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Introduction to Mapping

and Remote Sensing

Mode of Assessment:

Continuous Assessment (3+1) – 30%

End Semester Examination – 70%

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

At the end of the course you will be able to

 Trace geographical locations in the field

 Interpret and explain relationships between relief, soil

type, drainage pattern, land use cover, underlying
geology and geological structures

 Deduce the extension of subsurface geology

 Predict hazard zones

Course Content
1. Mapping concepts,

2. Interpreting topographic maps for relief, drainage pattern

and land use,

3. Interpreting aerial photographs and satellite imagery for land

use, land pattern analysis, geological and structural analysis,

4. Analyzing geological maps to interpret subsurface geology,

5. Terrain analysis,

6. Studying hazard maps

1. Basic Geological Mapping, by Richard J. Lisle and Peter

2. Basics of Geological Remote Sensing: An Introduction

to Applications of Remote Sensing in Geological
Mapping by Christopher Legg

3. An Introduction to Geological Structures and Maps,

Eighth Ed., by George M Bennison and Paul A Olver

4. Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping with

Structural Methods (2nd Edition), by Daniel J. Tearpock and
Richard E. Bischke
Rock types and rock
1)Sedimentary rocks and structures

• Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition

and subsequent cementation of material
(sediment) at/ near the Earth's surface
• Sedimentary structures are features within
sedimentary rocks produced during or just after
sediment deposition
• Provide clues on -environment of deposition, top
and bottom of a layer and Earth’s history.

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• Primary structures-Form during sediment
i. Rhythmic layering
ii. Graded Bedding
iii. Cross-Bedding
iv. Ripple Marks
v. Mud Cracks
vi. Sole marks
vii. Raindrop Impressions
viii. Fossils
ix. Fossil burrows
x. Rock colour
• Secondary -Form after deposition:
i. Nodules
ii. concretions
iii. geodes
Structures formed during sediment deposition

stratification = bedding = layering

Series of visible layers within a sedimentary

• Produced due to differences in

i. size of particles
ii. kinds of particles

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a). Rhythmic Layering -environment

• Alternating parallel layers having different properties-rhythmites

• Sometimes caused by seasonal changes in deposition (e.g.Varves).

i.e. lake deposits wherein coarse sediment is deposited in summer
months and fine sediment is deposited in the winter when the
surface of the lake is frozen.

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b). Cross Bedding-up/flow/environment

• Sets of beds that are inclined relative to one another.

• Cross bedding forms during deposition on the inclined

surfaces of bed forms such as ripples and dunes, and
indicates that the depositional environment contained
a flowing medium (typically water or wind).

• Very common in beach deposits, sand dunes, and river

deposited sediment.

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wind-blown cross-bedding

Jurassic Navaho Sandstone,

Zion National Park

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c).Graded Bedding-up/environment
• Bedding showing a decrease in grain size from the
bottom of the bed to the top of the bed.

• As current velocity decreases, first the larger or more

dense particles are deposited followed by smaller

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d). Ripple Marks- up/flow
• Characteristic of shallow water deposition. Caused by waves or

• Two types-asymmetric and symmetric

Asymmetric ripples (as shown above) indicate flow direction, with the
steep slope on the down - current direction.

Symmetric ripples form as a result of constant wave energy oscillating

back and forth
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Formation of ripple marks

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Beach in Ireland at low tide

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Ripple marks (ancient Sandstone)

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e). Sole Marks
• are sedimentary structures found on the bases of certain
strata, that indicate small-scale grooves or irregularities

• - flute casts/tool marks etc.

Tool marks

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f). Mudcracks- up/environment
• Series of polygonal desiccation cracks
• Result from the drying out of wet sediment at the surface of the
• The cracks form due to shrinkage of the sediment as it dries.

g). Raindrop Marks-up/environment
• Pits (or tiny craters) created by falling rain.

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h). Fossils -environment
• Remains of the once living organisms (prehistoric life) now
preserved in rock

• The most important indicator of the environment of

-Aid in interpretation of the geologic past
-Serve as important time indicators
-Allow for correlation of rocks from different places

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Plant fossil in
Tabbowa mudstone

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i). Fossil burrows-up/environment

Traces of fossils

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j). Color
• Color can be useful in the interpretation of depositional

• Black color- Iron oxides and sulfides along with buried organic
matter give rocks a dark color-indicates deposition in the absence
of oxygen in either the ocean, lakes, or swamps.

• Red color -indicates deposition in the presence of abundant

oxygen in a warm, humid terrestrial environment (non-marine
environment). Such red colored rocks are often referred to as red

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Aruwakkalu –Red earth

Black shale in the anoxic


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i. Nodule - Irregular, concentration of mineral matter that differs
in composition from the surrounding sedimentary rock.

ii. Concretion - Local concentration of cementing material.

Generally round. Usually consist of calcite, iron oxide or silica.

iii. Geode - Roughly spherical structures up to 30 cm in diameter.

Outer layer consists of chalcedony. Inside lined with crystals.
Calcite and quartz the most common.

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Chert nodules in chalk

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Igneous rock structures

1. Intrusive

2. Extrusive

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Intrusive igneous rock structures

• formed bellow the Earth’s surface where magma

is subjected to slow cooling and solidification
above the outer core.

• are classified in two ways, based on the

relationship of intrusive igneous structures to
country rock.

i. Concordant structures- move parallel to the bedding plane, i.e.

they don’t disturb the individual layers of country and deposited with
the bed or layer.
ii. Discordant structures- move perpendicular to the bedding plane
and they disturb the individual layers of country.

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Concordant Intrusions
I. Laccoliths- result in uplift folding of the pre existing rocks
II. Lopoliths -result in down lift folding of the pre existing
III. Sills -horizontal or near-horizontal sheet like intrusion that
follows through the bedding planes and does not cut
across planes

Discordant Intrusion:
I. Dike-thin sheet intrusion that formed when magma moves
vertically through fracture in a pre-existing rock body. It is
normally inclined or nearly vertical tabular sheet of
igneous rock body
II. Stock -the top of a largest body of batholith, that has a
relatively small part of it exposed at the surface
III. Batholith- the largest igneous intrusion, usually so large
that their bottom is rarely exposed
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1)Metamorphic rocks and structures

 Meta = Change (Grk)

 Morph = Form (Grk)

 Definition : a rock that has been changed, from its

original form by heat, pressure and fluid activity

 Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have developed

 their mineralogical and structural characteristics by
metamorphic processes.
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The Rock Cycle


• It is a geological process that changes the mineralogical

and chemical composition, as well as the structure of

• Associated with high Temperature and Pressure

• Metamorphism affects rocks within the earth’s crust

and mantle.

• extremely slow processes. -----time involved is millions

of years

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Limits of metamorphism

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Metamorphism causes changes in:
• Fabric (texture and structure) and

• Mineralogy
• Many of the mineral grains in metamorphic rocks
display preferential orientations where the
alignment of the minerals is parallel or subparallel to
one another.

• Foliation is broadly defined as any planar arrangement
of mineral grains or structural features in a rock.
Foliation as a planar structure that result from the nearly parallel
alignment of sheet silicates minerals and/or compositional and
mineralogical layers
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Types of foliations
a. Compositional layering
b. Preferred orientation of platy minerals
c. Shape of deformed grains
d. Grain size variation etc.
Foliated Vs. nonfoliated metamorphic rocks

• Foliated rocks - Rocks that exhibit foliation are

categorized as foliated.

i.e. these rocks have banded or layered appearance

• Nonfoliated rocks -Rocks that do not exhibit foliation

are categorized as nonfoliated.

i.e. these rocks have banded or layered appearance

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Foliated Rocks

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Non-foliated Rocks

Marble quarry site exposed at Matale (Highland Complex)

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is a homogenously distributed linear structure

that can be: surficial, if present along discrete
surfaces, and penetrative, if occur throughout
volume of a rock.

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• Migmatite: intermediate between metamorphic and
igneous i.e. are not crystallized from a totally molten material,
and are not generally the result of solid-state reactions.

• a silicate rock with a dark gneissic matrix (melanosome) and lighter

felsic portions (leucosome).
Vijayan Complex Migmatite in Sri Lanka, Talagahadigane, Hambegamuwa
( Along Kalthota-KudaOya Road)namalwila
Structures of Rocks
• “ are those features that characterize hand
specimen or large masses of rocks”

• Structures are differ from the “textures”,

which are microscopic to small scale
mesoscopic features.

• Structures : not Penetrative

• Textures: Penetrative ( expand all parts of the

hand specimen)
Common structures
1. Fault
2. Fold
3. Joint
1. Faults
• a planar fracture in rock in which the rock
on one side of the fracture has moved with
respect to the rock on the other side

• fault zone is used when referring to the

zone of complex deformation that is
associated with the fault plane
Types of Faults
1. Dip-slip
2. Strike -Slip
3. Oblique slip
1. Dip slip faults
For a dipping fault, the Hanging Wall is the block positioned
over the fault, the Foot Wall is the block positioned under it
Fault at Ramboda Water fall
• Horst-and-Graben ?
2. Folds
Folds are wave-like structures that result from
deformation of bedding, foliation, or other
originally planar surfaces in rocks.
Anatomy of Folds
Kinds of Folds
1. Anticline – A folds that is concave towards
older rocks in its center
2. Antiform – A fold that is concave downward
3. Syncline – A folds that is concave towards
younger rocks in its center
4. Synform – A folds that is concave upward
5. Dome – An antiform where bedding dips
away from the central point
6. Basin – A synform where bedding dips
towards a central point
3. Joints
refers to a fracture in rock where there has
been no lateral movement in the plane of the
fracture (up, down or sideways) of one side
relative to the other


Joint Sets- a group of systematic joints

Columnar Joints