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Grade 9 Biology – Sustainable Ecosystems

Big Ideas:
 Ecosystems are dynamic and have the ability to respond to change, within limits,
while maintaining their ecological balance;
 People have the responsibility to regulate their impact on the sustainability of
ecosystems in order to preserve them for future generations (Ministry of
Education, 2008).

Overall Expectations:
 Assess the impact of human activities on the sustainability of terrestrial and/or
aquatic ecosystems, and evaluate the effectiveness of courses of action intended
to remedy or mitigate negative impacts;
 Investigate factors related to human activity that affect terrestrial and aquatic
ecosystems, and explain how they affect the sustainability of these ecosystems;
 Demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic nature of ecosystems, particularly
in terms of ecological balance and the impact of human activity on the
sustainability of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (Ministry of Education, 2008).

Statement on Core Content and Language Objectives:

 Students will learn about ecosystems and sustainability, which includes a large
number of vocabulary words that will be new to both Native English speakers and
English Language Learners.
 Throughout the unit, definitions of these new words will be provided. Visuals and
knowledge structures will be used to help scaffold meaning and assignments.
 Students will learn about sustainability and ecosystems, the role of human
activity on biodiversity, and different ecosystems that exist around the world.

Learner Descriptions:
STUDENT 1: Khial
Her L1 is Persian, and she has been learning English for about 2 years. She enjoys
challenges, like teaching herself to play the violin. Her favourite subject is math. She
can pick out key information, but she needs more vocabulary and grammar support.
She is good at speaking (STEP level 4), but not as good in listening (STEP level 3).
Therefore, she might find it difficult to follow a lecture.

Ben is from China, and he speaks Mandarin. He has been in Canada for 2 years. He did
learn some English in China, but he thought that his teacher was too tough and gave
too much work. He likes to read and write, but he finds listening to be challenging. He
sometimes does not understand certain words, or certain sentences and needs to
translate them to Mandarin. He is at STEP level 3. His favourite subject is English.

STUDENT 3: Ahmed
Ahmed came to Canada one year ago from Egypt, and his L1 is Arabic. His favorite
subjects are Math and Science and he is very enthusiastic about learning. His STEP
level is 2 for listening and speaking. He needs more vocabulary and grammatical

Luke came to Canada in 2016. He has been learning English in Brazil since he was five
but felt that the course was not taught well. He is a shy student but becomes
enthusiastic when talking about science. Luke appears to be relatively skilled when
speaking English. However, he uses a lot of pauses and interjects his speech with ‘like’
to gain time to convey his thoughts. He is at STEP 4 equivalency in regards to his
speech and listening due to his pauses, but he is able to relate and converse about
various topics. Luke is still working on his reading, and widening his vocabulary and still
needs help with using some familiar words and preposition. His language proficiency
allows him to be functional in class but he needs to refer to a vocabulary anchor to keep
up with the lessons.

Unit Plan Overview:

Lesson Notes Knowledge Structures Expectations

1: Earth’s Four Learn about biosphere, Description, B2.1, B3.4
Spheres atmosphere, hydrosphere, Classification, Sequence
(70 mins) lithosphere
2: Ecosystems Abiotic/Biotic factors, different Sequence, Description, B2.1, B2.2
(70 mins) types of ecosystems, Classification
3: Energy Flow Photosynthesis, Cellular Sequence, Description B2.1, B3.2
(70 mins) respiration, water/CO2/N2
4: Food Chains Herbivore, carnivore, Sequence, Description B2.1, B3.3, B3.5
(Lesson Plan #1) omnivore, scavenger,
(70 mins) autotroph; niche, consumers,
5: Work period on Using above terms in a small Choice, Description B2.1, B3.3, B3.5
Food Webs class assignment
(Lesson Plan #2)
(70 mins)
6: Limiting Factors of Carrying capacity Classification, B2.1, B2.2, B3.1,
Ecosystems Description B3.3
(70 mins)
7: Wet Lab – Testing Water quality, experimentation, Sequence, Principles, B2.1, B2.2, B2.4,
Water Quality scientific method, using charts Description B3.5
(Lesson Plan #3)
(70 mins)
8: Human Effects on Importance of biodiversity; Principles, Sequence, B1.1, B2.1, B2.4,
Ecosystems endangered and non-native Description B2.5, B3.5
(70 mins) species, pollution,
9: Presentations on Topic can include: urban sprawl, Principles B1.1, B1.2
Culminating use of pesticides and fertilizers,
Assignment creation of pollution, human
(70 mins) interaction with wildlife
Curriculum Expectations:
B1.1: Assess, on the basis of research, the impact of a factor related to human activity that threatens the
sustainability of a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem (e.g., urban sprawl, use of pesticides and fertilizers,
creation of pollution, human interaction with wildlife)

