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Volume 44, No. 1 A Journal of Anglican Identity Epiphany 2018

Portrait of Thomas Cromwell. Oil and tempera on oak panel,

Hans Holbein - The Frick Collection
Image from Wikipedia under Creative Commons Share Alike License 3.0
The mission of The Anglican Society is to promote and maintain the
Catholic doctrine, discipline and worship of The Episcopal Church in
accordance with the principles and contents of
The Book of Common Prayer.

In This Issue

From the Editor 2
The Rev. William D. Loring

The President’s Column 3

The Rev. Dr. Paul B. Clayton, Jr.

Thomas Cromwell and the English 4
The Rev. Lawrence N. Crumb


Faith Under Fire 19

The Rev. Richard L. Jeske

Prayer Book Revision and the Modern 29

Revival of Trinitarian Doctrine
The Rev. Dr. Paul B. Clayton, Jr.

The Anglican Archivist 40
The late Rev. Canon Peter Chase

All contents, unless otherwise noted, are copyright ©

by the respective authors.

From the Editor
Nos morituri te salutamus
It is with considerable sadness an active role, offering comments on
that I must announce that this is and contributing to any proposals.
the final issue of The Anglican. This My real hope, however, is that at
reflects, as does so much in the this point the Convention will
church today, a decline in funds content itself with the option (which
and in warm bodies. For many will, I am told, be presented by the
years we received a generous Standing Committee on Liturgy and
subsidy from General Seminary Music (SCLM): to create a relatively
which ended as a result of their own short list of amendments and
fiscal problems, and at the same additions that can be incorporated
time our own membership has also into the present Book.
fallen – largely as the result of an I can think of several such
erratic publishing schedule which changes, but at this time will
has become even worse under my advocate for just one of them:
care. I fear that I overestimated my replacing the banal “And also with
abilities and bit off rather more than you,” with “And with your spirit,” in
I could actually chew. I offer my Rite II. We adopted the former
apologies to the members for my phrase in the Trial Use forms of
share in this end. 1970 and following, and then in the
BCP, as part of Texts We Have in
Common with the RC (and some
That being said, other) churches. Since then the
the American Branch Roman Church has adopted the
of the Society was more traditional (and Biblical – cf.
formed in 1945, and I Gal. 6:18) form vitiating a large part
joined about 1960, of the ecumenical reason for the
and began attending previous change.
meetings, writing
occasional articles, and then joining Finally, I remember with joy and
the Executive Committee just as the affection the many friends I have
process of Prayer Book Revision was made through the Society, both here
getting started. I believe the and in the English Branch, over the
Society’s publications and fifty some years that I have been
conferences made important active in it. May God bless us all.
contributions to that effort.
Now that steps are being taken The Rev. William D. Loring is a
towards a new revision my regret is retired priest who is now in the
that we shall not be able as a process of entering fuller retirement
Society to participate – I do hope and moving to warmer climes.
that many of our members will take

President’s Column

It is with great continue any form of publication

sadness that we
I have been a member of The
announce the
Anglican Society since my time at
death of the
General Seminary, class of 1964.
treasurer of The
The Society existed for many
Anglican Society,
decades before then. It has been a
Ms. Linda
steadfast witness to what our motto
Bridges, after a
has described as “Prayer Book
year-long battle
Catholicism” all these years. All our
with esophageal
board members have been part of
cancer on March 25, 2017. She was
The Society during all this time,
buried from St. Mary the Virgin,
making the decision to suspend
Times Square, New York City, her
publication a tragic one for us. We
home congregation of many, many
will mourn The Society and The
years, on April 10th. She served
Anglican because of the witness they
The Anglican Society on our board
have been for us personally. It was
for many years as well, and as
with the greatest difficulty that this
treasurer for the last several years.
past March the board made this
Linda will be greatly missed. May
unhappy decision, and determined
she rest in God’s peace and rise in
that the remaining funds in our
God’s glory in the last day.
treasury should be expended on the
It is also with great sadness that we standard stipends for Fr. Loring, our
must announce that this will be the editor, for the issues he has
last issue of The Anglican. A few overseen, and our web site manager,
years ago, we lost the financial Ms. Hannah Wilder, for her work
support we had enjoyed for many both maintaining the web site and
years from our partner The General assisting Fr. Loring in laying out
Theological Seminary, when the recent issues for electronic
Seminary experienced its own severe publication. The board voted to
financial difficulties. This led the send any remaining funds after
board of the Anglican Society to covering those expenses to the
switch from hard copy issues of The library of The General Theological
Anglican to publishing it in Seminary for purchasing new books
electronic form via the Internet. in Anglican liturgical studies.
Unfortunately, annual renewals
The Reverend Paul B. Clayton, Jr.,
have not proved numerous enough
Ph. D., President
to provide sufficient income to

Thomas Cromwell and the English

Introduction medieval church.”3 The

chancellors were originally
The original
inspiration for representatives of the local
bishops (Lincoln, for Oxford; and
this article
Ely, for Cambridge), since only
came from the
vague bishops could grant licenses to
recollection of teach; as ecclesiastical
administration became more
an assertion
that Henry VIII, having abolished centralized in the late Middle
the monasteries and seized their Ages, they came to be seen as
endowments, considered doing representatives of the Archbishop
the same with the universities; of Canterbury and, eventually, of
and that he was dissuaded from the pope. However, as papal
doing so only by the intercession power grew, so did royal power;
and the church-state conflicts of
of his last queen, Catherine Parr.
Although there is some truth to the late Middle Ages were not
without their reflections in the
this notion,1 the greatest threat
English universities, which
to the English universities came
derived certain privileges and
not at this time (1545-46) but
liberties from the Crown and
during the course of the previous
thus acknowledged its authority
decade – the decade of the 1530s,
in some areas. A classic example
which corresponded almost
came in 1411, when Henry IV
exactly to the ascendancy of
forced Oxford to renounce direct
Thomas Cromwell.
papal control and accept a
The Medieval Background visitation by the Archbishop of
The universities of Oxford and Canterbury – a precedent for
Cambridge were founded in the Archbishop Laud’s controversial
High Middle Ages and developed claim to metropolitical rights of
during the pre-modern centuries visitation over 200 years later.
which followed; looking back on The fifteenth century also saw
their role in English life on the the emergence of a new type of
eve of the Reformation, one university chancellor: a non-
scholar has gone so far as to say resident official with tenure for
that “no institution was more life, chosen from the influential
medieval than they.”2 This members of the royal court; such
means that, “above all,” [they] … a person was not only a guardian
owed their first allegiance to the of university interests, but also
an agent of royal power. Thus,

the ultimate breach with Rome of his patron, employer, and
completed an existing process of mentor, Thomas Wolsey. Wolsey
changing university relations had begun to receive royal
with church and state.4 appointments in both church
The universities were also and state in the last years of
Henry VII, and the favors
typically medieval in the
prominent role played by the multiplied rapidly in the early
religious orders. Rather than years of Henry VIII. In 1514,
consisting primarily of colleges Wolsey was named Archbishop of
for undergraduates, as in modern York, the second-ranking
times, the universities were position in the English hierarchy,
essentially collections of halls and the following year he was
and inns for graduate students; created cardinal. Although he
and most of these graduate was frustrated by Archbishop
students were monks and friars, Warham’s longevity in his desire
proceeding toward graduate to succeed him at Canterbury as
degrees in theology and canon Primate of All England, he did
law.5 Of the 65 Benedictine succeed him as Lord Chancellor
abbeys and priories in England, in 1515; three years later, he
38 sent monks to Gloucester managed to outrank Warham by
College, the Benedictine hall at obtaining appointment as papal
Oxford, as well as some to legate de latere.8 From 1518 until
Cambridge; a total of 213 his fall in 1529, Wolsey thus
combined in his person the
Benedictines attended Oxford
authority to rule both church
alone in the years 1449-1538.
During the same period, there and state. Although Cromwell
were 67 Franciscans, 53 never inherited his master’s
Dominicans, 52 Cistercians, 32 titles, he managed to exercise the
same two-fold authority while
“Austin” (i.e., Augustinian) friars,
and 12 Carmelites.6 In a sense, holding lesser titles and
the degree of monastic maneuvering skillfully behind the
involvement in the universities
represented an adaptation to Wolsey’s first significant
changing financial contact with the universities after
circumstances, for in the late attaining high office – he had
Middle Ages, “both universities been successively junior and
attracted gifts and endowment in senior bursar of Magdalen
a profusion which could be College, Oxford, in his early
matched only by the benefactions career – came in 1518, when
bestowed on the monasteries of Oxford surrendered its statutes
an earlier age ….”7 to him to be altered at his
The Immediate Background pleasure; Cambridge followed
suit in 1524. Meanwhile, in
The immediate background to 1520, Wolsey paid a visit to
Cromwell’s ascendancy was that Cambridge, where he had just

declined the proffered houses that had been
chancellorship – an office that suppressed for the cause) were
Cromwell would eventually hold. transferred to the new college.
A high point among the The act was not exactly
ceremonies attending Wolsey’s unprecedented – Jesus and St.
visit came when he and the new John’s colleges at Cambridge had
chancellor, Bishop Fisher, been founded in 1497 and 1511,
presided over the burning of respectively, with endowments of
Luther’s books. (A similar book- a convent and two hospitals –
burning was conducted by others but nothing before had been
at Oxford about the same time.) done on such a large scale;
Whether Cromwell was among perhaps only a Wolsey could
the large train of attendants have procured a papal bull
Wolsey took with him wherever permitting the suppression of an
he went is not recorded, at least unspecified number of religious
by the historians of the houses. In all the suppressions
university; however, the event and transfers of endowment
would surely have become known connected with the founding of
to him, whether or not it later Cardinal College, Cromwell was
served him as a conscious Wolsey’s agent; surely in this
precedent for the parallel case, Cromwell filed away the
treatment by his agents of the precedent for future reference.10
books of Duns Scotus. On the The Ascendancy of Cromwell
other hand, the example of how
to deal with the universities The major events of the 1530s
which Wolsey bequeathed to – the royal divorce, the royal
Cromwell was not all harsh, for supremacy in the Church, and
the cardinal (in his legatine the complete break with Rome –
capacity) declined a request to all involved Oxford and
appoint a commission of enquiry Cambridge, and thus represented
into the meetings of Cambridge’s a tightening in the existing
“Little Germany” (i.e., Lutheran- interrelationships between
minded) group at the White church, state, and university.
Horse tavern.9 What has been said of the 1500s
in general is thus especially true
But Wolsey’s most important of the decade of Cromwell’s
contact with higher education ascendancy:
was his grand design for his
namesake Cardinal College at Westminster and Canterbury
Oxford. The building of what was kept a close eye on the
intended to be by far the largest universities and had many
college of the university began in methods, direct and indirect,
1524 on the site of St. of making their power felt.
Frideswide’s Priory, whose This influence was natural,
endowment (together with those inevitable, in a society in
of several other small religious

which Church and State were The real turning-point for the
so intimately connected.11 universities came in 1533 with
Cromwell’s first concern in the passing of the Act in
Restraint of Appeals, which had
regard to the universities, on the
eve of this eventful decade, had been drafted by Cromwell. Far
been the saving of his former from being a tentative testing of
master’s pet project, Cardinal the waters, the Act
College; and it may have been proclaimed a doctrine whose
through his intercession that the consequences, primary and
king assured its continued secondary, bore as heavily on
existence (although not on so the universities as on any
grand a scale as the cardinal had institution in the realm.
intended).12 But as Cromwell’s Formerly Oxford and
importance grew as agent (and, Cambridge had acknowledged
to a great extent, as shaper) of the joint authority of pope and
the royal will, his attention king but owed their chief
turned to more significant allegiance to the Pope, now
matters. they passed under the sole
The burning issue at the time jurisdiction of the king ….
of Wolsey’s fall – indeed, the This transference of power
cause of Wolsey’s fall – was “the meant a profound change in
king’s matter,” his desire for a the nature of the controls and
divorce from Catherine of Aragon. influences which would foster,
In the spring of 1530, the guide, and condition the
University Senate at Cambridge development of the
pronounced against the validity universities. For one thing
of the marriage while remaining supreme power, being now
silent on the related question of vested in only one authority,
the pope’s dispensing power; was unimpeded by conflicting
after some pressure, the latter policies at the top …. For
was also denied on an ad hoc another thing, the new
basis, but without removing the controlling authority differed
proviso that Catherine’s prior from the old in the purposes
marriage to Prince Arthur and interests it served. It
(Henry’s older brother) had been owed much, for instance, to
consummated.13 Also at the awakening of national
Cambridge in 1530, the statutes feeling and to the heightening
of St. John’s College were revised of anti-clerical impulses and
to include Greek lectures, a emotions. Such differences
legacy of Chancellor Fisher which portended fundamental
Cromwell would not only retain changes in the relations of the
but extend to other colleges, universities with the other
including those of Oxford, as institutions of English

From this point, it was but a possible because of the
short step to the Act of deprivation and imprisonment of
Supremacy, also emanating from the former chancellor, Bishop
Cromwell’s pen, which was Fisher, who had refused to
passed in the following year and accept the Act of Supremacy.
cut the last thread connecting Although Fisher had not yet been
the English church (including its executed for treason, we now
universities) to the papacy. Both know that his doom was already
Oxford and Cambridge sealed in Cromwell’s mind when
subscribed to the Act, although he assumed the office.20 A double
some individuals at Oxford were irony lies in the fact that in 1534
deprived of their fellowships for Cambridge had given Cromwell
not doing so, and at Cambridge the post of high steward, an
the prior of the “Black Friars” office in which his immediate
(Dominicans) was removed from predecessor was that other great
his post when Archbishop Henrician martyr, Thomas More.
Cranmer complained to Cromwell With its two brightest lights not
about the prior’s objections. 16 only deprived and in prison, but
The year 1534 also saw the likely candidates for the block,
“the university made Cromwell
establishment of the Cambridge
chancellor to save itself.”21
University Press, in the sense
that a royal license was granted But it was not in his role of
“to appoint three stationers and chancellor of Cambridge that
printers or booksellers … to print Cromwell was destined to leave
and sell such books as shall be his mark on higher education in
approved by the said chancellor England. The Act of Supremacy
or his vicegerent and three gave Henry complete control over
doctors,”17 although it was the English church, and he
several years before the terms of delegated this authority to
the license were actually Cromwell as his “vicegerent, vicar
implemented. It was also in 1534 general and special
that Alexander Alane, a Scots commissary.” 22 It was in the
reformer and disciple of exercise of this office that
Melanchthon, visited Cambridge Cromwell appointed agents to
at the joint invitation of Cromwell make a visitation of the
and Cranmer – a foretaste of the universities (as he also did for
several foreign reformers who the monasteries, cathedrals, and
would visit the universities parish churches) and issued
during the next reign.18 injunctions to the universities,
whose compliance the visitors
By the time of Cranmer’s
were charged with enforcing. The
complaint about the Dominican
“Royal Injunctions of 1535”
prior at Cambridge, Cromwell
had become chancellor of the
university.19 This election, which 1. subscription to “the king’s
took place early in 1535, was succession” (i.e., Princess

Elizabeth), obedience to 9. that “all deans, presidents,
any statutes “for the wardens, heads, masters,
extirpation of the papal rectors, and officers … be
usurpation and for the sworn to the due and
assertion and confirmation faithful observance of these
of the king’s jurisdiction, articles.”23
prerogative, and Perhaps the wording of these
preeminence”; injunctions was the inspiration
2. that each college and hall for Archbishop Laud’s
establish daily lectures in controversial “Etcetera Oath” a
Greek and Latin; century later!
3. that lectures should not be The emphasis on the Bible –
given on the Sentences of both in private reading and
Peter Lombard, and that public lectures – comes in the
“all divinity lectures should very year that Cromwell
be upon the Scriptures … persuaded the king to permit
according to the true sense publication of Coverdale’s
thereof, and not after the translation, and a year before the
manner of Scotus, etc.”; first draft of injunctions
(implemented in 1538) requiring
4. that students be permitted
that a copy be set up in every
to read the Bible and
parish church.24 The favorable
attend lectures on it;
mention of the Lutheran
5. that there be no more Melanchthon suggests
study or degrees in canon Cromwell’s desire for England’s
law; alliance with the Lutheran states
6. that ceremonies and of Germany – a scheme which led
observances that “hindered to the unsatisfactory royal
polite learning” be marriage to Anne of Cleves, the
abolished; occasion for Cromwell’s downfall.
The unfavorable mention of
7. that students be instructed Scotus, on the other hand, led to
in “logic, rhetoric, the famous destruction of his
arithmetic, geography, books by Cromwell’s visitors to
music, and philosophy, Cambridge, the leaves strewn
and should read Aristotle through the quadrangle of New
… Melanchthon … etc., College and “the wind blowing
and not the frivolous them into every corner”25 -- an
questions and obscure ironic sequel to the burning of
glosses of Scotus … etc.”; Luther’s books at Cambridge by
8. that any existing statutes Wolsey, fifteen years earlier. The
contrary to the above be downfall of Scotus was not only
void; “the downfall of scholasticism in
England” but also “the line that
in university history divides the

mediaeval from the modern promotion of Biblical knowledge,
age.”26 “Henry VIII and Cromwell … used
The most significant of the the injunctive power that
injunctions, however, was the properly belonged to visitors to
one abolishing the study of secure compliance with their
canon law. For Henry, in whose religious policies within Oxford
name the injunctions were and Cambridge.”27 The immediate
effect on the daily life of the
issued, this act may well have
constituted a royal revenge on universities can be imagined only
when we remember that “the
the profession that had failed
majority of those engaged in
him when he needed it most; for
Cromwell, who actually wrote the higher studies at Oxford and
injunctions, there was a wider Cambridge spent their time in
significance. Cromwell was very the study of canon law.”28
much a man who would prefer to Subsequent injunctions of 1536
cut a Gordian knot rather than and 1538 aided the universities
by providing that “beneficed
waste time trying to untie it.
Whereas Wolsey had been persons with sufficient income
content to let the royal divorce must support a scholar at a
university or grammar school …”
wend its serpentine way through
and in 1539, when Cromwell was
the slow-paced courts of canon
planning new bishoprics, he was
law, Cromwell must have sensed
“concerned that the new
that a satisfactory solution lay
deaneries and colleges of
not in more sophisticated
prebends should have Readers of
arguments and larger bribes, but
Divinity, Greek, and Hebrew….”29
in the abolition of the entire
system. The church of the late An even greater disruption
Middle Ages was a church of was yet to come: dissolution of
canon law: its rules dominated the monasteries. In a three-year
the daily lives of both clergy and period beginning in 1538, over a
laity; its study was the principal dozen religious houses were
avenue to preferment, including closed at the two universities.
the episcopate; and its One modern observer, however,
administration was the chief asserts that “monks and friars
bulwark of the papacy, which – had for long played only a minor
apart from its judicial importance part in university life, and their
– was perched somewhat departure was no irreparable
ambiguously at the head of a loss. Indeed, in the long run, the
quasi-feudal network of semi- Dissolution may be supposed an
autonomous provinces. There advantage.”30 The advantage, of
was no more obvious or more course, was the creation of
effective way of reacting against Trinity College, Cambridge and
the immediate past than by Christ Church, Oxford, out of the
abolishing the profession of suppressed houses’ endowments.
canon law. In this, as in their In addition, there were several

more direct transfers: at residence of
Cambridge, Buckingham College undergraduates.32
became Magdalene, the Carmelite Like any good administrator,
friary was acquired by Queens’ Cromwell was concerned with
College, and the Franciscan, by
small matters as well as great,
Sidney Sussex. At Oxford, and the universities were no
Canterbury College was absorbed exception to this rule. He was
into Christ Church, Durham
frequently involved in
College became Trinity (under correspondence regarding
Mary), St. Bernard’s (Cistercian) disputes between town and
became St. John’s, Gloucester
gown,33 transfers of college
(Benedictine) eventually became properties,34 and the
Worcester, and the remains of St.
appointment of minor officials.35
Mary’s (Augustinian) were He also received many letters
ultimately transferred to
simply requesting money. In
Brasenose (under Elizabeth). 1532, the canons of Christ
However, the same author who Church (as Cardinal College was
cites these transfers of monastic
now called) claimed that “without
endowments as an advantage is [your] help [we] will not be able to
also quick to point out “the harm keep off hunger this Christmas”;
inflicted on scholarship … by the two years later, a representative
wholesale dispersal or of the same college, citing
destruction of books and “extreme need,” hinted at a
manuscripts in monastic speedy reply with the Latin
libraries.”31 epigram “qui cito dat bis dat” (he
Disappearing along with the who gives quickly gives twice). At
monastic houses were the inns about the same time, the king’s
and halls, so much a part of scholars at Oxford sugared their
medieval university life. There request for money by flattering
had been over fifty at Oxford in Cromwell that “you must have
the fifteenth century, but only angels’ wit and knowledge to
eight remained by 1558, and only prosecute and finish all such
one (St. Edmund’s) still exists things as you take in hand ….”36
today. Although we are not faced Of course, such bread cast upon
here with a change in the academic waters was bound
curriculum, the change in to return to Cromwell on
student life was great: occasion, as when his
commissioner Dr. John Landon,
If one change more than
acting as intermediary, writes, “I
another characterized the
send you a pair of gloves, and £5
passing of the medieval order
in gold in them.”37 The reason for
in the University of Oxford, it
Cromwell’s being “always
was the supersession of the
exercised over the state of both
Halls by the Colleges as the
Universities” is obvious: “he
predominant type of
needed sound seminaries to
academical society for the

supply the clergy for his reformed church, state, and university, but
Church and the intellectuals also stripped of his recently
whom he meant to employ in the acquired earldom (and his
state.”38 slightly older barony). This might
In 1535, Cromwell had have led to the commoner’s fate
intervened on behalf of the of hanging, but he was granted
University of Cambridge in a the nobleman’s luxury of
town-gown controversy in order beheading – one final crumb of
to win favor with both Catholic comfort to fall from the royal
and Reformed elements before master’s table.41
going ahead with his planned Epilogue
injunctions and visitation.39 By In the year of Cromwell’s
1539, the spirit of reform which death, several Regius
Cromwell had fostered had gone professorships, including Greek,
too far for the growing Hebrew, and Divinity, were
apprehension of conservative established at both Oxford and
churchmen, just as many in the Cambridge. By this time, the
political arena felt he had gone conservative Stephen Gardiner,
too far in matters of state. In bishop of Winchester, had
Lent of the latter year, a rash of succeeded Cromwell in the
conspicuous fast-breaking at Cambridge chancellorship; the
Oxford gave further ammunition new chairs, however, clearly
to Cromwell’s conservative represent a culmination of forces
opponents, and similar offences set in motion by Cromwell rather
at Cambridge led to indictments than a reaction against his
for Lollardy and public regime.42 Moreover, the funds
penances.40 Although the with which the king so
controversy over fasting did not generously endowed his
precipitate a crisis, it contributed namesake professorships came
to the undermining of Cromwell’s from the endowments which
position and was symptomatic of Cromwell had been instrumental
the rising tide of conservative in seizing from the monasteries –
reaction. In the following year one of the few cases in which a
(1540), Cromwell fell from power, portion of that vast spoliation
just as his mentor had done was put to an appropriate use. It
exactly a decade earlier. Unlike is significant that no attempt was
Wolsey, however, Cromwell did made to revive the professorships
not have the good fortune to die of canon law, even in Mary’s
of natural causes en route to reign, although there was a total
judgment, and in possession of of five applications for the degree
at least some rank of distinction. in the years 1555-1556.43
Insult was added to injury, as the Another legacy of Cromwell’s
man who had, in effect, ruled monastic suppressions was the
England for a decade was not Chantries Act of 1545, which
only relieved of all offices in included mention of the

universities and their colleges, in the tomb of Oxford’s patron
thus inspiring the alarmed saint during the heyday of
appeal to Queen Catherine Parr Edwardian Protestantism, were
mentioned above. However, the displaced by the saint under the
king repeated his assurances, Marian reaction, and finally
first given when the monastic mixed with the latter as a grisly
suppressions had caused but now amusing embodiment of
academic apprehension, and his the Elizabethan compromise.
death shortly afterward The equally brief reign of Mary
precluded any betrayal of the
I (1553-58) saw reaction,
promise.44 The universities, as re-
confusion, and the self-imposed
shaped by Cromwell, were safe, exile of former leaders in the
but the spirit of reform which he universities as well as in the
had fostered there passed from parish churches. Her Lord
the scene, however briefly, with
Chancellor and right-hand man,
his fall; we are told of Cambridge
Bishop Gardiner, had already
that “until Henry’s death in
(1542) used his chancellorship of
1547, [it] was quiescent … the
Cambridge to insist on a return
Six Articles drove ‘Lutheranizing’
to the old pronunciation of
dons to cover … heresy burrowed
Greek, an attempted set-back to
underground….” 45
the advance of humanistic
The reign of Edward VI (1547- studies begun there by Erasmus
53) saw the passage of a second under Fisher’s patronage.48 More
Chantries Act (1547), in which significantly, three Cambridge
the university colleges and dons who had become reforming
hostels were specifically bishops – Latimer, Ridley, and
exempted.46 It also saw a return Archbishop Cranmer himself –
of the reforming spirit to the were burned for heresy at Oxford;
universities, and the arrival of of these, Latimer had been
foreign reformers as visiting Cromwell’s agent at Cambridge,49
lecturers, following the precedent and Cranmer, of course, his
of the Scottish Alane in the colleague in promoting a
previous decade. These included moderate reformation patterned
the German Martin Bucer, made after Lutheran Germany.50 The
Regius Professor of Divinity at burning of a lesser figure, John
Cambridge, and the Italian Pietro Hullier, at Cambridge provided
Martire Vermigli (commonly an equally chilling example of the
called Peter Martyr), who held the new regime’s policy for the
corresponding post at Oxford.47 scholars of that university. We
The former is now remembered should, however, take with some
as an influence on Cranmer’s allowance for exaggeration the
Book of Common Prayer; the statement of the Elizabethan
latter’s legacy lies with the courtier, Roger Ascham, that
remains of his wife, which under Mary the “two fair groves
displaced those of St. Frideswide of learning … were either cut up,

by the root, or trodden down to official should be in a position to
the ground and wholly went to rival her authority.”53
wrack.”51 Conclusion
The much longer reign of The changes in the
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) provided universities which were
a return of equilibrium to the accomplished, or at least begun,
universities (as to other aspects during the ascendancy of
of church and state) and saw Thomas Cromwell touched every
their growth in both scholarship aspect of academic life and left
and practical usefulness to the them – like the English church
nation. An Act of Parliament in itself – a very different
1571 incorporated the two phenomenon in spite of an
universities and gave them new obvious and highly prized
charters. Although the Act institutional continuity. In the
confirmed existing privileges and area of instruction, there was the
liberties, it did so only in abolition of an entire faculty
reference to previous royal (canon law) and endowment of
charters, indicating that the “very the Regius professorships. Greek
corporate existence of the two was added to the arts curriculum
universities depended solely on – “the only significant addition”
royal grants and an Act of to that area54 – and the scholastic
Parliament [and that they] had textbooks of Duns (now “Dunce”)
assumed the character of royal Scotus and Peter Lombard were
institutions of a sort significantly replaced by the works of classical
different from those brought authors and their more recent
under royal control only by Acts humanistic commentators. An
asserting the supremacy of the unfortunate corollary to the
Crown in ecclesiastical affairs.”52 change of texts was the
Whether Cromwell had ever destruction of many books and
contemplated this pushing of his manuscripts, especially in
principles to the logical monastic libraries, the reduction
conclusion we cannot say, but of the Cambridge University
the result would certainly have Library to 175 volumes by 1556,
pleased him. Moreover, the and the complete extinction of its
unusual precedent of Cromwell Oxford counterpart until the
as lay chancellor of Cambridge refounding under Bodley in
was followed by Elizabeth when 1602.55
she appointed Sir William Cecil
to the same position and Sir During this period, the
John Mason to the student body changed from one
chancellorship of Oxford – a bold composed mainly of graduate
break with tradition reflecting students living in halls and inns
“an almost jealous concern that to one composed mainly of
in this sphere no ecclesiastical undergraduates living in colleges.
Gone was the “tonsured clerk

destined for service of Church acted as instruments of social
and state,” who had been the control.”58
typical student until ca. 1540,56 In spite of all these changes,
and in his place appeared there was an essential continuity
candidates for the ministry or
to university life. The individual
secular careers. This novel idea colleges retained their religious
that a university education was character, since their statutes
appropriate for the ordinary
(unlike the new statutes for each
parish clergy led to a rise in their university as a whole) still
status, but also to a loss of prescribed clergy as members
identification with most of their
and visitors, as they would
parishioners.57 Indeed, the new continue to do until the late
concept of a “gentleman” as a nineteenth century.59 But even
university graduate led to the where things remained the same,
replacement of a graduated they took on a new flavor, the
system of many social ranks, flavor of nationalism. The
that had obtained in the Middle ultimate legacy of the
Ages, by a more rigid system of ascendancy of Thomas Cromwell
two basic classes. Thus, the was the “Englishing’ of Oxford
sixteenth century saw the and Cambridge: he had turned
universities “transformed from the universities in England into
being institutions geared to the universities of England, just
training for a particular as he had turned the Church in
profession into institutions which England into the Church of
1Charles Fenno Hoffman, “Catherine looking to the Papacy as its head.” See
Parr as a Woman of Letters,” Huntington also C. H. Lawrence, “The University in
Library Quarterly 23 (1960): 360-61; State and Church,” in The Early Oxford
Mark H. Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge Schools, ed. J. I. Catto, The History of
in Transition, 1550-1642 (Oxford, 1959), the University of Oxford, v. 1 (Oxford,
5. See also James Kelsey McConica, 1984), 97-150.
English Humanists and Reformation 4Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 20-23.
Politics under Henry VIII and Edward VI
(Oxford, 1965), 8; Joan Simon, “The 5Kearney, Scholars and Gentlemen, 16,

Reformation and English Education,” 20; S. C. Roberts, British Universities

Past and Present, no. 11 (1957): 57; (London, 1947), 13. See also James A.
Damian Riehl Leader, The University to Brundage, “The Cambridge Faculty of
1546, A History of the University of Canon Law and the Ecclesiastical
Cambridge, v. 1 (Cambridge, 1988), Courts of Ely,” in Medieval Cambridge:
344. Essays on the Pre-Reformation
University, ed. Patrick Zutshi, The
2Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 2.
History of the University of Cambridge:
3Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 19; Texts and Studies, v. 2 (Woodbridge,
Hugh Kearney, Scholars and Gentlemen Eng., 1993), 21-45.
(Ithaca, NY, 1970), 15: “Essentially the 6SirDavid Oswald Hunter-Blair, “The
universities were the educational organs
Black Monks at Oxford University,”
of a vast ecclesiastical corporation,

Dublin Review 192 (1933): 19, 25; John 13Lawrence K. Patterson, “The
Lawson, Mediaeval Education and the Reformation at Cambridge,” Catholic
Reformation (London and New York, Historical Review, n.s. 10 (1931): 52;
1967), 59. Mullinger, University of Cambridge,
1:617ff.; see also H. C. Porter,
7Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 3. See
Reformation and Reaction in Tudor
also M. W. Sheehen, “The Religious
Cambridge (Cambridge, 1958), 49:
Orders, 1370-1540,” in Late Medieval
implies a single act of the Senate.
Oxford, ed. J. I. Catto and Ralph Evans,
The History of the University of Oxford, 14M. L. Clarke, Classical Education in
v. 2 (Oxford, 1992), 539-80. Britain, 1500-1900 (Cambridge, 1959),
8Dates are from Dictionary of National
Biography; see also James Gairdner, 15Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 17.
The English Church in the Sixteenth 16Mallet, History of the University of
Century (London, 1912), 65-66: Wolsey
Oxford, 2:60; Patterson, “Reformation at
actually became Lord Chancellor on
Cambridge,” 53; G. R. Elton, Policy and
Christmas Eve, 1514 (if December 24
Police (Cambridge, 1972), 228; Letters
O.S., then same as January 3, 1515
and Papers, 7:238 (item 602), for
Cambridge; 241 (item 617), for Oxford.
9James Bass Mullinger, The University For the stimulation of subscription by
of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1873-1911), specially appointed proctors, see Letters
1:542, 549, 571. and Papers, 7:224 (item 565).
10Simon, “The Reformation and English 17Letters and Papers, 7:400 (items 1026-

Education,” 55; Charles Edward Mallet, 27).

A History of the University of Oxford 18Mullinger, University of Cambridge,
(New York and London, 1968), 2:35
11Craig R. Thompson, Universities in 19Patterson, “Reformation at
Tudor England (Washington, DC, 1959),
Cambridge,” 53.
6. The concept of Cromwell’s initiative
and Henry’s acquiescence was stated by 20Mullinger, University of Cambridge,
G. R. Elton in his The Tudor Revolution 2:1.
in Government (Cambridge, 1953) and 21Mullinger, University of Cambridge,
defended, with modifications, in his
2:2 (quoting David Lloyd, State
Thomas Cromwell (Bangor, 1991), 21-
Worthies, London, 1766, 61).
22, 31-32; for contrary opinions, see G.
W. Bernard, “Elton’s Cromwell,” History 22A. G. Dickens, The English

83 (1998): 587-607 and Revolution Reformation (New York, 1964), 120.

Reassessed: Revisions in the History of 23Mullinger, University of Cambridge,
Tudor Government and Administration,
1:630; Mallet, History of the University
ed. Christopher Coleman and David
of Oxford, 2:62, implying parallel
Starkey (Oxford and New York, 1986).
injunctions for Oxford; but see
12H. C. Maxwell Lyte, A History of the Thompson, Universities in Tudor
University of Oxford (London and New England, 23: “This scheme [lectures in
York, 1886), 48. For Cromwell’s Greek] does not seem to have been
appointment as “receiver-general and carried out at the time in more than a
supervisor of the lands lately belonging few colleges.” See also F. Donald Logan,
to the Cardinal’s colleges at Oxford and “The First Royal Visitations of the
Ipswich” (1532), see Letters and Papers, English Universities, 1535,” English
Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Historical Review 106 (1991): 861-88.
Henry VIII (London, 1880-83), 5:337 24Dickens, English Reformation, 131-32.
(item 701).

University of Cambridge,
25Mullinger, 41Susan Brigden, “Popular Disturbance
1:629; Lawson, Mediaeval Education, and the Fall of Thomas Cromwell and
97. the Reformers,” Historical Journal 24
26Mullinger, University of Cambridge,
(1981): 257-78; Robert Hutchinson,
Thomas Cromwell: The Rise and Fall of
1:631. Another parallel to Wolsey’s
Henry VIII’s Most Notorious Minister
regime was the demand of Cromwell’s
(New York, 2007), 258. A lengthy but
heavy-handed deputy visitor, Dr.
readable account of the period is Derek
Thomas Leigh, that the universities
Wilson’s In the Lion’s Court: Power,
hand over their charters to Cromwell,
Ambition and Sudden Death in the Court
plus an inventory of moveable and
of Henry VIII (London, 2001).
immoveable property (2:9-10).
42Porter,Reformation and Reaction, 50;
27Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 51.
Kearney, Scholars and Gentlemen, 21.
28Kearney, Scholars and Gentlemen, 43Mallet,History of the University of
Oxford, 2:63, f. 4.
29McConica, English Humanists, 160, 44Mallet, History of the University of
Oxford, 2:77-79. For a detailed study,
30Lawson, Mediaeval Education, 96. see Alan Kreider, English Chantries: The
Road to Dissolution (Cambridge, MA,
31Lawson, Mediaeval Education, 97.
32A.B. Emden, An Oxford Hall, 1; 45Patterson, “Reformation at
quoted by Curtis, Oxford and
Cambridge,” 53.
Cambridge, 36. See also J. N. D. Kelly,
St Edmund Hall: Almost Seven Hundred 46Simon,“Reformation and English
Years (Oxford, 1989). Education,” 58.
33For Oxford, see (e.g.), Letters and 47F. L. Cross, ed., The Oxford Dictionary

Papers, 5:575 (items 133-32; 6:10, 84, of the Christian Church (New York,
119, 121, 162, 434, 673 (items 21, 183, 1957), 204, 1055.
266, 274, 344, 1016, 1670); 7:241 (item 48Clarke, Classical Education, 25;
617). Cromwell seems to have used the
Mallet, History of the University of
town-gown conflicts as a means of
Oxford, 2:80: “Gardiner’s authority
increasing his authority over both; see
failed to suppress [the new method].” An
Carl I. Hammer, Jr., “Oxford Town and
interesting study in contrasts is
Oxford University,” in The Collegiate
provided by Diarmaid MacCulloch, “Two
University, ed. James McConica, The
Dons in Politics: Thomas Cranmer and
History of the University of Oxford, v. 3
Stephen Gardiner, 1503-1533,”
(Oxford, 1986), 91.
Historical Journal 37 (1994): 1-22.
34Lettersand Papers, 5:337, 568, 603 49Mullinger, University of Cambridge,
(items 701, 1309, 1423); 6:183 (item
50See,e.g., Thompson, Universities in
and Papers, 6:162, 379 (items
Tudor England, 6; Mullinger, University
344, 868).
of Cambridge, 2:14-15; Patterson,
36Letters and Papers, 5:684 (item 1647); “Reformation at Cambridge,” 53.
7:9, 37 (items 16, 98). 51Roger Ascham, English Works (ed. W.
37Letters and Papers, 6:126 (item 290). A. Wright), 280-81; quoted by Simon,
“Reformation and English Education,”
38Elton, Policy and Police, 98.
60; Mullinger, University of Cambridge,
39Mullinger, University of Cambridge, 2:152. See also Claire Cross, “Oxford
2:5. and the Tudor State from the Accession
of Henry VIII to the Death of Mary,” in
40Elton, Policy and Police, 99.
McConica, Collegiate University, 117-50

52Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 25-26. and Cambridge in the Tudor and Stuart
53Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 25. See
Age,” History Today 34, no. 2 (February
1984): 31-38.
also Penry Williams, “Elizabethan
Oxford: State, Church and University,” 58Kearney, Scholars and Gentlemen, 33.
in McConica, Collegiate University, 397- 59Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 30-32.
440; also C. M. Dent, Protestant
Reformers in Elizabethan Oxford 60Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge, 49-50.
(Oxford, 1983). For a brief survey of the For the general context of the period,
period, see Elisabeth Leedham-Green, see Claire Cross, “Oxford and the Tudor
“Cambridge under the Tudors, 1485- State from the Accession of Henry VIII
1603,” in her A Concise History of the to the Death of Mary” and Jennifer
University of Cambridge (Cambridge, Loach, “Reformation Controversies,”
1996), 29-65. both in McConica, Collegiate University,
117-50 and 363-96, respectively.
54Thompson, Universities in Tudor
England, 10.
55Lawson, Mediaeval Education, 97-98. The Rev. Lawrence N Crumb is a
56Lawson, Mediaeval Education, 104. retired Priest who serves as Vicar
57Kearney,Scholars and Gentlemen, 28-
of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church,
29; Rosemary O’Day, “Room at the Top: Cottage Grove, OR.

Faith under Fire
A Review Article
Preaching in Hitler’s Shadow: Sermons of Resistance in the Third Reich, ed. by
Dean Stroud. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2013. Pp. 215. $20.00 (paper).
Paul Schneider (1897–1939) was and the Roman Catholic Bishop
the first Protestant pastor to die in a Clemens August von Galen. Stroud,
concentration camp. We should at a former Presbyterian pastor, is
least know his name. He died professor emeritus of German
because he preached a sermon. studies at the University of
People cared about what he Wisconsin, La Crosse.
preached, especially the Nazis, who
Hitler’s “Christianity”
had already forced his exit from his
first church, which led to his Stroud provides a helpful
reassignment to a two-point country introductory overview of the
parish more amenable to his historical and ideological context of
preaching. Arrested several times these sermons. In a radio speech
during his first call, the harassment shortly after becoming chancellor,
continued in his second: twice Hitler proclaimed his regard for
detained by the Gestapo. In late Christianity as “the foundation of
1937, after leading the earlier our national morality” and professed
service of his two-point parish, he that “I would never ally myself with
didn’t show up at his second parish: the parties which destroy
he had been intercepted on his way Christianity.” Statements of
there by the Gestapo, arrested, propaganda designed to alleviate
imprisoned, and finally taken to alarm, they initially calmed most of
Buchenwald, where he was severely the populace, which in the 1930s
tortured and eventually murdered. still largely belonged to their
Again, we should at least remember Christian churches. But what was
his name, if not those of many to come was a thorough invasion of
others who shared the same fate. Christian theology by language,
regulations, and practices foreign to
In this important book, Dean
it. The self-aggrandizing term
Stroud has compiled a collection of
“positive Christianity” was being
sermons indicating that not all
promoted by National Socialism in
voices were silent in Germany
order to camouflage Nazi ideology,
during the time of the Third Reich.
and anything critical of the latter
In addition to two sermons by Paul
was deemed “negative.”1
Schneider, there are others by
Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Karl Barth, To begin with, Hitler became the
Martin Niemöller, Julius von Jan, object of faith, the new savior of the
Helmut Gollwitzer, Gerhard Ebeling, people, whom people greeted with
Rudolf Bultmann, Wilhelm Busch, the term Heil (salvation). The new
faith had its own Bible, Mein Kampf,

and crucifixes were to be removed the canon, and published a New
from all altars and replaced by the Testament free of Jewish influence,
only unconquerable symbol, the selling some 200,000 copies.
swastika.2 The kingdom of God was
Unfortunately, 1933 marked the
superseded by another Reich
450th anniversary of the birth of
(kingdom), the Third Reich. In
Martin Luther, who was now hailed
exams students were asked “What
as a German national hero whose
comes after the Third Reich?” The
Reformation accorded with National
correct answer was “nothing,”
Socialist views of race and “national
because the Third Reich would last character.” Certainly, his anti-
forever. There was a new version of
Semitic writings lent themselves to
the Holy Trinity, it was Soil, Blood,
the propaganda, even while things
and Race, and faithful, absolute
like his position as a professor of
adherence was mandatory. At rallies
Old Testament, his translation of it,
there were music, song, uniforms,
his ordering its canon according to
and banners, as well as
the Hebrew canon, and his 1523
impassioned speeches. In film Hitler
essay “That Jesus Christ was Born a
was portrayed as a god coming out
Jew”4 were ignored. The Rengsdorf
of the heavens, bringing light into Theses (October, 1933), drawn up
the darkness that had fallen over by pro-Nazi Christians, stated that
the land. Christmas celebrated less the Reformation marked the renewal
the birth of Jesus than an ancient of the national spirit and made the
Germanic festival of light in which gospel accessible to the German
the Germanic forebears anticipated national character. Responses
the coming of Nazi light. The old immediately emerged: “Whoever
beloved carol was reworded: treats the Reformation as a
Silent Night! Holy Night! All is specifically German affair today
calm, all is bright, interprets it as propaganda and
Only the Chancellor steadfast in places himself outside the
fight, evangelical church” (Barth, October,
Watches o’er Germany by day 1933).5 “To understand (Luther’s)
and by night, actions as a breakthrough of the
Always caring for us.3 Germanic spirit, or as the origin of
Hitler had replaced Bethlehem’s the modern feeling for freedom, or
as the establishment of a new
child, coming in the fullness of time,
religion is to completely
as the true light of the world.
misunderstand his mission”6
So there was a lot to deal with in (Bonhoeffer, H. Sasse, and others, in
sermons that proposed to remain the Bethel Confession, rev.
faithful to the Christian gospel— November, 1933).
especially the fact that Jesus was a
The German Christian
Jew, a rather awkward item for anti-
movement, which began a few years
Semitic fanatics. So the latter made
before the Nazis came to power, was
an Aryan of him, banned the Old
the result, Stroud says, of the
Testament as an inauthentic part of
trauma of defeat in World War I and

the malaise that infected the These events provided the sparks
churches afterward. It was ripe for that ignited the “church struggle”
self-serving heroic talk supplied by a (Kirchenkampf) and brought it into
National Socialism that railed the open. Regarding the “Aryan
against weakness, timidity, and Paragraph,” a group of pastors and
defeatism. Influenced by post- theologians, including Rudolf
Enlightenment “liberal theology”7 Bultmann, reacted with a statement
and finding examples in other to counter this new law. “The New
churches in the world that defined Testament and the Race Question”
themselves by national heritage, the stated that the New Testament could
German Christians were ripe for not support such a law because the
Nazi infestation. Demoralized by the construct of “race” was foreign to it.
losses of the war, disaffected by As an exclusionary concept it could
Weimar and its attempt at not reflect any Christian reality. Full
democracy, and swept up by Hitler’s equality among all believers in the
offer of a “strong” Germany, the faith community was assumed in
German Christians acceded to Christian baptism, and the church
governmental manipulation both could not depart from its New
ideologically and administratively, Testament identity.10
which was seen by others, both In September 1933, Martin
clergy and laypersons, as a denial of Niemöller founded the Pastors’
the gospel. Emergency League, which virtually
The Kirchenkampf overnight counted two thousand
pastors among its membership,
In April 1933, the Nazi
protesting the Aryan Paragraph.
parliament had adopted the “Aryan
Bonhoeffer was among them, and
Paragraph,” which mandated that
the League’s membership soon grew
all public servants who were not
to seven thousand pastors, despite
“racially pure” could no longer work
their harassment and persecution.
in the public sector. Pastors,
Karl Barth, teaching at Bonn, called
organists, sextons who were Jewish
for radical opposition to the
could no longer be employed by the
“German Christians.” His
church, nor Jewish professors in the
commentary on Romans (1918, rev.
universities. “
1921) had already earned
Thus Nazi racial laws, not the widespread influence, in which he
Christian gospel, would dictate who asserted that theology does not
could or who could not preach the begin with the human being but
gospel in Germany.”8 A month with God, who is the subject and
before that the Nazi Parliament predicate of Christian theology. The
passed a law ending constitutional reader is not in charge of the biblical
government and a month later Hitler text; it is the biblical text that
rejected the duly elected churchwide judges the reader. Barth’s writings
bishop Friedrich von were, according to Stroud, “a call to
Bodelschwingh 9 and worked to arms against the German Christian
engineer his resignation. movement and against any marriage

between Christianity and Nazism.”11 Christ as the authentic Führer and,
Bonhoeffer argued that a state’s by implication, not Hitler, was
legitimacy depends on its ensuring subversive speech.”13 To uphold the
the safety of all its citizens, and, in Old Testament as word of God and
the case of the persecution of the Jesus as a Jew was inflammatory
Jews, the church must raise the rhetoric. To advocate the cause of
question of the Nazi state’s the weak and helpless, especially
legitimacy. Stroud notes that the mentally ill and disabled whom
Bonhoeffer was the first Lutheran to the Nazis regarded as socially
posit, even hypothetically, that a worthless, was subversive. To place
lawfully elected state government God’s kingdom above all earthly
could become illegitimate.12 kingdoms (like the Reich) subjected
the preacher to immediate physical
The Confessing Church
and professional danger.
In May 1934, the first Confessing
The Confessing Church placed
Synod met in Barmen, with over
great trust in the local parish, and it
three hundred clergy and laity
was in the parishes that the church
present, and unanimously adopted
struggle took its course. Niemöller
the Barmen Declaration. Its target
notes that attendance in the
was primarily the German Christian
parishes grew, often beyond
movement, asserting that it had
capacity, and cites a document in
endangered the church by going
his own parish, which carried the
outside historical confessional
bounds. It listed five confessional names of over three thousand
teachings that were counter to five parishioners who “joyfully” placed
heretical teachings held by the themselves under the authority of
German Christians. Highly the Confessing Church. The times
meant that preaching became the
influenced by Barth’s theology and
leadership, the Declaration declared central mission of the church, and
that Jesus Christ is the one Lord of personal safety could not excuse
the church and no human authority timidity in the pulpit. From his jail
cell in 1937 Paul Schneider wrote to
trumps his. The Barmen Declaration
his wife: “It is not that I and all the
was seen as the basic statement of
rest of us have said too much in our
the whole Confessing Church.
sermons, but rather that we have
The use of the word “Confessing” said far too little.”14
to describe the movement was
Provocative Preaching
meant to convey that its purpose
was not a political but a theological So examples of provocative
one, in contrast to the political preaching, along with brief
accommodation that had beset the biographies of each preacher,
“German Christians.” The gospel complete the book. It is biblical
was at stake, and to proclaim it preaching at its best, on both Old
faithfully meant clearly articulated and New Testament texts. It is
theology and, as the times called for, Christocentric preaching, insisting
provocative preaching. “To speak of on the one lordship of Christ and no

other. It is proclamation, in that the was forced to leave Germany in
reader cannot escape the call to 1934 after refusing to swear the
discipleship and the demands and loyalty oath to Hitler that was
promise it carries. required of university professors as
Paul Schneider to his parish in civil servants. From Basel,
Hochelheim in 1934: “What is now Switzerland, he continued to be of
coming together in the German immense influence in Germany by
Christian Faith Movement under the providing a theological foundation
leadership of influential Nazis is for opposition against Nazi inroads
nothing less than naked into the German churches.
paganism.”15 And preaching on a Dietrich Bonhoeffer, in a 1933
text from the Old Testament Psalms sermon in Berlin based on the Old
to his last church in Dickenshied in Testament story of Gideon:
1937: “Today we should be aware of
In the church we have only one
the fact that confessing Jesus will
altar—the altar of the Most High,
carry a price and that for his sake
the One and only, the Almighty,
we will come into much distress and
the Lord, to whom alone be
danger, much shame and
honor and praise, the Creator
persecution. Happy the man who
before whom all creation bows
does not turn aside from these
down, before whom even the
most powerful are but dust. We
Martin Niemöller in 1936, from don’t have any side altars at
his pulpit in Berlin-Dahlem: “The which to worship human beings.
more unbridled the public attacks The worship of God and not of
against Christianity become, they humankind is what takes place
show that it is not simply against at the altar of our church.
the Old Testament and the apostle Anyone who wants to do
Paul—as they want us to believe — otherwise should stay away and
but rather it is against the one Lord cannot come with us into God’s
in whom we believe, even Jesus of house. Anyone who wants to
Nazareth.”17 After repeated arrests, build an altar to himself or to any
in 1938, Niemöller was imprisoned other human is mocking God,
in the concentration camp in and God will not allow such
Sachsenhausen and in 1941 was mockery. To be in the church
transferred to Dachau, where he did means to have the courage to be
survive the war. alone with God as Lord, to
Karl Barth, in 1933, in the Castle worship God and not any human
Church in Bonn: “Christ belongs to person. And it does take courage.
the people of Israel. This people’s The thing that most hinders us
blood was in his veins, the very from letting God be Lord, that is,
blood of God’s Son.…Jesus was a from believing in God, is our
Jew in order to confirm and to fulfill cowardice. That is why we have
this free and merciful promise of Gideon, because he comes with
God ‘given to the fathers.’” Barth us to the one altar of the Most

High, the Almighty, and falls on Sunday sermon on dual texts from
his knees to this God alone.18 Isaiah and Matthew:
The only Roman Catholic voice in To be sure, in these days many
this collection is that of Clemens pagan prayers are being lifted up
August von Galen, Bishop of to God in many countries and in
Münster, who was horrified by the many churches, weak winged
Nazis’ program of raiding health prayers that barely reach the
care institutions for people with church ceiling. To pray rightly
mental and physical disabilities, means not only to pray for God’s
carting them off to concentration protection and power.…To pray
camps, and murdering them as like pagans is to pray full of self-
people “worthless” to society. Von confidence and without
Galen in a 1941 sermon: repentance.…The only person
Now we come to the Fifth who may make the fourth
Commandment: “Thou shalt not petition of the Lord’s Prayer—the
kill”—that is set aside and request for daily bread that
violated right in front of the very includes peace as well—is the
people obligated to protect civil person who acknowledges at the
order and human life. And this is same time: We have each and
due to an exception made for the everyone of us brought all this
legal killing of innocent people, upon ourselves and we richly,
albeit sick, fellow human beings, richly deserve the consequences.
simply because they are Only that person may make the
“unproductive” and can no longer fourth petition who in the same
produce goods.19 breath makes the fifth: “And
forgive us our guilt!” If I may
Already von Galen in his sermons name but one sin, we have
had made the Nazis back down from become very hard-hearted. We all
their decision to remove all must accuse ourselves of having
crucifixes from Catholic schools, brought so much misery upon
and eventually he was placed under ourselves by allowing so much
house arrest, the Nazis fearing evil to happen while we watched
anything more drastic for the bishop unmoved, and now this evil
would result in an outright revolt in threatens us.…We have been
Münster. cowardly and have only wanted
Helmut Gollwitzer succeeded to save our own lives.…We were
Martin Niemöller as pastor of the all too ready to answer injustice
Berlin-Dahlem church after the with injustice and only looked to
latter’s arrest in 1937. He eventually secure our own right and our
came to be known as one of the own advantages while being
most powerful preachers in indifferent to the rights and
Germany. Three days after honor of the other person. Now
Germany’s invasion of Poland in the fruit that had to grow from
1939, an act that thrust Germany that is visible. Woe to us if we are
into war again, Gollwitzer based a terrified by the fruit and not its

cause—which is us.…To pray front, survived the war, but in ill
rightly is to pray with a repentant health, returned for a time to his
heart.20 home church, where he was greeted
warmly, and lived out his final years
Of course, it was not long before the
in a Moravian community of the
Gestapo expelled Gollwitzer from
Herrnhuter Brüdergemeinde.
Berlin and forbade him to speak
anywhere in the Reich. He Several of the homilists in this
volunteered to serve as an army collection have had their own
medic, was captured by the respective collections of sermons
Russians and imprisoned for four published: Barth, Bonhoeffer,
years. Eventually he returned both Bultmann, Ebeling, and Gollwitzer.
to academia in Bonn and Berlin, as Directly related to the subject of this
well as to preaching in his Berlin- book is Ebeling’s Predigten eines
Dahlem congregation. “Illegalen” aus den Jahren 1939–
Julius von Jan publicly protested 1945, yet to be translated into
the interference of the state in English.22 These “Sermons of
Someone ‘Illegal’” refer to Ebeling’s
church affairs, especially the arrest
ordination in the Confessing
and persecution of pastors. When
Church, an “illegal” entity; they were
the pogrom against Jewish citizens
known as “Kristallnacht” (“Night of preached to a group of laypeople
who set themselves apart from their
Broken Glass”) occurred in
parish in Thuringia that was led by
November of 1938, he was
convinced that in the face of such a German Christian pastor. Stroud
includes Ebeling’s sermon at the
evil silence was no option. The next
funeral of one of those incapacitated
Sunday, a day of National
patients whom the Nazis had judged
Atonement, he spoke from the pulpit
useless and had marked for
of his church in Oberlenningen:
We as Christians see how this
injustice burdens our people
before God and has to draw his Why is a book like this so
punishment upon important? First of all, it contributes
Germany.…Yes, it is a horrifying to the debate on whether or to what
seed of hatred that has been lengths Germans, especially clergy,
scattered upon the soil once spoke out against the atrocities of
more. What a horrible harvest the Nazi regime. Removed from it all
will grow from this if God does by time and distance, we are
not send our people and us grace generally aware of only one main
for sincere repentance.21 voice of resistance, namely that of
A few days later, about five hundred Bonhoeffer, but seldom aware and
Nazi supporters attacked von Jan, less often reminded of others.
beat him, accused him of treason, Stroud’s book is an adventure into
and he was jailed and eventually history, that is, in its real definition,
exiled from his parish. Hewas the word deriving from the Greek
drafted and sent to the Russian word historein, which means “to

inquire” or “to visit” with a view what dogmatics is really about. They
toward engagement that may are unfamiliar with even the most
produce introspection and, if basic questions. They become
needed, change. And that is when intoxicated with liberal and
things get into theology and the humanitarian phrases, laugh at the
items that faithful evangelical fundamentalists, and yet basically
preaching needs to address. are not even up to their level.”23 It
So reimaging the Trinity, was not the prowess of the Union
deemphasizing biblical preaching faculty that Bonhoeffer was referring
(especially on the Old Testament), to, but rather what the students
seeing the church’s role as echoing thought important in their studies
social and political trends of the and brought with them from their
moment, or as either rife with churches. The sermons that he had
nationalist exceptionalism or heard, he said, “were reduced to
pressured into complete silence on parenthetical church remarks about
matters political, disregarding and newspaper events,” and added that
holding suspect any kind of he had heard only one sermon in
traditional Christian systematic which one could hear something like
theology, and holding as archaic the a “genuine proclamation,” a sermon
concept of the Lordship of Christ delivered by an African-American
marked Nazi Christianity. Those preacher.24
were the days: featured rallies at Hopeful Signs
sports stadia with liturgies including Perhaps the churches have
national songs, processions of learned something since then.
uniformed acolytes carrying Perhaps not. Certainly, the sermons
emblems of national devotion, and of Martin Luther King Jr., filled with
triumphant displays of national biblical, especially Old Testament,
power with the latest weaponry allusions, were proclamations that
flying overhead. That’s why history, moved both society and church to a
in the sense of “to visit,” is better place. Among others, the
important. Because, as old sermons of Fred Craddock, Walter
Santayanan wisdom reminds us, if Brueggemann, and William Willimon
we don’t learn from the mistakes of have been influential in leading
the past we are doomed to repeat preaching to focus on the demand
them. and the promise of the biblical text.
When Bonhoeffer came to New But there is still the preaching of
York to study at Union Seminary in the prosperity gospel, of vapid
1930–1931, he was struck by the nationalistic devotion, of a false
lack of rigorous theological thinking. masculinity that deemphasizes the
He complained: “There is no cross of Christ as a sign of
theology here.…[The students] talk a weakness that draw people by the
blue streak without the slightest thousands into the great
substantive foundation and with no megachurches of our time. The
evidence of any criteria. [They] are demands of the audiences pressure
completely clueless with respect to modern preaching away from the

very reasons for pulpits in the first faced under the Third Reich or in
place, seeking entertainment in more modern totalitarian and less
place of the real proclamation of the pluralistic venues today. It is always
gospel. It is tough to stand up to good to re- view those who have
those pressures. risen to the challenge and to ask
whether we would be up to it
Stroud’s book holds before us
ourselves. If preaching has become
courageous examples of preaching
under pressures far more dangerous too easy, we need to ask why.
than we experience in this country.
His book accents the power that
resides in biblical preaching, an
indispensable ingredient of church
life. It calls us to examine our own
preaching, to consider how seriously
the biblical text is studied,
explained, and applied, and how the
gospel in its unveiled veracity is
clearly articulated. Present
experiences of internal and external
pressures faced by American
churches pale in comparison to
1Dean G. Stroud, Preaching in Hitler’s Christian hymns were revised to eliminate
Shadow: Sermons of Resistance in the Third all references to “Israelite elements.” Even
Reich (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2013) 7: “cedars of Leba- non,” it was proposed,
“Negativity in Nazi Germany was anything should be changed to “firs of the German
that suggested that Jews were human forest” (173).
beings created by God and loved by him.” In
3Stroud, Preaching in Hitler’s Shadow, 12.
1937 the Nazi lawyer appointed to be
Minister for Church Affairs, Hans Kerrl, 4Luther’s Works 45, 199–229. “While we
defined positive Christianity: “Positive are inclined to boast of our position we
Christianity is National Socialism… should remember that we are but
National Socialism is the doing of God’s Gentiles, while the Jews are of the lineage
will… God’s will reveals itself in German of Christ. We are aliens and in-laws; they
blood… Christianity is not dependent upon are blood relatives, cous- ins, and
the Apostle’s Creed… True Chris- tianity is brothers of our Lord” (201).
represented by the party, and the German 5Stroud, Preaching in Hitler’s Shadow, 24.
people are now called by the party and
especially by the Fuehrer to a real 6Ibid., 25.
Christianity… The Fuehrer is the herald of
7In his path-breaking article of 1924,
a new revelation”—quoted from Steward W.
Herman, Jr., It’s Your Souls We Want “Liberal Theology and the Latest
(Philadelphia: Muhlenberg, 1943), by W. L. Theological Movement,” in Faith and
Understanding, ed. Robert Funk (New
Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich York: Harper & Row, 1966) 28–52,
(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960) 239. Rudolf Bultmann outlines the inadequa-
2See E. Metaxas, Bonhoeffer: Pastor, cies of post-Enlightenment “liberal
Martyr, Prophet, Spy (Nashville: Thomas theology,” such as that of Herrmann,
Troeltsch, and Harnack, and acknowl-
Nelson, 2010) 171. Metaxas mentions that

edges the new alternatives initiated by people in modern times could only regard
Karl Barth and the new “dialectical such language as grotesque. What theology
theology.” was for him was almost unknown to his
8Stroud, Preaching in Hitler’s Shadow, 29. American fellow students” (67).

9Bodelschwingh, a highly respected The Rev. Richard Jeske, an ELCA

churchman, was director of the Bethel pastor, is presently serving as Vicar
Institute, a large community for people of St. John’s in the Wilderness, an
with epilepsy and other disabilities. Episcopal parish in the hikers’
10See Erich Dinkler, “Neues Testament country of Harriman State Park,
und Rassenfrage: Zum Gutachten der Stony Point, New York. He is also
Neutestamentler im Jahre 1933,” in Im
Zeichen des Kreuzes: Aufsätze von Erich Dean of the Rockland County
Dinkler (Berlin and New York: Walter de Episcopal ministerium.
Gruyter, 1992) 409–420.
Copyright © 2016 by Word & World, Luther
11Stroud, Preaching in Hitler’s Shadow, 33. Seminary, Saint Paul, Minnesota. All rights
reserved. Used by permission.
12Ibid., 37.
13Ibid., 42.
14Ibid., 47.
15Ibid., 81.
16Ibid., 94–105.
17Ibid., 89.
18Ibid., 55.
19Ibid., 166.
20Ibid., 115–126.
21Ibid., 112–113.
22Predigten eines “Illegalen” aus den
Jahren 1939–1945 (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr
[Paul Siebeck], 1995).
23Metaxas, Bonhoeffer, 101; Ferdinand
Schlingensiepen, Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906–
1945 (London: T & T Clark, 2010), notes:
“(Bonhoeffer) was very offended when,
during a seminar, students laughed loudly
at theologi- cal terms, such as a quotation
from Luther about sin and grace, as if

Prayer Book Revision and the Modern
Revival of Trinitarian Doctrine
A Review Article
Holmes, Stephen R. The Quest for the Trinity: The Doctrine of God in Scripture,
History, and Modernity. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic, an imprint of
InterVarsity Press, 2012. Paperback: ISBN 978-0-8308-3986-5. Pp. xix and

Some years revision of the 1662 Book of

ago, I took my Common Prayer. The proposed
youth group at American Prayer Book was approved
St. Andrew’s, by the Convention in 1785 and
Poughkeepsie, published in 1786. Among its
NY, on a weekend several alterations from the 1662
trip to Boston. BCP was the omission of the Nicene
We stayed with and Athanasian Creeds, retaining
former only a form of the Apostles Creed
parishioners that omitted the clause about
recently retired who had returned to Christ’s descent into hell. As we
the Boston area where they had remember from our seminary course
been brought up. On Saturday we in American Church history, the
walked the “Freedom Trail” of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York
18th century historic sites. Among responded that if the American
them was King’s Chapel, a Episcopalians wanted to have the
magnificent stone church of three candidates they had elected
Georgian design. This parish was for an American episcopate
the first Church of England consecrated in apostolic succession
congregation founded in Boston in by the bishops of the Church of
1688, more or less under the guns England, the descent clause would
of a British fleet. Christ Church, have to be restored to the Apostles
Philadelphia, was founded in 1694; Creed and the Nicene Creed restored
Trinity, New York, in 1697; and to the Eucharistic rite. The General
Trinity, Newport, Rhode Island (one Convention of 1786 thereupon
of my favorite church buildings in abandoned the proposed 1785
the country), in 1698. American Prayer Book, and the
When Episcopal congregations in 1789 Book of Common Prayer in
the former colonies met to organize fact retained the Apostles and
a national General Convention in Nicene Creeds in full, omitting the
Philadelphia in 1785 and 1786, one Athanasian Creed until it was
of its accomplishments was a restored - sort of, in the Historical

Documents section - in the 1979 numerous visits to Boston since
Book of Common Prayer. And the then, I haven’t seen this “modern”
American Prayer Books ever since form of worship, but knowing that
have been solidly Nicene. King’s Chapel remains firmly
This proved too conservative for adherent to the Unitarian-
Charles Miller, a parishioner at Universalist connection, I am
King’s Chapel, Boston. He wanted modestly certain that there is in it
to remove all references to the nothing of the Trinity.
Trinity from the Prayer Book, and Of course, Boston was not the
when the General Conventions of only American Community which
the 1780’s refused to do so, the tended toward Deism or
congregation published its own Unitarianism in the late 18th and
version of the 1662 Book of early 19th centuries. I recall from
Common Prayer. Since there was research I did for a term paper for
not yet any bishop in Dr. Robert Bosher, professor of
Massachusetts, every congregation American Church history at the
did whatever it wanted to do, rather General Theological Seminary, only
like the average Israelite in the time one person could be found in 1797
of the Judges. And so the original in Newburgh, New York, who would
stronghold of Prayer Book confess Trinitarian Christianity.
Anglicanism in the hotbed of radical Deism was all the rage among
American Puritanism moved in its forward looking founders of
late 18th century American Deist American democracy. Not even
fashion into the Unitarian fold, Christ Church, Alexandria, Virginia,
where it remains firmly rooted to vestryman George Washington,
this day. Sunday Morning Prayer regular at
So when my bunch of larking St. Paul’s, Chapel, New York, while
teenagers went into King’s Chapel President of the United States and
on their expedition to be Bostonized, New York was its temporary capital,
the book I found in the pews of would receive Holy Communion.
King’s Chapel was the 1662 Book of Ben Franklin may have attended
Common Prayer with all references Christ Church, Philadelphia, and
to the Triune God or the divinity of raised funds to build St. Peter’s,
Jesus Christ very carefully and Philadelphia, by a lottery (what fun
thoroughly excised as with a sharp the priest police in the Diocese of
knife! No Gloria Patri in the Daily New York would have with that one),
Offices; no Triune doxology at the but I cannot but wonder whether he
conclusion of the collects; and could ever be heard reciting the
certainly no Nicene Creed. Nicene Creed at Holy Communion
with a loud, affirming voice.
I have since that trip in the early
1980’s seen notices that King’s However firmly planted in Nicene
Chapel has issued a “modern” form Anglican Christianity, with its
of worship. Not having visited persistent claims to represent
King’s Chapel on any of our Patristic Christianity more fully than
any other form of Christian practice,

be, the American Prayer Books of no use to contemporary
1789, 1892, 1928, and 1979, the Episcopalians as we desperately try
times may be changing – to judge to reverse our parochial numerical
from reports from the Prayer Book decline manifested by an increasing
revision committee established by area of naked pews in our
the 2015 General Convention. But congregations and, most significant,
more on that later. falling budgets. At least these are
For the moment I would ask the the concerns I hear voiced in
question of what is the place of the endless ecclesiastical talk sessions,
dogma of the Trinity in recent almost never, in our tradition,
Western theological writing. For the concerns of whether or not the
purposes of this paper, I turn to Gospel of victory over alienation
reviewing a 2010 quite serious study from one another and God and the
of the Trinity in modern theology. death resulting from that alienation
Stephen Holmes is a Ph. D. of King’s is actually found in believing with
College, London, and senior lecturer the heart and participating in the
in systematic theology at the sacramental union of ourselves with
University of St. Andrew’s, in the incarnate, dying, and risen God
Scotland. Among his other books is the Word, whom Jurgen Multmann
Christian Doctrine: A Reader, edited called in his famous study The
with Lindsey Hall and Murray Rae, Crucified God.
and published by the Society for Holmes summarizes his findings
Christian Mission in 2010. In her this way:
review of Holmes’ The Quest for the
In brief, I argue that the
Trinity (published in 2012) in the
explosion of theological work
Fall 2014 issue of The Anglican
claiming to recapture the
Theological Review, a leading
doctrine of the Trinity that we
Episcopal theologian Ellen Wondra,
have witnessed in recent decades
until recently editor of the ATR,
in fact misunderstands and
describes it as “a challenging book . distorts the traditional doctrine
. . [that] calls into question . . . a
so badly it is unrecognizable. A
major claim of contemporary
statement of the doctrine was
accounts of the Trinity: that the settled in the fourth century, and
doctrine of the Trinity can and in
was then maintained, with only
itself ground egalitarian and very minor disagreement or
liberating ethics and ecclesiology.
development, by all strands of
This is a book for those who have
the church – West and East,
read widely and thought deeply Protestant and Catholic – until
about the doctrine of the Trinity” (p
the modern period. In the
768). twentieth century, there arose a
Of course, there have always sense that the doctrine had been
been and continue to be those who neglected or lost, and stood in
would dismiss the Trinity as an need of recovery. Many brilliant
outmoded ancient Greek works have been published in the
philosophical metaphysic that is of name of that recovery, but I

argue here that . . . they are own. The patristic period is
thoroughgoing departures from treated in disproportionate detail
the older tradition, rather than (chapters 3-6) simply because
revivals of it. this development is so crucial for
Thus stated, the argument is the doctrine. A brief interlude
merely historical: I do not, here, sums up my reconstruction of
attempt to prove that the older the Trinitarian doctrine
tradition was right. . . . It may be bequeathed by the church
that our recent writers are fathers. I move quite quickly
correct, and the doctrine from Augustine to the rise of
developed and defended by serious anti-Trinitarianism
Athanasius, Basil, Gregory around 1700, because as I read
Nazianzen and Augustine, the the history, and notwithstanding
doctrine which was shared by one important argument (the
John of Damascus, Patriarch filioque debate, examined in
Photius, and Alcuin of York in chapter 7) and several
the eighth century, the doctrine idiosyncratic but marginal
affirmed by with (almost) one figures, the story is one of
voice by Thomas Aquinas, acceptance, re-presentation, and
Gregory of Cyprus, and Gregory faithful transmission of the
Palamas around 1399, the patristic doctrine. . . . The
doctrine affirmed by Bellarmine, nineteenth century roots of the
Calvin, and Luther in the broad themes of the twentieth
sixteenth century – that this century Trinitarian revival are
doctrine was always wrong. . . . I examined, and the book ends
do, however, attempt to show with a brief return to the recent
just how strongly exegetical the writers, reconsidered in the light
traditional presentations of the of all that has come before (pages
doctrine were. xiv-xv).

In order to tell this story, the I shall have to refer the reader to the
book is rather oddly shaped for a book itself for the details of Holme’s
history. I begin with analysis of argumentation. A few of his
the recent Trinitarian revival, conclusions will have to suffice here.
tracing its roots in Barth, Holmes argues that by the end of
Rahner, and Zizioulas, and its the 19th century, the doctrine of the
various flowerings seeking to Trinity was considered as wrong or a
show what is generally shared “useless orthodoxy. . . no more than
amonst all contributors and one of six impossible things to be
strands. I then turn to the believed before breakfast each
biblical material, with one eye on morning: abstruse; obscure; and of
the way the texts have been read, no practical import” (pp. 2-3). But
and one on the way they should the Swiss Reformed theologian Karl
be read, acknowledging that Barth (1886-1968), though educated
patristic exegesis worked by in the liberal theology of Harnack,
rather different rules from our under the influence of the horrors of

World War I repudiated liberal term persona to describe the
theology. His Church Dogmatics threeness of God, insisted that
took a completely different direction persona/hypostasis in the Patristic
in which the Trinity “plays two authors does NOT indicate the
crucial roles: it identifies God; and modern person or personality.
it grounds revelation” (p. 3). Barth’s preferred term to distinguish
Holmes argues that whereas Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is not
Patristic authors were concerned person but “mode of being” (p. 8).
about God as the eternal ground of Holmes quotes Barth in Church
all being, as I AM, over against the Dogmatics, 1, 1, pp. 350-351, “the
temporal reality of finite creation, personality of God belongs to the
which is to say, they were concerned one unique essence of God. . . . The
with the origins of the three meaning of the doctrine is not, then,
hypostaseis as unbegotten, begotten that there are three personalities in
from before all time, and proceeding, God. That would be the worst and
20th century theologians have been most extreme expression of
interested in grounding ethical tritheism.” Since “person” had
principles within the nature of the become in 19th century theology
immanent Trinity. That is to say, equated with “personality,” both
that the idea of perichoresis as the Roman Catholic and Protestant
way God is within God’s nature, the theologians had fallen “into the trap
inner relations of God as giving and of `ascribing a separate I-centre with
receiving love between the three a separate consciousness and will
Persons, hypostaseis, personae. and content to Creator, Son, and
Because the Father and the Son and Spirit respectively’” (p. 8). Barth
the Holy Spirit love one another with insisted that his terminology
perfect agapaic love, the actually represented more
fundamental basis of Christian adequately the Patristic, conciliar
personal and social ethics becomes dogma of the Trinity: God is one
self-spending love: “As the Father personality in three eternal modes of
has loved me, so have I loved you; being.
abide in my love” (John 15:9). It is Holmes then turns to a very
the eternal relations of love within thorough investigation of the roots
the nature of the immanent Trinity of the Patristic doctrine of the
that orders God’s being. Trinity in New Testament and
The second changed emphasis in Patristic authors’ exegesis of Old
modern theologians’ Trinitarian Testament passages, but above all
doctrine, according to Holmes, is the in the conviction of those who had
tendency to use the term “person” personally known Jesus of Nazareth
as “univocal, or at least, as very that in him they had met the God of
closely analogical, when applied to Israel face to face. The classical
divine persons and human people” Greek terms – if I may use the
(p. 29). Barth, however, following definitions uncovered in my own
the hesitations of Augustine, work in fifth century Christology at
Anselm, and Calvin about using the the Councils of Ephesus (431) and

Chalcedon (451) and beyond – were One Jesus persistently called his
always used in the service of the Father. But if the Gospel is that
Gospel, not as rigid Platonic God, from no compulsion other than
metaphysical constructs. In the God’s own love for us, enters into
fifth century the conception was real human historical existence to
that there are two distinct kinds of reconcile us to himself by God’s
ousia or being: the One who is from Word, spoken in creation itself,
before all time, uncreated, becoming enfleshed or en-natured
unbegotten, infinite without end among us, if those who in history
above time or space, self-caused; actually knew Jesus of Nazareth,
and created being, which depends knew him as the very God of Israel
for its being upon the Ground of all himself, then the problem arises of
being, God, so finite, mortal, limited how God can be confessed as one,
in time and space, subject to the and as Father and as incarnate or
threat and reality of non-being. In humanized God the Word. The
the terms of created being, ousia is familiar story of the evolution of the
actualized into existence through a Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed is
physis/natura or nature, which the outcome of this question.
finds its concrete existence in
The Nicene Creed thus certainly
individual examples of a given utilized Greek philosophical
nature, or hypostaseis. Each
terminology, but it did so solely in
hypostasis has its own outward
the service of proclaiming the
expression by which it is perceived fulness of the Gospel. Those words
by others, namely, its countenance
“one Being,” three hypostaseis are
or face, its prosopon/persona. not some obtuse metaphysics, but
Human beings distinguish
express the Gospel itself. There is
themselves by their prosopa. This is nothing obtuse about the dogma at
a function of their nature. However, all.
all we can say about God’s being is
God transcends any human mind’s This is all developed by Holmes
ability to understand God. God is at some length in chapters 3-6,
the one ground of all being and which he summarizes in seven
existence; not three grounds of points:
being. Uncreated, unbegotten, 1. The divine nature is simple,
uncaused, God creates all time and incomposite, and ineffable. It
space, all the cosmos through time is also unrepeatable, and so,
and space, and then wills to enter in crude and inexact terms,
into relationship with creation and ‘one.’
creatures caught in the
consequences of the human freedom 2. Language referring to the
necessitated by the realities of love divine nature is always
and the failure to love in order to inexact and trophic;
reveal God’s very nature as agapaic nonetheless, if formulated
love and call human beings back with much care and more
into reconciled relationship with the prayer, it might adequately, if
not fully, refer.

3. There are three divine Enlightenment with its resulting
hypostases, that are materialism and Deism. Among
instantiations of the divine other insights, he argues
nature: Father, Son, and Holy convincingly that the endless debate
Spirit. over the filioque clause in the late
4. The three divine hypostases Latin version of the Nicene Creed
exist really, eternally, and represents really a difference
necessarily, and there is between East and West over the
nothing divine that exists claims of papal primacy and the
beyond or outside their authority of the ecumenical
existence. councils, offering an interesting
history of the debate on page 148,
5. The three divine hypostases note 2.
are distinguished by eternal
relations of origin – begetting Holmes’ has given us a brilliant
treatment both of the development
and proceeding – and not
otherwise. of the conciliar dogma of the
incarnation, expressed in the
6. All that is spoken of God, with Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
the single and very limited and the Chalcedonian formula of
exception of that language 451, as a genuine, rational, and
which refers to the relations of faithful exegesis of the whole of holy
origin of the three hypostases, scripture, and then its use through
is spoken of the one life the Christian history to the present day.
three share, and so is I found his overall conclusions (p.
indivisibly spoken of all three. 200) to be very useful indeed. I give
7. The relationships of origin them here, with the observation that
express/establish relational the “we” to whom he refers are 19th
distinctions between the three to 21st century theologians.
existent hypostases; no other In our account of a Trinitarian
distinctions are permissible revival, we wanted little or
(p. 146). nothing to do with strictures [his
Then, having insisted in chapter 6 seven points summary of
that the Latin Trinitarian theology of Patristic Trinitarian doctrine]. As
Augustine exactly represents that of a result, we set out on our own to
the Greek theologians and the first offer a different, and we believed
three ecumenical councils, an better, doctrine. We returned to
assertion that makes a great deal of the Scriptures, but we chose
sense to me, but will likely be (with Tertullian’s Praxeas, Noetus
contested by more than a few, of Smyrna, and Samuel Clarke)
Holmes goes on to trace the use of to focus exclusively on the New
the fourth and fifth century Testament texts, instead of
Trinitarian and Christological listening to the whole of
dogmas through the Middle Ages, Scripture with Tertullian,
the Reformation, and the Hippolytus, and Daniel
Waterland. We thought about

God’s relationship with the Following Melancthon, Jewel took
creation in the economy, but we his stand on scripture as interpreted
chose (with the Valentinians, by the Fathers of the first six
Arius, and Hegel) to believe that Christian centuries and the first
the Son must be the mode of four ecumenical councils. His work
mediation of the Father’s instantly became the classic
presence to creation, instead of Anglican apologetic against the
following Irenaeus and claims of Rome, and remains such
Athanasius in proposing God’s to this day. Incidentally, one of
ability to mediate his own Jewel’s “poor scholars” whose
presence. We tried to education he underwrote and sent
understand the divine unity, but on to university studies was Richard
we chose (with Eunomius and Hooker, whose own work was
Socinus) to believe that we could considerably indebted to his
reason adequately about the mentor’s.
divine essence, instead of
Jewel’s basic position had been
following Basil, Gregory of Nyssa,
foreshadowed in Elizabeth I’s Act of
Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, and
Supremacy, passed into law by
John Calvin in asserting divine
Parliament shortly before Easter in
unknowability. We addressed
1559. Not only does this act define
divine simplicity, and chose (with
the monarch as “the only supreme
Socinus and John Biddle) to
governor of this realm as well in all
discard it, rather than following
spiritual and ecclesiastical causes
Basil and the rest in affirming it
as temporal . . . ,” but it also solves
as the heart of Trinitarian
the political problem of making
doctrine. We thought about
impossible from a practical point of
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, but
view any additional burnings for
chose (with Sabellius, Arius, and
heresy, following the disaster of her
Eunomius) to affirm true
sister Mary I’s policy, by defining
personality of each, rather than
heresy as that “so adjudged by the
following Augustine and John of
authority of canonical scriptures or
Damascus in believing in one
the first four General Councils, or
divine personality. We called
any of them . . . .” In his article
what we were doing a “Trinitarian
“The Official Position of the
revival;” future historians might
Episcopal Church on the Authority
want to ask us why.
of Scripture, Part I: Present
In 1562, John Jewel, Bishop of Teaching and Historical
Salisbury, responding to a request Development,” The Anglican
from William Cecil, Lord Burghley, Theological Review, LXXIV (Summer
first minister to Queen Elizabeth I, 1992), pp 348-361, J. Robert
for an apology for the new religious Wright insists that this Act of
settlement in England against Supremacy declares that scripture
Roman Catholic attacks, published has final authority for Anglicans and
his Apologia Ecclesiae Anglicanae, or that heresy is that which is contrary
An Apology of the Church of England. to scripture as interpreted by the

ecumenical councils of the Patristic eighteenth century Deist-Unitarian
period. Hooker explicitly approved Book of Common Prayer? Maybe
this interpretation in Ecclesiastical not. In the November 1, 2015, issue
Polity, VII, 2, 17. We will also recall of The Living Church, there appears
the way the Preface to the American (pp. 6-7) an article entitled “A
Book of Common Prayer is emphatic Greener Prayer Book.” It relates the
in its statement that the American comments of the Rev’d Ruth Meyers,
Church does not intend to depart professor of liturgics at the Church
from the Church of England in any Divinity School of the Pacific since
essential of faith. And we will also 2009 and chair of the Standing
recall that the Chicago-Lambeth Commission on Liturgy and Music
Quadrilateral includes the use of the from 2009 to 2015, on the revision
Nicene Creed as an essential of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer
element in any ecumenical reunion. put in motion by the June 2015
General Convention. She was
We may conclude, therefore, that
there is a renewal of theological addressing a forum at CDSP
interest in Trinitarian doctrine October 8 on this topic. Among
throughout the world of serious many other changes she favors, she
theology, that Anglicanism in its urged “more concrete images of the
historical and classic form has Bible and the liturgy . . . in place of
universally steadfastly embraced the arcane philosophical language of
both Patristic theology, liturgical the fourth-century creeds . . .
practice, and polity, and the Nicene- [which] are overwhelmingly
Constantinopolitan Creed and the masculine in language and imagery.
Chalcedonian Formula (from the She described the Nicene Creed as
fourth ecumenical council) as THE `a stumbling block of many,’ and
statements for us of that wondered if a creed is necessary
during the Eucharist, given the
doctrine/dogma of the Trinity, and
that these texts are for us our Great Thanksgiving’s robust
standards of Catholic orthodoxy. In affirmation of God’s work in Christ.”
short, no matter the positive value The shade of Charles Miller has
of all the works of Church Fathers, risen like Samuel’s ghost, and I
Reformers, and subsequent shudder like Saul! I admit that the
theologians, the Nicene Creed, as current mid-20th century
interpreted by the Chalcedonian ecumenically agreed English
Formula is, simply put, by itself the translation of the Nicene Creed
dogma of the Trinity. And, could have several more relative
furthermore, I would point out that pronouns used, “who” instead of
for the ecumenical councils, the “he.” Indeed, this usage
texts of that Creed and characterizes Cranmer’s rather
Chalcedonian Formula are the Latinized translation of the Creed,
Greek texts in the minutes of those and would actually be a closer
four ecumenical councils. translation into English of the
So can we then put paid once authoritative conciliar Greek text.
and for all to Charles Miller and his

But I suspect that Professor one substance with the Father” is
Meyers has more in mind. Does she an Englishing of the Latin version’s
want to remove the noun “Father” una substantia, but utterly fails to
from the confession of faith, the translate the one ousia of the Greek
name our Lord consistently used for original. An Augustine could
God, actually giving God a new perceive substantia as the
name? Does she want removed the equivalent of ousia, but using the
basic New Testament Christological English word and concept
title for Jesus, ho Kyrios, the Lord, a “substance” is surely an exercise in
title used in the New Testament arcane language. “One Substance”
world for emperors and absolute does not imply one being in modern
monarchs, a title used to indicate English, but rather three distinct
Yahweh in both the Hebrew beings sharing a common
scriptures’ text and in substitution substance, such as three human
in reading the text publicly for the beings sharing a common human
divine Name Yahweh. It is this nature. I regret its reappearance in
term, more perhaps than any other the recent new English translation
in the New Testament, that indicates of the Roman rite as their
a confession on the part of the first translators intentionally tried to
generation of Jesus’ followers that make a universal English
he is identified with Yahweh, save translation as close as possible to
perhaps for the Fourth Gospel’s the Latin rite. “One substance” just
Logos. There simply are no other does not do the job as English for
terms that can be substituted and “one ousia.”
maintain the conciliar faith, as the
Professor Meyers repeats a rather
stupendously insipid, dull, and
frequent claim: that the Nicene
lifeless weakness of what Professor
Creed is unnecessary in the
Meyers calls the “modern creedal
Eucharistic rite, given “the Great
texts” which she suggests in
Thanksgiving’s robust affirmation of
substitution for the Nicene Creed.
God’s work in Christ.” There is, of
Altering the Creed in any way
course, nothing in that affirmation
beyond a more careful translation of
as she states it that Arius would
the original Greek into English not
disagree with, or Eutyches or
only is completely contradictory to
Charles Miller for that matter. One
classic Anglican doctrinal standards
can perfectly well affirm that God
established above and the Chicago-
did some sort of reconciling,
Lambeth Quadrilateral, but would
redeeming work in Christ without at
have tremendously negative
all believing that Jesus of Nazareth
ecumenical impact. If there are to
is God the Word incarnate, made
be alterations in the English
human, living a full human life in
translation of the Greek text for a
every sense of being human without
new Book of Common Prayer, I pray
in any way ceasing to be fully God’s
the translators will retain the
being. If indeed the Great
expression in the Rite II form of the
Thanksgiving in itself establishes
Creed “. . . of one Being with the
the Nicene-Chalcedonian faith
Father.” Cranmer’s “. . . being of

without hedging any bets, there for whom all that is exists, entered
would never have been any reason fully into living a specific historic
for the Church East and West to human life to bring about that
insert the Nicene Creed into their reconciliation and union with God;
classic Eucharistic rites in order to that God the Word died on the cross
confront the emptiness of Arianism for love of you and me; that God the
or Nestorianism. The Unitarianized Word defeated death and invites us
1662 Book of Common Prayer used into living into ever deeper union
for two centuries in King’s Chapel, with him, with the One God, for all
Boston, is living evidence of that! eternity through baptism and faith,
Frankly, I must further confess a union constantly deepened by
that I find tiresome, almost silly, the faith acting in love, constant prayer,
claim that the Nicene confession is and participation in his resurrection
characterized by “arcane in the Eucharist.
philosophical language of the fourth I confess that I have a deep
century . . . a stumbling block for suspicion that the desire to re-write
many.” As we have seen above, or replace or remove the Nicene
there is nothing arcane about the Creed from the Eucharistic liturgy is
Nicene dogma of the Triune God. It simply a not so subtle way of
only takes a bit of serious historical clearing the way for Deism or
study to understand what the fourth Unitarianism. Such an action,
to eighth century theologians were completely in disregard for Anglican
working out and expressing. doctrinal and liturgical tradition, is
Certainly they used the not necessary unless that is one’s
philosophical terms of their day. aim. If that is what one desires, one
They breathed them in with their could always attend King’s Chapel.
mother’s milk, just as we absorb the
In 1970, Robert Terwilliger, then
evolutionary scientific assumptions
director of Trinity Institute in New
about reality in our day,
York City, before he was elected
philosophical assumptions that may
Suffragan Bishop of Dallas, told me
seem irrelevant and arcane fifteen
about an experience he had when
centuries from now as well. Any
he visited the Russian Orthodox
decently educated priest should be
Church in Leningrad. This was
able to teach the doctrines of the
before the disintegration of the
Trinity and Incarnation and explain
Soviet Union, and the threat of
the terms of the Creed in ways that
persecution of Christians was still a
are clear to current people: that God
living reality. One Sunday he
is completely, totally, and forever
attended the celebration of the Holy
One Being, who is in three modes of
Eucharist in the chapel of the
being that One Being; that God
Orthodox Theological Academy. At
loves creatures and lives to bring
one point in the liturgy, the
human beings and all the creation
students began to sing, at first in a
into the closest possible union with
slow, low tone; after a few moments
God; that that love meant God the
the pace and tone went up; this
Word, by whom, and in whom, and
happened again, until the pace and

volume of the singing shook the the translator replied, “It was their
rafters before arriving at a crashing Christian defiance. It was the
silence. Stunned, Terwilliger, who Nicene Creed.”
most of us who knew him personally The Rev’d Paul B. Clayton, Jr., Ph.D. is
will remember was rarely without President of the Anglican Society and a
words, whispered to his translator, retired priest of the Diocese of New
“What were they singing?” He said York.

The Anglican Archivist

I have tried to promote the severe critics. The beauty of
primary concern of the Anglican holiness remains our high goal:
Society for decency and order in our obedience to the Book of Common
worship, both visual and aural, ... Prayer our best way of achieving it.
while being eager to preserve an Operi Dei nihil præponatur, wrote St.
awareness of the Holy in new rites Benedict —“Let nothing come before
and their liturgical environment as the work of God.”
they come along. It remains true
From The Anglican Vol. 21, No. 1,
that whatever may be the mission of
Spring 1991. This was the final
the Church in the world, it is our editorial written by the late Canon
time of worship that requires our Peter Chase before hanging up his
best efforts and finds our most blue pencil to become editor emeritus

A Journal of Anglican Identity
Advent A.D. 2017
A Publication of The Anglican Society

Episcopal Patron
The Rt. Rev. Andrew St. John
Rector, Church of the Transfiguration
New York, NY

The Rev. Dr. Paul B. Clayton, Jr.

Vice President
The Rev. Canon Johnathan L. King


Recording Secretary & Poetry Editor

Dr. Nicholas Birns
205 East 10th Street
New York, NY 10003

Editor of The Anglican

The Rev. William D. Loring

Members of the Board-at-Large

The Rev. Canon J. Robert Wright, president
The Very Rev. Lloyd G. Chattin, president
Mr. David L. James, editor
The Rev. Victor L. Austin, editor
The Rev. Dirk C. Reinken, editor

Production Editor
Ms. Hannah Wilder

5 THE ANGLICAN | Michaelmas 2015