 Expenditure to fabricate prototype model

Sr. Material Quantity Cost Total


No per cost

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Unit in Rs.
Rs.
1 Steel material (angle, C channel, 70 kg 2000
plate, strips)
2 Chain sprocket and chain 02 2500
3 Bottom plate for foundation 2 250/- 2500
4 Supporting frame stand 02 2000 500
5 Motor 1 3500 1500
6 Pulley and belt drive with 3500
machining
Pillow block bearing 4 500 3000
6 Fabrication (labour charges) - 3000/- 2000
Total 18000

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CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 9
Conclusion

In this project we have conclude that the human can face to more problems in
industry, specially in sugar industry. They have many hazards to lift the sugarcane , it fill in
tractor trolley like that so we have tried to develop a new mechanism for humans in sugar
industry, to lift the sugarcanes in tractor trolley.

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This mechanism is flexible in temrs of motion due to the presence of a driving


mechanism, above suggested real time application will be the best to suit the company
requirments & prevents human labours from hazardous environment.

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CHAPTER 10
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 10
References

1 Mr. R. S. Khurmi & J. K. Gupta Machine Design Pub.: Eurasia Publishing House
Pvt. Limited.

2 MachineSafeguarding at the Point of Operation Author :- Stephanie Ficek

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3 Grinding machines Author :- Jahnavi Madireddy

4 Basics of Grinding Author :- Society of manufacturing engineers

5 Fabrication of wet grinding machine and measure the metal removal rate using
different grades emery paper Author :- Bhaskar Chandra Kandpal, Rajesh Kumar
Verma.

PHOTOGRAPHS

43
“ Design & development of sugarcane lifter. ”

44