B1.2: Evaluate the effectiveness of government initiatives in Canada (federal, provincial, municipal),
and/or the efforts of societal groups or non-governmental organizations, such as Aboriginal communities,
environmental groups, or student organizations, with respect to an environmental issue that affects the
sustainability of terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems (e.g., wetland restoration, recycling programs, Canada–
Ontario Environmental Farm Plans, stewardship of national and provincial parks)

B2.1: Use appropriate terminology related to sustainable ecosystems, including, but not limited to:
bioaccumulation, biosphere, diversity, ecosystem, equilibrium, sustainability, sustainable use, protection,
and watershed

B2.2: Interpret qualitative and quantitative data from undisturbed and disturbed ecosystems (terrestrial
and/or aquatic), communicate the results graphically, and, extrapolating from the data, explain the
importance of biodiversity for all sustainable ecosystems

B2.3: Plan and conduct an investigation, involving both inquiry and research, into how a human activity
affects soil composition or soil fertility (e.g., changes to soil composition resulting from the use of different
compostable materials, organic or inorganic fertilizers, or pesticides), and, extrapolating from the data and
information gathered, explain the impact of this activity on the sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems

B2.4: Plan and conduct an investigation, involving both inquiry and research, into how a human activity
affects water quality (e.g., leaching of organic or inorganic fertilizers or pesticides into water systems,
changes to watersheds resulting from deforestation or land development, diversion of ground water for
industrial uses), and, extrapolating from the data and information gathered, explain the impact of this
activity on the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems

B2.5: Analyse the effect of human activity on the populations of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by
interpreting data and generating graphs (e.g., data from Statistics Canada, Parks Canada, and other
websites on: the concentration in water of chemicals from fertilizer run-off and their effect on the growth of
algae; stressors associated with human use of natural areas, such as trampled vegetation, wildlife
mortality from motor vehicles, and the removal of plants, animals, and/or natural objects; suburban
developments and their impact on the food supply for animals such as foxes and racoons)

B3.1: Compare and contrast biotic and abiotic characteristics of sustainable and unsustainable terrestrial
and aquatic ecosystems

B3.2: Describe the complementary processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis with respect to
the flow of energy and the cycling of matter within ecosystems (i.e., carbon dioxide is a by-product of
cellular respiration and is used for photosynthesis, which produces oxygen needed for cellular
respiration), and explain how human activities can disrupt the balance achieved by these processes (e.g.,
automobile use increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; planting more trees
decreases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere)

B3.3: Describe the limiting factors of ecosystems (e.g., nutrients, space, water, energy, predators), and
explain how these factors affect the carrying capacity of an ecosystem (e.g., the effect of an increase in
the moose population on the wolf population in the same ecosystem)

B3.4: Identify the earth’s four spheres (biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere), and describe
the relationship that must exist between these spheres if diversity and sustainability are to be maintained

B3.5: Identify various factors related to human activity that have an impact on ecosystems (e.g., the
introduction of invasive species; shoreline development; industrial emissions that result in acid rain), and
explain how these factors affect the equilibrium and survival of ecosystems (e.g., invasive species push
out native species and upset the equilibrium in an ecosystem; shoreline development affects the types of
terrestrial and aquatic life that can live near lake shores or river banks; acid rain changes the pH of water,
which affects the type of aquatic life that can survive in a lake)


Ministry of Education. (2008). The Ontario curriculum grades 9 and 10: Science.
Retrieved from: