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Understanding By Design Unit Template

Title of Unit Criminal Law Grade Level

Law 30 14 lessons
Subject Time Frame

Kassidy MacPherson
Developed By

Stage 1 - Identify Desired Results

Broad Areas of Learning

How are the BAL incorporated into this unit?

Building Lifelong Learners - Throughout the course of this unit on criminal law students will ideally be intrigued by some of the concepts, case studies,
or laws that arise in our studies. In showing them that it can be rewarding, fun, and interesting to learn about these such concepts students may be
prompted to continue their studies in these areas or areas branching off of the concepts covered in this unit. This unit will also equip students with
strategies to critically analyze information surrounding criminal law as they encounter it in the media/news over the course of their lives.

Building a Sense of Self and Community- Through understanding the criminal laws students will become more aware of the social implications and
values that hold us together in society. In gaining an increased understanding of social values, morals, and protective goals students will be able to
more thoroughly appreciate, recognize, and perpetuate these same values in their own communities.

Building Engaged Citizens- Given the social activist nature of the content of the criminal law unit students will get a practical look at the systems that
govern our society. Through case studies, field trips, and evaluations of laws students will be able to tangibly experience the influence they can have in
these systems. By understanding these systems students will be challenged to reflect on changes they would make and to recognize the reasoning
behind our laws and models of justice.

Cross curricular Competencies

How will this unit promote the CCC?
Developing Thinking- Students will be regularly challenged to think about social issues, laws, and case studies in critical and reflective ways. They will be
encouraged to use their own creative methods of research and evaluation to consider controversial issues and current events.

Developing Identity and Interdependence- Through a number of individual research assignments and inquiry-based opportunities students will be
encouraged to focus their time and attention on issues and content that are of specific interest to them. This focus on individualized interest will help
build a sense of independence and identity.

Develop Literacy- Students will be given ample opportunity to advance their literacy relating to technology and inquiry-based study, as well as their
literacy of social structures and societal values. In incorporating case studies, controversial issues, and current events students' media literacy and
literacy in critical synthesizing real-world information will be furthered.

Developing Social Responsibility- Students will develop their social responsibility as they realize that their opinions and voices can have implications in
their communities. As their understandings of their own societies increase they will be better equipped to critically and respectfully engage with social
issues around them.

Learning Outcomes
What relevant goals will this unit address?
(must come from curriculum; include the designations e.g. IN2.1)
*outcomes are annotated as curriculum outlines great detail in objectives. Annotations are directly from curriculum and summarize
objective outcomes (direct copy-paste of objectives was many pages long)
Concepts and Knowledge Objectives
- Crime
- Non-criminality
- The Criminal Code
- Quasi-Criminal Law
- Criminal Procedure
- Due Process
- Legal Rights (including charter of Rights and Freedoms)
- The Adversarial System
- Models and Philosophies
- Demographics and Values
- Actus Reus, Mens Rea and Habeas Corpus
- Liability and Due Diligence
- Offences against people, property, morality, involving automobiles, and drug offences
- Arrests and Charges
- Presumption of Innocence
- Prosecution
- Summary Conviction Offences, Hybrid or Dual Offences, and Indictable Offences
- Defences
- Independence of the Judiciary
- Alternative Sentencing
- Parole
- Morality- know that morality is based on a number of principles

Skills/Abilities Objectives
- Develop and apply criteria as a basis for making value judgements
- Apply skills of dialectical evaluation
- Compare and contrast the adversarial system to other systems
- Apply the moral tests of role exchange, universal consequences, and new cases
- Apply Inquiry Skills
- Gather information from statistical data
- apply writing skills to develop a position paper
- Use effective reading skills to analyze data
- Differentiate between levels of intent

Values Objectives
- Appreciate that variance of opinion exists regarding the purposes of the criminal justice system
- Appreciate that the criminal justice system is a tool of social policy
- Appreciate that models are simplified representations of reality
- Contemplate various theories regarding causes of crime
- Clarify personal viewpoints regarding causes of crime
- Appreciate the three fundamental principles of the criminal justice system include presumption of innocence, fair and open trial, and burden of proof
beyond a reasonable doubt
- Identify the moral values portrayed through criminal law
- Appreciate that criminal laws reflect the moral values of society in context of time and place
Enduring Understandings Essential Questions
What understandings about the big ideas are desired? (what you want What provocative questions will foster inquiry into the content? (open-
students to understand & be able to use several years from now) ended questions that stimulate thought and inquiry linked to the content
What misunderstandings are predictable? of the enduring understanding)

Students will understand that... Content specific….

- Canada has outlined Criminal Code of Law that dictate the treatment of - How does our criminal procedure protect society’s values and safety?
criminal issues in our country - What rights and freedoms are we guaranteed as Canadians?
- These laws and judicial systems are in place to protect society and - What values and morals are instilled in Canadian Society?
maintain social values/morals - How do our judicial systems align with these values?
- An ability to critically evaluate laws and criminal events is essential in - How are the roles involved in our judicial system crucial to a cohesive
developing justifiable opinions/beliefs. society?
- That Canadian society and law benefits some populations while severely - How does our legal system treat different racial groups?
mistreating other populations (FNIM) - How can we be catalysts for change in addressing the inequities in
- Will be able to use their practiced skills and literacies to apply their skills of Canadian crime statistics?
critical evaluation within the Canadian law system to compare and contrast
law systems of other cultures and countries
- Will be able to appreciate the tenets of Canadian society inherently
demonstrated in our legal systems as it intends to provide protection for
FNMI, multicultural, cross-curricular…
How do other cultures/nations handle the concept of crime and
Related misconceptions… criminality within their societies?
Criminal law is only relevant to criminals and those who are involved in the How are FNIM peoples represented in crime demographics of Canada?
judicial system How are skills of dialectic evaluation and inquiry learning useful in other
That the system is “out to get us” and is not there primarily to protect our areas of life or in other societal issues?
societal values.
That this system is fair and provides equality for all

Knowledge: Skills
What knowledge will student acquire as a result of this unit? This content What skills will students acquire as a result of this unit? List the skills
knowledge may come from the indicators, or might also address pre- and/or behaviours that students will be able to exhibit as a result of their
requisite knowledge that students will need for this unit. work in this unit. These will come from the indicators.
Students will know… Students will be able to…

- The components involved in Canada's judicial system - Evaluate laws and controversial issues in a critical manner
- The values and morals instilled in Canadian society that guide our laws and - Understand the foundations of Canadian law and judicial system
the way we deal with criminal activity - Defend their beliefs and opinions regarding criminal offences and
- Specific systems and demographics relating to crime and judicial systems current events
in Saskatchewan and Canada - Apply their knowledge of Canada’s Criminal Code of Law and judicial
- How to evaluate laws and controversial situations in a professional and systems to real-life situations
critical manner - Utilize inquiry based learning strategies to further their understandings
- About specific laws and reasoning behind these laws that are pertinent to of specific laws and cases
Canadian society - Translate their knowledge of Canadian law to social issues that they
- About inequities within crime rates and demographics regarding First have power to create change in
Nations populations
- That Canadian law emphasizes different ideologies and values than the
systems in place in other countries/cultures

Stage 2 – Assessment Evidence

Performance Task
Through what authentic performance task will students demonstrate the desired understandings, knowledge, and skills? (describes the learning activity
in “story” form. Typically, the P.T. describes a scenario or situation that requires students to apply knowledge and skills to demonstrate their
understanding in a real life situation. Describe your performance task scenario below)
By what criteria will performances of understanding be judged?

GRASPS Elements of the Performance Task

G – Goal Students will gain information and strategies throughout the term that will enable them to recognize, critique,
What should students accomplish by and justify their beliefs regarding Canadian Criminal Law. Given the practice available to students throughout
completing this task? the unit via case studies, application assignments, and field trip(s), students will be required to analyze a real-
life case relevant in recent Canadian law. Students will take a critical omniscient perspective in critiquing a case
R – Role from Canadian law and justifying the outcome and defence strategy that they would take if they were to try the
What role (perspective) will your students
case. All students in the class who have demonstrated genuine understanding of the content and who have
be taking?
participated in case studies and field trips will be able to take what they have learned and apply it to this
participated in case studies and field trips will be able to take what they have learned and apply it to this
A – Audience particular assignment and to other relevant cases that may appear in the media or news. Ultimately this will
Who is the relevant audience? help students demonstrate and practice an ability to integrate and apply their learned information into the
controversy of relevant current events and case studies.
S – Situation
The context or challenge provided to the

P – Product, Performance
What product/performance will the

A rubric for the summative assessment itself can be included, however this performance task will emphasize
S – Standards & Criteria for Success students’ ability to translate their knowledge to make informed opinions and judgement about real-life cases
Create the rubric for the Performance Task
and controversies surrounding criminal law.

Other Evidence Student Self-Assessment

Through what other evidence (work samples, observations, quizzes, tests, How will students reflect upon or self-assess their learning?
journals or other means) will students demonstrate achievement of the
desired results? Formative and summative assessments used throughout
the unit to arrive at the outcomes.

A summative assessment assignment will have students compose a Students will self-assess through quick writes and reflective pieces
defence strategy for a Canadian case, and will have them justify their throughout the unit. They will also be challenged to address their own
choices using course content. Smaller assignments such as assignments, beliefs and possible biases in the opinions they hold. This will allow
written components, and case studies will help students learn how to students to be cognizant of their learning and will encourage them to
complete this process and to recognize why it is important. Throughout the recognize the practicality of what they are learning.
unit formative assessments such as quick writes, class polls, and group
discussions will assess students progression to an ability to make these
critical translations of content to real life scenarios.

Stage 3 – Learning Plan

What teaching and learning experiences will you use to:
• achieve the desired results identified in Stage 1?
• equip students to complete the assessment tasks identified in Stage 2?
Where are your students headed? Where have they been? How will you make sure the students know where they are going?
What experiences do the learners bring to the unit? How have the interests of the learners been ascertained? Have the learners been
part of the pre-planning in any way? What individual needs do you anticipate will need to be addressed?
Learning environment: Where can this learning best occur? How can the physical environment be arranged to enhance learning?

I expect that many of the students in my class (most likely grade 11’s and 12’s) will have had little formal education surrounding criminal law despite the
opinions they may hold coming into the course. I do expect and hope that many students will have a natural interest in the area of criminal law and
crime, as it is a hot-topic and one of high interest for much of the population, but they will most likely be under-educated thus far as to why they think
what they think, why Canada and Saskatchewan’s justice system and laws operate the way they do, and why it is so important that we develop
understandings in these areas concerning criminal law. To make sure students understand what we will be learning and what the ultimate goals for their
learning are I will include brief yet informative roadmaps at the beginning of each lesson as well as an explanation/discussion about the relevance of
each topic. I believe that linking the concepts of the criminal law unit to real-life examples and applications for my students will allow them to more
naturally absorb the information to be learned and will more likely serve as a catalyst for further interest and social action in these systems. My students
will almost undoubtedly have experienced news clips, Facebook articles, and many debates about highly debated criminal cases and happenings- for
example the Netflix documentary Making a Murderer, or the recent and relevant case of Colten Boushie that has recently been source for heated debate
and personal connection for many individuals. What they are less likely to bring to the unit, however, is a coherent understanding of the reasoning
behind differing laws, systems, and judgements and an ability to justify their beliefs around such topics. This unit will explore the basic concepts and
systems surrounding Canadian and Saskatchewan criminal law and will equip students with methods of critical analysis that will allow them to be more
confident and informed when dealing with real-life situations relating to criminal law. The unit will also incorporate many case studies to amplify the
connections and application of knowledge that students will make. I anticipate that the best learning for this unit will come through a combination of
academic learning of concepts and structures, inquiry-based applications involving case studies to put this knowledge to practical use, and also the
incorporation of place-based pedagogy in incorporating advise from experts (whether local or via documentary), and a field trip the local courthouse to
see some of their learned concepts in action. I believe that the combination of these different presentations of information and experience will best
serve the variety of learner that is expected in any classroom.

How will you engage students at the beginning of the unit? (motivational set)

I will begin this unit by playing a 5 minute youtube video on The Innocence Project ( to grab
students’ attention and pull them into the concepts surrounding criminal law. By showing a video on the innocence project (which aims to overturn
wrongful convictions) I will not only highlight why criminal law is important (at protecting our societies but also in protecting those involved in- or
presumed to be involved in- crimes) but also to touch on some of the main concepts that will be explored in the unit (ex innocent until proven guilty,
demographics of crimes, sentencing process, differences in offences, etc).
I will then offer students a brief roadmap of the unit ahead: that we will learn what crime is, how Canada defines and handles crime, different types of
offences and defences, who is most commonly involved in crime, and how Saskatchewan handles the processes involved with criminal law.
After this brief explanation of the unit on Criminal Law students will ideally be intrigued and excited to learn about criminal law (as it is a hot topic) and
will be briefed on where we are headed and why it is important that we learn about these concepts/systems.

What events will help students experience and explore the enduring understandings and essential questions in the unit? How will
you equip them with needed skills and knowledge?

# Lesson Title Lesson Activities CCCs Resources

1 1. Unit Hook/Intro (15 minutes)
First lesson in this unit will begin with the motivational set described above & teacher will give
students a handout with the unit roadmap and goals outlined so they may reference it
2. Crime as a social construct (20 minutes)
- Beginning with a lecture style, I will give students working definition of crime with a focus on
the element of morality and the fact that crime, by definition, is a social construct
- Crime: an act or omission, prohibited by law, which is considered wrong against society and
society's values and morals
- I will open a class discussion on why we think societies come up with laws and their own
definitions of criminality (give example of ancient times before laws were written into legal
documents). Why did societies create laws? Reach understanding that they are in place to
protect people in society from harm
- Emphasis will be placed on morality and how society’s rely on laws and systems to protect what
they value
- I will gage class understanding with a thumbs-up/down class poll, moving on if everyone
understands or using new examples to re-explain if some students aren’t grasping the content
so far
3. The Criminal Code (15 minutes)
- Once we have a class-wide understanding of what a crime is and why societies value them, we Youtube
will go over the main tenets of Canada's Criminal code as outlined in a handout video for
- We will briefly discuss the main criteria that constitute the criminal code. I will make a point of hook
differentiating between criminal law and quasi-criminal law, which are both important but are
regulated differently by provinces and municipalities as opposed to federally Handout on
Intro to Crime
- Students will then work in a think-pair-share to discuss their thoughts on the criteria outlined in DT, DSR, Canada’s
and Moral
the criminal code, and come up with a list of values they believe are represented through DI Criminal
Canada's code. This will force students to think about Canada’s criminal code and actively Code
synthesize its criteria as opposed to merely passively reading the criteria
Handout 2.1
4. The Concept of Moral Testing (25-30 minutes) on Moral
- students will be given Handout 2.1: The Concept of Moral Testing Testing
- As a class, we will return to the importance of morality in laws and a working definition of
criminality that we talked about earlier in the lesson and then discuss the handout they've been
given in detail
- The handout outlines three tests that can be carried out to assess whether our choices/laws/
values are moral. The four tests are The New Cases Test, The Role Exchange Test, and The
Universal Consequences Test
- In a Jigsaw style, students will be put into groups and assigned one of the three test methods. I
will give a class-wide example of a situation that is to be morally tested using each assigned
test. The example revolve around Abortion laws in Canada- “should Abortion be allowed/
acceptable?” (Collaborative teaching)
- Students will be given any remaining class time to discuss as a group and use their assigned
moral test to reach a conclusion that they will then share with the class
- Should students require more time than is left in the class period, they will be given more time
at the beginning of the next class period.
5. Presentation of Moral Tests (20 minutes)
- Student groups will present the findings of their moral testing. Class discussion and debate will
be allowed but guided, as this can be a controversial and offensive topic to some individuals.
2 1. Introduction to dialectic Evaluation (15 minutes)
- I will begin by playing 2 youtube clips that are PSA’s against impaired driving
- Students will then be asked to complete a 5-minute quick write on their reactions to the videos,
thinking back to the previous lesson's exploration of morality and criminality to help guide their
- Teacher will then offer a visual representation of a road map for this lesson on the board, as it
can be rather abstract to grasp
2. Definition of Dialectical Evaluation (10 minutes)
- that it is another way of assessing our country's laws and systems to test their morality,
effectiveness, and reasonability
Youtube clips
- I will emphasize the important aspect of this method of critical analysis which is critically
on impaired
considering both sides of an argument and evaluating the arguments of each side to reach a
justifiable judgement
Dialectic 3. 5 Steps to Dialectical Evaluation (20 minutes)
DT, DL Handout 2.4
Evaluation - I will then distribute handout 2.4 which outlines 5 steps to dialectical evaluation. As a class, we
will briefly discuss each of the 5 steps of dialectical evaluation
- Students will then be asked to complete some research on a class computer or personal device
to research Canada's euthanasia laws
- The class will then reconvene and create a concept map on the board of Canada's stance on
euthanasia. Students will be encouraged but not forced to contribute.
4. Applying the 5 steps (20 minutes)
- I will then lead a class example of dialectic evaluation using the 5 steps to examine these
euthanasia laws, but will encourage students to contribute to the evaluation process.
- Following this example students will be assigned a dialectic evaluation of their own on Canada’s
Impaired driving laws to be handed in for completion marks. Students may refer to their quick-
write to jog their memory of their initial stance on these laws.
5. In-class work period for this assignment (20 minutes)
- should students require additional time or assistance I will alter the criteria accordingly
3 1. Review of the Role of Criminal Laws in Society (5 minutes)
- I will begin with explaining that criminal laws force compliance of morality and acceptable
behaviour. Remind students that the criminal code dictates the criteria for what is acceptable
behaviour within the boundaries of criminality
2. Rights and Freedoms (15 minutes)
- I will give students a definition of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms along with a handout
outlining its main tenets (similar to the handout students received previously on the Criminal
code of Canada). Will also discuss Habeas Corpus and Mens Rea.
- I will the lead a lecture with class discussion intertwined to teach students about the legal rights
outlined in our Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Students will be encouraged to think of
examples in their own lives when they have exercised some of their own rights and freedoms
- Students will be encouraged to reflect on what life may be like in other countries and societies
in which these same rights and freedoms are not guaranteed to all citizens.
Charter of
- Students will be assigned a take-home mini-project that will require them to find at least 1
Rights and
other country that does not guarantee rights and freedoms to their citizens. This will encourage
students to realize how fortunate Canadians are to have stable and just government systems in
3. Criminal Procedure (30 minutes)
The Criminal - We will discuss the concept of due process and discuss how this is a main key of the Canadian
DSR, DL Justice
Procedure judicial system which places laws in order to protect an individual's rights in case of criminal
- As a class, we will discuss the roles of police, courts, the correctional system, victims of crimes,
and offenders who commit crimes. We will discuss what role each of these components play in
the criminal procedure and how they are all important in creating a balanced judicial system.
Summary of
- I will pose a question for students to complete a think-pair-share: What would happen if one or
more of these components of the system were to be removed? What is the system existed
without the courts? or with out the police? How would that alter our system? Would it still
- Students will be given a fill-in-the-blank handout outlining these 5 identity components of the
justice system. They will be required to fill in the roles of each of these components and reflect
(based on their think-pair-shares) why they think each component is important.
4. Criminal Justice System Simulation
- I will then set up an in-class simulation where students are assigned to one of the component
identities just discussed. I will pose a hypothetical criminal scenario (a mugging) and have the
student representing the offender and victim act it out (without actual physical contact- for the
purpose of visual representation and role-play). The students assigned to play the police will
then become involved, followed by the courts, and so on. By acting out these roles students will
have to think on their feet using the information learned in class
4 1. Intro to Models (15 minutes)
- I will give a roadmap of the upcoming lesson to students that includes our main definitions and
concepts to be covered
- I will begin this lesson by posing a question to students: why does Canada want to achieve
through their justice system? What is the ultimate goal? (this will tie in themes that have been
covered in the previous lessons throughout the unit thus far)
- I will then provide students with a working definition of what a model of criminal justice is: it is
a system of legislation and mandates that demonstrate different ideologies of what is important
in creating a functional society.
- I will check for class understanding by reading body language and asking questions as I go
- I will explain the importance of models as they portray the values of a society or institution. A
quick exercise and brainstorm as an analogy will be led by way of a class-created visual mind
map of the model of Canada's education model. What structure does it have? What patterns
does it create? How does it contribute to the values we have as a society? Through examining
this parallel to the education system I will help students realize how models come to importance
Handout of
in our society. We will then return to discuss models in the light of the criminal justice system.
2. Crime Control Model (15 minutes)
- I will then lead into a lecture on the Crime Control Model specifically: this model focuses mainly
The Crime DSR, DT, Compare and
on the prosecution of those who commit crimes in order to protect society. This model is
Control Model DL Contrast
characterized by its presumption of guilt and assumes that those who are arrested are guilty.
- I will ask students to refer back to their handouts on dialectical evaluation and to perform a
quick written evaluation of the Crime Control Model.
exit slips
- I will then prompt a class discussion on why this model may be problematic in society and will
urge students to think back to the motivational set for this unit which outlined the video from
the Innocence Project.
3. Guiding Philosophies (20 minutes)
- We will then discuss differing philosophies that dictate different interpretations and models of
criminal justice: Deterrence Philosophy, Justice Philosophy, selective incapacitation philosophy,
rehabilitation philosophy, and the restorative justice philosophy (which students will be advised
that we will cover more thoroughly in an upcoming lesson)
- Students will be asked to fill out compare and contrast charts on these main philosophies that
dictate criminal justice models and ideologies. Students will also be asked which they feel best
represents Canada's outlook on criminal justice
4. Exit Slips (5-10 minutes)
- students will be asked to complete exit slips upon leaving class reviewing what they have
learned about models and philosophies of criminal justice systems
5 1. The Due Process Model (20 minutes)
- Relying on what students have learned in the previous lesson on models and philosophies, I will
begin this lesson by diving into the due process model
- A brief lecture will cover the main themes involved in the due process model and its emphasis
in the presumption of innocence. This will then lead into an exploration of the Canadian Model
and now it ties to the due process model.
- Students will then be asked to draw and fill in a Venn Diagram comparing the Due Process
model and the crime control model. They will then write a reflective paragraph about which
they feel is more effective and why (leaning on their understanding of dialectic evaluation and
2. Restorative Justice Philosophy (20 minutes)
- We will discuss the key themes involved in this philosophy: addressing the harm done to
victims, restoring harmony to the life of everyone involved, and acceptance of the situation by
the offender.
- As a class we will discuss and brainstorm examples of ways in which we have seen this model
played out in TV shows, movies, the media, and/or the news. Sheet for
3. Innocent Until Proven Guilty (15 minutes) Venn
- We will spent more time exploring what it means to be innocent until proven guilty. Has this Diagram
Innocent Until always been the case? How did historical societies view innocence? Students will be asked to
consider multicultural differences in models of criminal justice and presumption of innocence. DL, DSR Outline to
Proven Guilty
- Will also discuss an individual’s right to remain silent, right to consult with a lawyer, right to guide inquiry
hearing, and presumption of innocence assignment
- We will discuss prosecution and how the Crown represents criminals and is given the task of leading to
providing a case that an accused is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. hypothesis
4. Inquiry into Prosecution (30-45 minutes)
- Students will be asked to find and research some sort of criminal case that is presently
occurring in Canadian news (from a credible source) that has not yet reached sentencing.
- Using what they know about the due process model, the criminal procedure, and prosecution
students will need to predict (and write a hypothesis) what they believe sentencing will result in
using the strategies, concepts, and terminology we have learned about so far.
- Students will be given class time to work on this inquiry assignment.

PGP 1.3 a commitment to social justice and the capacity to nurture an inclusive
and equitable environment for the empowerment of all learners;
2.1 knowledge of Canadian History, especially in reference to Saskatchewan and
Western Canada;
2.3 knowledge of First Nations, Metis and Inuit Culture and History (e.g., Treaties,
Residential School, Scrip, and Worldview);
6 1. Reasons for Crime (40 minutes)

- This lesson will open with a News clip on statistics in Canada that highlights the disparity
between homicide rates in general populations and that of Indigenous populations.
- discussion/lecture on current research and theories on criminal activity will be explored. A
multidisciplinary approach will be taken as research from the fields of psychology, criminology,
sociology and more are compiled to try to explain why crime occurs.
- We will discuss 6 theories of criminology (classical, biological, phsychobiological, psychological,
sociological, and interactionist theories)- students will be provided with a chart to fill in details
on the 6 different theories
2. Demographics (15 minutes) Innocence
- We will then examine the demographics of Canadian crime statistics on the following website. Project
- website for
- We can explore and discuss this website as a class as discussion leads. review
- We will also identify any obvious patterns and relationships between conviction rates, homicide
Who Are the DII, DL,
rates, and different social factors (ex poverty, race, education level, area of residence etc). Index Cards
Criminals? DSR
- Ask students to think about whether these statistics remind them of any of the theories we just
learned about. chart/sheet
3. Wrongful Conviction (40 minutes) for 6
- Students will be asked to rely on the knowledge they learned during the lesson on the theories of
Presumption of Innocence to explore wrongful conviction as it intersects with demographics. A criminology
class discussion and exploration of the Innocence Project website will take place in class time.
- students will be required to complete some research to gain a comprehensive understanding of
crime statistics in Canada. Following a work period to compile what information they feel is
prevalent, we will compile what we have learned through our individual research in an index-
card-bulletin board. Everyone will contribute a minimum of 3 index cards of information related
to crime statistics. This way students are able to gain skills in individual research yet they can
learn from the shared wealth of knowledge that they have learned as a class.

PGP 1.3 a commitment to social justice and the capacity to nurture an inclusive and
equitable environment for the empowerment of all learners;
4.2 the ability to incorporate First Nations, Metis, and Inuit knowledge, content and
perspective into all teaching areas
7 1. Demographics of FNIM populations in Canada (15 minutes)
- We will begin by reviewing the current climate of FNIM relations with Canadian government to
ensure that all students are up to speed with these issues.
- As some EAL students or non-Canadian born students may not be familiar with Canada's history of
oppressing Indigenous populations, we will also briefly review pre and post- contact relationships.
2. FNIM Crime Rates (30 minutes) student
- We then proceed to discuss the imbalance of FNIM crime rates in Canada. Students will be journals, link
prompted to reflect on the reasoning they believe is behind this imbalance to online
FNIM Crime - Special note will be given to crime rates on reservations. Class discussion will be prompted: resource
Rates in Why do we think these rates are different than those of broader Canada? What might this say regarding
Canada about our justice system? What might this affirm about stereotypes and ideals in our society? FNIM crime
3. Student Reflection in Journals (10 minutes) stats,
- Students will then be prompted to reflect on these issues in their journals. youtube
- Ask them to consider what problems this could pose in their communities. What does this say video
about our society? What might we be able to do to create change?
4. Collaborative Learning Structured Assignment
- To focus on problem solving and collaborative learning, teacher will break class into groups and
assign them each an area of law in which there are inequities. Students will have to work together to
come up with a possible solution or catalyst for change regarding their assigned issue.

8 1. Intent (20 minutes)

- Definitions of Intent and Liability will open the class as I will explain what we will be learning in
the upcoming lesson.
- Discussion and lecture will explore the different types of offences as they pertain to level of
intent and Liability: we will discuss Non-intent offences, strict liability offences (primarily quasi-
criminal offences) which are concerned with the safety of the public as opposed to prosecution
of an offender, where, and absolute liability offences (regulatory offences) which are more
concerned with offenders and offer no defence (ex failing to stop at a stop sign).
- Will then discuss Due Diligence in a brief lecture portion
2. Types of Offences (30 minutes)
Intent and handout
- We will go over different types of offences that are outlined in the Criminal Code of Canada
Types of DT, DL regarding
- These include offences against people, against property, against morality, involving automobiles,
Offences intent levels
and being party to an offence.
- A jigsaw activity will be used for students to brainstorm examples of offences that would fall
under their assigned category. Groups will be made either alphabetically or by desk row- then
students will share the examples they came up with.
3. Classifications of Offences (15 minutes)
- We will discuss the three classifications of offences: Summary conviction offences, hybrid/dual
offences, and indictable offences. Criteria for each classification and examples of each will be
discussed in class.

PGP 2.6 ability to strive for/pursue new knowledge

9 1. Canadian Criminal Justice Process (20 minutes)
- We will go over a definition of the adversarial system and its components
- Students will be given Handout 2.2 on The Adversarial System to outline the processes
- Focus will be placed on the way both parties are allowed to argue their side of the argument
with aims of reaching just resolutions. This will be linked back to dialectical evaluation as we
see the importance of considering both sides of an argument.
- We will discuss the importance of a judge and jury in the process of criminal law and
- Students will be given handouts on the criteria for becoming a judge and what it means to have
jury duty. The concept of prosecution will be explored and that the Crown represents the
- We will then move into a lecture/discussion on Aboriginal policing Initiatives in Saskatchewan
following handout 2.10. Discussion will be led to discuss the differences between colonial budget/
Canada's systems and the First nation's systems. permission
2. Police (15 minutes) slips for field
- We will then move into a discussion on the role and importance of police trip to
- I will paint an example scenario of a situation which requires police attention (a car accident, courthouse
break-in or mugging), then ask students to reflect in a quick write how the situation would play
out differently if police were not instituted in our society. handout 2.2
The Adversarial - We will discuss the key functions of police: to prevent crime, to detect and apprehend DT, DSR, on
System offenders, and no maintain order in the community in accordance with the law DL Adversarial
3. Suspects/Accused (15 minutes) System
- Definitions of a suspect versus an accused individual will explore the differences in being
suspected of a crime compared to being prosecuted for one. What might lead police to suspect Handout
someone of a crime? 2.10
- A discussion will take place around the process of police questioning- what sort of questions
might they ask? Why might they ask these things? What sort of rights do they need to respect Judge and
when questioning individuals or suspects? Jury handout
- We will then discuss the process Arrest and Detention, and how individuals are taken into
4. Visit to Courthouse (half-day field trip)
- Before the day of the field trip, I will review the roles involved in the adversarial system; the
role of the judge, jury (even though we probably will not get to see an in-person jury case),
and make sure students review the systems we will witness at the court house
- I will encourage students to bring a journal or some loose leaf to make notes of events they see
at the courthouse or of questions that arise during the trip. we will address these notes and
questions in the following class period .

PGP 4.3 the capacity to engage in program planning to shape ‘lived curriculum’ that
brings learner needs, subject matter, and contextual variables together in
developmentally appropriate, culturally responsive and meaningful ways
10 1. Introduction and Definition to Defences (15 minutes)
- We will discuss that a defence is any denial or answer to a charge against an accused person. A
defence is a legally recognized excuse for criminal conduct.
- After this brief introduction to defences, students will fill in the “K” portion of their KWL charts
to show what they believe they already know about defence from movies, the news, personal
experience, and/or the media
2. Fourteen Defences to Criminal Charges (30 minutes)
- We will then delve into the many different type of defences recognized under Canadian law and
provide brief examples for each type of defence. Students will fill out a handout that outlines
each type of offence
- The defences to be discussed are as follows: no criminal state of mind, automatism, alibi, self-
defence, defence of property, duress, provocation, mistake of fact, mistake of law, mental
KWL Charts
Defences to disorders, necessity, intoxication, special pleas, and entrapment and abuse of process.
Criminal - After they have heard the different defences under Canadian criminal law, students will fill in DT, DL
Charges the "W" portion of their KWL charts with any questions they have or things they hope to learn
- Students will be required to complete individual research in class (and then take home what
they have not finished) and find an example case from Canada in the past 10 years that falls
into one of these categories. They will need to come prepared to share their findings with the
class in a discussion circle the next day
3. Socratic Circle (30 minutes)
- A socratic circle will take place for students to share the cases they found which fall under the
categories of defence
- Following the discussion circle students will complete their KWL chart by filling in the "L"
PGP 3.2 the ability to use a wide variety of responsive instructional strategies and
methodologies to accommodate learning styles of individual learners and support their
growth as social, intellectual, physical and spiritual beings.
11 1. Saskatchewan’s Levels of Criminal Court (20 minutes)
- We will discuss the three levels in SK- the Provincial Court, the court of Queen's Bench, and the
Court of Appeal
- I will lecture on the progression through the levels of court- should a case require multiple
- We will also take time to explore the four divisions of SK Provincial Court (criminal ,youth,
family, and small claims)
- The process of election and preliminary inquiry will also be discussed, as accused individuals
may choose to be tried by a judge and jury or to go straight to the Provincial or Queen’s Bench
Court. Why would someone choose this alternative? Students will be asked to brainstorm as a
class in a think-pair-share.
2. Supreme Court of Canada (25 minutes)
- We will discuss when the Supreme Court comes into play, who is involved in the decisions at
this level, and what a case must consist of in order to reach this level of court system. handout 2.13
- We will then examine the validity of oral storytelling in supreme court cases, as past cases have on the Court
Levels of
paved the way for orality to be viewed as admissible in some courts of law just as written DII, DL, System in
Criminal Court
documentation has always been. DT Canada
in SK
- Discussion of Sparrow Case and the Sparrow system
- Students will then be given a handout summarizing these levels of court in SK and Canada
3. International Comparison (15 minutes)
- We will discuss the differences between nations’ judicial and court systems and specifically
evaluate the differences between Canada and America in the process of enacting judges. In
Canada judges are appointed whereas in America they are elected. We will discuss the
reasoning and implications of this difference
- Students will be encouraged to draw on other cultures’ ways of dealing with criminal cases
whether they know of these cultural differences through personal experience, news stories, or

PGP 4.1 knowledge of Saskatchewan curriculum and policy documents and

applies this understanding to plan lessons, units of study and year plans using
curriculum outcomes as outlined by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education;
12 1. The Young Offenders Act (20 minutes)
- a brief lecture on the YOA will be given to students discussing its main tenets and how it treats
young people who commit crimes
- This act encompasses people aged 12-18 that is set in place to enforce the law and protect
society while recognizing young peoples’ unique situation as an intersection of age and
- We will discuss the history of critique and changes made to the YOA over the past several
decades, and a class discussion will emerge on whether they think these changes are better or
worse in enforcing the law with young peoples
2. Alternative Sentencing (10 minutes) link to
The Young - We will discuss the alternate sentencing given to youth offenders and why we think these DII, DL, website for
Offenders Act alternative solutions are offered case study
3. Young Offenders Class Case Study (20 minutes)
- We will visit the following link (
charges/) to explore a case study of a Canadian youth and discuss/debate what the students
feel is appropriate treatment of the case. This will allow students to more deeply understand
the concepts at play and reason for themselves.

PGP 2.1 knowledge of Canadian History, especially in reference to Saskatchewan

and Western Canada;
2.4 ability to use technologies readily, strategically and appropriately
13 1. Sentencing (15 minutes)
- We will discuss the legal purpose of sentencing offenders according to the Criminal Code of
Canada which highlights punishment, deterrence, protection of the public, and rehabilitation.
- Special attention will be given to each of these four factors and students will be asked to
contribute to a discussion on why they think these aspects are important
- Definitions of Sentencing and Verdicts will be given to students
2. Early Release (15 minutes)
- The importance of truth in sentencing will be emphasized in terms of early release. A leading
philosophy is that offenders should not be considered for early release and that full sentences
must be followed.
- Students will be prompted to again return to a dialectic evaluation frame of mind to consider
their stance on the issue of early release. We will discuss 2 different cases (both criminal but
one more immoral and severe than the other) and discuss whether our opinions on early loose leaf for
release differ for the two offenders. How can we institute and enforce objective criteria for quick writes
release and sentencing of all citizens, despite personal bias?
3. Rehabilitation (10 minutes) printout
Verdicts and DT, DSR,
- Given that Canada emphasizes a Rehabilitation Justice Model, students will be asked to summaries
Sentencing DL
complete a 5-minute quick write on whether/why they think this is an important model to have of 2 quick-
in dealing with crime cases
4. Alternative Sentencing and Different Cultures (15 minutes)
- Alternative sentencing will be examined as it exists with Canada's criminal code- special note handout 2.17
will be given to the way these alternatives may coincide with FNIM communities and/or other
- Handout 2.17 on Sentencing Circles will follow this multicultural discussion
5. Elder Visit (entire class period devoted to special guest)
- If at all possible, the teacher will arrange for an elder to come into the class to share First
Nations approach to verdicts, sentencing, and criminology
- However the elder chooses to share their stories, experiences, and wisdom will be embraced
and noted by the students and teacher. The classroom teacher will use these tenets to inform
their future teaching.

PGP 2.3 knowledge of First Nations, Metis and Inuit Culture and History (e.g., Treaties,
Residential School, Scrip, and Worldview);
14 1. Reintegration into Society (20 minutes)
- I will give students a working definition of parole and the reasoning behind it. This introductory
concept will lean back onto the restorative and rehabilitation models that Canadian Criminal
Code of Law emphasizes
- Students will be prompted to think about what sort of offenders should be allowed to be
reintegrated into society- is there a cut off level where they should not be allowed parole?
- We will then cross reference their ideas with Canadian parole laws.
2. Values of the Parole System (15 minutes)
- Students will be asked to create a reflective paragraph to assess the underlying principles of prompt/
Canada's parole system (i.e. protection of public, protection of community, etc) DT, DSR, handout for
- Why does Canada value the rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders into society? What DL reflective
purpose does that serve to our country's values and morals? paragraph
3. Perspective Shift (15-20 minutes)
- Students will be given the remainder of class time to research a culture of their choosing that
might handle post-incarceration process differently than Canada.
- They will be asked to record their findings and explain whether their chosen country/culture
incorporates a parole system (and how id is different or similar to Canada's), or whether they
uphold an entirely different approach/outlook.

Assess and Reflect (Stage 4)

Considerations Comments
Required Areas of Study: This unit provides close alignment to a a large number of outcomes fro the curriculum
Is there alignment between outcomes, performance in a holistic way. The lesson plans and all assessments have been planned to directly
assessment and learning experiences? meet the outcome criteria. The overall learning experience of the students also offer
explicit links to the outcomes and mandated learning for this unit while engaging them
with their communities.
Adaptive Dimension: For struggling students:
Have I made purposeful adjustments to the curriculum Students who may require additional instruction or explanation will be offered one-to-
content (not outcomes), instructional practices, and/or one time with myself, or will be given the option to be paired up with a student who is
the learning environment to meet the learning needs clearly understanding the content in question so that they may work together to learn.
and diversities of all my students? They will also be encouraged to use time after school/at lunch to take advantage of
resource rooms, study groups, or tutoring that may be available at the school.

EAL students will be allowed and encouraged to incorporate assistive technology in

completing their assignments. They will also be offered additional handouts with
increased visual representations to help if they so need.

If one is available, I will use a mic and speaker system for students who may benefit
from this sort of system (those with hearing impairments, behavioural issues, etc).

For students who need a challenge:

These students will be challenged to apply their skills more readily in more case
studies and will be encouraged to more often incorporate examples from current
events and relevant media.
They may also be asked to take on the role of more components involved in the
criminal justice system in reflective writing pieces.
Finally, they will be given opportunity to write to members of the judicial system to
share their thoughts and opinions on current events.

Instructional Approaches: I believe that I included a variety of instructional methods that will work to engage
Do I use a variety of teacher directed and student students in all aspects of learning. While a lecture style of instruction is used often
centered instructional approaches? throughout the lesson plans, group discussion will be regularly incorporated to allow
students to relate to their learning and engage more directly with content. Lessons
regularly require students to engage with their peers, relate course content to media
and current events, and reflect on the concepts they have been learning.
Further reflection and revision have led to an increase in variety in instructional
methods throughout the unit plan. I have modified some of my original instructional
approaches and added in some new ones all together to create a more student-centred
and culturally responsive approach.
Resource Based Learning: Students will have access to nearly infinite online resources and as their literacy in
Do the students have access to various resources on recognizing reputable sources increases through this unit (and other courses) they will
an ongoing basis? be able to explore what information most interests them.
The resources and handouts I provide to students throughout the unit will also provide
a stable basis of information for students to refer to.
I will also try my best to offer holistic understandings to students relating to course
material, but will emphasize my reliance on experts and reliable sources, thus
emphasizing the importance of being a lifelong learner.

FNM/I Content and Perspectives/Gender Equity/

Multicultural Education: I believe that I have incorporated FNIM and multicultural content throughout the unit
Have I nurtured and promoted diversity while honoring by examining the differences between Canadian systems and those from other
each child’s identity? societies, by examining the discrepancies in demographics of crime statistics between
Canadians and First Nations populations, and by encouraging students to be cognizant
of the biases and stereotypes that are in place throughout Canadian ideals and
I have made changes to more thoroughly and authentically incorporate Indigenous
ways of knowing and issues surrounding Indigenous populations. These incorporations
of holistic instructional methods and foci on cultural responsiveness allow a more
inclusive and holistic nature to the present unit.

From: Wiggins, Grant and J. McTighe. (1998). Understanding by Design, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, ISBN # 0-87120-313-8 (pbk)

Personal Reflections:
- While I do believe my Assignment 2 lesson plan was a strong and complete lesson plan, I have already decided that altering it slightly to add more content will allow for
a nicer flow of the unit in the small time allotted in the curriculum to this unit (20-25 hours maximum),
- Based on the advice of my classmates/colleagues, a friend who teaches at Mount Royal, and the “other Angela” (from the seminar section to which I am assigned in your
absence), I have designed my unit and lessons to tie into the updated CCC’s and BAL’s. While the Law30 curriculum does not articulate its overarching goals using the
same discourse, I have been advised that there is enough overlap in objectives to use the updated terminology in my planning using the old curriculum. I have cross
referenced the updated goals/aims of similar units in social studies with the “common learning essentials” and “foundational objectives” of Law30 to ensure that the
underlying goals are indeed similar in nature.
- I find the incorporation of real-life case studies and inquiry based work surrounding real-life examples to be of the utmost importance regarding units such as this one.
Criminal law is so often a source of controversy, conflict, and debate in everyday life that students should be familiar with real-life examples in order to more easily
translate what they are learning in class about Canada’s criminal law systems into their own opinions. Allowing students to engage with their own communities (whether
local or national) will, ideally, increase their interest in Canadian criminal law and will better equip them to justify their own opinions and beliefs. Relying heavily on
inquiry based learning in case-study scenarios will allow students to guide their foci in whatever direction may interest them most.

Professional Reflections, Understandings, and Goals for Growth

- In hindsight after deep-diving the concepts and lessons outlined in this unit, links from my assessment piece to the precise lesson content and outcomes could be more
explicit. While I do still stand behind my general concepts for a summative assessment piece for the unit, I would now alter the requirements slightly to better serve
comprehensive unit. That being said I would still emphasize an inquiry and case study based assessment piece, as I feel it best represents the main tenets and goals of
this unit.
- Goal moving forward: to better anticipate a cohesive aim of my unit in creating assessment pieces. I feel that I have many great ideas and possibilities that could be
incorporated into this unit, however I need to work on more quickly understanding my overall goals and more concisely incorporating these ideas into a timely and
realistic unit.